Page 1

ADAPTations_EUS ( Sofia/ NY), MR+E (Los Angeles, CA), Frontal (Bucharest),Archis Interventions (Berlin), Stela Krasteva, PhD (UCLA ,Los Angeles, CA), Zornitza Stoichkova (Hesed, Sofia) and many others.

“ROMANI-EU”INFORMAL BUILDING DEVELOPMENT IN ETHNICALLY SEGRAGATED ROMANI NEIGHBOURHOOD IN “FACULTETA” SOFIA, BULGARIA AND SHORT OVERVIEW OF SIMILAR CASE STUDIES OF ROMANI INFORMAL DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE .

Workshop June 3-5, 2010 Exhibition October 15-22, 2010

SUPPORTED BY ESTE FOUNDATION


Contents

Chapter 1

3. Anelia-illegal constructions Chapter 4

INTRODUCTON

Comparative study of Informal developments around the world - Los Angeles, USA

Chapter 2

ROMANI-EU Map of locations of Romani in Europe Examples of Romani settlements in Europe: Belgrad, Paris, Rome, Naples Geoagiu, Miercireua Ciuc, Tirgu Mures Chapter 3 ROMANI-BG Short Overview of Roma Settlements in Sofia Faculteta casestudy Images, maps and graphics Typical problems and issues: 1. Lili and Nedko - water 2. Zvezdi- electricity

China, Latin America, India

Appendix Workshop credits


ROMANI IN EUROPE The question of the number of Roma could have a key point in the observation that the real number is usually 3 to 3.5 times higher then the official census. For Romania we can start from the 530000 and we will end up with 1,8 million Roma while Bulgaria, with its 800.000 self declared, might expect to have nearly one million. The endless debate on the size of the population has a lot to do with the fears of the majority and probably with an unacknowledged guilt. The forced settlement of the nomads, the slavery episode and the forced migration culminated with the Holocaust (Samudaripen in Romani) and is now followed by new forms of discrimination. Antigypsysm, in its contemporary form, is spread on a scale that starts with a “No Gypsies allowed” poster and ends with the recent shootings in Bratislava. For the architects, acknowledging the existence of new forms of apartheid should be part of the minimal professional skills. Europe has a large number of Roma ghettos and looks like it is prepared to create new ones. We have to give up the romantic image of the gipsy as a magic craftsman or a devilish musician, the naïve condemnation of the last witchcraft and magic professionals, or the compulsive condemnation of the beggars and look closer at the diversity within the Roma groups and at their potential to support our aging societies. In the same time we should try to review our planning instruments and tune them to the real world. @Catalin Berescu


ROMANI IN EUROPE

12 000

TOTAL: 9 175 000

40 000

4 000

600 000

4 000

15 000

35 000

150 000 35 000 35 000

45 000

200 000

140 000 250 000 450 000 25 000

400 000

35 000 10 000

25 000

600 000 40 000

2 400 000

500 000

80 000 120 000 50 000

@Nina Ilieva

800 000

20 000 20 000

800 000

250 000

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100 000

220 000


BELGRADE IDP is the acronym for Internally Displaced People, an euphemistic term used by the technocrats to name the refugees of war. Under Gazela Bridge it was hard to distinguish among those who fled because of the war and those who were chased away by rural poverty.A hard working activity in the recycling industry was supporting the families for whom a generous relocation plan was designed using a participatory method. The enthusiasm of the planning team led by the architect Vladimir Macura was soon replaced by disappointment when the inhabitants were evicted and transformed again into IDP’s.

тите

@Catalin Berescu


PARIS One of the entrances of Paris, St. Denis, was hosting several Romanian Roma camps until two years ago. Initially they were very well confined but as the number of inhabitants increased they became more and more visible and were finally evicted

@Catalin Berescu


ROME Left: More and more controlled camps are built over Europe to keep them aside from the city, sometimes under the umbrella of generosity. One infamous example: Castel Romano, near Rome, “Villagio della Solidarita� as named by the socialist mayor Walter Veltroni, a container settlement built 20 km away from the city, on the highway, with the next bus stop three kilometres away from the guarded entrance, where around 800 Roma were resettled by the police in a natural protected area, with not enough water or access to school and employment. Camps like that are under constant police surveillance, many surrounded by barbed wire and with controlled access. Right: Campo Boario, on the Lungotevere Testaccio, Rome: after living for twenty years in the courtyard of an abandoned slaughter house, as a collateral result of the scandal around Romanian Roma migrants, the Italian Kalderash nomads have been chased away at the beginning of June 2008.

@Catalin Berescu


ни от е по-

NAPLES We are in Scampia, a dormitory neighbourhood of the city, a place where the unemployment rate reaches 50%, and we just made our way through large piles of garbage and burnt cars (it was 2008, the famous trash crisis of Naples). Largely controlled by Gomorra, drugs are easy to find between the blocks of flats a little bit to the South, in Secondilliano, where you can sometimes step on a carpet of used syringes. The Serbian Roma communities living under the highway are struggling with the garbage, the lack of water and the unstable structures they inhabit. But there are no drug dealers around. Most of the women are taking care of old Italians while the guys do more or less qualified work on the grey market of constructions and recycling

рада, riай ампо са

и роми, циран

@Catalin Berescu


GEOAGIU

small Transylvanian town attracts tourists with its spa facilities. Thirty years EOAGIUThis ago the Roma ghetto was surrounded by a concrete fence in order to prevent the

passengers from being disturbed by any unpleasant images. As the leader tells us the history he appears to somehow agree: You know, we usually keep our children naked because of the mud and it was not appropriate for the tourists to see so many naked buts!

Go to Geoagiu, people are so poor that they walk naked! we were told in Orastie while visiting another poverty neighbourhood. As a matter of fact only small children are naked, quite logical for a mother when she has a lot of children to take care of, a lot of mud around and the access to water is limited. We found them having ЬОАГИУthere’s a good time playing in the mud (the parents don’t have money to send them to kindergarten) and they appeared to be properly fed as well.Bread and juice were the main products sold by the local shop in 2006. Besides that, there were several bottles of vinegar, salt, lollipops, matches and sugar in coffee size sachets.

малък трансилвански град привлича туристи със своите СПА услуги. Преди трийсет години ромското гето е заградено с бетонен зид, за да предпази преминаващите от неприятни гледки. о ни разказва историята, водачът сякаш изразява съгласие: „Знаете ли, обикновено държим децата голи заради калта и не е добре за туристите да виждат толкова много голи задници!” рус може да бъде един ром? Един рус циганин цял живот ли ще бъде циганин или е подложен на натиск да се интегрира с русите? А какво да кажем за онези с по-тъмна кожа? Ще бъдат е някога приети?

lin Berescu

How blonde can a Gypsy be? Will a blonde gypsy be a gypsy his/her entire life or is there a pressure to integrate for the blondes? What about the ones with darker skin tones? Will they ever be accepted? Mud is not only a sign of authorities neglect but of very poor community cohesion. When we found out that people work for the City and they are used for maintaining the drainage system we asked them why they don’t create drainage in their own area. We received bitter looks and hopeless messages.

@Catalin Berescu


Miercurea

MIERCUREA CIUC is a Transylvanian town with 42 000 inhabitants, where Romanians are a minority (14%), while the majority is represented by Hungarians (82%). Roma can be spotted both inside the city in mixed communities and outside the city in separate communities. The case is relevant for its variety of cases of improper living conditions, forced evictions, residential segregation and environmental racism.

Миеркуре

случаи на неподходящи усло околната среда

The Garbage Pit Twenty-five years ago there was no garbage pit here, near the stray dog facility,

and a family has moved here from the centre of the town, just three kilometres away from the town limits. Since then it grew up to a small community of 25 people now housed in seven shacks, one inside the garbage pit and six on its edge. Their history underlines the current processes of urban refurbishment without taking people into account. Some of them don’t have identity cards; kids don’t go school, as there is no transportation available. Their only source of water is a fire hydrant. The only job available for them and for their children is sorting the garbage for ten hours a day. People are exposed to rats and fire, actually every year at least one of the shacks burns. There is no electricity but people still decorate their interiors with electrical appliances. The lamps have no bulbs and the TV worked once on a car battery.

Primaverii - Springtime Street Spring never smells good for Roma here. Actually it’s quite the opposite, as they

live near a sewage treatment plant. They used to live inside the city, in a historical building used as social housing, until 2004. The building was neglected and it degraded, an expertise then qualified it as dangerous, then the community was evicted and the building demolished. There are three major drawbacks with the new location. 1. Environmental racism: the norms state that the living area should be at least 300 m away from the sewage unit. This is not the case here, as the only barrier between the houses and the reservoirs is a barbed wire fence. Children sometimes play near industrial devices with moving parts and no electrical insulation. The health of the entire community is in danger here, not to speak about the permanent odour. The National Council for Combating Discrimination has issued a fine for the local municipality (1200 Euro), but nothing followed @Catalin Berescu

The Garbage Pit

Площадката за отпадъ

Преди двайсет и пет години м възможно за тях и техните де седем порутени колиби - една децата не ходят на училище, пожарен кран. Хората са изл Електричество няма, но хора

Primaverii - Springtime

Primaverii – улица „Пролет” Те живеят близо до пречиств сграда, пригодена за социалн недостатъка:

Miercurea Ciuc Миеркуреа Чук

е град в Трансилвания, в който са налице най-различни случаи на неподходящи условия за живот, насилствено прогонване, жилищна сегрегация и расизъм в околната среда

The Garbage Pit

Площадката за отпадъци

Преди двайсет и пет години малка общност от 25 души пристига тук от града, в търсене на единственото възможно за тях и техните деца препитание: сортиране на отпадъци по десет часа на ден. Настанени са в

1. Расизъм в околната среда: се позволява достъп до пром здравето на цялата общност, 2. Сегрегация: Черният път, к Районът за живеене е ограни дрехи, за пречиствателната с 3. Неподходящи условия за ж жилища. Всяка е с площ от ок като временно селище, пет го цялата общност и четири дър

© Catalin Berescu


TIRGU MURES Valea Rece (Cold Valley) is the most well known poverty neighborhood in Tîrgu Mureş, a Transylvannian town of 150000 inhabitants. As their periferral settlement is situated on a hill, the 1500 dwellers share a beautiful view over the city and the relative benefits of being situated on a green grazing field and in the vicinity of the woods. Although there is more than 80 years since they are here, the legal status is still uncertain as the land is still considered part of the municipal pasture. Some of the inhabitants pay taxes for the use of agricultural land, no one has fully legal papers for the houses. In 1996, there were around 600 inhabitants, in 2000 there were 1001, now there are more than 1530, of which around 200, recent migrants from rural areas, are considered to be squatters and can be evicted anytime. The population is divided between the old inhabitants of the area, previously charactherised by multi-ethnicity, plantations and a rural ethos and the newcomers, accused of dealing with robbery and prostitution. There are still some households that preserve the rural peace, surrounded by several new houses of the 2% „rich” residents and by the shacks of the least fortunate. Both for the former and for the latter, the environement is squalid, huge piles of garbage and lack of toilets is immediately noticeable, the lack of water determines a continuous row of women and children carrying plastic bottles from the two water points

@Catalin Berescu


ROMANI-BG Sustainable strategies for integration of informal peripheral settlements in Bulgaria and Europe. One of the major challenges in urban development today is to successfully integrate the informal urban settlements, developed in the outskirts of the largest cities. This is a widely spread phenomena around the world, especially in the developing world, where the conventional city planning is unable to address the needs of these neighborhoods. In Bulgaria,following the collapse of the socialism, the residents of such settlements are almost exclusively Romani. These minority’s communities consequently have to deal not only with the severe infrastructural problems, typical for the informal settlements, but also with social isolation arising from the ethnic segregation. The Roma informal settlements in Bulgaria and rest of South Eastern Europe, are very unique and quite different from the ones in Latin America, India and China, but they all have to deal with inability of the master planning to resolve the inhabitant’s substandard living conditions. Тo move beyond racial prejudices and physical, economical, cultural and social isolation will not happen overnight. It is the direction, which our project is taking, but we clearly understand that will be slow and difficult process, which has to deal with breaking century built prejudices and stereotypes and accepting new way of thinking. Developing mutual trust between the national and regional governments and Romani community organizations is crucial to realizing effective programmes, community participation and viable solutions. Our project’s primary focus is “Fakulteta”, one of Bulgaria’s biggest Romani neighborhoods, located on 180 hectares, on the western outskirts of Sofia. Many buildings there were built without a construction permit and lack of basic amenities. It is estimated that 40,000 people live in “Fakulteta”. A comparative study and analysis of the current situation of similar peripheral, neighborhoods in Romania, Albania and other European countries will be made, where the Romani population is forming similar informal conditions. Additionally the research will document methods and systems for formalizing un permitted residential constructions currently occurring around the world ( e.g. Latin America, Asia). This will help us to better understand and work on the problem of informal housing, and position the current situation of Bulgarian communities, in comparison to best practices form around the world. The study will directly address this issue which is facing and effecting not only Bulgaria, but also the rest of South-Eastern Europe, and the European Union as a whole. It will also inform the global discussion of the evolution of the 21st century city. The problem is not constrained by the existing territorial boundaries and regions, but is European and global. This is why we believe that in order to effectively respond and work towards a broadly applicable resolution, our team should be a collaboration by professionals from different regions and geographies. @Nina Ilieva


къщите им без да са подсигурени с алтернативен подслон.

Татарли 2 500

филиповци 7 500

Бакърена фабрика 3 000

Обеля 7 500

Захарна фабрика 1000

Баталова воденица 500

Орландовци Малашевци 500

Милево ханче 500

Ботунец

Христо Ботев 10 000

2 500

гара “Искър” Дружба 3 000

Serbia

CASE STUDY “Faculteta” IN SOFIA

“Faculteta”, located in the The project 0 hectares. Most of the build- will focus on developing new strategies for physical improvement unregulated and ethnically segregated neighborhood “Faculteta”, located nd maintenanceofofthe existing in the of the capital of Bulgaria, Sofia. There are living more than 40 priate technologies andoutskirts strat000and people, predominantly Romani, on an area of approximately 180 hectares. fia’s municipalities Roliv neighborhoods and eviction Most of the buildings are illegal and have severe issues of habitability Sand n i

tza sanitation.The work will aim methods for legalizing of the tenure, improvements Bl vd ora and Sliven.and Manymaintenance of these . of existing structures, improvement of the infrastructure and inadequate transportation establishing a sustainable way for integrating positive and working conditions ally the Romani people have using appropriate technologies and strategies that are within the economic conditions of the Roma’s scale of the community’s internal capacity. The strategies will be developed he houses in each Roma collaboration with the Sofia’s municipalities and Roma’s NGO for better e and technicalinsolutions, the II integration ency of interventions in public of the existing segregated neighborhood will be developed s I that ori B r do not lead to the destruction of the existing neighborhoods and Teviction of the sa d out of responsibility forthere, long people a solution strongly supported by the current “Faculteta” residents c attempts of the . municipali-

Serbia

Hemus Highway Sl

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itz a

Bl

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.

and planning how to legalize

@Nina Ilieva

Hemus Highway oris

B ar

Ts

III

ФАКУЛТЕТА/ СОФИЯ

Macedonia/ Greece

ХОРАТА и КВАРТАЛИТЕ

SOFIA

c ADAPTations_EUS/2010 0

Roma neighborhoods are located on the outskirts of all of the major cities in urgency of finding proper Bulgaria including Sofia, Plovdiv, Bourgas, Shumen, Stara Zagora and Sliven. GO’s. Our proposal responds Many of these communities are illegal in terms of their structure and occupation rategies that will be applied. socially and physically isolated. The reasons for that are complex: g more humaneand city’sare environinadequate transportation infrastructure and connections to the rest of the city, ТА В БЪЛГАРИЯ ethnic prejudices and resentment as well as cultural and economic differences. Historically the Romani peopleMacedonia/ have chosen to remain separated in their own communities, even though they live in extreme poverty and insecurity. Steps to Greece improve the housing conditions of the Roma’s neighborhoods have been made before, mostly sporadic and/or as short term solutions, in particular due to the illegal status of the many or the houses in each Roma community.


Sl

ivn

itz a

Bl

vd

.

STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATION OF INFORMAL ROMANI SETTLEMENTS IN

BULGARIA . oris

B ar

Ts

III

Hemus Highway

Бургас,Шумен, Стара Загора и Сливен. Причините за това са комплексни: лоша инфраструктура и транспортни връзки, етнически предразсъдаци, културни различия и др. Самите Роми се чустват по-добре в техните гета, отколкото сред етническите Българи, въпреки че живеят в крайна бедност и несигурност. В миналото националните и регионалните правителства са се опитвали да решат проблемите на тези общности , но често това е довеждало до задалбочаването им и до продължаващото изолиране на тази етническа група, успоредно с развитието на взаимното недоверие относно мотивацията и ефективността на тези интервенции. Стъпки за подобряване на жилищните условия на ромските квартали са били предимно изолирани и /или краткосрочни решения, по-специално в резултат на незаконният статут на постройките и земите.Добри примери за това са Софийският квартал „Христо Ботев” , също така новият жилищният квартал за Роми в Пазарджик с участието на фирма „Конкурент-90”, както и нереализираният проект на арх. Леонидов за новите предложения на квартал „Факултета”. Въпреки че през последните години много изследвания за развитието на жилищния проблем на ромските квартали са били проведени от Световната банка, ПРООН, Европейската комисия, няма достатъчно средства изразходвани за практически решения. Има Национална програма за подобряване на условията на Ромите в България, приета с постановление No395 на Министерския съвет от 14 май 2004 година. Въз основа на всички данни от изследвания, дейностите за развитие на архитектурни планове, регулиране на ромския квартал, както и изграждането на инфраструктурата трябва да са започнали много отдавна. Характерните ромски гета в София и квартали , където могат да се срещнат роми са: Филиповци, Обеля, Христо Ботев, Факултета, Баталова воденитца, Малашевци, Ботунец, Татарли, Орландовци, Обеля, Захарна Фабрика и др. “Факултета” е най-големямата ромска махала в София и се намира се в западните покрайнини на града,с площ от около 180 хектара. Повечето от сградите са неформални и имат сериозни инфраструктурни проблеми. В момента повече от 40 000 души живеят във “Факултета”. и съглсно последните неофициални данни само 20% от имотите и сградите са регулирани и с документирани, отговарящи нанормативите и изискванията. Само 40% имат достъп до течаща вода и адекватна канализация и санитарни отводняване на практика не съществува. Няма обществен транспорт в рамките на квартала и градския транспорт на София едва стига до покрайнините на квартал “Факултета”. Безработицата е около 80%. За повече от 70 години хората в този квартал се опитват да подобрят инфраструктурата със собствени сили, с доброволен труд, без общ план и без технически сътрудник от държавата. Извинението на правителството е, че тя не може да отпуска средства за инфраструктура и облогородяване, предвид факта, че квартала е незаконен. Това е парадоксът и се отразява на хиските условията на живот и неспособността на правителството да реши проблема ефективно и успешно. Има изолирани опити на местните Роми да получат собственост на земя и сгради, както и изолирани опити на общините за решаване на проблема. Няма единна политика координирана между местните общини и Министертсвото на регионалното развитие, имайки се в предвид цялостното развитие на града, планиране и управление. Усилията в тази насока на практика спряха след 2004 г. е със закон за забрана за узаконяване на незаконни сгради и населени места в България. Това доведе до постоянна несигурност и страх в ромските семейства, тъй като те могат да бъдат изгонени всяко време, ако не получават собствеността на земята. Дори ако са живели повече от 50 години на даден имот, Ромите не могат да получат право на собственост върху него. На 4-ти март 2010 година се състоя кръгла маса в София, организиран от Helsinskiа комитет и Европейския ромски Комитет, с участието на българското правителство, общините и няколко ромски и неправителствени организации . Основните проблеми, които се разглеждаха да бъдат следващите стъпки за подобряването на сегашната ситуация на ромите. В частност, беше подчертано важността за намирането на нови и по-ефикасни пътища за легализирането и привеждането им към минималните изискванията и норми на стандарт за живот в градовете, както и да се спре насилственото изгонване на хората от къщите им без да са подсигурени с алтернативен подслон.

Until now, however, each Bulgarian government has looked for temporary solution of the problem, and the current government has also opted out of Macedonia/ responsibility for long term solutions. There are sporadic attempts of Roma Greece residents to obtain ownership of the land and buildings they occupy, as well as sporadic attempts of the municipalities to improve the conditions in these communities. One issue is definitely clear - most of the previous studies ХОРАТА и КВАРТАЛИТЕ do not offer extensive study and planning how to legalize the land tenure of the residents, considering the overall development of the city planning and administration.

On March 4, 2010, The European Roma Rights Center and the Bulgarian Helsinki Committee organized Round table discussion where the urgency of finding proper solutions to solve the problem was addressed to Bulgarian government, Ministry of Regional development, Local Municipalities and ROMAS IN SOFIA NGO’s. Our proposal to these final conclusions and recommendations. CASE STUDY “FACULTETA” INresponds SOFIA The key questions will focus on the new urban typology, which will emerge The project will focus on developing new strategies for physical improvement of the unregulated and ethnically segregated neighborhood “Faculteta”, located in the from new strategies that applied. willMost develop outskirts of the capital ofthe Bulgaria, Sofia. There are living more than 40 000will people,be predominantly Romani, onThis an area ofeventually approximately 180 hectares. of the build- a new ings are illegal and have severe issues of habitability and sanitation.The work will aim methods for legalizing of the tenure, improvements and maintenance of existing approach, incorporating the existing informal conditions, while improving the structures, improvement of the infrastructure and establishing a sustainable way for integrating positive and working conditions using appropriate technologies and strategies that arecity’s within the economic scale of the community’s internal capacity. more The strategies will be developed in collaboration with the Sofia’s municipalities and Roregulations and offering humane city’s environment for diverse ethnic ma’s NGO for better integration of the existing segregated neighborhood will be developed that do not lead to the destruction of the existing neighborhoods and eviction of the peopleand there, a cultural solution strongly groups. supported by the Till current this “Faculteta” residents . moment there has not been done at the same Roma neighborhoods are located on the outskirts of all of the major cities in Bulgaria including Sofia, Plovdiv, Bourgas, Shumen, Stara Zagora and Sliven. Many of these processes -- are the one parallel bottom upare approach initiated by the communities time are illegal the in termstwo of their structure and occupation and socially and physically isolated. The reasons for that complex: inadequate transportation infrastructure and connections to the rest of the city, ethnic prejudices and resentment as well as cultural and economic differences. Historically the Romani people have Roma’s residents and volunteers and top down approach of regulated chosen to remain separated in their own communities, even though they live in extreme poverty and insecurity. Steps to improve the housing conditions of the Roma’s long-term neighborhoods have been made before, mostly sporadic and/or as short term solutions, in particular due to the illegal status of the many or the houses in each Roma by administration, backed up with whole government community. Inplanning the past the national and the regionalcity governments have approached these communities with culturally inappropriate infrastructure and technical solutions, politics. the latter as resulting in a continuing marginalization of this ethnic group and the development of mutual distrust about the motivations and efficiency of interventions in public Currently Bulgarian government is under intense pressure by international improvements. Until now, however, each Bulgarian looked for temporary solution of the problem, and the current government has also opted out of responsibility long agencies togovernment takehasdrastic measures to resolve the problem around theforcountry . term solutions. There are sporadic attempts of Roma residents to obtain ownership of the land and buildings they occupy, as well as sporadic attempts of the municipalities to improve conditions in these communities. One issue is definitely clear - most of studies do not building offer extensive study and planning how to legalize methods Athecomparative study and analysis ofthe previous (informal) development, the land tenure of the residents, considering the overall development of the city planning and administration. permitted residential construction currently On March 4, and 2010, The system European Roma for Rights formalizing Center and the Bulgarianun Helsinki Committee organized Round table discussion where the urgency of finding proper solutions to solve the problem was addressed to Bulgarian government, Ministry of Regional development, Local Municipalities and NGO’s. Our proposal responds happening around the world ( China, Latin America, India) will be also, in to these final conclusions and recommendations. The key questions will focus on the new urban typology, which will emerge from the new strategies that will be made applied. This eventually will develop a new approach, incorporating the existing informal conditions, while improving the city’s regulations and offering more humane city’s environorder to help to position the current situation of Bulgarian informal constructions, ment for diverse ethnic and cultural groups. СТРАТЕГИИ ЗА ИНТЕГРИРАНЕ НА НЕФОРМАЛНИТЕ РОМСКИ НАСЕЛЕНИ МЕСТА В БЪЛГАРИЯ in comparison to the global development of the same problem. The study not only will aim to help resolving the issue so common currently in South-East Europe, but also will inform better the global discussion of the evolution of the 21st century city. Татарли 2 500

@Nina Ilieva

филиповци 7 500

Бакърена фабрика 3 000

Обеля 7 500

Захарна фабрика 1000

Баталова воденица 500

Орландовци Малашевци 500

Милево ханче 500

Ботунец 2 500

Христо Ботев 10 000

гара “Искър” Дружба 3 000

Serbia

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Hemus Highway r Tsa

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ФАКУЛТЕТА/ СОФИЯ

Macedonia/ Greece

c ADAPTations_EUS/2010 0

SOFIA


Chapter 2

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c ADAPTations_EUS/2010 0

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ДОБРЕ ДОШЛИ! WELCOME!

ЛИЛИ и НЕДКО LILI and NEDKO

@Nina Ilieva c ADAPTations_EUS/2010 0

1


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@Nina Ilieva


ДОБРЕ ДОШЛИ! WELCOME!

ЗЛАТИ и КОСТАДИН ZLATI and KOSTADIN

@Nina Ilieva

2 21


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.

CURRENTLY ROMANI NEIGHBOURHOODS ARE THE GARBAGE AND SUMP SPOTS OF THE BIGGEST CITIES

@Nina Ilieva


HOW WE CAN CHANGE THE IDENTITY OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD? HOW WE CAN TURN IT FROM PLACE OF CONSUMPTION TO PLACE OF PRODUCTION? WHAT IF THE ROMANI NEIGHBOURHOOD BECOME OFF THE GRID PLACE?

SELF- HELP PROGRAMS:

@Nina Ilieva


1.

Sewage and Garbage as a Fuel A new kind of waste treatment system has been developed by Virgis Waste Control LLC,that holds the potential to improve water quality, reduce landfill usage, and to provide a large supply of renewable fuel. The process is called Septage Bioractor Lanfill technology, and it does something that hasn’t been done before (in a way that is considered sustainble), blending sewage with garbage and producing fuel.

2.

3.

@Nina Ilieva

Graywater Reuse and Rainwater Harvesting

Wastewater treatment-”LIVING MASHINE” designed to mimic the cleansing functions of the wetlands


The informal urban development is widely spread phenomena around the world, expecially in the developing world: The Roma informal settlements in South Eastern Europe are very unique and quite different from the ones in Latin America, India and China,but it will be very useful to look how the people around the world are solving similar problems, keeping in mind that we need to look for our unique solution.

© http://landscapeofaztlan.wordpress.com/

Caracas, Latin America

© Moule & Polyzoides Architects

Colonial settlements on the border of USA/Latin America

© Мaria Lanz

Mumbai/India

@Nina Ilieva


LOS ANGELES, CA PROGRAM TO CORRECT THE NONCONFORMING USES BY PROVIDING PATH FOR LEGITIMIZING THESE UNITS

НЕРЕГУЛИРАНА ЧАСТ ОТ ИЗТОЧЕН ЛОС АНДЖЕЛЕС

Unincorporated East LA

ЦЕНТЪР НА ЛОС АНДЖЕЛЕС DOWNTOWN LA

UNINCORPORATED EAST LA НЕРЕГУЛИРАНА ЧАСТ ОТ ИЗТОЧЕН ЛОС АНДЖЕЛЕС ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ ЗА UNINCORPORATED EAST LA УСЛОВЕН ПЛАН:

Uninconventional plan

ЦЕНТЪР НА ЛОС АНДЖЕЛЕС DOWNTOWN LA

UNCONVETIONAL PLAN:

ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ ЗА УСЛОВЕН ПЛАН: UNCONVETIONAL PLAN:

@Nina Ilieva


2.

THE AREA SHOULD BE CANVASSED FOR AREAS OF NON COMPLIENCE. THIS CAN INCLUDE REVIEW OF NUMBER OF UTILITY CONNECTIONS, PER LEGAL UNIT, POSTAL RECORDS AND POSTAL INFORMATION IN ADDITION TO PHYSICAL INSPECTION.

1.

DOCUMENT: DEFYING UNPERMITTED OCCUPATION AND SETTING FINES FOR CONTINUING NON COMPLIENCE

LOS ANGELES, CA PROGRAM TO CORRECT THE NONCONFORMING USES BY PROVIDING PATH FOR LA PROGRAM TO CORRECT THE NONCONFORMING USES BY PROVIDING P B A LEGITIMIZING THESE UNITS CORRECT THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN 90 DAYS OR SUBJECT TO FINE

1. Document: Defying unpermitted

occupation and setting fines for UNPERMITTED DOCUMENT: DEFYING OCCUPATION AND SETTING FINES FOR continuing non complience

1.

CONTINUING NON COMPLIENCE

2.

3. Units that

90 days

appear to be out of THE AREA SHOULD BE CANVASSED FOR AREAS OF NON COMPLIENCE. complience should notified with CONNECTIONS, THIS CAN INCLUDE REVIEW be OF NUMBER OF UTILITY LEGALto UNIT, POSTAL RECORDS AND POSTAL INFORMATION IN an PER order correct the condition ADDITION TO PHYSICAL INSPECTION.

3.

CONDITIO

THE PROPERTY OWNER AN TO EXTEND THE VIOLATION

+

2. The areas should be canvased

for areas of non complience. This can include review of number of untility connections, per legal unit.SHOULD Records THE AREA BE CANVASSED FOR AREAS OF NON COMPLIENCE. and postal information in addition to THIS CAN INCLUDE REVIEW OF NUMBER OF UTILITY CONNECTIONS, PER LEGAL UNIT, POSTAL RECORDS AND POSTAL INFORMATION IN physical inspection UNITS THAT APPEAR TO BE OUT OF COMPLIANCE

2.

3.

ADDITION TO PHYSICAL INSPECTION.

SHOULD BE NOTIFIED WITH AN ORDER TO CORRECT THE CONDITION

A

3.

UNITS THAT APPEAR TO BE OUT OF COMPLIANCE SHOULD BE NOTIFIED WITH AN ORDER TO CORRECT THE CONDITION

CORRECT THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN 90 DAYS OR SUBJECT TO FINE

90 days @Nina Ilieva


LOS ANGELES, CA PROGRAM TO CORRECT THE LA PROGRAM TO CORRECT THE NONCONFORMING USES BY PROVIDING FOR LEGITIMIZING THESEPATH UNITS NONCONFORMING USES BYPATH PROVIDING FOR PROGRAM TO CORRECT THE NONCONFORMING USES BY PROVIDING PATH FOR LEGITIMIZING THESE UNITS LA PROGRAM TO CORRECT THE NONCONFORMING USES BY PROVIDING PATH FOR LEGITIMIZING THESE UNITS LEGITIMIZING THESE UNITS 3.

DOCUMENT: DEFYING UNPERMITTED OCCUPATION AND SETTING FINES FOR NON COMPLIENCE CUMENT:CONTINUING DEFYING UNPERMITTED CUPATION AND SETTING FINES FOR NTINUING NON COMPLIENCE

3a. The property owner and the

DOCUMENT: DEFYING UNPERMITTED OCCUPATION AND SETTING FINES FOR CONTINUING NON COMPLIENCE

3. 3.

THE PROPERTY OWNER AND THE COUNTY WILL AGREE TO EXTEND THE VIOLATION THE PROPERTY OWNER AND THE COUNTY WILL AGREE TO EXTEND THE VIOLATION THE PROPERTY OWNER AND THE COUNTY WILL AGREE TO EXTEND THE VIOLATION

county will agree to extend the violation

+ +

==

+

=

THE AREA SHOULD BE CANVASSED FOR AREAS OF NON COMPLIENCE. THIS CAN INCLUDE REVIEW OF NUMBER OF UTILITY CONNECTIONS, PER LEGAL UNIT, POSTALFOR RECORDS POSTAL INFORMATION IN E AREA SHOULD BE CANVASSED AREAS AND OF NON COMPLIENCE. ADDITION TO PHYSICAL INSPECTION. S CAN INCLUDE REVIEW OF NUMBER OF UTILITY CONNECTIONS, R LEGAL UNIT, POSTAL RECORDS AND POSTAL INFORMATION IN THE AREA SHOULD BE CANVASSED FOR AREAS OF NON COMPLIENCE. DITION TO PHYSICAL INSPECTION. THIS CAN INCLUDE REVIEW OF NUMBER OF UTILITY CONNECTIONS, PER LEGAL UNIT, POSTAL RECORDS AND POSTAL INFORMATION IN ADDITION TO PHYSICAL INSPECTION.

A A. Correct the circumstances CORRECT THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN 90 DAYS OR SUBJECT TO FINE CORRECT THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN 90 DAYS OR SUBJECT TO FINE CORRECT THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN 90 DAYS OR SUBJECT TO FINE

A days or subject to fine in 90 A

90 days 90 days 90 days

B B

B.Conditional use permit

B

CONDITIONIAL USE PERMIT:

CONDITIONIAL USE PERMIT:

CONDITIONIAL USE PERMIT:

-Stay in in the village - Stay the village: - Stay in the village: -preserve thedwelling dwelling -preserve the --preserve Stay in thethe village: dwelling -preserve the dwelling

- newadditions additions to to comply -New new additions to comply with the current plan - newcomply additions to comply with current with the current plan with the current plan

plan

UNITS THAT APPEAR TO BE OUT OF COMPLIANCE SHOULD BE NOTIFIED WITH AN ORDER TO CORRECT CONDITION S THATTHE APPEAR TOAPPEAR BE OUTTOOF UNITS THAT BECOMPLIANCE OUT OF COMPLIANCE ULD BESHOULD NOTIFIED AN ORDER TOORDER CORRECT BEWITH NOTIFIED WITH AN TO CORRECT CONDITION THE CONDITION

@Nina Ilieva

$ $$ -Expires on sale or transfer the unit

- expires on sale

-- expires expires onsale sale the unit or on transfer or transfer or transferthe theunit unit


1

2.

WHAT IF

WHAT IF

THE ROMANI NEIGHBOURHOOD BECOME OFF THE GRID PLACES?? PLACES OF PRODUCTION THAN PLACE OF CONSUMPTION?

IT BECOMES AN UNIQUE BULGAIAN -ROMA CENTER PLACE TO CELEBRATE THE ROMANI CULTURE, WHERE PEOPLE AND TOURIS TS FROM BULGARIA AND AROUND THE WORLD WILL COME TO CELEBRATE AND EXPERIENCE THE ROMANI CULTURE

Instead of investing to plug in into existing infrastructure we can build them totally off the grid ! ROMANI NEIGHBOUROOD IS THE “

GARBAGE AND SUMP” SPOT INTO

ENERGY PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION HUB: Sewage and Garbage as a Fuel: A new kind of waste treatment system has been developed by Viridis Waste Control LLC, that holds the potential to improve water quality, reduce landfill usage, and to provide a large supply of renewable fuel. The process is called Septage Bioreactor Landfill technology, and it does something that hasn’t been done before (in a way that is considered sustainable); blending sewage with garbage.

Graywater Reuse and Rainwater Harvesting Wastewater treatment-”LIVING MASHINE”

SELF HELP PROGRAMS, WHERE THE ROMANI ARE PARTICIPATING IN THE WORK -all that creates new jobs and employment opportunities for the Romani people.

3.

PLACE FOM ALTERNATIVE TRAVEL GUIDE IN BULGARIA AND THE BALKANS WITH LEARNING MORE ABOUT ROMANI CULTURE ALTERNATIVE TRAVEL CAN BE ONE ONE OF THE MOST EDUCATIONAL , INSPIRING, AND EXCITING THING YOU DO IN YOUR LIFETIME, FOR ADVENTURE TRAVELER .

WHAT IF


Exhibition as part of the Sofia Architecture Week (SAW) Sustainable strategies for the integration of informal peripheral settlements in Bulgaria and Europe. Open House (15. – 22. 10. 2010) Exhibition organized by Nina Ilieva – ADAPTations_EUS (NY/Sofia) in collaboration with Kai Voeckler – Archis Interventions (Berlin), Catalin Berescu – FRONTAL (Bucharest), David Bergman – MR+E (LA), Ersela Kripa and Stephen Mueller – AGENCY (NY), Selva Gürdoğana and Gregers Tang Thomsen – SUPERPOOL (Istanbul) The exhibition concieved by ADAPTations_EUS ltd,was curated by SAW-Open house curator fordewind architecture ltd ( Ephgenia Hodkevitch & Boris Enev). Theme of the Sofia Architecture Week 2010 is »BEING PERIPHERAL«.believe that the major issue when addressing the theme or nature of “periphery” is the situation of the Roma population. Our research showed that almost 800.000 Bulgarian citizens are Roma while the total Roma population of Europe is 12 million; Roma are hence the largest ethnic minority in Europe. Yet neither the Bulgarian government nor the European Union is making a serious effort to promote and facilitate their rights to equality and a dignified existence. The presented investigation made by ADAPTations_EUS in collaboration with FRONTAL and Archis Interventions focuses primarily on “Fakulteta”, one of Bulgaria’s biggest Romani neighbourhoods, located on 180 hectares on the western outskirts of Sofia, and home to an estimated 40,000 people. Most buildings there were built without a construction permit and lack basic amenities, a part of the area, named Cambodia, being a real slum. This is often the case with numerous Roma communities around Europe, both in historically inherited situations in the East or in improvised illegal migrant camps in the West. The exhibition presents examples of both situations in order to situate Fakulteta in an European context. However, examples of positive strategic developments in Los Angeles, Rome and Diarbekir presented by MR+E, AGENCY and SUPERPOOL demonstrate new potential for the successful re-urbanisation and social integration of restless peripheral neighbourhoods.


APPENDIX

Credits Credits WORKSHOP ADAPTations - Nina Ilieva Frontal - Catalin Bereascu Archis Interventions: Kai Vรถckler

Collaborators:

To be completed

Evgenija Hodkevitch, principle Fordewind, Sofia, Bulgaria Boris Enev, principle Fordewind, Sofia, Bulgaria Stela Krasteva-Phd, Los Angeles, CA Dr. Blagovest Valkov Arch. Biser Hantov, Konkurent-90 Krasimir Kanev, Chair Helsinski Commette David Bergman- MR+E, Los Angeles, CA ROmani Bhat Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria HESED foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria

Supported by ERSTE Foundation

Learning from Faculteta  

Sustainable strategies for informal Romani neighbourhood in Faculteta

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