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SEMINAR Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures 16th and 17th of January 2010 I Viana do Castelo, Portugal

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Supported by a grant from Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the EEA Financial Mechanism

Book of abstracts

SEMINAR Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures 16th and 17th of January 2010 I Viana do Castelo, Portugal Organization José Vingada (SPVS-UM) Pedro Teixeira Gomes (SPVS-UM) Marisa Ferreira (SPVS-UM) Célia Tavares (SPVS-UM) Jorge Santos (SPVS-UM) Hélder Araújo (SPVS-UM) Jorge Vaqueiro (SPVS-UM) Catarina Eira (SPVS-CESAM) Sílvia Monteiro (SPVS-UM) Isabel Oliveira (SPVS-UM) Filipe Rocha (SPVS-UM)

Partners


Programme


SATURDAY, THE 16TH OF JANUARY 2010 10:00 REGISTRATION OF PARTICIPANTS 10:30 OPENING SESSION MAYOR OF VIANA DO CASTELO, JOSÉ MARIA COSTA COORDINATOR OF THE MFEEE NATIONAL UNIT, ANA RESENDE RECTOR OF MINHO UNIVERSITY, ANTÓNIO CUNHA CAPTAINCY OF VIANA DO CASTELO HARBOUR, HARBOUR MASTER MARTINS DOS SANTOS REPRESENTATIVE OF VIANAPESCA OP, PORTELA ROSA REPRESENTATIVE OF CENTROLITORAL OP, ANTÓNIO MIGUEL LÉ 11.30 JOSÉ VINGADA: “THE SAFESEA PROJECT: OVERALL OBJECTIVES AND FIRST RESULTS” 12:00 PABLO FARINA (FUMUNDA – TRADE PINGER COMPANY): “THE USE OF PINGERS IN FISHERIES, AS A CONFLICT MITIGATION MEASURE”

12:30 LUNCH BREAK 14:00 PRACTICAL TRAINING: “APPLICATION OF PINGERS TO FISHING GEARS” 15:30 MARIA JOÃO CRUZ (IMAR – UNIV. AÇORES): “INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CETACEANS AND FISHERIES IN AZORES” 16:00 YORGOS STRATOUDAKIS (IPIMAR): “FISHERIES RESEARCH FOR MANAGEMENT ADVICE” 16:30 COFFEE BREAK 17:00 MARINA SEQUEIRA (ICNB): “THE CONSERVATION OF CETACEANS IN PORTUGAL” 17:30 DEBATE 18:00 CONCLUSIONS


SUNDAY, THE 17TH OF JANUARY OF 2010 10:00 REGISTRATION OF PARTICIPANTS 10:30 ARNE BJØRGE (IMR NORWAY): “HOW TO MONITOR BYCATCH OF MARINE MAMMALS IN A ‘MODERN ARTISANAL’ FISHERY” 11:00 ALFREDO LÓPEZ (CEMMA – GALICIA): “THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FISHERIES AND CETACEANS ON THE WAY TO CONSERVATION”

11:30 COFFEE BREAK 12:00 JOHN NICHOLS (MOODY INTERNATIONAL): “THE IMPORTANCE OF A FISHERIES INTERACTION IN THE ECOSYSTEM IN THE MSC CERTIFICATION PROCESS” 12:30 GRAHAM PIERCE (UNIV. ABERDEEN/IEO VIGO): “INDICATORS FOR MARINE MAMMAL BYCATCH MONITORING” 13:00 LUNCH BREAK 14:30 BEGOÑA SANTOS (IEO VIGO): “INTEGRATING MARINE MAMMAL POPULATIONS AND RATES OF PREY CONSUMPTION IN MANAGEMENT MODELS”

15:00 FIONA READ (UNIV. ABERDEEN/IEO VIGO/IIM VIGO): “PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF MARINE MAMMAL AND FISHERIES INTERACTIONS IN THE NORTH-WEST IBERIAN PENINSULA”

15:30 JAMES TURNER (FUMUNDA MARINE): “THE DEVELOPMENT OF PINGERS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE TO FISHERIES AND CONSERVATION OF CETACEANS”

16:00 NORMAN HOLY (BETTER GEAR): “THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTIC GILLNETS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE TO FISHERIES AND CONSERVATION OF CETACEANS”

16:30 COFFEE BREAK 17:00 REBECCA LEWISON (PROJECT GLOBAL): “PATTERNS AND ANALYSIS OF FISHERIES BYCATCH WORLDWIDE: IDENTIFYING HOTSPOTS, POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS AND CHARACTERIZING THE BYCATCH LANDSCAPE ”

17:30 DEBATE 18:00 CLOSING SESSION


Abstracts


THE SAFESEA PROJECT: OVERALL OBJECTIVES AND FIRST RESULTS José Vingada1, Marisa Ferreira1, Jorge Santos1, Hélder Araújo1,Isabel Oliveira1, Sílvia Monteiro1, Rute Costa1, Jorge Vaqueiro1, Catarina Eira2, Filipe Rocha1, Célia Tavares1 & Pedro Gomes1 1SPVS-UM,

Dep. Biologia, Universidade do Minho Campus de Gualtar. 4710-057 Braga. Portugal (jvv@bio.uminho.pt) 2CESAM, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro. Portugal

The Portuguese fisheries represent an important economic activity, particularly for coastal communities. Considering the strong traditional character of fishing in Portugal, there are numerous types of fishing methods, which vary regionally, with respect to technology and fishing methods. The interactions between fishing gears and cetaceans have been frequently recorded involving almost all types of gears, with damaging consequences to the fishing economy and also to the conservation of several cetacean species. The incidental captures in fishing gears constitute a world wide problem, affecting several marine species including cetaceans, which constitute one of the most threatened groups. The present project started in 2008 and during a period of 3 years, it intends to collect scientific data concerning: the status of small cetacean populations, incidental capture of cetaceans in gillnets, purse-seine and beach purse-seine fisheries and implementation of pilot essays of deterrent devices (pingers and acoustic enhanced nets) in order to decrease the incidental capture of cetaceans. Simultaneously we intend to increase the awareness of local fisherman communities, towards a more sustainable exploitation of sea resources and the conservation of threatened species. The area of implementation of the SAFESEA project is the central and northern coast of Portugal, between the Village of S. Martinho do Porto and Caminha, covering an area with a coast line of ± 500 km by 30 - 50 km width (until the 200 meters bathymetry). During the first year of the project we started the evaluation of interactions between cetaceans and fisheries, based on interviews to boat captains, on-board observers, and voluntary declaration log-books. At the same time the evaluation of the distribution and abundance of cetaceans was initiated using 3 techniques: coastal vantage points, opportunistic census platforms and aerial census. The information collected during this first year is the baseline data that is helping to define the field trials with pingers and acoustic nets. In the future this baseline data will allow the cost/benefit evaluation related with the use of deterrent devices in Portuguese Artisanal Fisheries.

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THE USE OF PINGERS IN FISHERIES, AS A CONFLIT MITIGATION MEASURE Pablo Farina FUMUNDA EUROPE (Trade Pinger Company), c/ Doctor MaraĂąon, 4, 2Âş d, Vigo 36209 (pablo@fumunda.com)

An overview of how and why Pingers work, including details on where Pingers are being used to mitigate marine mammal bycatch and the important benefits this provides commercial fishers both in terms of ensuring the long term profitability of their business operations, whilst supporting the long term sustainability of the marine environment. A brief overview of what the future holds in terms of Pinger technology and how stakeholders can work together to achieve positive outcomes.

FUMUNDA MARINE is an international company that manufactures acoustic deterrent devices for marine mammals and other systems dedicated to professional fishing, especially PINGERS and FISHING LIGHTS for longline fishing. All systems manufactured by FUMUNDA are designed according to the highest quality standards, as they rely on assistance from fishermen, which is why our motto is "designed by fishermen, for fishermen." The importance of protecting resources and marine species, with the support of technology, led to the first acoustic deterrent devices of mammals, PINGERS, manufactured by FUMUNDA since 1996, with daily improvement of their performance and increasing the range of targeted species. Currently, the use of pingers focuses on two issues: accidental capture and the effect of depredation of certain mammals on industrial fishing, affecting both ecosystems and the industry's very profitability. The PINGERS designed by FUMUNDA include features such as sturdiness, durability, easy battery replacement and an ergonomic design using the best available technology, so as not to cause damage to fishing nets. On the other hand, FUMUNDA will introduce the FISHING LIGHTS, especially dedicated to longline fishing, and which follow the same manufacturing standards, high quality, sturdiness and most importantly, convenience and battery durability, without harming the environment. FUMUNDA takes on the commitment and the challenge of sustainability in all its projects and products.

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INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CETACEANS AND FISHERIES IN AZORES Maria João Cruz & Mónica A. Silva CENTRO DO IMAR DA UNIVERSIDADE DOS AÇORES, Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas, 9901-862 Horta, Portugal (mjoaocruz@uac.pt) Bycatch of cetaceans and damage to fishing gear are probably the best documented and most evident aspects of the interaction between cetaceans and fisheries. However, cetaceans are known to interact with the fishing activity in other ways, namely by eating or damaging the hooked fish or bait, scarring fish or increasing time spent in fishing operations. These interactions may result in significant economic losses to fishermen and are likely to generate conflicts between cetaceans and the fishery sector. Throughout the years, the Department of Oceanography and Fisheries of the University of the Azores (DOP/UAç) has monitored several fishing operations within the scope of dedicated research projects or observer programmes. Although most of these projects were not aimed at monitoring cetacean-fishery interactions, all projects collected data from which some information could be obtained. Here, we review existing information on the interactions between cetaceans and the major fisheries in the Azores. In addition, we present data from an ongoing project to examine interactions between cetaceans and the squid fishery. The Azorean fishing fleet is mainly artisanal with 74% of the vessels being small open-deck boats. There are four main fisheries: a fishery directed to small pelagic fishes, a seasonal pole-and-line tuna fishery, a multispecific demersal fishery, and a swordfish fishery. Observers placed onboard tuna-fishing vessels reported the presence of cetaceans in 7% of the 14,851 observed fishing events and interference in 3% of the events. Over a 9-year period, 57 dolphins were incidentally hooked on the fishing line but all were released alive. As for the demersal and swordfish fisheries, cetacean interference occurred in 15% and 2% of the observed sets, respectively. There were no records of cetacean mortality associated with these fisheries. There were no reports of cetacean interaction with the fishery for small pelagic fishes. Preliminary data from interview surveys to fishermen conducted in 2009 indicate that Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) interacted frequently with the squid fishery, by stealing squids from the jig. Data from observers confirmed that Risso´s dolphins were responsible for most of the depredation events. Dolphins captured the squid hanging in the fishing gear, taking the whole body or more frequently just the mantle. We will present gear modifications developed to mitigate depredation and report on the results of the tests conducted so far. Overall, available data indicates that levels of interaction between cetaceans and fisheries in the Azores are low. However, as fish stocks decrease and competition between cetaceans and fisheries escalates, interactions between cetaceans and fishermen in the Azores are expected to become more frequent and severe.

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FISHERIES RESEARCH FOR MANAGEMENT ADVICE Yorgos Stratoudakis INIAP-IPIMAR Av. Brasilia s/n 1449-006 Lisboa, Portugal (yorgos@ipimar.pt)

Within the framework of the IPIMAR mission, the Marine Resources and Sustainability Research Unit (U-REMS) develops research with the objective to provide the scientific basis for fisheries management and the sustainable exploitation of the main marine resources. Following the need to turn the ecosystem approach to fisheries management operational, the research in the unit gradually expands to include aspects related to the minimization of negative fisheries impacts on the integrity of exploited marine ecosystems. In this talk, will be presented the organization of U-REMS that aims to fulfill the IPIMAR mission, identifying the main research lines in the 5 groups of the unit and focusing particularly on the development of a new research line to study (in collaboration with other entities) the interactions between the purse seine fishery and marine top predators (mainly birds and mammals) in the Portuguese continental shelf.

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CETACEAN CONSERVATION IN PORTUGAL Marina Sequeira INSTITUTO DA CONSERVAÇÃO DA NATUREZA E DA BIODIVERSIDADE, Departamento de Gestão de Áreas Classificadas – Zonas Húmidas, Reserva Natural do Estuário do Sado (sequeiram@icnb.pt) The presence of marine mammals along the Portuguese coast has been regularly reported at least since the XIX th century, but it was only in 1981 that the first legal document protecting this group was published. In fact, until September 1981, the capture and commercial transaction of cetaceans was a common practice, and the animals were used either for human consumption or as bait for different types of fisheries. After the publication of the Decree-Law nr. 263/81 all marine mammal species present along the Portuguese coast became protected and its capture as well as the selling of by-caught or stranded animals became illegal. Also the ratification by Portugal of international Agreements and Conventions related to nature conservation brought additional protection to the marine mammal species with lower conservation status and, in many cases, allowed the development of scientific projects aimed at the study and conservation of cetacean populations in Portugal. The entry into force of European legislation related to nature conservation issues allowed the protection of marine mammals to include also the prohibition of disturbance of species as well as the modification or destruction of habitats identified as critical for their survival. Within the framework of the Habitats Directive, all EU Member States have the obligation to designate protected areas/sites for the species listed in the Directive’s annexes and to develop specific Action Plans for the conservation of such species. The recent approval of an Action Plan for the monitoring and conservation of the resident population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) on the Sado Estuary will not only fulfill the EU request, but also contribute to stop the decline of this unique Portuguese population.

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HOW TO MONITOR MARINE MAMMAL BYCATCHES IN A “MODERN ARTISANAL” FISHERY? Arne Bjørge

INSTITUTE OF MARINE RESEARCH, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway (arne.bjoerge@imr.no)

Norwegian EEZ covers 1 878 961 km2 and important fishing grounds. Most of Norwegian fish catches are taken by large vessels using purse seine (pelagic fish) and trawl (demersal fish). Onboard observers showed that these fisheries are relatively ”clean” with regard to entanglement of marine mammals. The Norwegian coast spans from 58oN to 71oN. Including islands, the shoreline is more than 83 000 km long. About 5,000 commercial small vessels (less than 15 m total length) are operating a variety of gear types in these waters. A pilot study in 2005 revealed high bycatches of marine mammals in three coastal fisheries using bottom set gillnets: gillnets for cod Gadus morhua and other Gadoids, gillnets for lumpsucker Cyclopterus lumpus, and large mesh gillnets set for anglerfish Lophius piscatorius. When designing a programme for monitoring bycatches in these coastal fisheries we faced the following challenges: the very long and complex coastline, the very large number of small vessels and the inability of the small vessels to carry an independent observer. To be able to monitor bycatch of marine mammals we designed an integrated programme where improvement of fishery statistics was the main objective. Landing statistics for target species are generally good for fisheries in Norway. However, information on the fishing effort and catch composition of non-target species fish is poor for coastal fisheries by small vessels, e.g. coastal gill-netters. Therefore, improvement of monitoring and management of takes of non-target species was needed. Starting in 2006 we contracted two fishing vessels in each of nine domestic fishery statistics areas to provide detailed statistics of effort, target species catch, bycatch of all non-target fish, sea birds and marine mammals. The value of the contract is a significant proportion of the annual income of the contracted vessels. Each of the vessels is visited regularly by scientific staff, and they stay onboard on day trips. Any discrepancy between statistics of trips with and without scientific staff onboard will result in cancellation of the lucrative contract. The three first years of monitoring revealed frequent takes of three marine mammal species: The annual takes by the contracted vessels were in the low hundreds for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena, and less than hundred for harbour Phoca vitulina and grey Halichoerus grypus seals. The collected data from contracted vessels in combination with landings statistics of target species from the same vessel category and gear types will allow us to extrapolate to marine mammal bycatch in entire fisheries. Extrapolation to entire fisheries will be made when data from the third year of monitoring become available.

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THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FISHERIES AND CETACEANS ON THE WAY TO CONSERVATION Alfredo López CEMMA, Apdo. 15, 36380, Gondomar, Spain (cemma@arrakis.es) The Galician waters, like those of the Iberian front, are influenced by the Atlantic upwelling, presenting a great biological richness, and therefore, the biodiversity, i.e., the number of species, is abundant. Thus, we can find a wide variety of both fish and their predators (birds and marine mammals), of which 20 species are cetaceans. Historically, the Galician coast has always been an important fishing area and it currently supports a considerable amount of pressure from fisheries, which translates into more than 85 ports and 8000 vessels devoting their efforts to this purpose. The interaction between cetaceans and fishing is also known throughout history. In fact, cetaceans were historically used to detect fish, the so-called “mansío” fishing, which is considered a form of purse seining because nets were thrown in places where porpoises or gulls indicated the presence of fish. On the other hand, the interactions between cetaceans and fishing could include damage to fishing equipment and scaring away fish, with negative consequences to human activities, and accidental captures, in this case, as a negative consequence for cetaceans species. The consequence of the interaction between human activities and the situation of the populations worldwide has led some of them to extinction or to the verge of extinction. This is why limitations and regulations have been settled that led to the moratorium on whale hunting in 1980, the prohibition of drifting gillnets in 1994, the European Directive on accidental capture, etc. Assistance to threatened marine fauna (turtles and marine mammals) in Galicia since the year 1990, by CEMMA, has allowed collecting and examining stranded animals. It was subsequently confirmed that death by accidental capture is one of the leading causes of death of cetaceans. In order to study the population status, their local abundance and the consequences of the impact of human activity on cetaceans species, since its creation CEMMA has been looking into various aspects of their ecobiology and pathology. The different types of fishing and the spatial and temporal distribution of interactions are also being analysed, in order to minimise or eliminate long-term conflicts. Accidental capture represents a major threat to cetaceans in Galician waters, especially to some species that are in a delicate situation for the survival of its population, such as the porpoise, grey dolphin and bottle-nosed dolphin. Focusing on sustainable development and on the conservation of species, an action plan has been drawn, essentially with the support of the producers sector. That way, researchers, naturalists, and fishermen have to be part of a common table, where they can discuss the situation of threatened species and find solutions to their conservation. In order to analyse this problem, different methods have been implemented since 1998: SafeSea Seminar - Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures

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- Analysis of stranded marine animals (mammals and sea turtles). - Inquiries to the fishing sector. - Specific shipping. - Collection of accidentally captured animals. - Marking of dead animals captured accidentally. - Creation of educational and promotion material. - Identification of priority areas to guide future investigations. - Development of behavioural and technological solutions, which will contribute towards a decrease of accidental captures. - Social information for Conservation Plans. Currently, important and accurate information is available concerning the ecobiology of species, the evaluation of populations and the impact on captures. It now becomes necessary to put in place consensual Conservation Plans and to apply them. This action must necessarily be carried out along with the management plans of protected areas included in the Natura 2000 network, and accompanied by the reorganization of the marine production sector, as a result of its adaptation to the 21st century and to policies related to environmental, cultural and social sustainable development.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF A FISHERIES INTERACTION WITH THE ECOSYSTEM IN THE MSC CERTIFICATION PROCESS. ‘THE ROLE OF MOODY INTERNATIONAL IN THE MSC CERTIFICATION PROCESS’ John Nichols MOODY MARINE LTD, Moody International Certification, Merlin House, Stanier Way, Wyvern Business Park, Derby DE21 6BF, UK (nichols@blundeston.org.uk)

Moody International is the main accredited Certification Body approved to assess and recommend commercial fisheries for Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification. The MSC is an international, non profit making, organisation that promotes well managed and sustainable fisheries to the consumer through a certification process. The process begins with a pre-assessment at the request of a client. The client may or may not proceed to a full assessment of the fishery. The full Certification process involves judging the fishery against three well established Principles covering the maintenance of healthy populations of the target species, the impact that the fishery has on the ecosystem, and the development and maintenance of effective management of the fishery at local, national and international levels as required. The fishery must pass each one of these three Principles before it can be recommended for certification. The assessment process is a very rigorous one involving the appointment of approved experts across the fields of stock assessment, ecosystem impact and fisheries management. Assessment of the fishery involves a fact finding site visit at some time by an assessment team usually consisting of three experts. The team produce a comprehensive report which forms the information base for the scoring procedure. To score a fishery the team works to a rigid pattern of guidelines within a Fisheries Assessment Methodology established by the MSC. Each of the three Principles comprises a number of Performance Indicators with specific criteria describing the minimum requirements to achieve scores of 60, 80 or the maximum 100 for each Indicator. In order to pass, a fishery must achieve a minimum average score of 80 for each Principle and not less than 60 for any Performance Indicator. The theoretical perfect fishery would achieve a score of 100 for all the Performance Indicators. The MSC Assessment Manual, which can be accessed on line, gives excellent guidance on how to evaluate and score each of the Performance Indicators The experts completed report, including scoring, concludes with a recommendation as to whether or not the fishery passes the assessment, with or without conditions, or fails. The client then has the opportunity to review the draft and to suggest changes, either to correct the team’s interpretation of evidence presented, or to present new information. At this stage the client may opt to stop the assessment and the whole procedure and the report then remains confidential. Once accepted by the client the report and scoring begins a further rigorous process of evaluation by two independent experts who peer review and comment on both the report the scoring and any conditions. The peer SafeSea Seminar - Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures

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review comments have to be taken into consideration by the assessment team who edit the report before it goes to stakeholders for review and their comments have to be considered by the team. The edited report then goes to the Moody Governing body for final determination and if no objections are received within 21 days then the certification becomes final. A fishery which passes with conditions has a time frame, for each condition, set by the assessment team, during which the specific issue must be satisfactorily addressed. Fisheries are audited annually and the actions of the client in relation to the conditions are reviewed at that time. Certification is for a period of 5 years after which it must be re-assessed and recertified. Principle 2 is the one which addresses the interaction of the fishery with the ecosystem and forms the main part of the presentation. This Principle consists of five main topic areas divided into 15 Performance Indicators each one of which addresses different aspects of that interaction. The five main topic areas: Retained species: which are all species either kept on board and landed, or are of particular commercial value, other than the target species. By catch species: which are all species taken in the catch but which for various reasons are discarded back to the sea. These may be species with no commercial value or they may be commercial species but for which the vessel has no quota and is therefore unable to land. This group also includes unobserved mortality; species which, through the action of the fishery, die without ever coming on board the vessel. Endangered, threatened and protected species: are those recognised by national legislation or international agreements as being in need of special protection and on which the fishery has potential impacts. Habitat effects: are generally related to the seabed although pelagic habitats could be relevant but are most likely to be covered under ecosystem effects. The main issue here is habitat damage and recovery times and the likelihood of irreversible harm to the habitat. Ecosystem effects: addresses the broad ecological community and the ecosystem upon which the fishery impacts, without repeating issues covered in the four topics above. This covers areas such as biodiversity, productivity, community composition, trophic relationships and trophic cascades caused by the depletion of predators and / or prey species. Each of these five main issues and their interactions with the fishery is addressed in three ways. Outcomes: addresses the current status in relation to each topic with the scoring guideposts ranging from what are the lowest acceptable effects through to the ideal situation to which all fisheries should aspire. Management: addresses whether or not there are strategies in place to address the potential problem. The scoring guideposts range from the existence of some measures, at the lowest level, through to clear and comprehensive strategies targeted directly at the problem SafeSea Seminar - Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures

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Information monitoring: addresses whether or not sufficient information is collected to assess understand and evaluate the impact of the fishery. The scoring guideposts range from the availability of some limited information through to quantitative data with which to assess impact. A description of the assessment system in operation will be given for each of the main topic areas using examples from certified fisheries. As an example of both scoring a Performance Indicator and the setting of a condition, the ecosystem effects Performance Indicator from the recently assessed Portuguese sardine fishery will be discussed in more detail.

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INDICATORS FOR MARINE MAMMAL BYCATCH MONITORING Graham J.Pierce1,3, Fiona Read2, 3, Sabine Goetz3, Alfredo López4, Santiago Lens3, Begoña Santos3 1UNIVERSITY

OF ABERDEEN, School of Biological Sciences, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, UK (g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk) 2INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES MARINAS (C.S.I.C), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain 3INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA, Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, PO Box 1552, 36200, Vigo, Spain 4 CEMMA, Apdo. 15, 36380, Gondomar, Spain

We review current bycatch monitoring in European waters (legislative framework, official monitoring programmes) as well as alternative sources of information that are available. We describe recent research in Scotland (UK) and Galicia (Spain), involving interview surveys, on-board bycatch monitoring and interpretation of data from stranded cetaceans, including an evaluation of sources of error and available estimates of bycatch rates and bycatch mortality in cetaceans. Finally, we briefly review available information on where, when, how and why bycatch occurs and possible mitigation methods.

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INTEGRATING MARINE MAMMAL POPULATIONS AND RATES OF PREY CONSUMPTION INTO FISHERY MANAGEMENT M Begoña Santos1 & Graham J. Pierce1,2 1INSTITUTO

ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA, Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Apdo. 1552, 36200 Vigo, Spain (m.b.santos@vi.ieo.es) 2UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN, School of Biological Sciences, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland, UK

The recent revision of the Common Fisheries Policy to include an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management has led to the need to integrate information on marine mammals. As top predators in marine food webs, marine mammals play an important role in controlling prey populations and changes in their distribution and abundance are expected to have a significant effect on their prey, many of which are economically important species. In the Northeast Atlantic, results from large-scale international surveys have shown that most cetacean populations have not experienced large changes in abundance during the last 10 years but harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) distribution has shifted towards southern waters. Changes in distribution and/or diet have been recorded in several marine mammal species for which long-term data are available. In some cases, these shifts have been related to climate/ global change although clear evidence for this is often lacking. The most promising approach to integrating such information into management has been the use of ecosystem models, which have traditionally simplified nature to relatively few components linked by mathematical functions and can help us better understand the role played by marine mammals and fisheries in marine ecosystems. There is a wealth of data available for use in these type of models (e.g. trophodynamic models, multispecies VPA, etc.). Existing models have highlighted the need to take into account the complexities inherent in predator-prey relationships (e.g. how predators respond to changing availability of different prey, i.e. multispecies functional responses, their implications for predator populations, and the temporal and geographical scales at which predator and prey interact).

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PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF MARINE MAMMAL AND FISHERIES INTERACTIONS IN THE NORTH-WEST IBERIAN PENINSULA Fiona Read1,2, Begoña Santos2, Ángel F. González1, Sabine Goetz2, Marisa Ferreira3, Alfredo López4 and Graham J. Pierce2,5 1INSTITUTO

DE INVESTIGACIONES MARINAS (C.S.I.C), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain (fionaread@iim.csic.es) ESPAÑOL DE OCEANOGRAFÍA, Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, PO Box 1552, 36200, Vigo, Spain 3 CBMA/SPVS, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal 4 CEMMA, Apdo. 15, 36380, Gondomar, Spain 5 UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN, School of Biological Sciences (Zoology), Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, United Kingdom 2INSTITUTO

The north-west Iberian Peninsula is one of the world’s main fishing regions and cetaceans are very abundant in the area. A previous interview survey of fishermen suggested a high and potentially unsustainable cetacean bycatch rate (up to 1700 animals per year). Since 2008, 553 further interviews have been conducted concerning marine mammal-fisheries interactions. Trawl and gillnets have the highest reported rate of cetacean mortalities, almost entirely of Delphinus delphis. Most interviewees said that interactions with cetaceans are not problematic and that the economic effects of interactions, e.g. damage to nets, are negligible. Delphinus delphis are commonly sighted offshore and Phocoena phocoena and Tursiops truncatus coastally. Evidence of fisheries interactions was found in 60% of ‘fresh’ stranded D. delphinus. In Galicia, 42% of ‘fresh’ P. phocoena strandings have indications of bycatch, increasing to 58% in northern Portugal due to the use of beach seines. Age, maturity and pregnancy data from stranded animals are used to construct life tables and to estimate overall mortality and reproductive rates. By-caught animals were significantly younger than non-by-caught animals. Estimated annual mortality rates were 12% and 15% in the D. delphinus and P. phocoena populations respectively, and necropsy data suggest almost half of this mortality is attributable to fisheries interactions. These estimated annual mortality rates due to fisheries greatly exceed the 2% limit set by ASCOBANS (Agreement of Small Cetaceans in the Baltic and North Sea) and IWC (International Whaling Commission). The presentation will describe our current knowledge of marine mammal and fisheries interactions in the Iberian Peninsula using data from strandings, diet and bycatch and mortality rates for Delphinus delphis, Phocoena phocoena and Tursiops truncatus.

SafeSea Seminar - Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF PINGERS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE TO FISHERIES AND CONSERVATION OF CETACEANS James Turner FUMUNDA MARINE, Australia. Innovation Centre. University of the Sunshine Coast. 90 Sippy Downs Drive. Sippy Downs. 4556. QLD. Australia (james@fumunda.com) A discussion on the development of acoustic Pinger technology and its effectiveness as a marine mammal bycatch mitigation strategy, focusing on the importance of stakeholder collaboration and how a private enterprise engages stakeholders and why. A look in to the future of marine mammal bycatch mitigation products and technology and the vital role research plays.

SafeSea Seminar - Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTIC GILLNETS AND THEIR IMPORTANCE TO FISHERIES AND CONSERVATION OF CETACEANS Norman Holy BETTER!GEAR, LLC. 4676 W. Harvest Ln, Bloomington Indiana 47404. USA (nrmho@aol.com)

Mitigation of small cetacean bycatch has largely focused on pingers, which have several issues such as high cost and habituation. The only alternatives to pinger use are area closures and gillnets containing the filler barium sulfate. Systematic studies of the effectiveness of barium sulfate nets in the fisheries are by Ed Trippel (Canada), Norman Holy (USA), and Pablo Bordino (Argentina). Barium sulfate nets containing 10% barium sulfate by weight!were tested three summers in the Bay of Fundy (Canada) with a total effort of 300 sets and a total of nearly 90 km of net being set. The harbour porpoise bycatch was 50% of conventional nets. Fish takes were normal. Tests in Argentina over two fishing seasons, using nets containing 6% barium sulfate (because the manufacturer could not make 10%), showed a 40% reduction in Franciscana dolphin bycatch. Fish takes were normal. Barium sulfate nets are cost/performance competitive with conventional nets.

SafeSea Seminar - Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures

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PATTERNS AND ANALYSIS OF FISHERIES BYCATCH WORLDWIDE: IDENTIFYING HOTSPOTS, POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS AND CHARACTERIZING THE BYCATCH LANDSCAPE Rebecca Lewison PROJECT GLOBAL. Biology Dept, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Rd.San Diego, CA 92182-4614, USA (rlewison@sciences.sdsu.edu) Quantifying the intensity and the spatial extent of fisheries bycatch is hampered by data gaps, underlying distribution of bycatch events and our understanding of the spatial and population ecology of bycatchimpacted species. Project GLoBAL (PG), a large-scale research initative, was designed to develop new quantitative and analytical approaches to improving our understanding of the impact of fisheries bycatch across three major gear types (longline, gillnet and trawl) and three major taxa (sea turtles, seabirds and marine mammals). One central PG product was the construction of a comprehensive bycatch database. Here I present research from the PG team that informs how we understand the population-level impact of bycatch, considers the importance of persistent spatial patterns and takes a large-scale perspective on bycatch data collection and existing bycatch knowledge.

SafeSea Seminar - Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures

23


Bycatch of Cetaceans. Present Scenarios and Mitigation Measures  

Abstract book from the SafeSea Seminar held on 16th and 17th of January 2010 at Viana do Castelo, Portugal

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