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The presentation introduces new explanatory conceptions - he theory of production revolutions - which are relevant to the analysis of causes and trends of global shifts in historical process and which give opportunities to make some forecasts for the future. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


The production revolution can be defined as a radical turn in the world productive forces connected with the transition to a new principle of production not only in technologies but also in the sphere of interrelations between society and nature.

http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


According to our theory, the historical process can be subdivided more effectively into four major stages. The transition from one stage to another can result in the change of all basic characteristics of the respective stage. We propose to consider the production revolutions as conventional borders between these stages, by means of which the chronology may be worked out in detail. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


Of all various technological and production changes that took place in history the most profound and universal consequences for society were held by three revolutions: • the Agrarian (or Neolithic) • the Industrial • the Information-Scientific. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


AGRARIAN REVOLUTION Its result is the transition to regular food production and on this basis - to a complex societal labour division. This revolution is also connected with employment of new energy resources (animal's power) and materials. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION The Industrial Revolution led to the concentration of main production in industry. The importance of this revolution consists in the substitution: • of manual work by machines, • of the biological energy - by water and steam power. It also introduced the process of labour saving in the wide sense (not only of physical labour, but also in the spheres of accounting, control, exchange, credit, information transfer). '

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г/


INFORMATION-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Information-scientific revolution resulted in the emergence of powerful information technique and technology, as well as in the use of new materials and energy resources and the spreading of automation. But the main results of this revolution are still forthcoming. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


The Distinction between the Production Revolution and Various Technical Overturns • It touches not only some separate essential branches but the economy on the whole. • Such an overturn involves into the economical circulation some fundamentally new renewable / long inexhaustible widespread resources. • It rises labor productivity or land carrying capacity by orders of magnitude. • It increases by orders volume of production and promote demographic revolution. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe

г/


Every production revolution can be regarded as a starting point of a new radical turn in the world productive forces which we name a production principle. We single out four production principles: 1. Hunter-Gatherer 2. Craft-Agrarian 3. Industrial 4. Information-Scientific

http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


Table 1. Chronology of Production Principle Phases Production principle

phase

phase

phase

phase

phase

phase

Overallfor production principle

1. HunterGatherer

40 00030 000 (38 00028 000 ВСЕ) 10

3000022 000 (28 00020 000 ВСЕ) 8

22 000 17 000 (20 00015 000 ВСЕ) 5

17000 14 000 (15 00012 000 ВСЕ) 3

14 00011500 (12 0009500 ВСЕ) 2.5

1150010 000 (95008000 ВСЕ) 1.5

40 00010 000 (38 0008000 ВСЕ) 30

2.

10 0007300 (80005300 ВСЕ) 2.7

73005000 (53003000 ВСЕ) 2.3

50003500 (30001500 ВСЕ) 1.5

35002200 (1500200 ВСЕ) 1.3

22001200 (200 ВСЕ800 СЕ) 1.0

8001430 СЕ

10 000-570 (8000 ВСЕ1430 СЕ)

0.6

9.4

14301600 0.17

16001730 0.13

17301830 0.1

18301890 0.06

18901929 0.04

19291955 0.025

1430-1955

19552000 (19551995) 0.04-0.045

20002040 (19952030) 0.035-0.04

20402070 (20302055) 0.0250.03

20702090 (20552070) 0.0150.02

20902105 (20702080) 0.01-0.015

21052115 (20802090) 0.01

1955-2115 (2090)

CraftЛ- Чнь * Asrarian ж жи^ ж № Mk

3.

Industrial 4. InformationScientific

JSt

2

n d

y d

4th

5

t h

6

t h

.525

[forecast] 0.135-0.160


Diagram 1. Evolution of Historical Process in Time 2115 •"I* n i £. 1 U2090 2070 204Q

F o r m a t i o n IV (inform ation-scientific production principle)

2005

200C 1953 1929 1390) 133» 17301 160^

F o r m a t i o n III (industrial production principle)

F o r m a t i o n II (craft-agrarian production principle) Formation I (hunter-gatherer production principle) 33000 ВСЕ (40000 BP) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ — — 1 1 1—•—r—i 1 1—i 1—i

1500 5300

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

ВСЕ

i

i

3000

12000

23000 •

300*^1430 ^ 0 0

3000 10500

15000

20000

""

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

1

1

1 1 0

1 1 СЕ


In our theory each production revolution has similar internal cycle with two qualitative phases and a sort of interruption between them. • During s phase the advanced technologies are worked out, later spreading to other societies. •At a rapid flourishing of a new production principle takes place. The scheme of two phases of production revolution within our concept looks as follows: http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


AGRARIAN REVOLUTION • The irst phase is the transition to primitive hoe agriculture and animal husbandry starting from about 12-9 thousand years ago. • The second phase is the transition to irrigation or non-irrigation plough agriculture starting from 5,5 thousand years ago. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grinin_l_e/othe г/


INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • The rst phase is a vigorous development of seafaring and trade, mechanization on the basis of water engine and other processes in the 15th th 16 centuries. • The second pha is the industrial breakthrough (the 1760s-1830s) which is connected with introduction of various machines and steam energy. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe

г/


INFORMATION-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION • The rst phase having lasted for almost forty years (from the 1950s to 1990s) is already over. • However, it appears possible to speak about its forthcoming econd phase which may start within a few decades. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


INFORMATION-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION FIRST PHASE

The first phase has had a number of advanced trends: • in power engineering, • production of synthetic materials, • automation, • exploration of space, sea area and bottom, • agriculture, medicine and a number of academic disciplines. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


INFORMATION-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION FIRST PHASE

• However, the most significant changes have taken place in the sphere of information. Collecting, processing, and distribution, receiving and decoding (interpretation) of information have become a more important part of production. • One can also notice a transition to scientific patterns in different spheres; the scientific research results have become a commodity in the sense of innovativeness. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


INFORMATION-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

After the first stage of the Information-Scientific revolution in the mid-1990s the (between two phase of production revolution) started. It continues up to the present. This period is characterized by a very rapid diffusion of technologies that appeared in the previous time. In the last two decades we observe development and wide diffusion of user-friendly computers, communication technologies etc. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


INFORMATION-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION FROM FIRST PHASE TO NEXT ONE

At the first stage of the Information-Scientific revolution the saving of complex and intellectual work in production, management, information sector seems the most evident. Although computerization, software engineering and new types of informational communications have become the leading trend today, yet the essence of this revolution can hardly be spoken about because its major results are still ahead. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/


INFORMATION-SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION SECOND PHASE

The second phase may start around the 20302040s. Judging from different contemporary achievements (in genetics, medicine, bionanotechnologies etc.), the second phase can start with a dramatic increase of opportunities to change human biological nature. There is a great number of various suppositions concerning changes of that kind, they are dealt with by intellectuals in different fields starting from philosophers to fantasists. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe

г/


Table 2.

jSt

Chronology of Information-Scientific Production Principle Phases

phase

4<h phase

5th phase

tf1 phase

20002040 (19952030)

20402070 (20302055)

20702090 (20552070)

20902105 (20702080)

21052115 (20802090)

0.0350.04

0.0250.03

0.0150.02

0.010.015

0.01

phase

2nd phase

19552000 (19551995) 0.040.045

3*

Overall for production principle 1955-2115 (2090) [forecast]

0.135-0.160


Diagram 2. Information-Scientific Production Principle

P h a s e VI

Phase V

P h a s e IV

P h a s e III P h a s e II

Phase I 1940

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

2010 2020

2030

2040

2050

2060

2070

2080

2090

2100 2110 2120 2130


Revolution of Controllable Systems â&#x20AC;˘ Thus, given that historical process started with the Upper Paleolithic (human) revolution, it is not improbable that the new revolution will become "post-human", whose result will be the epoch of active impact on human organism. â&#x20AC;˘ Of course, there are possible some negative and even catastrophic scenarios which are abundant. If to consider some more optimistic variants, this revolution on the whole revolution of controllable systems. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe

Đł/


â&#x20AC;˘ The forthcoming revolution of controllable syster is the extensive development of abilities to intentionally influence and generally manage various natural and production processes. This means that this stage opens the direction that can be connected with new technologies to control the processes, which are uncontrollable today, in particular the biological ones. â&#x20AC;˘ Let us believe that under favourable circumstances we will observe the emergence of new environmental remediation and nature-protection sectors of economy, which in the distant future can make natural processes controllable to a certain degree. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe

Đł/


Forecasts of World Political System Development â&#x20AC;˘ The contemporary world crisis opened the period of a search for new political forms, so, in our opinion, it will be the time of quite rapid and unexpected political transformations, and of new, but often short-life supra-national alliances and unions including the attempts to control the relations on the global scale. We called this supposed period "the epoch of new coalitions". http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe Đł/


Forecasts of World Political System Development â&#x20AC;˘ This epoch may last for the nearest twothree decades. From the above said, it follows that with the beginning of the second phase of the Information-Scientific revolution (i.e. in the 2030-2040s) there may start an institutionalization of international relations and primary forms of regulation of the most important economic problems. http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe Đł/


Forecasts of World Political System Development • After the Information-Scientific revolution (the revolution of controllable systems) finishes, there will start a real political integration (in quite unclear forms yet) of the world political structures. • This means, that there will start not a globalization (the extensive process in its essence and hence a finite one) but a real systemic integration of the humanity (of course, within an optimal scenario). http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe

г/


Thank you for attention!

http://vwvw.socionauki.ru/authors/grininJ_e/othe г/

Global Technological Transformations and Global Future  

The presentation introduces new explanatory conceptions - he theory of production revolutions - which are relevant to the analysis of causes...

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