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Dynastic and historical periods Predynastic Period

5500-3100 BC

Early Dynastic Period

3100-2686 BC

Old Kingdom

2686-2181 BC

First Intermediate Period

2181-2055 BC

Middle Kingdom

2055-1650 BC

Second Intermediate Period

1650-1550 BC

New Kingdom

1550-1069 BC

Third Intermediate Period Late Period Ptolemaic Period Roman Period

1069-664 BC 664-332 BC 332-30 BC 30 BC-AD 395

Middle Kingdom pharaohs Dynasty XI (All Egypt)

2055-1985 BC

Mentuhotep II (NeBHepetra)

2055-2004 BC

Mentuhotep III (Sankhkara)

2004-1992 BC

Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyra)

1992-1985 BC

Dynasty XII

1985-1795 BC

Amenemhat I (Sehetepibra)

1985-1955 BC

Senusret I (Kheperkara)

1965-1920 BC

Amenemhat II (Nubkaura)

1922-1878 BC

Senusret II (Khakheperra)

1880-1874 BC

Senusret III (Khakaura)

1874-1855 BC

Amenemhat III (Nimaatra)

1855-1808 BC

Amenemhat IV (Maakherura)

1808-1799 BC

Sobekneferu (Sobekkara) - female pharaoh

1799-1795 BC

Dynasty XIII

1795-after 1650 BC

Around 70 pharaohs, of which the five more frequently attested are listed below Hor (Awibra) Khendjer (Userkara) Sobekhotep III (Sekhemraseewadjtawy) Neferhotep I (Khasekhemra) Sobekhotep IV (Khaneferra)

c.1725 BC

Dynasty XIV

1750-1650 BC

Series of minor rulers who were undoubtedly contemporary with Dynasty XIII There are some overlaps between the reigns of Dynasty XII pharaohs, when there appear to have been 'co-regencies' during which father and son ruled simultaneously. The spelling of ancient Egyptian personal names is a continual source of difficulty. Thus the pharaohs cited here as 'Senusret' may be found elsewhere as 'Senwosret', or in the Greek form 'Sesostris'. Spellings chosen in this publication are as far as possible consistent with the transliteration of the original Egyptian.

All dates prior to the accession of the Kushite pharaoh Taharqo in 690 Be should be taken as approximate. The term 'pharaoh', which is widely used by modern writers to refer to an Egyptian king, is the Greek form of the ancient Egyptian phrase per-aa ('great house'). This term was originally used to refer to the royal palace rather than the king, only being

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Osprey warrior 121 soldier of the pharaoh  
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