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Hieroglyphic denoting 'life', which takes the form of aT-shape surmounted by a loop.


Commemorative funerary inscription, in which the deceased addresses the passer-by with an idealized description of his/her virtues, as manifested in his/her life and career.


Nomadic pastoralists of northern and central Arabia and Egypt's eastern desert, where their descendants still live today.


Bottom part of a boat's hull.


Method of boat building in which hull planks are laid flush edge-to-edge.


Rocky areas of rapids in the middle Nile valley, six in number, caused by abrupt geological changes


Method of boat building in which the lower edge of each hull plank overlaps the upper edge of the one below it.


The ancient Egyptian word for sun-dried mud-brick, which passed, via the Coptic tobi into Arabic as tub (a) , and thence into Spanish to give the term 'adobe'.


Ceramic material composed of crushed quartz, or quartz sand, with small amounts of lime and plant ash, and usually coated with a bright blue or green glaze of soda-lime-silica type.


Cursive script used from at least the end of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2686 BC) onwards, enabling scribes to write more rapidly on papyri and ostraka, making it the preferred medium for scribal tuition.

Wall painting from the tomb of Baqt III at Beni Hasan (BH 15) depicting a bowman shooting at wild game. In front of him lopes a hunting dog, which looks very much like the breed we know as the greyhound. Such dogs were also used for reconnaissance work. (AKG-images)


Osprey warrior 121 soldier of the pharaoh