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Dynasty V terracotta model (Florence, Museo Archeologico, 3811) of a woman kneading dough. Dough was kneaded and then formed into flat cakes, usually round but sometimes elongated. These were then baked in a simple oven, usually constructed out of slabs of sun-dried mud. (Esther Carre)

command of the pharaoh and his closest officials, the highest being the vizier. There were also groups of men called nww. These appear to have been members of a paramilitary police force as they are described as patrolling the desert with specially trained dogs. Like their dogs, which were breeds closely related to what we identify as the greyhound, these men were clearly full-time professionals. The role of the 'master of the kennels' is known from the fortress at Buhen.

H: DAILY LIFE Armies, by and large, do most of their tasks outside of the battlefield. They administer, regulate, and, above all, control. In Middle Kingdom Egypt, the army was employed to man the frontier fortresses in Nubia, protecting trade routes and restricting unauthorized movements of the local population. One garrison posting might be Uronarti, a Nile island near Semna. In garrison The fortress at Uronarti is protected by a series of sloping, loop-holed walls strengthened with semi-circular bastions. The northern side is more heavily fortified with massive towers. Here the flatter terrain to the north makes attacks from that quarter more dangerous. In addition two longspur walls stretch away from the main defences to the south and north-east, thus providing the whole island with maximum protection. Triangular in plan, the internal layout of the fortress consists of a grid-plan of specific zones for storerooms, workshops, barracks, officers' houses and a temple. These various quarters are linked and intersected by a network of stone-paved streets. The whole community is encircled by a street around the inside of the rampart, allowing the garrison speedy and convenient access to the battlements. In this scene a bored sentry upon the wall-walk passes time by watching the arrival of a Theban official and his retinue, which includes not only armed retainers but also a sunshade bearer, a standard-bearer and a couple of scribes.


On expedition The functions of the Middle Kingdom army covered diverse activities such as quarrying, mining and trading expeditions as well as warfare. Military personnel could be found escorting mining expeditions and commercial caravans, which often went beyond the frontiers of Egypt, while the trained manpower of the army was used for civil engineering projects where large numbers of strong, fit men were needed. Soldiers, therefore, were employed on occasion to help with the transportation of large blocks of stone for the grandiose building projects of the pharaohs. In this scene we see a quarrying expedition making its way to the siltstone quarries of Wadi Hammamat in the eastern desert of Egypt. The soldiers have a dual role, namely to guard against the threat of local bedouin bandits and to provide the non-specialist workforce to move the stone. The expedition is traversing, on foot with accompanying pack animals, a wellestablished desert route dotted with oases.

Osprey warrior 121 soldier of the pharaoh