The Bohol Experience

Page 1

Making a Difference Localized Monitoring System on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)

The Bohol Experience

DISCLAIMER: “This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union and Novib Oxfam Netherlands. The views expressed herein are those of Action for Economic Reforms and project partners and therefore in no way to be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union and Novib Oxfam Netherlands.�

Project Management Team: Rene R. Raya – Coordinator, Emilia Roslinda, Janet R. Carandang, Filomeno S. Sta. Ana III and Alessandro D. Iellamo Project Staff: Ma. Alita D. Lugo, Ma. Luz R. Anigan, Oth Marulou C. Manocsoc, Jomel G. Baobao, Maribel N. Acierto and Joann M. Divinagracia Editorial Consultants: Filomeno S. Sta. Ana III, Rhodora A. Abaño and Rafael M. Paredes Contributors: Jonathan L. Mayuga, Rene R. Raya, Ma. Alita D. Lugo, Isagani R. Serrano, Alessandro D. Iellamo, Dr. Nestor M. Pestelos, Engr. Noel C. Mendaña, Cresente Nelson E. Lomod, Jomel G. Baobao, Nimfa Abaya-Lloren, Catalino B. Berro, Evelyn Nacario-Castro, Rosalinda G. Paredes, William G. Granert, Alvin O. Acuzar, Dr. Roque Bongcac, Dennis Calunia, Maria May-i L. Fabros and Ma. Luz R. Anigan This book was made possible with the full support of European Union Small Projects Facility and Novib Oxfam Netherlands. Copyright 2006 Action for Economic Reforms Action for Economic Reforms (AER) 3rd Floor, #40 Matulungin Street Central District, Quezon City Telefax: (632) 426-5626 e-mail: website: PROCESS Bohol Inc. III-A Espuelas Extension Tagbilaran City Bohol 6300 Telefax: (038) 411-3641/501-7742 ISBN: 971-92014-4-4 Editing and Book Design by: People and Advocacy Cover Design by: Benjo G. Laygo Layout by: Nanie S. Gonzales Photos by: Action for Economic Reforms, PROCESS Bohol Inc. Social Watch Philippines, Global Call to Action Against Poverty and People and Advocacy Statistical Annex courtesy of the Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO) of Bohol, the Bohol Local Development Foundation (BLDF), Social Watch Info Database and the Peace and Equity Foundation (PEF) Printed in the Philippines


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals





2005 World Summit Outcome Box: Millennium Development Goals


............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................ ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Partners’ Views on the MDGs Three Bohol Town Mayors on Localized Monitoring of MDG Project Partners on the Local MDG Monitoring System Project

1 2


5 7




The European Union in the Philippines


Part I – The Project The Project Experience My Bohol Experience Reflections Reflection Paper on the MDGs Project in Bohol Reflections on the MDG Project

............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... ...........


............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................... .....................................................................


Part II – The MDG Reports Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Province of Bohol. December 2005 Box: Bohol Profile Local Poverty Reduction Action Program (LPRAP) Software Executive Order 02, Series of 2006. Adoption, Localization and Monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) as a Framework for Development Planning in the Province of Bohol

12 20 21 24 25


28 29 36





The MDG Report of the Municipality of Tubigon, December 2005 Translating Information into Plans and Strategies: The Tubigon Experience

............................................................................................................................... ..............

The MDG Report of the Municipality of Bilar, December 2005 Advocating for the MDGs and Its Monitoring: The Case of Bilar


....................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................

The MDG Report of the Municipality of Jagna, December 2005 The Jagna Household Survey Experience Mayor Lloren Received an Award on the Millennium Development Goals


...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................

40 54 56 65 68 82 86

Part III - Insights from Civil Society Navigating Development through the MDGs (Reflections and Views of Civil Society) 89 The Challenge of Meeting the Millennium Development Goals for the Women in Bohol for Peace and Development 93 Addressing Environmental Sustainability 100 Factoring the Youth in the MDG Programs 102 Let Us Practice What We Are Preaching! 105 MDGs from the Vantage of the Academe 106 ......................................................................................... ..

................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................

The Bohol Experience


Part IV – LGU-NGO Campaign Against Poverty The Global Call to Action against Poverty (GCAP) Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) in Bohol Box: Covenant against Poverty and Signatories


111 114 116






Annexes Annex 1 The Training Course on MDG Monitoring and Localization Training Module Content Outline



Annex 2 The Local MDG Monitoring System: Framework and Design Local MDG Indicators BoholInfo: The Integrated MDG Database AER MDG-Monitoring Open Source GIS Toolkit MDG Planning Matrix Software


........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................... ...............................................................


Annex 3 Statistical Annex Key Indicators with Provincial Breakdown Key Indicators for Central Visayas Bohol at a Glance Socio-economic Indicators for Bohol by Municipality LPRAP/PDMS Indicators for Bohol by Municipality

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................


..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................................



Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

119 120

122 124 129 131 132

133 135 144 152 157 169



HEN a diverse group of advocates first discussed the idea of localizing the monitoring and implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the general mood was one of excitement over the challenge such an undertaking posed and its important implications – tempered by the realization that this was a tall order, even for the most experienced development workers. Some well-meaning people said it could never be done, especially not in the places we were targeting: small, rural, resource-constrained towns. People in those places, whether in government or not, would be so busy surviving that they couldn’t possibly be interested in localizing a goal so far removed from their day-to-day concerns, its lofty promises notwithstanding. After a year and seeing how three towns in Bohol— Jagna, Tubigon and Bilar—have shown the way, one sees that there is really no better way of ensuring the success of the global campaign to push the MDGs by 2015, than by providing the means for the smallest community units to fulfill the basic goals to defeat poverty and improve the quality of life. The battle against poverty will not be won in the halls of the United Nations nor among the assemblies of heads of state or governments. None of their assessments will mean anything, as we approach 2015, unless it is clearly demonstrated that viable means have been found to: assess poverty conditions and needs at the local level, identify what can be done to reckon with those needs and gaps given the resources available, forge crucial partnerships among LGUs, NGOs, POs and other vital sectors in order to multiply the strengths and complement the efforts.

In three humble towns of Bohol, that demonstration took place last year, with the help and commitment of the European Union, the United Nations, Novib, La Aldea, the local NGOs Action for Economic Reforms, PROCESS-Bohol Inc., Social Watch Philippines, Global Call To Action Against Poverty, the provincial government of Bohol and the LGUs of Tubigon, Jagna and Bilar. That conditions varied across the towns covered by this endeavor, as well as their capacities and level of readiness for identifying indicators, target setting and processing information, made the project more challenging. That those disparities were surmounted by sheer political will demonstrates the power of partnerships all around. Above all, that this project was ever even completed shows the power of the idea and ideals that inspired the MDGs. Beyond the criticism that has been raised against this global campaign, the triumph of ordinary people in Bohol proves that the MDGs are neither lofty, unrealistic goals nor rhetoric meant to peddle false hopes. They have become, in Bohol’s experience, far more important than goals to be pursued or numbers to run after. The MDGs have been transformed into an exhilarating journey for people to participate in the development process, as they forge their own unique ways of fulfilling dreams of a better life. Our best hope, grand ambition though it may be, is to see Bohol’s experience replicated across the country.

FILOMENO S. ST A. ANA III STA. Coordinator Action for Economic Reforms (AER)

The Bohol Experience



Republic of the Philippines PROVINCE OF BOHOL City of Tagbilaran

Office of the Governor


N behalf of the Provincial Government and the people of Bohol, I extend my warmest greetings and deep gratitude to all our partners in this historic effort to free our people from the clutches of pover ty. Never in the Province’s histor y has there been an endeavor such as this. Today, we are drawing wide support both nationally and internationally as the whole Province seeks to march in step with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). After studying the situation in our localities and consulting with local stakeholders, we came up with the goals and strategies in line with the concerns of the MDGs. Indeed, our momentum has not let up from the time we started our concerted campaign to eradicate poverty. With the monitoring system set up, I am confident that the targets in the next five to 10 years will be achieved, if not, surpassed. I commend the towns of Jagna, Tubigon and Bilar for their dedication, cooperation and support for this project. The three pilot areas are meant to show the way for the rest of the municipalities in achieving the MDGs. Through information dissemination gathered from experience of the pilot municipalities, replication in other areas will be much easier. It is therefore fundamental to the success of our undertaking to be proficient in MDG monitoring, information management and status reporting. Only the right information can bring about relevant intervention. At the same time, let us always keep in mind


what is common as well as what is unique in many areas. That way, we get an appreciation of what is appropriate to the local context. Eventually, the levels of disparities in accomplishing the MDGs should be reduced. With the enthusiastic involvement of all stakeholders in what we have dubbed our “convergence strategy” against poverty, I am confident the Province of Bohol will never be counted again among the poorest provinces of the country. The “Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on the Millennium Development Goals (THE BOHOL EXPERIENCE)” contains reports on project implementation. It also contains the aspirations of Boholanos for a better life. I would like to thank the European Union (EU) for supporting this project and all who have put great effort in coming out with this publication : Action for Economic Reforms (AER), PROCESS-Bohol, Social Watch Philippines (SWP), La Aldea (Spain) and Novib (Netherlands). The Provincial Government is deeply committed to do all that is possible to attain the MDGs and finally free our people from the shackles of poverty. Indeed, the most effective way to achieve the MDGs is through the convergence strategy – counterparting with various stakeholders. February 1, 2006; Tagbilaran City.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


European Union


T is with great pride that the Delegation of the European Commission witnesses the publication of “Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on the Millennium Development Goals: The Bohol Experience”. Both the process and the results of this project, amply explained in this book, contribute significantly to the European Commission’s cooperation objectives. The MDGs as a framework for development is receiving increased attention in the European Union. The EU Development Policy Statement, which will guide development policies not only of the European Commission but of all European Union Member states in the following years, identifies poverty eradication in the context of sustainable development as the primary and overarching objective of EU development cooperation. The Millennium Development Goals are chosen to articulate the EU vision of development and poverty alleviation, hence their mainstreaming throughout EU development policy. This attention is not limited to Least Developed Countries: a large number of the world’s poor live in Middle-Income Countries such as the Philippines, and the EU has committed to continue to provide support to these countries. Attaining the Millennium Development Goals will happen only if these goals are internalized by all stakeholders of development. The MDGs need to be the concern of all citizens. Local governments are closest to the people and therefore most appropriate channels for raising awareness, monitoring progress, and implementing solutions for reaching the MDGs. Sev-

eral government agencies have promoted MDG localization, and many LGUs have risen to the challenge. However, data availability at a local level has always been a bottleneck for MDG monitoring and planning. It is to address this issue that this project has been undertaken. The municipalities of Jagna, Tubigon and Bilar, and of the Provincial Planning and Development Office, with support from our project partners AER, Process-Bohol and Social Watch, as well as La Aldea and Novib, have implemented a comprehensive municipal level monitoring system for MDGs, which draw on the strengths of these existing tools, as well as complementing them with others developed for this purpose. The result is an accurate measurement and mapping of MDG indicators in each municipality to a level of detail never attained before. Beyond appraising the level of attainment of each MDG in the locality, this system will greatly facilitate development planning and resource mobilization. In addition to the excellent technical output of the project, a meaningful advocacy campaign and international partnerships have complemented and enriched the initiative. This publication has succeeded in documenting this undertaking, for the benefit of any LGU willing to embark on localizing the MDGs. It marks the conclusion of one of the first undertakings of the Special Projects Facility (SPF) in the Philippines, but we are convinced this is only the beginning. Congratulations, and Mabuhay!

JAN DE KOK Ambassador and Head of Delegation

The Bohol Experience



United Nations


N the year 2000, world leaders, meeting at the dawn of the millennium, committed themselves to launch a concerted attack on poverty, illiteracy, hunger, unsafe water, disease and urban and environmental degradation by adopting a set of eight goals. Through the Millennium Declaration, 191 UN member-states, including the Philippines, committed to achieve a set of development goals and targets called the Millennium Development Goals or MDGs. Several Local Government Units and Nongovernment Organizations in the Philippines took this challenge and led a resolute response to contribute to the attainment of the eight goals in their own unique ways. This book mirrors this dynamic partnership of the local governments, civil society, and international donor community to ensure the integrated and systematic attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. The United Nations Systems in the Philippines congratulates the Province of Bohol for coming up with this book and toolkit on Local Monitoring System on the MDGs. We also commend the immense participation of civil society organizations – the Action for Economic Reforms, Social Watch Philippines,


Process-Bohol Inc., and La Aldea and the tremendous support of the European Union and Novib in this endeavor. This book will serve as a guide to other provinces and local governments as the country monitors, localizes and benchmarks progress on the goals with other localities. We hope that other provinces, cities and municipalities in the Philippines will be inspired by the insight and recommendations from this book and channel their efforts towards the progressive realization of the MDGs in their communities, where it matters the most. The Philippines stands today as one of the countries most determined and mobilized to attain the MDGs. With the continued support of Local Government Units in localizing the eight international commitments in their communities, the Millennium Development Goals is definitely within reach. Let us build on the gains and opportunities offered by continued and evolving partnership with local government to advance the Millennium Development Goals.

DR. ZAHIDUL HUQUE United Nations Resident Coordinator a.i

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


National Economic and Development Authority


wish to congratulate Bohol for being one of the first provinces to mobilize various sectors with strong determination and address the challenge of human disparities as embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The publication of this report and the series of consultations that went with it are evidence of the sincere desire and commitment of the Province to work for a better life for its constituents. The essence of localizing the MDGs is to build ownership and empower people to better articulate their local needs under the umbrella of an internationally agreed development agenda. Involving the local government, civil society organizations and donors provides a solid basis for sustainable dialogue and a broad-based ‘constituency of support’ for greater policy coherence, resource mobilization, and capacity building. This process of localization will respond to the inherent danger that even if the targets are

achieved, the inequalities within a nation across people and places would still persist. Building upon the successes of many localized sustainable development initiatives, the progress towards the MDGs will be determined first and foremost by progress at the local level. In this regard, local actors will need national and global support to develop and strengthen their capacities and generate resources in realizing the MDGs. Rest assured that the government is committed to support by helping create the enabling environment that would facilitate and strengthen all related efforts. We hope that this book will encourage other regions and provinces to operationalize the localization framework for an MDG-responsive local government unit. Let us all make MDGs a reality and poverty history! Together we can make a difference!

Director ERLINDA M. CAPONES National Economic and Development Authority

The Bohol Experience


The Millennium Development Goals In September 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration, which affirms commitments towards reducing poverty and the worst forms of human deprivation. The declaration was translated into the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be achieved by 2015. In March 2005, the Provincial Government of Bohol and the pilot Municipalities of Tubigon, Bilar and Jagna embarked on a Local Monitoring System to keep track of the progress towards achieving the MDGs at the local level. This MDG Marker symbolizes its commitment to pursue the MDGs. • • • • • • • •

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development

Local Monitoring System on the MDGs

A Project Supported by the European Union

2005 WORLD SUMMIT OUTCOME1 Highlights of the Outcome Document


HE world’s leaders meeting in the World Summit at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 14 to 16 September 2005, agreed to take action on a range of global challenges. They reaffirmed the United Nations Millennium Declaration which was adopted five years earlier during the Millennium Summit in September 2000. The World Summit resolved to create a more peaceful, prosperous and democratic world and to undertake concrete measures to continue finding ways to implement the outcome of the Millennium Summit and the other major United Nations conferences and summits so as to provide multilateral solutions to problems in the areas of development, peace and collective security, human rights and the rule of law and strengthening of the United Nations. The world’s leaders expressed strong and unambiguous commitment to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Representatives of developing countries agreed to adopt national plans by 2006 for achieving the MDGs. Following are the major commitments agreed upon in the area of development:

On poverty, rural development and employment • Strong commitment to eradicate poverty and promote sustained economic growth, sustainable development and global prosperity for all. • Agreement to promote the development of the productive sectors in developing countries to enable them to participate more effectively in and benefit from the process of globalization. • Provision of immediate support for country-led quick-impact initiatives that promise durable improvements in the lives of people and renewed hope for the achievement of the development goals. • Reaffirming the urgency of addressing food security and rural and agricultural development as an integral part of national and international development policies. • Commitment to increase support to and productive investment in rural and agricultural development to achieve food security and increase support. • Commitment to support the goals of full and productive employment and decent work for all, in1

Adopted by the World Summit held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 14 to 16 September 2005

The Bohol Experience


cluding for women and young people; the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and forced labor; and full respect for the fundamental principles and rights at work. • Reaffirming respect for and protection of the human rights of migrants, migrant workers and members of their families; and the need to adopt policies and undertake measures to reduce the cost of transferring remittances to developing countries.

Education • Recognition of the critical role of both formal and informal education in the achievement of poverty eradication and other development goals. • Commitment to support developing country efforts to ensure free and compulsory access to primary education, eradicate illiteracy, eliminate gender inequality and renew efforts to improve girls’ education. • Elimination of user fees for primary education. • Reaffirmation of the Dakar Framework for Action and continuing support to the implementation of the Education for All (EFA) initiative, including enhanced resources for the EFA fast-track initiative.

• Commitment to promote education for peace and human development.

Gender equality and empowerment of women • Eliminating gender inequalities in primary and secondary education by the earliest possible date and at all educational levels by 2015. • Guaranteeing the equal rights of women to own and inherit property, ensuring housing security and equal access to productive assets and resources, including land, credit and technology. • Promoting women’s equal access to labor markets, sustainable employment and adequate labor protection. • Ensuring equal access to reproductive health. ·• Eliminating all forms of discrimination and violence against women and the girl child, by, among others, ending impunity and by ensuring protection during and after armed conflicts. • Continuing efforts to eradicate policies and practices that discriminate against women and adoption of laws and promotion of practices for the protection of women’s rights and promotion of gender equality. • Special attention to the human rights of women and children, ensuring that gender and child-protec-

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER Target 1: Halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty between 1990 and 2015 Target 2: Halve the proportion of population below the minimum level of dietary energy consumption and halve the proportion of underweight children (under five years old) GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Target 3: Achieve universal access to primary education by 2015


GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education not later than 2015

GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY Target 5: Reduce children under-five mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015

GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Target 6: Reduce maternal mortality rate by threequarters by 2015 (half by 2000, half by 2015) Target 7: Increase access to reproductive health (RH) services to 60 percent by 2005, 80 percent by 2010 and 100 percent by 2015

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

tion perspectives are brought into the human rights agenda. • Promoting increased representation of women in government decision-making bodies and ensuring equal opportunity to participate fully in the political process. • Active promotion of the mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and social spheres.

Sustainable development

• Scaling up of responses to HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria, through prevention, care, treatment and support. • Commitment to fight infectious diseases, including a commitment to ensure full implementation of the new International Health Regulations and support for the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network of the World Health Organization. • Achieving universal access to reproductive health by 2015 and integrating this in strategies to reduce maternal mortality, improve maternal health, reduce child mortality, promote gender equality, combat HIV/AIDS and eradicate poverty.

• Promotion of the integration of the three components of sustainable development – economic development, social development and environmental protection – as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars. • Promotion of sustainable consumption and production patterns and support for developing countries in their efforts to promote a recycling economy. • Accelerated development and dissemination of affordable and cleaner energy efficiency and energy conservation technologies and transfer of such technologies to developing countries on favorable, concessional and preferential terms. • Support to the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to significantly reduce the rate of loss of biodiversity by 2010. • Strengthening the conservation, sustainable management and development of all types of forests including through enhanced international cooperation • Promotion of the sound management of chemicals and hazardous waste using transparent and science-based risk assessment and support for de-



Target 8: Halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 Target 9: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases by 2015

Target 13: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable non-discriminatory trading and financial system; include a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction — both nationally and internationally Target 14: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debts sustainable in the long term Target 15: Provide access to affordable essential drugs, in cooperation with pharmaceutical companies

International health

GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Target 10: Implement national strategies for sustainable development by 2005, to reverse loss of environmental resources by 2015 Target 11: Halve the proportion of people with no access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, or those who cannot afford it, by 2015 Target 12: Achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020

The Bohol Experience


veloping countries in capacity-building for the sound management of chemicals and hazardous waste. • Addressing issues related to oceans and seas in an integrated manner and promotion of integrated management and sustainable development of the oceans and seas. • Establishment of a worldwide early warning system for all natural hazards with regional modes of assistance for developing countries prone to natural disasters. • Recognition of the urgent need for the provision of increased resources for affordable housing and housing-related infrastructure to slum dwellers. • Assistance to efforts of developing countries to prepare integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans to provide access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

Humanitarian assistance • Improved Central Emergency Revolving Fund to ensure that relief arrives reliably and immediately when disasters happen. • Recognition of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement as an important international framework for the protection of internally displaced persons.


On governance • Prioritization of the fight against corruption at all levels and adoption of policies that emphasize accountability, transparent public sector management and corporate responsibility and accountability, including efforts to return assets transferred through corruption, consistent with the UN Convention Against Corruption.

Global partnership for development • Additional $50 billion a year in development assistance by 2010 to fight poverty. • Innovating financing for development, including efforts by groups of countries to implement International Finance Facility to finance development projects, in particular in the health sector. • Considering additional measures to ensure longterm debt sustainability through increased grant-based financing, cancellation of 100 percent of the official multilateral and bilateral debt of heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs). Where appropriate, consider significant debt relief or restructuring for low-and middleincome developing countries with unsustainable debt burdens. • Commitment to trade liberalization and expeditious work towards implementing the development dimensions of the Doha work programme.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Three Bohol Town Mayors on Localized Monitoring of MDGs By JONATHAN L. MAYUGA


OCAL government officials of Tubigon, Bilar and Jagna in the province of Bohol are now more confident of alleviating poverty in their respective towns. Mayor Paulo Lasco of Tubigon, Mayor Fanuelo Cadelina of Bilar and Mayor Exuperio Lloren of Jagna said they are now more “enlightened” about the needs of the people with the localized monitoring of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in their towns. In Tubigon, Mayor Lasco said anti-poverty campaigns carried out under his administration over the past few years have been strengthened by the program, with the identification of specific problems in target areas. Six months after implementation, local officials were able to identify the gaps in their poverty-alleviation programs that can finally help eradicate poverty in 2015. Lasco also said that from the rank of No. 7 poorest town in Bohol, Tubigon is now making headway and is confident of being dropped from the list of the 20 poorest towns in the province.

Mayor Paulo Lasco

Mayor Fanuelo Cadelina

According to the mayor, the program allows local government officials to determine what they are supposed to do to improve the lives of their constituents, and how to do it. “When some of my department heads are sleeping on the job, I will know because we are setting our targets. From there, I will also know if my administration is meeting the expectations of the people,” he said. According to him, the Municipal Council is very supportive and in fact is now getting directions from the local MDG targets set up by the Municipal Planning Office of Tubigon, which identifies programs of utmost importance. “All I have to do is make sure they are implemented,” he said. According to Lasco, adopting a similar program will greatly help other towns in Bohol to improve the living conditions of their constituents. For his part, Mayor Cadelina said while they know that poverty is embedded in the entire town of Bilar, local officials do not know which programs should be implemented.

Jonathan L. Mayuga is a freelance writer and journalist. He started as a campus journalist writing for the DAWN, the official student newspaper of the University of the East and became its editor-in-chief in 1995. Presently, he is a correspondent of Business Mirror.

The Bohol Experience


Mayor Exuperio Lloren

He said through the program, they were able to determine the town’s capacity for financing programs that will help solve problems of people in specific communities. “We are now more knowledgeable of our capacity and with our limited resources, we can pour funds where they are needed most, based on the study conducted by our partners,” he said. The mayor also said that through the program, they are able to identify possible partners, both local and international, to carry out programs that would best help address problems confronting every sector. “In our town, through the program, we were able to determine that health care needs immediate attention, that’s why our targets put health care as our priority this year. By 2015, we must be able to hit our targets on health care,” he said. According to him, other municipalities should take advantage of any offer to implement the program. “It offers local officials a great advantage in local governance,” he said. Under the program, surveys are conducted in every barangay, targeting every household and knowing about the people living in the community. “It’s the people themselves who provide the important information we need to identify the problems,” he said.


Mayor Exuperio Lloren, on the other hand, has said the “Local Monitoring of MDGs” project concretized Jagna government’s development plan and strategies to improve the living conditions of coastal populations. The Sangguniang Bayan of Jagna has passed a resolution integrating the targets under the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) into the 10-year Municipal Development Plan of Jagna. Lloren said that after three months of data gathering, surveys and interviews in the barangays, problems confronting the people such as poverty, unemployment, health, education, child mortality, gender equality, maternal health care, and access to safe, drinking water of Jagna have been identified more clearly, providing them necessary inputs on how to improve local governance. “The study helped a lot in identifying development issues and concerns. With the local monitoring of MDGs, we were able to set up our own goals and are now starting to work to achieve these goals,” he said. Lloren said a special task force composed of representatives from concerned departments and offices such as health, education, social service, urban and rural poor, women and children was created to effectively monitor the progress of the MDGs. “I am confident that through the project, local government units will be able to better understand the problems of the people and come up with an effective strategy which programs can be based to address them,” he said. He said he has ordered the department chiefs and heads of offices in Jagna to come up with strategies to address development issues in order to achieve their respective MDG targets for Jagna. The towns of Jagna, Tubigon and Bilar were chosen as pilot areas of the program which started in July last year. The MDGs is a set of goals that the leaders of the world attending the United Nations (UN) Special Assembly in year 2000, promised to achieve by the end of 2015 in order to eradicate poverty.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Project Partners on the Local MDG Monitoring System Project By JONATHAN L. MAYUGA


respective municipalities, despite their scarce resources O effectively fight poverty, Local Government and limited budget. Units (LGUs) must be armed with a tool for This enabled local officials to map out viable prodescribing, pinpointing and diagnosing povgrams of action including community-based projects erty. This is how nongovernment organizations that will have direct impact on the targeted communi(NGOs) describe the Localized MDG Monitoring ties. System. The MDG is a set of eight goals leaders of “Using this monitoring tool, they can set up goals United Nations member-countries promised to achieve and target specific problems from communities down to eradicate poverty by 2015. to the households. Local officials can easily know The MDG Local Monitoring Project is a coopwhether they are on the right track in responsibly aneration project between LGUs and NGOs which inswering to the needs of their constituents,” Raya said. cluded the Action for Economic Reforms (AER), “Even with their limited budget, local officials can PROCESS-Bohol Inc., Social Watch Philippines and do so much because they are more aware of the probGlobal Call to Action against Poverty (GCAP Phillems of the people and what ippines). problems need the utmost atAfter pilot-testing the “It is really empowering LGUs. tention,” he said. project in the towns of Jagna, “The situation varies from Bilar and Tubigon in the prov- The local monitoring system was enhanced and, with the intervention of the people one local area to another. ince of Bohol, the LGUs and their partner NGOs are conworking under the project, the data which There is no single prescription to the MDG localization provinced that the province is in a local officials use in providing basic social cess. The approach to monibetter position to eradicate exservices were corrected.” toring may also vary. There is treme poverty and attain susno single road map to 2015,” tainable human development in Raya added. the province. For her part, Emmie Roslinda of PROCESSFilomeno Sta. Ana III, the coordinator of AER, Bohol, said the Localized MDG Monitoring System said the monitoring system helps local officials to set also helps officials in prioritizing development projects up their own goals and make a timetable. From such because the problems identified are based on housetimetable, local officials will be able to measure the hold surveys conducted by the project implementers. level of success of programs that are geared towards PROCESS-Bohol is a local partner of AER in the sustainable human development. monitoring project. The former has numerous projects He said local officials will be able to identify availand extensive network throughout the province and able resources and determine what programs need has substantial experience in resource management, further outsourcing and financial as well as technical reproductive health, rural development and other sosupport from the national government or foreign ficial development programs. nancial institutions. AER is an independent, reform“It is really empowering LGUs. The local monioriented public interest organization that conducts toring system was enhanced and, with the intervenpolicy analysis and advocacy on key economic and tion of the people working under the project, the data development issues. It was formed in 1996 by a group which local officials use in providing basic social serof progressive or activist scholars. vices were corrected,” she said. Rene Raya, the project coordinator, also from She said local officials were able to better underAER, said based on their experience in implementing stand the problems of the people who, on the other the Local MDG Monitoring System, local officials were hand, became more aware and learned to appreciate able to systematically identify specific problems and what their local officials are doing for them. development issues confronting the people in their The Bohol Experience


“Officials have a sense of direction in governance with this monitoring tool. They will be more effective as public servants,” she said. According to Roslinda, poverty can be seriously addressed in Bohol with the Localized MDG Monitoring System guiding the local officials of the province’s 47 municipalities and Tagbilaran, the only city in Bohol. Isagani Serrano of the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM), who represented Social Watch Philippines, another project partner in implementing the Bohol project, said it is a unique monitoring tool that can help solve the poverty problem of poor countries like the Philippines. From the start, he said he knew Bohol, which is one of the poorest provinces in the Visayas, has what it takes – rich natural resources, attractive ecotourism possibilities – to achieve poverty reduction and other development targets, if only the people will learn to preserve its natural environment. “I hope Bohol will make good at meeting its own obligations in the MDGs. It’s not far behind, to begin with. In the Social Watch classification by Quality of Life it ranks 22nd.” A member of Social Watch, an international network that monitors commitments of governments to global development agenda, Social Watch Philippines was formed in 1997 and has been involved in advocacy, awareness-building, monitoring and networking. It is a partner of the United Nations Development Programme in promoting the MDGs and in monitoring progress in social development. Alessandro Iellamo, Board Member and Liaison person of the Spanish NGO, La Aldea, on the other hand, appreciated “the high level of participation and commitment from each LGU involved as well the ca-


pacity of the local NGOs to dialogue and interact with them”. Although the lead local NGO, PROCESS, had some difficulties in engaging with the partner LGUs, he observed how its staff successfully won them over to support the project, “accompanied and interacted with them in the whole development process through very effective and consistent dialogue…” He said he witnessed “a real transformation of relationship in terms of how NGOs and LGUs could actually partner not just in terms of “nominal” activities, but also in terms of building a synergy to achieve the set objectives and set results”. “Development in this project was not limited to enabling the three LGUs to use new technology but mainly to trigger a process where local NGOs, agencies and other groups actively involved with the LGUs in crafting their development plans,” Iellomo said. La Aldea is a Spanish organization with main office in Plasencia, Cajeres, Spain. It works for the protection and development of children, their families and communities towards improving the quality of life of the children, especially those in difficult circumstances, through advocacy, emergency response for children, socio cultural development of children and families and economic development. Its members have extensive experience in local governance and social development and are senior officials of local government agencies in Spain. Its main office is in Plasencia, Cajeres Spain. The project partners all expressed their hope that the Localized MDG Monitoring System will be adopted by other Bohol towns, including its lone city, Tagbilaran, where the program’s launching was held, to help the province to finally take off.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The European Union in the Philippines Development Co-operation


HE principles for the European Union’s cooperation policy for developing countries are outlined in the constitutional framework of the European Union since the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The following are the principles: • Supporting the sustainable economic and social development of the developing countries; • Fostering the smooth and gradual integration of developing countries into the world economy; • Eradicating poverty in the developing world; and, • Upholding the development and consolidation of democracy, rule of law, and respect of human rights in developing countries. The European Union is a major player in the development sphere. It is the source of approximately half of the public aid efforts worldwide and is the main trading partner for many developing countries. Development assistance to third countries is one of the three central components of the EU’s external action, alongside trade policy and political dialogue. The European Union’s support to the Philippines’ development process started in 1976 when, for the first time, funds were committed to co-finance NGO grassroots development actions in the country. However, long-term and structured development co-operation only started in 1986, with the Aquino Administration’s commitment to democratic development. Development co-operation in the Philippines focused from the outset on combating poverty and raising standards of living of the population in the poor and remote areas of the country. This has remained the focus for many years, consistent with the government’s Social Reform Agenda of 1993. But it has since progressively included other social development issues including environment protection, microfinance, access to health and education, gender issues and the promotion of human rights and democratic principles.

The Delegation of the European Commission to the Philippines Like its 128 Delegations and Offices all over the world, the Manila Delegation is a fully-fledged diplomatic mission and has the task to officially represent

the European Commission in the country. It plays an essential part in its political, economic and commercial relations with the country and provides information on the policies and institutions of the European Union. It also plays a critical role in supervising the implementation of the EU co-operation programmes in the Philippines, a role that is increasing following the deconcentration of co-operation activities from the Headquarters to Delegations foreseen in the reform of the management of the EC’s external relations assistance. The Delegation deals closely with the diplomatic missions of the EU Member States and acts as focal point for cultural activities and an information hub for various issues involving the Philippines and the European Union and the European Commission. The Delegation was officially opened in May 1991 following the influx of official development assistance after democracy was restored under the Aquino Administration in 1986. It covers the following sections: Contracts and Finance, Operations, Economic/Political/Trade and Public Affairs and Administration. Although it has a status of a diplomatic mission, it does not deal with the tasks of a consular nature and instead functions as an official channel for bilateral relations.

RP and EU Relations The relationship between the European Union and the Republic of the Philippines has deepened in recent years marked by the growing political, economic, scientific, education and cultural linkages. These strengthened relations have been reflected in increased contacts at the highest level in the 1990s. Political dialogues between Europe and Asia through the establishment of such forums as the ASEM and ASEAN Ministerial gatherings also intensified. Bilateral dialogues have also strengthened between the European Commission and countries in the Asian region, taking into account the diversities among nations. The European Commission and Philippines’ senior officials have, since 1997, engaged in periodic reviews of political, economic and co-operation issues in the framework of the Senior Official Meetings. Another showcase of the deepening relationship between the European Union and the Philippines is the Country Strategy Paper (CSP) which outlined broad priorities for future co-operation between the The Bohol Experience


Philippines and the European Commission. On 10 August 2004, the Delegation of the European Commission to the Philippines and the Department of Foreign Affairs signed a memorandum of agreement providing for the National Indicative Programmes covering the periods 2002/2004 and 2005/2006 which are the practical translation of the CSP and which outline the objectives and priority fields for co-operation. The Programmes take into account the Philippine Government’s policy agenda and the political and socio-economic context as set out in the Mid-Term Philippine Development Plan. The programmes focus on the following: • Assistance to the Poorest Sectors of Society – This in particular supports the Health Sector Reform Agenda with a health sector programme and considers contributing to the Multi Donor Trust Fund for Mindanao Reconstruction and Development in supporting the peace process in Southern Philippines; • Assistance to Trade and Investment – This aims to facilitate the integration of the Philippines in the global economy, comprising trade sector policy formulation and institutional reform; and the Small Projects Facility, a demand-driven instrument to work with civil society. • Good Governance – As a cross-cutting issue, this is viewed to support initiatives for better access to justice for the poor and vulnerable groups, to fight against corruption and to assist the Government in improving security and combating terrorism. From the period 2002 to 2004, an allocation of • 18 million is set aside for the following: assistance on trade and investment – • 3.4 million; small projects facility – • 3 million; prevention and fight against corruption and better access to justice for the poor and vulnerable groups – • 5.6 million and security and fight against terrorism – • 6 million. From 2005 to 2006 – an allocation of • 45 million is set aside for assistance to the poorest sector of society – • 33 million and Mindanao Reconstruction and Development – MultiDonors Trust Fund – • 12 million.

Enlarged European Union and the Philippines The European Union now counts 25 Member States with the accession of 10 more countries – Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia – on 1 May 2004. For the Philippines, enlargement of the European Union means that the EU will remain an open market and will have become bigger and offer more opportunities. The Philippines will benefit from a lower


common customs tariff in the new Member States, since the average weighted industrial tariffs of the accession countries were higher than the 3.6% average of the EU–15. With accession, the new Member States lost their transition economy status and became part of the Common Customs Union. As a result they have to offer preferential tariffs to third countries in line with the EU GSP scheme. This means, again generally lower duties for Philippine exporters in the enlarged EU. On the other hand, challenges remain for both the European Union and the Philippines to focus on issues of common concern such as good governance and economic reforms in inter-regional cooperation forums. There is also a need for the EU and the Philippines to step up efforts in providing for more trade opportunities, larger market access of products beneficial to both.

Economic Co-operation The European Union’s economic co-operation activities in the Philippines started in 1986 through trade promotion projects intended to help strengthen Philippine export capabilities by transferring knowhow to public support services and to private economic operators. Support was provided for the conduct of market studies, product design, training for technicians and other support services along the areas of production, organization and marketing. Integrated European technical assistance was provided to export sectors such as leather goods, household linens, fashion accessories, handmade paper products, ceramics, woodenware, tourism promotion and marble. A new approach to economic co-operation with Asia was adopted in February 1992 through a Council Regulation which emphasized, among others the following tenets: • That economic co-operation should advance mutual interests of the EU and its partner countries; • That the private sector has an important role in co-operation activities. Most of the economic co-operation projects financed in the Philippines by the EU since 1992, through both bilateral and regional co-operation, reflect this change of approach. They also reflect the choice of EU to increasingly organize its economic co-operation activities under a regional co-operation framework (ASEAN or Asia). The regional set-up has the advantage of allowing more resources to be committed, because of economies of scale. Furthermore, it guarantees a more efficient approach to sectoral, as well as legal and regulatory issues and contributes to regional integration and exchange of experiences among Asian countries.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Bohol Experience


The Project Experience By RENE R. RAYA


HE Philippines has made some progress in meeting the MDG targets, yet there remains a wide disparity in accomplishment across regions and provinces. The poorest among them will more likely miss most of the targets set for 2015 unless positive intervention is done. In particular, Bohol faces serious development constraints due to widespread poverty, limited livelihood opportunities and physical vulnerabilities. Yet, it is one province where government and people are determined to address poverty on a comprehensive and sustained basis. The MDGs offer significant opportunities to develop a realistic approach to addressing poverty-related concerns. The realization of these goals can be boosted by local initiatives and processes designed to promote awareness, strengthen advocacy and effectively monitor development trends and performance. The ability to operationalize the millennium goals requires localization to facilitate monitoring, planning, resource mobilization and program implementation given the local situation.

It is within this context that this project Local Monitoring System on the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) was designed and implemented. The project, supported by the European Union (EU) and Novib (Oxfam, Netherlands) is a joint undertaking of the Province of Bohol and the municipal governments of Tubigon, Bilar and Jagna and implemented in cooperation with nongovernment organizations Action for Economic Reforms (AER), PROCESS-Bohol, Inc., Social Watch Philippines (SWP), La Aldea (A Spanish NGO) and the Global Call to Action against Poverty (GCAP). The project’s goal is to improve LGUs’ capacity for MDG monitoring and localization and thus, contribute to meeting MDG targets by 2015. The project entails policy setting, capacity building, monitoring design, MDG database building, MDG status reporting and partnership building. The project took 12 months to complete — from March 16, 2005 to March 15, 2006. It was officially launched on April 22, 2005 in a forum keynoted by

Rene R. Raya is a member of the Management Collective of the Action for Economic Reforms (AER), Co-Convenor of Social Watch Philippines and member of the Board of Directors of the Center for Migrant Advocacy (CMA).


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Bohol Governor Erico B. Aumentado and First District Representative Edgar Chatto. Immediately after the launch, the Project Management Team, together with the representatives of the three pilot municipalities, convened to work out the details of project implementation. The monitoring project is a joint cooperation between NGO partners and the local government units (LGUs) of Tubigon, Bilar and Jagna. AER and PROCESS-Bohol served as the main project implementers, initiating and coordinating the different activities in consultation with the LGU and NGO partners. PROCESS-Bohol, in particular, facilitated the cooperation with the Provincial Government, the Municipal LGUs and the local NGOs. Social Watch provided key inputs during the training and campaign activities, shared its monitoring technology and facilitated the links with national agencies, the United Nations and other international partners. The Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) supported the information and mobilization activities in Bohol during the globally-coordinated “White Band� days. The Spanish NGO, La Aldea, assisted in project management and facilitated the international partnership component of the project. Overall, the partnership has been fruitful, with all partners contributing time, experience and expertise to the project.

Setting the policy framework One of the first things that was done in connection with this project is to get the commitment and support of the LGUs in the three pilot municipalities. As it turned out, the process was not a routine exercise, especially because there is very little knowledge about the MDG at the local level. Some explanations were needed to orient the Municipal Mayors on the MDG and the importance of monitoring to ensure that there is progress and that interventions are working as designed to meet the desired targets. The project team also stressed that the MDG is a global initiative designed to collectively address poverty in a decisive way. Given this explanation, it was not difficult for the LGUs to appreciate the value of the project since poverty eradication has been a priority concern of the province and municipalities within. In general, the mayors and other town officials were enthusiastic about the selection of their municipalities as pilot sites for this project. They immediately realized that the project could help firm up their respective development agenda and concretize their poverty reduction programs. All expressed willingness

to partner with civil society groups. The fact that there are existing cooperative undertakings with local NGOs certainly helped in accepting LGU-NGO partnership on the MDGs. The strong endorsement and active support of the Governor and the Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO) certainly helped in getting the cooperation of the LGUs in the pilot municipalities. Letters of commitment were signed by the local chief executives, indicating their willingness to participate in the monitoring project. Subsequently, Executive Orders were issued by the mayors, formalizing their participation in the MDG monitoring project and creating the Technical Working Groups (TWGs) that will work on the project. The TWG is an interagency committee tasked to coordinate the implementation of the monitoring activities in the municipality. It is composed mostly of senior staff from the different municipal agencies and included a representative from the NGOs. The TWGs varied in composition in terms of agency affiliation, age, gender and experience. They served as the MDG teams in the respective municipalities, attending to the project activities and coordinating with all concerned agencies for the implementation. The situation of the pilot municipalities varies. Bilar is a predominantly rural upland municipality with the highest poverty incidence among the three pilot areas at over 50 percent. Tubigon and Jagna are both coastal municipalities with lower poverty levels. Tubigon has extensive experience in development planning and monitoring with a well-established poverty database. Bilar has some experience in poverty monitoring, having started the Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) survey. Jagna has yet to implement the LPRAP survey but has already formulated the Comprehensive Municipal Development Plan, using available data from local and national agencies. The varied situations and experiences actually helped the project in fine-tuning the MDG monitoring system and ensuring its applicability under varied conditions.

Capacity building – the training course on MDG monitoring and localization A key component of the project is the training course on MDG monitoring and localization which is designed to improve local capacities to plan and operationalize the MDGs, monitor its progress and report on its status in the local areas. The training course consists of three basic modules: 1) Basic OriThe Bohol Experience


entation on the MDGs: Contextualization and Localization; 2) Tools for MDG Monitoring, Localization and Advocacy; and 3) Participatory MDG Reporting. A fourth complementary training focused on the monitoring software packages which were developed in the course of the project. The packages include the open source Geographic Information System (GIS), the customized DevInfo and the open source MDG Planning Matrix. Participants to the training course are the TWG members in the three municipalities, representatives from the provincial government and representatives from local NGOs active in development work in the province. Specifically, these are development planners, poverty action officers, information staff, social welfare officers, health officers, education officers and resource managers. Among the NGOs, participants are those involved in work for children, health, women, environment and livelihood. Around 30 participants attended each of the training sessions with most of them completing the three basic modules. The training course was implemented over four months with each module taking three days to complete. The course was intentionally spaced to allow participants to consult their constituencies and to refine the output of the training. The training facilitated the input of and interaction with invited resource persons from national agencies (the National Economic and Development Authority or NEDA, the National Statistical Coordinating Board or NSCB and the Department of Interior and Local Government or DILG); from the UN Family (UNDP and UNICEF); from a resource city with MDG localization experience (Calbayog City); and from NGOs involved in poverty monitoring (Community-Based Monitoring System or CBMS Network) and open source information technology (Institute of Popular Democracy or IPD). Resource persons on gender and on the environment were also invited to provide inputs critical to a better appreciation and monitoring of the MDG targets on women empowerment and environmental sustainability. The participation of resource persons from various agencies and organizations was an important value-added of the project as it brought together key people directly involved in mainstreaming, monitoring and promoting the MDGs. The resource persons


shared experiences, technical expertise and new techniques which proved to be valuable to the training participants, particularly in setting the monitoring framework, in identifying indicators and in developing strategies and methodologies for monitoring. The training course was not simply a learning exercise. It was designed to produce concrete outputs that would feed into the succeeding phases of project implementation. Throughout the course, there were productive interactions between the local government and NGO participants. The exchanges were instrumental in strengthening partnerships for this project. Finally, a note on the gender dimension. The

project plan specified at least 30 percent women participants in the training. This was overshot, with more women attending the trainings. Even during the highly technical training on the Geographic Information System and other application software, almost half of the participants were women. They were active in the discussions, the workshop groups and in reporting. Most of the resource persons invited to the training sessions were women.

Designing the MDG monitoring system A key output of the training course was the design and development of the local monitoring system on the MDGs. In a series of workshops, the pilot municipalities formulated the framework and objectives based on the local situation, needs and capacity. The agreed goal of the monitoring system is to effectively address poverty and improve the people’s well-being

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Per Goal

and quality of life. It is designed to keep track of progress made in meeting the MDGs based on a set of indicators appropriate to the local setting. The monitoring system also provides valuable input to planning and serves as a mechanism for evaluating the effectiveness of development programs in terms of their impact on poverty and people’s well-being. Finally, the system is designed to improve services and facilitate better governance. The first step in designing the local monitoring system was to identify a set of indicators per goal that are appropriate, measurable and sensitive to the local context. After the indicators have been selected, baseline figures are established to determine the status of the specific municipality or local area at the start of the planning cycle. Targets are then set for 2010 and 2015 based on current realities and the capacity of the local areas to address each goal. Once the targets are set, development programs and projects are determined to ensure that the targets set will be met within the given timeframe. Finally, the cost of such programs and projects is computed to estimate the resources needed to reach their targets. Local stakeholders and resource persons were consulted for comments and to validate the proposed indicators, baseline figures and targets. NGOs were also consulted to ensure that their concerns are incorporated in the monitoring system. There were still weaknesses identified in the monitoring system, specifically concerning appropriate indicators on gender (goal 3) and environment (goal 7). Specialists were consulted and deepening sessions were held to assist the TWGs in firming up the indicators and targets on these two concerns. Concretely, these efforts helped in strengthening the gender dimension in the monitoring system. In so far as goal 3 is concerned, the resolution was to ensure gender disaggregation for all data collected and to add relevant indicators on domestic violence, women’s participation in community affairs and local

governance, women’s contribution to household income and reproductive health. For goal 7, the resolution was to include appropriate indicators on waste disposal, usage of solid fuel, forest cover and water access and quality. The finalization of the monitoring system, specifically the list of MDG indicators adopted, was done in coordination with national agencies and the provincial government to ensure standardization and harmonization of initiatives. Coordination with national agencies was also done to work out the interoperability of the different software packages used in poverty and MDG monitoring, and ensure data exchange and sharing among agencies. Along this line, the project team promoted the use of free and open source software to facilitate data sharing and replication of the monitoring system by other local governments and NGOs. The final list of MDG indicators, along with the technical definition and the features of the software packages, are presented in Annex 2 of the book.

Building the MDG database With the indicators finalized, the research design and instruments were developed to generate the baseline figures and build the MDG database. The MDG monitoring system built on the LPRAP which generates data for 12 key indicators. To complement this, the research generated data for the rest of the identified indicators as listed in Annex 2. Additional information was sourced from both primary and secondary sources – through the MDG household survey and from available administrative data culled from local offices and agencies. Thus, the MDG database was generated from the existing LPRAP data, from available agency data and data generated from the MDG household survey. In addition, relevant provincial and municipal data extracted from the national census and official surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO) were also integrated in the MDG database. The Bohol Experience


matic maps of the MDG indicators. The advantage of an integrated database is that all data are contained in one system for easy retrieval, trending and comparison with both national and sub national levels. Moreover, the use of the software places the local user in the global MDG database which facilitates comparison of performance with other countries and local areas around the world.

As mentioned, the Municipality of Tubigon had already completed its LPRAP survey when the project started while Bilar had substantially implemented the LPRAP survey but still needed to validate the results. On the other hand, the Municipality of Jagna had yet to implement the LPRAP survey. Thus, Jagna was the first to conduct the field survey, using the standard LPRAP questionnaire and its own supplementary questionnaire that contains the additional MDG indicators and other information needed to establish the comprehensive baseline database of the municipality. Jagna benefited from the experiences of the other towns that had previously conducted the LPRAP survey and from the trainings conducted as part of this project. The household survey covering the 33 barangays of Jagna was conducted from July to September 2005 after the training of some 50 enumerators. Data gathering from local offices and agencies was done in October 2005 in all three municipalities. The MDG household survey in Tubigon and Bilar was conducted in November 2005 and took almost four weeks to complete, including the encoding and data processing. All available data from the LPRAP and MDG household surveys , local agencies and national agencies were compiled into an integrated MDG database using the DevInfo software developed by UNICEF as the global database system for the MDGs. The DevInfo software was customized for the province and the three pilot municipalities. The variant developed for the province was referred to as BoholInfo. The customized software for the pilot areas also bears distinct names associated with the municipalities. The software can generate tables, graphs and the-


Finally, the MDG Planning software designed and developed by the Action for Economic Reforms (AER) as part of this project, assists local governments and NGOs in formulating local MDG plans guided by corresponding baseline figures and targets at the national and subnational levels. The software also presents a gallery of best practices on different development concerns culled from actual projects and experiences of government, NGOs and the private sector.

Preparing the MDG reports A key output of this project is the MDG Report prepared by each of the pilot municipalities. With the integrated MDG database at hand, it became much easier for the local areas to prepare their respective

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

MDG reports which present the current status, the trends and the plans for meeting the MDG targets. In September 2005, the three municipalities and the province presented their respective Preliminary MDG Reports based on the initial and still incomplete MDG database. The reports were subjected to peer and panel critiquing to identify gaps and areas for improvement. The same reports were also presented in a public forum attended by over 300 leaders and representatives of various NGOs and people’s organizations including farmers, fisherfolk, students and youth, women, professionals and church-based groups. Representatives from the church, the youth, women, professionals and NGOs gave their reactions to the reports. This was followed by an open forum, highlighted by questions raised by the participants on relevant economic, social and governance issues. The forum was a good moment for sharing and interaction between the local government, civil society organizations and community representatives on the MDGs. The preliminary reports were, subsequently, shared with national agencies (NEDA, DILG, NSCB and NAPC) and the UN family (UNDP, UNICEF and UN Habitat). Upon completion of the MDG household survey by the end of November, the final MDG Reports were prepared by the respective Technical Working Groups and presented at the Bohol Conference on Local Monitoring System on the MDGs in December. The Conference was organized to also present the project experience and encourage its replication in the other municipalities of Bohol. The event was attended by the mayors and representatives of the other municipalities in the Province of Bohol. A panel of reactors representing civil society organizations, the Provincial Government of Bohol and the NEDA commented on the reports and gave their suggestions on how to improve the reports. These comments were considered and integrated in the final report submitted for this publication. Initial action has been done to integrate the MDG Reports into the Municipal Development Plan and the Annual Investment Program of the three pilot areas. The reports will also be used to firm up the strategies for poverty reduction and for charting the long-term development path of the respective municipalities.

LGU-NGO partnership on the MDG From the very start, it was made clear that NGOs will be an active partner of the local government in the MDG monitoring project. Through PROCESS-

Bohol, NGOs were involved even in the conceptualization of the project. Local NGOs were included as members of the Technical Working Groups (TWGs) set up in the three pilot municipalities. NGO personnel also participated in all the training courses, research undertakings and other project activities. Apart from direct participation in project activities, three NGO consultations were convened by the project management team and attended by people’s organizations, women’s groups, representatives from the academe and research groups, resource-focused organizations and church-based groups, among others. The first consultation in May 2005 was convened to orient local NGOs about the MDG monitoring project, solicit their inputs on the training program and plan their participation in the design and implementation of the monitoring system. A resource person from Social Watch Philippines, Ms. Marivic Raquiza, was also invited to orient participants on the worldwide campaign to promote the MDGs – the Global Call to Action against Poverty or GCAP. As an offshoot of the consultation, the GCAP Core Group was formed. In June, the second NGO Consultation was convened to report on the output of the first training course and plan for the first GCAP mobilization for June 30. The third consultation was held in August to discuss the preliminary MDG reports of the pilot municipalities. The partnership between LGUs and NGOs was underscored by the two GCAP mobilizations on June 30 and September 9. These activities were part of the globally-coordinated simultaneous activities initiated and supported by the United Nations Millennium Campaign. Some 900 delegates from different secThe Bohol Experience


tors and municipalities of Bohol converged in Tagbilaran for the first GCAP mobilization to express solidarity in the fight against poverty. The mobilization, attended by Bohol Governor Erico Aumentado, was highlighted by the signing of a Covenant by both government officials and civil society representatives. The Covenant articulates the unity in eradicating poverty and working towards the attainment of the MDGs. The second GCAP mobilization in September 2005 took the form of a public forum on the MDGs and was attended by various sectors from all over the province. The event was highlighted by the presentation of the preliminary MDG Reports by the pilot municipalities, the reactions from a panel of resource persons representing civil society groups and the comments on the reports articulated by the forum participants, mostly community leaders and PO representatives. The Covenant signing served as a pact between the local government and civil society to work together in meeting the MDG targets by 2015. It also served as an important step towards building local MDG coalitions in the pilot areas.

International partnership The MDG is a global consensus, underscoring that the fight against poverty needs the combined cooperation of all nations. Goal 8 specifically defines the role of the donor community in helping poor countries that are determined to eradicate poverty by providing for increased development assistance, better trading arrangements, a commitment to debt relief and reforming the financial system. It is within this context that international partnership for the MDGs was seen as an important component of the project. In particular, the MDG Monitoring Project being implemented in the Province of Bohol is a good opportunity to project the initiative and underscore the efforts of small governments units and local NGOs in a developing country to address poverty and work towards achieving the MDGs. The project is a good opportunity to link up with local governments and NGOs as well as overseas Filipinos in Europe and work towards developing partnership for the MDGs. La Aldea, a Spanish NGO focusing on disadvantaged children, was tapped as a partner for this project. The Philippine-based liaison person of La Aldea, Alessandro Iellamo, participated as a member of the project management team and visited the project sites


and joined the major activities in Bohol. La Aldea was an active partner of this project – from conceptualization to the trainings and the development of the monitoring system. The group conducted its own promotions campaign in Spain to generate awareness and enjoin the public to contribute to the attainment of the MDGs in developing countries such as the Philippines. La Aldea also facilitated links with other Spanish groups, NGOs and local governments for possible collaboration work in the future. In December 2005, an important mission to Bohol brought together the Executive Director of La Aldea, Mr. Jose Luis Muùoz; the liaison person, Mr. Alessandro Iellamo; and the coodinator of the Filipijnengroep Nederland (FGN), Mr. Evert de Boer. The FGN, established in 1975, aims to promote solidarity and generate support in the Netherlands for Filipinos and their organizations in the pursuit of development and social equity. The mission visited Bilar, Tubigon and Jagna and held discussions with town officials and the members of the Technical Working Groups. They visited development projects in the pilot municipalities and explored areas for future cooperation. They were the special guests at the unveiling of the MDG Markers which symbolized the commitment of the local government to pursue the MDGs. The group also attended the Bohol Conference on Local MDG Monitoring held on December 14, 2005. A special meeting with Governor Aumentado was organized together with representatives from the project partners. The European partners shared with the governor the results of their visit to the pilot municipalities and explored future cooperation on development initiatives in Bohol. The mission was a good occasion to exchange views on international partnership and development cooperation beyond the donor-recipient framework. It gave the European partners a first-hand view of development challenges in the Province. The local governments and NGOs drew meaningful insights on the potential for building partnerships with European agencies and NGOs, including overseas Filipino groups.

Promoting and replicating the project MDG Markers were constructed and installed in the Provincial Capitol and the Municipal Townhalls to serve as testimonies to the commitment of the local governments to pursue the MDGs. The markers will stay in place at least until 2015 to remind local offi-

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

cials and the people of the promise to “End Poverty” by 2015 or sooner. The MDG Marker was designed by a local artist from Jagna who emerged overall winner of the drawing contest held in the three pilot municipalities. The MDG Markers were unveiled in Bilar, Tubigon and Jagna during the visit to Bohol of the European partners in December 2005. The unveiling ceremonies were led by the three mayors and other local officials, together with project partners and the delegation from Europe. The unveiling of the MDG Marker in the Provincial Capitol took place on December 15, in a simple ceremony led by Governor Aumentado with the participation of special guests Mr. Muñoz of Spain and Mr. de Boer of the Netherlands. A province-wide conference on December 14, 2005 promoted the project experience to the other municipalities of Bohol and shared the MDG Reports of the province and the municipalities of Tubigon, Bilar and Jagna. A total of 110 delegates attended the December conference, including representatives of 26 municipalities (out of 47) with 14 mayors attending. The participants expressed keen interest in replicating the project and appealed to the provincial government and the pilot municipalities to assist them in this effort. Toolkit packages were distributed to the participating municipalities, which contained reference materials used in the project and the key project outputs. The Local MDG Monitoring System Project offered the following to LGUs and NGOs interested in replicating the project: 1. The Integrated Global, National and Bohol MDG Database 2. The Municipal MDG Databases (Tubigon, Jagna and Bilar) 3. The MDG Localization Toolkit – Training Course and Modules; The MDG Monitoring Pack (Framework, Indicator Set, Survey Forms, Encoding System, MDG Manual) 4. Customized BoholInfo Software (A variant of UNICEF’s DevInfo) 5. Customized Free and Open Source GIS Software 6. MDG Planning and Best Practices Software 7. Publication on MDG Monitoring System

Lessons from the project Several important lessons may be drawn from the project experience. Among the more striking ones follow:

First, it can be done. MDG localization and monitoring is possible even in small, rural and poor towns with limited resources. Tubigon and Jagna have completed the monitoring project on time even with their tremendous daily workload. Bilar, a fifth-class municipality, has done it. Funding was a concern but never an obstacle. Good teamwork and community volunteers supported the limited LGU personnel who worked on this project. Second, political will counts. The commitment and cooperation of top local officials are critical to the success of the project. The MDG is not something difficult to explain. Its value can easily be appreciated because poverty, education, health, women and the environment are concrete realities and priority concerns everywhere. Understanding the value of the monitoring project will ensure the support for and sustainability of the project. Third, investments in partnership are useful. This project has proven that LGUs, NGOs and people’s organizations can work together. It is not easy. It does not happen overnight. But as long as avenues are open for engagement, interaction and cooperation, a sustainable partnership can emerge. Mobilizing social support, building government and civil society partnership and awareness building are crucial towards generating broad support for the MDGs. Fourth, more work has to be done to ensure a gender-sensitive monitoring system. The gender dimension has been factored in but leaves much to be desired, particularly in terms of identifying indicators, target setting and processing information to guide gender and development planning. Fifth, localizing the MDGs contributes to the global consensus. The MDGs represent a collective vision – a growing realization that real development cannot take place when pockets of extreme poverty, violence and abuse are happening elsewhere in the world. The project, therefore, facilitated the building of international partnership on the MDGs. Hopefully, the links can be sustained and concrete cooperation can follow. Finally, there is no single road map to 2015. The situation varies from one local area to another. There is no single prescription to the MDG localization process. The approach to monitoring may also vary. The experience of this project shows that each one has a story to tell and a particular way of doing things. For as long as the development objectives are clear, the options well-defined and the tools are made available, flexibility and innovations should be allowed and encouraged. The Bohol Experience


My Bohol Experience By ISAGANI R. SERRANO


HAT I saw in Bohol that memorable day of April 2005 was impressive: the gover nor leading a pack of buy-ins to the project Localizing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). I wondered, with a group of champions like that, how can your project fail? I was there to represent Social Watch Philippines, a coalition of NGOs monitoring the implementation of commitments (e.g. MDGs) made by government to advance an equitable social development. As a partner in this project I thought this is it! This is the kind of result we in Social Watch have long wanted to see in our advocacy — getting into the mainstream. But of course my feeling was somewhat guarded. I had been involved in advocating the localization of Agenda 21 immediately after our campaign in the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. First we succeeded in getting a presidential EO creating a body like the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD). A robust localization campaign followed. There were many buy-ins among LGUs too, at least in a few provinces led by Palawan. By 2002, and 10 years from Rio, the assessment of progress, though mixed, leaned on the negative. It was a big letdown. I hope Bohol will make good at meeting its own obligations in the MDGs. It’s not far behind, to begin with. In Social Watch classification by Quality of Life

it ranks 22nd. What that suggests, at least, is that Bohol has what it takes (e.g. rich natural resources, attractive ecotourism possibilities) to achieve poverty reduction and other development targets. The April 22 launch was my first time in Bohol. On landing I already had a feeling this is one place I would readily like and come back to anytime. As far as my eyes could see, there was still broad forest cover. I had a chat with a couple of environmentalists doing biodiversity conservation along the coasts. I did a tour of the Loboc River. I wondered why we did not include it in our list of awardees for river conservation in our National Rivers Summit, a major event in the Earth Day 2005 commemoration. Here’s one rare case of a resource under heavy tourism pressures but still well managed . Partnerships involving local government, citizens, private enterprise and tourists, among other users, seem to be working there. Bohol must preserve its environment if only to reduce its vulnerability to climate change. The landslide tragedy in Mayana, Jagna, should be a wake-up call, a reminder that the province rests on vulnerable grounds. The Bohol MDG project should and can be a model for the rest of the country.

Isagani R. Serrano is the Senior Vice President and Board Member of the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) and Co-Convenor of Social Watch Philippines. He is also a member of the Development Gateway Community since 2002.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Reflections By MA. ALITA D. LUGO


ESOLVING poverty is close to impossible” is a usual phrase we hear from the crowd during the series of MDG Local Monitoring Project Orientation conducted by the project management team. The same thought crossed my mind when the project was first introduced. How can a simple local monitoring system take Bohol out of the country’s poorest Club 20? Eradicating poverty is a global issue so complex that all 189 members of the United Nations’ Member States decided to work together and identify what major goals to accomplish within the 10-year period. How could this new project support Bohol’s struggle against deprivation? After a series of meetings with the technical working groups of the pilot municipalities, I realized how important the development and installation of a monitoring system for a comprehensive poverty database will be.

Both legislative and executive branches of the pilot municipalities are aware that the poverty situation in their respective areas is severe and they should take appropriate action to resolve the underlying issues. However, their common response to the question of how they knew deprivation exists is simply this: members of the local communities do not have jobs, have a number of children to feed and live handto-mouth. However, they have no idea as to which barangays or puroks exactly have the highest poverty incidence. The existing monitoring system of the provincial government that was installed in the municipality of Tubigon shows a good view of its poverty situation but needs other basic information to complete the entire picture. Jagna was not among the 17 pilot LGUs of PPDO’s LPRAP system. It just relies on the national census and independent surveys in case it needs concrete data on a particular deprivation is-

Maria Alita D. Lugo is the research and development officer of PROCESS-Bohol. She was seconded to the project as area coordinator for its whole duration. She was formerly planning officer of the Bohol Environment Management Office (BEMO).

The Bohol Experience


sue. Bilar, on the other hand, has started with its survey on LPRAP but was not able to generate complete and reliable data due to lack of finances and staff to conduct the survey. This problem of having incomplete or unreliable data without doubt happens in other localities. Every LGU hopes to acquire all possible support from foreign and local agencies to, in some way or other, be able to initiate specific programs and projects for improving the socioeconomic standing of the local communities.

So LGUs seem to know the problem and how to resolve them. Poverty may be resolved basically by implementing viable programs and projects that could be supported through linkage with possible support groups. The actual dilemma then is “how and where to start”. We have received a lot of complaints from the LGU Bilar – why is it that the Municipality of Tubigon, Jagna and other higher class municipalities get most of the financial and technical assistance from support agencies when our municipality, a fifth class town, needs help more than they do. Upon inquiry, we found out the secret behind the overflow of assistance. Tubigon is the model town of the province’s LPRAP monitoring system while Jagna maintains a website where all basic information pertinent to the town is available. My realization of the entire project then is like developing an effective and comprehensive resume for each pilot municipality. Once all facts are com-


piled and made available, preparation of proposals for funding of priority projects will be easier while potential funding institutions can retrieve the necessary data anytime to see a clearer picture of the local state of affairs. Once convinced, the LGU and agency partnership may begin. During the project implementation period we also realized the need to negotiate both with the mayor who heads the executive body and the LCE head of the legislative department and its members. Lack of support from any of these two will cause a project to fail. If no ordinance on the implementation or adoption of a certain project is passed and transmitted, the initiative will most likely remain unofficial and ineffective. More often than not, project implementers approach and convince the mayor of its pilot town first, thinking that it is the latter’s duty to inform the other LG departments of the negotiation that transpired. This is a wrong perception that could, if neglected or overlooked, break up the entire process of project implementation. Making the target beneficiaries understand the project, its objectives and benefits is challenging. However, once they begin to appreciate the effort and concern of people who do not belong to the community i.e. project implementers, they begin to look into the project more closely and eventually learn to appreciate, develop concern and willingness to coordinate. The challenge now is on us…how to keep the enthusiasm in the hearts of the MDG Local Monitoring Municipal Technical Working Group and continuously motivate them to be part of their LGU’s struggle against poverty. Writing an effective resume is just the starting point. A prospective employer is waiting for its submission and once accepted; one is left alone to show the former what he has. As Project Staff, we have to make sure that we are creating a truly reliable system that reflects the pilot areas’ actual poverty condition; link the LGUs with dependable support agencies; and, continuously keep the LGU’s sincerity and enthusiasm in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) before year 2015.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Reflection Paper on the MDGs Project in Bohol By ALESSANDRO D. IELLAMO


STABLISHING a monitoring system on the Millenium Developments Goals? What’s that? What does that mean?” Those were the first words that the Director of La Aldea said when we were invited to join the project. Yes, it sounded a really very technical type of project, where setting up a monitoring system was the key goal of the initiative. Well, dialogues and interactions with other partners helped La Aldea understand that the project was going way, way further than simply setting up a monitoring system, but the project was going to enable a development process led by the Local Governments and supported by Civil Society — a breakthrough for us working in the NGOs, a total paradigm shift, that was envisioned and its being realized now in the last leg of the project implementation.

During the project implementation I experienced, as a Liaison Officer, several milestone activities of the initiative and I listened to key stakeholders of the project. All of them provided essential messages and reflections that enriched our experiences and pushed me to make sure that their experiences will also be heard and known by our friends in Europe. In this paper, I wish to recall key moments that I experienced, as when the Governor of Bohol gave us his heartfelt welcome during the launching of the project and provided inspiring words to the mayors of the pilot areas where the project was going to be. I will never forget the sharing we had with all the project partners, and their enthusiasm in making us part of their efforts and work; their problems and dif-

Alessandro D. Iellamo is the Board Member of La Aldea, a Spanish NGO that extends support to disadvantaged children in developing countries. Alessandro, an Italian and Engineer by academic background, has academic experience in development work in the Philippines, Southeast Asia and Africa.

The Bohol Experience


ficulties, as well my performance in partnership with Virginie, singing “Guantanamera”. It was exciting listening to the different mayors and getting their perspective in terms of how to build on the project experience, how to make sure the system that was set in place will be optimized by the LGUs’ officers; The NGO integration with the LGU system was a beautiful result of the whole project. It is fantastic to see how NGO persons were able to be part of a LGU process, in terms of helping out the LGU, in getting through some of their problems and difficulties, in being at the end recognized and consulted in situations of uncertainty and doubt; The NGO-LGU relationship was one amazing result of this project that I personally witnessed in the site visits I made during Project implementation;

mainly because along with the development process, a transformation of the LGU and NGO-LGU relationship took place — from an initial indifference to the project, now we are in a full institutionalization and ownership of the same; Let me thank AER for the great opportunity they provided us in joining in this experience; and also for their capacity to direct and manage the whole process; Process Bohol for their commitment, support and mostly for their ability to sustain and accompany the project implementation in its day-to-day activities. I have a special thought for the three LGUs that are now more empowered and aware of what needs to be done to be able to help their own constituency: Congratulations to all those involved, and please continue building your partnerships and networks, links with the civil society groups, and work with them towards the achievement of your MDGs Plans.

What more is there to say? Let me share with you some more anecdotes. In my recent trips to Bohol, I was able to engage in two very important discussions, and I listened, amazed, as mayors presented the MDG situation in their towns. The mayors were able to present figures and facts on MDGs generated by the newly installed system. As well, they were able to present concrete and feasible plans that will contribute to the attainment of the MDGs in their towns. If someone will ask if the project was successful, without any doubt in my mind, I’ll say YES, not just because the expected output were achieved, but

La Aldea, also during the visit of the Director, is proud to be among those that participated. Thanks to the experience, it is now promoting to Spanish friends the beautiful experience unfolding in Bohol. The Bohol Project is a development process, a development experience, that brought together technology, systems, human resources, strategies and information. But mostly, it clearly presented to all of us the undeniable truth that only through a close partnership and coordination among key agencies, like LGUs and NGOs, can we provide concrete “hope” to our people.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Reflections on the MDG Project By EMILIA ROSLINDA


HE implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in the Province of Bohol was intended to enable the pilot municipal local government units to put up a monitoring system that accurately determines poverty conditions and improves local governance in order to meet the 2015 “Eradicate Poverty” deadline. The pilot towns have their respective strengths and weaknesses, thereby making the entire project term exhilarating and at the same time challenging.

Municipality of T ubigon. Tubigon is the province’s Tubigon. model in its Local Poverty Reduction Action Project (LPRAP). We could say that it is already halfway compared to the other pilot towns in terms of monitoring several indicators of the MDGs. The data generated are already being used for planning, information dissemination, fund sourcing and networking, This made the setting up of the MDG monitoring system a lot easier. Its planning officer is also very supportive, recognizing the assistance it could provide to Tubigon once completed and functional. Thus, the purpose of the Tubigon MDG Local Monitoring Project was mainly to analyze what other vital information is still lacking and how the system could be further improved. The planning and assessment sessions during project implementation enabled the MDG TWGs to compare their existing data with the MDG goals and targets. For example, they discovered that gender segregation was not emphasized in LPRAP. Thus, the existing data had to be scanned and manually segregated. Information on gender could have been very helpful in terms of budget scheduling for GAD projects and in targeting certain priority areas for institutionalization or strengthening of women’s groups. Before project implementation, the GAD budget, which is 5 percent of the MLGU IRA, was being spent on activities where women are active participants regardless of purpose. The MLGU was not aware of the present condition of women in their area. Thus, as a supplementary input, the TWGs were further oriented on Gender Equality in the third training. The MDG Local Monitoring System in Tubigon has resolved the gaps and shortfalls of LPRAP through

the conduct of an MDG Additional Indicators Survey, where questions on domestic violence, maternal health, reproductive health methods, waste disposal, power sources and communication were included to complete the poverty picture of the covered areas. This new information combined with the LPRAP’s will be used to review the existing Municipal Plan and to align their programs and projects to priority areas. In their succeeding update on LPRAP, they plan to consider gender segregation to ease the process of doing it manually Municipality of Jagna. Jagna may be considered the youngest among the pilot areas. It was not among the 17 pilot towns under LPRAP but is more advanced, technology-wise. It maintains a website that presents the town’s history, culture, demographic profile and socio-economic condition. It even provides a list of its natural resources and tourism areas. Unfortunately, these do not provide ample information that could entice funding agencies to invest in local projects. One of its strong points is the willingness and openness of the LCE in implementing projects that would provide locals, especially those below the poverty threshold, better opportunities. The existence of an active local NGO was another plus point. The analytical NGO combined with the expertise in project planning and management of a local chief executive is absolutely necessary. The support of the municipal government does not cover only the technical expertise of its MDG Technical Working Group. It spent half a million pesos for the survey alone and hired more than 50 enumerators who stayed in the barangay until the entire population was interviewed. Stories on the personal visits of household heads who were absent during the initial home visits of enumerators provided an impression that the objective of the survey — to provide the locals more benefit — was properly circulated. We feel that the entire project management team was truly part and parcel of what has been achieved by Jagna in terms of generating reliable and comprehensive data, simply because we have witnessed and taken part in it. Once-scattered data from agencies were collated and organized. The survey has

Emilia Roslinda is the Executive Director of PROCESS Bohol Inc.

The Bohol Experience


provided the MLGU a closer perspective of the condition of its constituents. The data generated enabled the MLGU to review its development plan, which has just been completed during the survey. Priority areas relative to various poverty indicators were accurately targeted. Implementation of programs and projects was now focused on barangays with most deprived households. The barangay plans will subsequently be integrated into a comprehensive municipal framework. In addition, the MDG has made it easier for Jagna to promote its municipality to other possible funding agencies, and can be an attachment to their website. Being a pilot area of one project that targets MDG has been an advantage, as Mrs. Nimfa Lloren stated. Wearing the white band during official travels drew the attention of possible partners ,leading to discussions of the MDG Project. Municipality of Bilar Bilar.. Bilar was the most challenging area among the pilot towns. Despite the full support of the mayor, we discovered that the legislative body (Sangguniang Bayan) has no idea yet on the Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) when in fact it was one of its 17 pilot municipalities. The MLGU has also not yet completed the survey of approximately 600 households. Through the project, Bilar completed its LPRAP and generated significant and reliable data on MDG. Along the way, we discovered loopholes in the MLGU’s initial LPRAP Survey. Many respondents stated that they are willing to undergo a resurvey on LPRAP, understanding the objective of the MDG Local Monitoring Project and the possible assistance it could provide once new projects on maternal health, agriculture and other poverty-related activities are implemented. The designation of a project focal person was a good move for the municipal government, but only if fully utilized. Lack of coordination between and among the members of the MDG TWG complicated the project implementation. On the other hand, there was a rewarding side to the area visit of Filipijnengroep’s Evert De Boer. The executive and legislative representatives and the TWG members requested for various forms of assistance to their respective departments, thus transformed from a passive into an analytical LGU. Hearing them state their respective concerns meant that they have started to see the full picture of their situation and the need to act the soonest. The LGU and its departments may have been at a loss as to where, how and when to start. The Monitoring Project was a start for them to analyze their situ-


ation, conceptualize possible strategies to resolve the problem and link up with possible funding sources. Linkaging with the Provincial Government of Bohol government organizations (NGOs). The and non ong Provincial Governor himself, knowing the importance and objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations, is absolutely supportive of the project. He stated that he will not have second thoughts in signing any directive that would strengthen it and issued Executive Order 02 on February 2006. The Provincial Planning Office under Atty. Nitz Cambangay was an important player in the project. It quickly responded to the creation of the DevInfo and LPRAP Interface and the improvement of the LPRAP to the Poverty Database Monitoring System (PDMS). Atty. Cambangay promised to include questions on the MDG Additional Indicators in the update of the LPRAP/PDMS of the towns where the system was already installed. NGOs were also significant partners and made the project successful. Closer to the grassroots, they have more realistic ideas of the needs, wants and strategies to implement. Planning and analysis of the poverty situation was easier. Their inputs during planning and implementation of project activities were incorporated in the LGU’s Annual and Midterm Plans. Targeting priorities was easier compared to when the LGUs and NGOs worked separately. Where before, only MLGU’s were requested to approve the entry of a certain project in targeted barangays, now the NGOs’ plans are already incorporated in the MLGU’s annual plans. The development of a monitoring system on the MDG has made local governance a lot easier. Ready reliable data are available for strategic planning of programs, projects and plans. The legislative branch can use them to effectively formulate adaptable resolutions and other directives. NGOs will be relieved from strenuous area research for their project proposals. Both the NGOs and the LGUs can work collaboratively to check and crosscheck whether they have targeted the exact priority areas. Various organizations and areas have their respective weaknesses and strengths. Success can only be measured by how a project’s benefits were accepted and utilized. We are optimistic our pilot areas can resolve their poverty-related issues and move forward through the MDG Local Monitoring System. What we have attained may be satisfactory, but we can not be contented unless what we have accomplished is sustained and replicated.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Bohol Experience




This report is based on the presentation made by the Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO) during the Bohol Conference on Local MDG Monitoring held on December 14, 2005 in Tagbilaran City. The presentation discussed the progress achieved by the Province of Bohol in meeting the MDGs and the challenges ahead. This report builds on that presentation and was substantiated by information and statistics culled from various official documents, particularly the Bohol Program Framework on Poverty Reduction and the Bohol Medium Term Development Plan (CY 2004-2009). Official reports of national and provincial agencies were also consulted for available statistics and data validation.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


Bohol Profile*


he Provincial Government of Bohol has taken bolder and decisive steps to address the prob lem of poverty that has placed the province among the 20 poorest provinces in the country. It has formulated the Program Framework on Poverty Reduction through a participatory and focused response to the poverty situation. In cooperation with the Bohol Local Development Foundation (BLDF), it developed a community-based poverty monitoring system and built a database using the Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) program software. It completed the Medium-Term Development Plan (MTPD) covering the period CY 2004-2009. The Plan is the result of months of consultations and planning sessions among the different sectors and stakeholders of Bohol. In March 2005, the Province of Bohol launched the EU-assisted project on the Local Monitoring System on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which was piloted in three Municipalities of Bohol. This Report results from the MDG Monitoring Project.


OHOL is one of the island provinces in the Philippines, the 10th largest island of the country, roughly oval in shape with major axis trending northeast to southwest with the Camotes Sea at the north and the Mindanao Sea at its south. The province is predominantly hilly and rolling with narrow coastal plains. Out of its land area of 411,726 hectares, about 21 percent are protected land. Bohol was made a province by virtue of Republic Act 2711 on March 10, 1917. It is classified as a First Class-A province by the Department of Finance. It is the homeland of revolutionary leaders Francisco Dagohoy and Tamblot and the fourth President of the Republic of the Philippines and the President of the 1972 Constitutional Convention, President Carlos P. Garcia. Bohol is the site of the first International Treaty (in 1565), a treaty of friendship between Datu Sikatuna, a native chieftain and Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, representing the King of Spain through a blood compact known today as the “Sandugo�. In Turn to next page *

This profile is culled largely from the Executive Brief of Bohol: Area Profile, 2002 Edition and the Bohol Medium Term Development Plan, CY 2004-2009.

The Bohol Experience


GOAL 1: ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER The poverty incidence of families in the province of Bohol rose from 37.3 percent in 1997 to 47.3 percent by 2000 which resulted to the inclusion of Bohol among the 20 poorest provinces in the country. In terms of population, poverty incidence was reported at 43.1 percent in 1997 and 56.3 percent in 2000.1 In simple terms, this means that over half of resident Boholanons were classified as poor in 2000. Factors which contributed to rising poverty were seasonal employment, specifically in agriculture; limited off-farm employment compared to the tremendous growth in the labor force; fluctuating peso in relation to the fast increase in prices of various basic necessities; and rapid population growth. In 2000, average annual per capita income in Bohol was P16,478, way below the national average of P32,141.2 In field studies done by the Provincial Government in 2001, 37 of 47 municipalities were found to have 75 percent or more households considered poor. The highest incidence of poverty was in the small islands and coastal areas around the northern half of Bohol and in the upland and watershed communities in its interior part. 38 percent of Boholanos live in the small islands and coastal barangays, 16 percent in the upland communities and 9 percent in the watershed areas. The government identified as specific poverty groups the farm/non-farm laborers with low skills and only sea-

Bohol Profile From prebious page honor of this occasion, the late President Elipido Quirino established the Order of Sikatuna, a presidential decoration conferred upon diplomats. Provincial capital/administrative units. The province is composed of one city, Tagbilaran City serving as its capital, and 47 municipalities grouped into three congressional districts. Tagbilaran City is located on the southwest corner of the main island of Bohol, just across the smaller island of Panglao. Presently, Bohol is composed of 1,109 barangays occupying a total land area of 411,726 hectares including 118 smaller offshore islands and islets (81 with names). In Bohol, most if not all, of its barangays are further subdivided into sitios and puroks. Locations and accessibility. Bohol is one of the four provinces of Region 7, which has the islands of Cebu at its northwest, and Leyte in the northeast. Access to Bohol can be by air or sea


sonal work and paid low wages; tenant and/or parttime farmers with small low producing farms; marginal and/or part-time fishers with declining fish catch and skills inadequate for basic livelihood and limited options for employment other than fishing. Over half of Bohol’s labor force is in agriculture (mainly farming and fishing), followed by 33 percent in the service sector and 17 percent in industry. Labor force participation rate in 2002 was 64.7 percent, with the employment rate at 91.10% (NSO Labor Force Survey, First Quarter 2002). Employment opportunities within the province are insufficient to absorb the growing labor force. In recent years, an increasing number of Boholanos leave the country for overseas work.

transportation direct from Manila and some Mindanao provinces or via Cebu. There are also small seacraft plying the Bohol-Leyte route. Located almost centrally in the Philippine archipelago, the island province of Bohol is about 1 hour and 45 minutes directly south of manila and about 30 minutes southwest of Mactan Island, Cebu. Bohol is within north latitude 930’00” and 1015’00” and east longitude 1234’00” and 12430’30”. Bohol is about 556.16 nautical miles directly south of Manila and is about 39.7 nautical miles southeast of Mactan Island. Population. According to the 2000 Population Census, Bohol has a total population of 1,137,268 which rapidly increased at an annual rate of 2.92 percent (1995-2000), higher than the national rate of 2.36 percent. If this continues, the population of the province is expected to double in 24 years. In terms of population size, Bohol ranked 17th highest among 78 provinces in the country and second in Region 7. Its average household size of 5.34 persons is higher than the figure five years ago (5.18 persons) and higher than the current national average of 5.0 persons. Half of the population is below 22

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The rising poverty incidence in Bohol served as a wake-up call which mobilized the local government, civil society and the private sector in a massive effort to extricate the province from the grip of poverty and get it out of the Club 20. These efforts appear to be paying off based on the latest available statistics on income, poverty and human development. The Philippine Human Development Report (2005) noted that poverty incidence in Bohol went down to 35.3 percent in 2003. Per capita income at constant prices increased from P18,423 in 1997 to P20,966 in 2003. During the same period, Bohol’s ranking in terms of the Human Development Index (HDI) improved from 55th in 1997 to 41st by 2003. Table 1. BOHOL Poverty Indicators

Hunger and malnutrition still pose a major challenge in Bohol with a significant number of under-five children found to be malnourished at varying degrees. Malnutrition data for 2004 showed that the incidence of moderately and severely underweight children below 5 years old was 22.7 percent.3 This is lower than the earlier survey (1998) conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) which estimated the prevalence of underweight children (0-5 years old) at 31.9 percent for the province of Bohol.4 Malnutrition starts a vicious cycle of ill-health, lower learning capacity and poor physical growth. Malnutrition is often overlooked until it becomes severe because malnutrition is not very visible. About six percent of the total number of live births weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth. In 2002, malnutrition was the 7th leading cause of death among infants and ranked No. 32 as overall cause of mortality in 2002.5 As of July 2005, the Nutrition Council noted an improvement in the situation with Bohol’s malnutrition rate among children 5 years and below at 15.92 percent. ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY & HUNGER6 MDG Target: Reduce poverty incidence by families from 47.3% percent in 2000 to 23.0 percent by 2015

* National Statistical Coordinating Board (NSCB) ** Philippine Human Development Report (2005)

years old. The 0-14 years old age group makes up 35.78 percent and the 15-64 years old, 57.9 percent. Dependency ratio is at 72.50. Life expectancy at birth is 68 years for males and 73 years for females. Population distribution is as follows: 38 percent live in small islands and coastal areas; 37 percent in urban areas, town centers, and lowlands; 16 percent in the uplands; and 9 percent in the watershed areas. History.Like its neighboring islands, Bohol had been trading with Chinese merchants for more than a hundred years before the Spaniards set foot on the Philippine archipelago. When the Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived in Jagna, eastern Bohol in March, 1565, he came upon a people already with a system of writing and using a language similar to the nearby islands. After convincing the local chiefs that the Spaniards were not marauding Portuguese from the Moluccas, Legazpi performed a blood compact with Datu Sikatuna and, three days later, with Datu Sigala. The treaty with Datu Sikatuna is said to have occurred in Bool, thus accounting for the name later of Bohol.

MDG Target: Reduce the number of malnourished children by one percent a year

Thirty years after Legazpi, Bohol became a Jesuit mission with the arrival of two priests from Cebu, and was a mere residencia or part of the latter. The Spanish interference with local laws, customs and beliefs soon sparked discontent among the populace. Notable among the rebellions against the colonialists are the Tamblot uprising of 1621 and the Dagohoy rebellion. Tamblot, a babaylan or local priest, led two thousand locals in an uprising that would last several months until his assassination by Spanish priests. Another was the rebellion of Francisco Sendrijas, popularly known as Dagohoy, that would last much longer – 85 years - and involved the whole island. After the Spaniards left in 1899 due to the Treaty of Paris, Bohol became a “Gobierno de Canton” run by the local elite and allied with the Philippine Republic headed by Emilio Aguinaldo. However, in March 17, 1900, the Americans invaded the island and took control. As in other parts of the Philippines, the Americans improved infrastructure and established public education in the province. Under the colonial government, the island finally Turn to next page

The Bohol Experience



Table 2. Enrolment of Sector and Level of Education (Bohol Province)

For SY 2004-2005, a total of 251,947 pupils and students were enrolled in the three levels of basic education in both public and private schools compared to last school year’s enrolment of 254,010. There is a deSource: DepEd, Division of Bohol crease in enrolment of 1.84 percent Table 3. Comparative Performance Indicators (2004-2005) in the public schools but an increase of 10.96 percent in the private schools. The overall decrease of 0.80 percent from previous year’s figure is evident. Still, the public school system absorbs 90.99 percent of the total school population compared to the 9.01 percent enrolled in the private school this year (Table 2). Education indicators showed a big disparity in performance between Tagbilaran City and the Province of Source: DepEd, Division of Bohol; Interim City Division of Tagbilaran City Bohol. For the SY 2004-05, Elementary Participation rate in the Province registered only the years. All these indicate that more efforts must be 74.03 percent compared to Tagbilaran City’s 89.13 perexerted to improve access to and quality of education cent. Similarly, Cohort Survival and Completion rates especially in depressed Municipalities of the Province. for both elementary and secondary levels for the ProvBohol has a high simple literacy rate of 96 percent ince were significantly lower than the corresponding figas reported by the Department of Education (Bohol ures for Tagbilaran City. Time series data on key educaDivision) for year 2000. The provincial government tion performance also showed little improvement over attributes the high literacy rate not only to the pres-

Bohol Profile From prebious page became a separate province by virtue of Act 2711 on March 10, 1917. World War II once again saw the Boholanos taking up arms, this time against the invading Japanese in May, 1942. Local guerillas sustained the resistance movement until the Americans returned in April, 1945. In 1957, Carlos Polistico Garcia of Talibon, Bohol was elected the fourth president of the Republic of the Philippines. Infrastructure profile The island province is served by an airport in Tagbilaran City, one base seaport (Tagbilaran City Tourist Pier), and four terminal ports located at Tubigon, Jagna, Ubay and Talibon. Subports and municipal/fish ports can be found in other parts of Bohol. Expansion projects in both the airport and main wharf are currently under way to increase the capacity of both facilities. Domestic and international communication facilities are provided for by three telephone (PLDT, Cruztelco and Globelines) and


two cellphone (Globe and Smart) companies. In 1996, 88 percent of all barangays were listed as energized. The island’s road network totals roughly 5,400 kilometers, of which 11 percent are national roads, 18 percent provincial roads, and 64 percent barangay roads. As of 2002, 80 percent of the roads were earth/gravel roads Land use. 310,455 has. or 75.4 percent of the total land area of 411,746 has. are classified as alienable and disposable, and 24.6 percent or 101,271 has., timberland (2002). Forty-five percent of the total land area is devoted to agriculture; 80,918 has. of agricultural land are planted to rice production yielding an average of 4.4 metric tons per hectare; 63,502 has. are devoted to coconut. Based on 1996 DENR data, lands classified as industrial and commercial totaled a mere .04 percent of the total. Considered urban areas of Bohol are Tagbilaran City and town centers of all municipalities. Climate. The climate of Bohol is classified by PAGASA as the ‘Fourth Type’ where rainfall is evenly distributed all year round.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

ence of schools in most of the barangays but also to the Alternative Learning System (ALS) by the Department of Education which continuously provides non-formal schemes of basic and functional literacy education and livelihood skills training for the out-ofschool Boholano youths and adults. ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION MDG Target: Improve access to education through construction of new school buildings, and at least 540 new classrooms as well as provide desks/armchairs to 50 public schools in addition to books and computers

the province of Bohol, females are consistently outperforming males in nearly all other education indicators. Females tend to survive better in schooling as indicated by the higher cohort survival and completion rates and lower dropout rate in both elementary and secondary levels. The 2000 Population Census revealed that females have achieved higher levels of education compared to males. Literacy is also higher among females. The NSO data for 2000 indicates that simple literacy rate for women was 95.86 percent and only 92.5 percent for men. ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN

GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY While enrollment records show that fewer girls are enrolled in elementary schools compared to boys in

MDG Target: Provision of five percent annual budgetary allocation for Gender and Development.

Table 4. Highest Educational Attainment by Sex (Bohol Province, 2000)

Typhoons and earthquakes rarely visit the island province. The weather is generally warm in the lowland areas and cooler at higher altitudes. Language/dialect. The major dialect spoken in the province is Boholano, which is closely related to the Cebuano dialect. Of the total household population, 97 percent spoke Boholano at the earliest childhood (1995 Census). Majority of Boholanos can speak and write in English as well as the national language, Filipino. Major economic activities. Agricultural land comprises 45 percent of the province’s land area. Deep-sea fishing, municipal fishing, inland fishing and aquaculture make up the fishing industry of Bohol. Products include harvested lobsters, seaweeds and milkfish. Processed prawns are exported directly to Japan. Seaweeds of the eucheuma variety are cultured and marketed to Cebu for processing into various grades of carageenan. Micro and cottage industries engaged in handicrafts, fashion accessories, shell craft, woodcraft, food processing, ceramic craft,

and handmade paper constitute the manufacturing sector of the province. The promotion of Bohol as a premier tourist destination of the country is making the local tourist industry a strong contributor to the island’s economy. In 2003, the Department of Tourism (DoT) and the Philippine Travel Tour Association recognized Bohol as the leading tourism destination, its ecology, culture, heritage and agriculture as major attractions. The DoT recorded tourist arrivals increasing by 16 percent in 2001 and 2002, with domestic tourists accounting for more than 80 percent of arrivals. Classification. By income classification, Bohol is ranked as a first-class province. Based on income from 1996-1999, 27 or more than half (55 percent) of its municipalities are classified as 5th class; 16 municipalities are fourth class; three municipalities are 3rd class; and two are second class. Tagbilaran City, the provincial capital, is classified as a third class city, with average annual income of P 100M or more but less than P 155M.

The Bohol Experience



GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY The latest report showed that under-five mortality rate significantly went down from 5.38 deaths per 1,000 population in 2003 to 1.64 in 2004. Infant mortality rate also went down from 12.71 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2003 to 8.53 in 2004. About 73 percent of children were fully immunized for 2004 and 2005. As in previous years, pneumonia still remains a leading cause of death among infants. Infectious diseases, particularly gastro-intestinal illnesses (diarheal diseases), are still major causes of deaths among infants and children. Malnutrition was the No. 7 cause of death among infants in Bohol and ranked No. 32 as overall cause of mortality in 2002.7 In 2002, Bohol’s health resources included 33 hospitals and clinics spread all over the province providing secondary and tertiary level health services to the public with a total bed capacity of 1,143 or one hospital bed per 1000 population. There is one doctor per 24,194 people and one midwife per 3,560 people. Complementing the hospitals are a total of 336 Barangay health stations (BHS) and 48 Main Health Centers/Rural Health Units located in the town centers and staffed by a core group of public health workers comprising of a Municipal Health Officer, a physician, a Public Health Nurse, a Public Health Midwife, a Dentist and a Sanitary Inspector.8 REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY MDG Target: Reduce infant mortality rate by one percent a year


Maternal Mortality Rate remarkably declined to 27 deaths per 100,000 livebirths in 2004 from 57 deaths per 100,000 livebirths in 2003. Health data reveal 18 cases of maternal deaths in 1995. This went down to 13 deaths in 2000 and only seven deaths in 2004.9 If this trend continues, the MDG target on Maternal Health will be met even before 2015. Statistics from the national office of the Department of Health, show majority of deliveries in Bohol in 2002 were assisted by midwives (55.2 percent) and trained hilots or traditional birth attendants (22.7 percent) while doctors assisted in 20.8 percent of deliveries. The rest were attended by untrained hilots and others.10 The contraceptive prevalence rate among persons of reproductive age (15-49 years) decreased from 12 percent in 1999 to 8 percent in 2004.11 The high population growth rate in Bohol (2.92 percent) which exceeds the national rate of 2.36 percent will continue to impact on the poverty situation and provision of health services in the province. IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH MDG Target: Reduce maternal mortality rate by two percent a year.

GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES No incidence of HIV/AIDS was recorded in Bohol. From 1990 up to the present, no malaria case was recorded either. However, infectious diseases are still prevalent throughout the province and remain the leading causes of morbidity. In 2004, the Provincial

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Health Office recorded 25,310 cases of diarrhea/acute gastro-enteritis (AGE), 19,582 cases of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) and 13,257 cases of pneumonia. The incidence of diarheal diseases remains high largely due to the poor quality of drinking water and inadequate sanitary facilities in a large part of the province, especially in its component inhabited islands/ islets. The incidence of tuberculosis is still alarming with 80.10 cases per 100,000 population in 2004. This shows that the situation improved, though marginally, compared to the previous four years where the incidence of TB averaged 83.34 cases per 100,000 population. 12 Table 5. Ten Leading Causes of Morbidity Number and Rate per 100,000 Population (Bohol Province)

Source: Provincial Health Office (PHO)

COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES MDG Targets: • Implementation of Preventive Health Program for STDs/ AIDs prevention; • Reduce morbidity and mortality rates of prevailing diseases such as diarrhea/acute gastro-enteritis, pneumonia / acute respiratory infections, heart diseases and tuberculosis.

GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY13 Various efforts have been taken by provincial government, in cooperation with local NGOs and international partners, to protect the environment, including coastal law enforcement; mangrove rehabilitation; propagation of endemic tree species and reforesta-

tion; delineation of municipal land and water boundaries; development of enhanced varieties of agricultural crops and other activities, including anti-poverty programs. This is in response to the depletion of natural resources and continuing threats of environmental degradation. Based on the assessment of existing natural capital stock, the province has reached a critical level of forest depletion due to population pressure and growth that intensify demand on forest resources. While more than one half of its timberland is protected, only 17 percent are covered with forest. Based on the standard that 40 percent of the total land area of the province should be covered with forest to maintain an ecologically-sound environment, it is critically below standard. Bohol’s forest reserves are declining due to kaingin, forest fires, illegal timber poaching and cutting and conversion of forest area to agricultural use. Mangrove forest cover has likewise gone down with the expansion of aquaculture. Nonetheless, Bohol still ranks first in having the biggest mangrove area in Central Visayas – the biggest located in Getafe, Talibon, Ubay, President Garcia, Mabini and Candijay. It also has the most diverse mangrove ecosystem in the Philippines, with 32 identified species. The province’s municipal waters has a total area of 624,506 hectares and a total shoreline length, excluding offshore islands, of 653.65 km. There are 30 coastal municipalities and 304 coastal barangays with 72 islets. Approximately 33 percent of its population directly depends on fishing and fisheries-related activities as major sources of income. Its coral reefs cover an estimated 1,920 hectares that include the Danajon Bank Reef in Getafe, Buenavista, Talibon, Trinidad, Bien Unido, Ubay, President Garcia and Mabini. The latter is one of only a few documented double barrier reefs in the world, the only one in the Philippines and is a rare geological formation. However, 90 percent of it is in poor condition. It runs parallel to the northern coast of the province along the coastline of four municipalities (Getafe, Bien Unido, Talibon and Ubay). At present, Bohol’s coral reefs are classified as 48 percent in poor condition, 38 percent fair and only 13 percent in good condition (BFAR, UP-MSI, CRMP and DENR surThe Bohol Experience


Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) Software A tool for MDG tracking, poverty diagnosis and action planning at local (village, sub-village) level By Dr. NESTOR PESTELOS


EVELOPED in the province of Bohol in the Philippines in early 2003, the LPRAP software was designed for use by poverty reduction action teams at the local level. It makes possible a costeffective process to prepare the three-year village Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) required of local government units at village levels prior to allocation of budgetary resources. The LPRAP software, known also as the Provincial Database Monitoring System (PDMS) software, was developed by the Bohol Local Development Foundation, Inc. (BLDF), a non-government organization which pioneers household poverty database systems, in collaboration with the Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO).

Household survey BLDF uses as survey tools the questionnaires developed by national government agencies and field-tested by researchers and fieldworkers in the province. The software makes possible a less tedious way to aggregate and disaggregate the data collected and ensures that these data are stored digitally at municipal levels for the various villages. Once the data from the survey of individual households are encoded, the software automatically ranks households, sub-villages and villages in accordance with indicators used by pro poor programs in line with the Millennium Development Goals. These indicators include: education (school dropouts); health (malnutrition; child mortality; sanitation); unemployment; water source; income, meal and food thresholds; housing; tenure status. Information on access to electricity; disability and illiteracy has recently been included in the household survey in response to the requests of various government agencies and NGOs. In the three municipalities where localization of the MDGs has been piloted by the LGUs with assistance from the European Union (EU), Action for Economic Reforms (AER), PROCESS-Bohol, Social Watch Philippines (SWP) and La Aldea (Spain). BLDF has developed LPRAP Software further by designing an interface to “export” data from the LPRAP software to DevInfo, the software developed by the UN system to track progress in development indicators. The LPRAP software complements DevInfo by making possible the accurate targeting of households, sub-villages and villages for projects and other interventions in support of poverty reduction. Later, with updating of data, it can be a tool for track-

ing the impact of specific interventions, including their correlation over time. The software can be modified or customized to include indicators basic to an agency’s mandate. It can also convert the profile data, generated from individual households and puroks, into specific problems and objectives which can be pursued at the village level through the LPRAP. The LPRAP data provide the basis for a project identification and formulation workshop undertaken at village and sub-village levels. The outputs from this workshop are in turn submitted to the respective Village Councils for validation and revision, based on consultations with sub-village representatives. The revisions are encoded at the municipal level to serve as basis for the municipal/ subdistrict-wide Community Based Reporting and Monitoring System (CBRMS).

How pro-poor programs can use the software The software can be used by local area teams in all the stages of the planning or project cycle process. At the social preparation stage, the software can facilitate the conduct of baseline surveys and/or the Participatory Situation Analysis (PSA) and in the validation of data. Local political leaders, government workers, NGO functionaries and private sector representatives can now use the same database and benchmarks in looking at the local poverty situation. At the project development stage, the software facilitates agreement on the targeting of project participants and beneficiaries and thus eliminates political interference in the project planning process. At the project selection stage, the software can provide a sound basis for prioritization of projects with the use of povertyrelated indicators. At the project implementation stage, the software can be a tool to check project status, update periodic reports to government and donors, facilitate feed-backing to local communities and households and thus contribute to local empowerment. It is also a vital tool to bring about the convergence of efforts of all development partners in addressing basic problems affecting socially and economically disadvantaged households and communities. It lays the groundwork for determining the impact of projects on the actual situation of households and local communities.

Dr. Nestor Pestelos is the President of the Bohol Local Development Foundation (BLDF) and former Head of the Bohol Poverty Reduction Management Office (BPRMO).


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

veys 1996). This means it has lost more than three quarters of its known corals, significantly affecting the breeding grounds of many marine fauna. The remaining corals are significantly threatened by collecting and exporting, blasting, use of cyanide, siltation, boat anchorage (especially diving boats), illegal fishing methods, storms, coral bleaching due to increased temperature, pier wharf and breakwater and other construction activities. Bohol’s water supply system for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses is mainly based on 2,224 springs, 59 rivers and 200 creeks. 22 river basins/ watersheds provide water for drinking and irrigation. The current quality of the water in the river catchments and streams is poor and will continue to deteriorate as human development activities increase.14 But through the years, there has been a lot of improvement in the provision of safe water to the local population. In 2004, households with no access to safe water went down by 45.68 percent (from 239,566 households in 2001 to 130,115 households in 2004). Similarly, households with no access to sanitary toilet facilities decreased by 6.45 percent (from 51,641 in 1998 to 48,306 in 2003). Nonetheless, the Provincial Health Office still noted the high rate of gastro-intes-

tinal (diarrheal) illnesses and other water-borne diseases due to poor quality of drinking water in many parts of the province.15 The growing population and the continued influx of migrants and transients into Bohol directly correlate with an increase in the volume of its solid wastes. Based on a population of 1.1 million, the province generates an estimated 550,000 kg/day of solid waste. At least 65 percent are compost-able, 20 percent are recyclable and the remaining 10 percent have to be carefully disposed of by local government units. Only a few households engage in waste segregation, composting and recycling. In certain municipalities, waste management is not yet planned due to unavailability of suitable land and the high cost of setting up and maintaining a sanitary landfill. The common disposal practice is burning, throwing anywhere and dumping in rivers and seas. Existing collection systems and waste management treatment is inadequate and the people are not properly educated as to the consequences of improper disposal.16 The lack of either a centralized drainage system or sewage system is another major environmental concern. There is a need for stricter supervision and

The Bohol Experience


monitoring of the construction of septic tanks and the waste disposal operation of industrial establishments. In addition, urban poor settlements in urban areas are located along the easements of rivers, waterways and coastal shorelines, clogging waterways and further aggravating solid waste disposal, public safety, health and drainage and creating a potential for flooding.17

ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY MDG Targets: • Rehabilitate 3,400 hectares of open and denuded areas within the watershed and forest reserves; • Ensure immediate formulation and implementation of Initial Protected Area Management Plans as well as enforcement of laws; • Protect and rehabilitate watersheds that are potential sources of water supply; • Reduce the number of households with doubtful sources of drinking water by 10 percent

GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT The Province of Bohol and its local government units partner with various multilateral and bilateral financing agencies and other support institutions. Support varies from the provision of technical assistance in various programs and projects to giving of grants

for the preservation of the environment and capability-building of local communities in the management of livelihood projects. Its partners include Australia’s AusAID, the Philipines Australia Community Assistance Program (PACAP), the Philippines Australia Human Resource Development Facility (PAHRDF), Germany’s GTZ, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Bank, the Belgian Government, the European Union, the Heifer Project International, the British Government, the Japan Bank For International Cooperation (JBIC)/Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the New Zealand Agency for International Development (NZAid), the Government of Finland, the Government of Austria, the Government of France and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

DEVELOP GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT MDG Targets: • Partnership and cooperation with International Organizations and Donor Agencies • Active partnership with the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and International Global Change Institute;



3 4 5


7 8

9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). Annual Per Capita Poverty Thresholds and Poverty Incidence 1997 – 2000. National Statistics Office (NSO). Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES), 2000 Provincial Health Office (PHO), Bohol Department of Health/Food Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), Medium Term Development Plan, Province of Bohol, CY 20042009 All references to the MDG Targets are taken from the Medium Term Development Plan, Province of Bohol, CY 2004-2009. Provincial Health Office (PHO), Bohol Medium Term Development Plan, Province of Bohol, CY 20042009 Provincial Health Office (PHO), Bohol Department of Health (DOH) Provincial Health Office (PHO), Bohol Provincial Health Office (PHO), Bohol Culled from the Medium Term Development Plan, Province of Bohol, CY 2004-2009 Basic data from Provincial Health Office (SWECO) Basic data from Provincial Health Office (SWECO) Basic data from Provincial Health Office (SWECO) Basic data from Provincial Health Office (SWECO)

Republic of the Philippines PROVINCE OF BOHOL City of Tagbilaran OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR EXECUTIVE ORDER 02 Series of 2006 ADOPTION, LOCALIZATION AND MONITORING OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDG) AS A FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN THE PROVINCE OF BOHOL WHEREAS, the Provincial Government of Bohol has committed itself to address poverty in a sustained and comprehensive manner to ensure a better quality of life for all Boholanons in an environment that is peaceful, ecologically sound, productive, participatory and gender-fair; WHEREAS, the Provincial Government of Bohol has adopted the “Bohol Program Framework on Poverty Reduction� with the ultimate goal of substantially reducing poverty incidence throughout the province through increased access to basic services and a pro-poor economic growth strategy specifically in the preferred areas of eco-cultural tourism, agricultural production and technology and livelihood development; WHEREAS, the Philippines is one of the signatories to the United Nations (UN) Millennium Declaration ratified and signed by member nations in September 2000, which embodies global and country commitments, specific targets and milestones in eliminating extreme poverty, improving health, and promoting peace, human rights, and environmental sustainability worldwide; WHEREAS, the UN Millennium Declaration has been translated into the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a global framework for development being adopted, implemented, supported, and monitored by the UN and its member countries, and other international organizations; WHEREAS, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set within 2015, affirm and reinforce the agreements on the goals and targets toward eliminating extreme poverty as embodied in its eight key goals having measurable outcomes, timelines for achievements, and clear indicators for monitoring progress; WHEREAS, the world leaders attending the September 2005 UN Summit reaffirmed their commitment to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development and global prosperity for all as expressed in the MDGs; WHEREAS, the MDGs are consistent with the framework, programs and targets articulated in the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) 2005-2010; WHEREAS, the Local Government Code of 1991 (LGC) mandates the Local Government Units (LGUs) to promote public health and safety, a balanced ecology, economic prosperity, full employment, peace and social justice which are also the same concerns expressed in the MDGs; WHEREAS, the Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act of 1997 gives the LGUs the frontline role in the fight against poverty, in providing basic services to their constituents and in the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the Anti-Poverty Reduction Agenda within their area of jurisdiction, including the coordination and monitoring of poverty alleviation efforts;

WHEREAS, the DILG Memorandum Circular 2003-92 dated April 29, 2003 mandates the institutionalization of the local monitoring system: consolidation of aggregate city, municipal and barangay data; process and analyze the data for diagnosis; prepare local poverty reduction plans and establish database that are electronically accessible and maintained data; WHEREAS, the DILG Memorandum Circular 2004-152 dated September 10, 2004 mandates the localization of the MDGs which entails the mainstreaming of the MDGs in the local development agenda, the adoption of benchmarks and monitoring system based on the Core Local Poverty Indicators, the implementation of programs, projects and activities (PPAs) towards the achievement of the MDGs and the allocation of resources for basic services responsive to the MDGs; WHEREAS, the Provincial Government of Bohol through EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 28, Series 2003, provided for the organization of the Local Poverty Reduction Teams (LPRATS) at all levels of government from barangay to the province as part of the efforts to assist the LGU to prepare poverty profiles including poverty maps, to serve as basis for local poverty reduction plans, programs and projects; WHEREAS, the Province of Bohol has been selected as a pilot area of the EU-assisted project on Local Monitoring System on the MDGs; NOW, THEREFORE, I, ERICO B. AUMENTADO, by virtue of the authority vested in me by law as Governor of the Province of Bohol, do hereby order: The adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a framework in local development planning, investment programming and monitoring and evaluation. The Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO) is, hereby, directed to coordinate with all concerned departments and offices to localize and promote the MDGs and to ensure the following: 1) Integration of the MDGs and key targets in the development agenda of the provincial government and all its departments, offices and agencies; 2) Development of an appropriate MDG monitoring system, including the adoption of relevant local indicators, benchmarking and target setting; 3) Support to all municipalities for their MDG localization initiatives; 4) Participation and mobilization of NGOs, the private sector, the Church and other local stakeholders in the pursuit of the MDGs; 5) Coordination with relevant national agencies in the localization and mainstreaming of the MDGs; 6) Establishment of productive partnership with donor countries and institutions in the pursuit of the MDGs; 7) Preparation of Annual Provincial Status Reports on the MDGs. This Order shall take effect immediately upon issuance and shall remain in force until revoked by the undersigned. Done this 1st day of February, 2006 in the City of Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines

ERICO B. AUMENTADO Governor Province of Bohol

The Bohol Experience






IGHTING poverty has been a priority agenda of the Municipality of Tubigon. Its develop ment thrust is geared towards better economic opportunity and the improvement of the quality of life of its constituents, more specifically the marginalized sector of the community. These efforts are more pronounced in the municipal development agenda’s reflection with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Tubigon Ten-Year Municipal Development Plan (2000-2010) seeks to address poverty through the promotion of better economic opportunities, en-

hancing the delivery of basic services, strengthened fiscal management and a more sustainable utilization of natural resources — goals that mirrored the objectives of the MDG. To enrich these efforts, the Municipal Poverty Profile was developed through the LPRAP, which further mainstreamed the objectives of the MDG with the current realities of the municipalities, thereby localizing the implementation of the MDG. The local poverty profile was used as the main tool for updating the Ten-Year Municipal Development Plan, making the plan more relevant to the needs of time. The revision hopes to address crosscutting

The report was prepared by the Technical Working Core Group (TWCG) of the Municipality of Tubigon whose members are Noel C. Mendaña, Chairman (Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator), Dionisio P. Sarpamones (Municipal Engineer), Dr. Bob Bernabe Batausa (Municipal Health Officer), Mrs. Yolanda Labella (Municipal Agriculturist’s Office), Ma.Lourdes Gimena (Day Care Officer, Office of the Municipal Social Welfare and Development), Erlinda Villame (Principal, Department of Education), Gerardo Chagas (Executive Assistant to the Mayor) and Roy Rhubee Jones Omaña (Data Controller, Office of the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator).


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

TUBIGON Location: 54 kms. Northeast of Tagbilaran City Land area: 8,186.96 hectares Topography: Moderately sloping to rolling Municipal income class: Third class municipality Population: 40,385 (2000); Projected population: 44,267 (2004) Households:7,714 (2000) Barangays: 334 (including 12 coastal and six island) Major economic activities: Farming and fishing, trade and commerce Major industries: Marine product processing, metalcraft Employment: 60 percent in farming and fishing Prevalence of underweight among 0-5 year old: 13.2 percent (2004); 11.32 percent (2003) Households with access to sanitary toilet: 69 percent (2003) Households with access to potable drinking water: 89 percent (2003)

The Bohol Experience


BRIEF HISTORY THE town of Tubigon was said to have been established in 1819 although some documents say the area was already considered a town in 1818 under the tutelage of a captain. Early writings on Tubigon noted that its early settlers called the town ‘Tubigan’, meaning, having water — possibly because the community was

issues and concerns that hamper the achievement of its goals, such as a disparity in the allocation of resources, and the passage of more comprehensive policies to enhance delivery of basic social services. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that the local leadership has been at the forefront of fighting poverty. However, notwithstanding its accomplishments, the need to push forward is still very evident. It needs its collective voice and effort, and optimal use of very limited resources to really make a difference in the lives of its constituents. The municipality of Tubigon affirms its commitment towards achieving the MDGs, and will continually and dutifully do its part in these efforts. We encourage other stakeholders to do their part as well. Together we will make a difference.

Municipal profile A. PHYSICAL CONDITION 1. Geographical location and physical characteristics The Municipality of Tubigon is located at the northeastern part of the Province of Bohol. It is 54 km from the capital City of Tagbilaran along the Tagbilaran North Road and 21 nautical miles south of Cebu City. The municipality is bounded on the east by the Municipality of Clarin, on the south by the Municipality of Catigbi-an and San Isidro, on the west by the Municipality of Calape and on the north by the Bohol Strait. The municipality has a total land area of 8,186.96 hectares or 81.8696 sq. km. It has 34 barangays, 12 of which are coastal and six are island barangays. The dominant slope is moderately sloping to rolling (8-18 percent), which covers about 43.77 percent and is very noticeable on the strip of flat lands running alongside the coastline. (See map) 2. Climate The climate of Tubigon is classified as Type IV of the Philippine Climatological condition. There is no


always submerged in water when rivers overflow during the rainy season. It was later renamed ‘Tubigon’ referring to a place abounding in water because of the many springs and streams in the town. Chroniclers also noted that the American regime was marked by the visit of General Leonard Wood in 1921 and Colonel Thompson in 1926 to investigate conditions in this country.

pronounced wet and dry season. Climatic condition is characterized by maximum rain periods and relatively short dry seasons. 3. Land use Tubigon approved and adopted its revised Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance on September 25, 1998. The area classified for agricultural use comprises the biggest portion of the classification, with a total area of 5,139.4 hectares or 62.78 percent of total. The built-up areas comprise 423.116 hectares or 5.17 percent. Other uses are agro-forestry, 1,744.217 has; industrial use, 347.864 has.; tourism, 17. 356 has; solid waste disposal, 17.356 has.; and mangrove area, 497.603 has. The urban center of Tubigon is composed of five barangays with a total land area of 294.3131 ha. The proposed Urban Land Use is predominantly classified as residential, as this covers 44.35 percent of the total urban area. The Commercial Zone covers 8.58 percent and the Industrial zone, 40.455 ha or 13.75 percent. B. SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITION 1. Population Based on the 2000 census, the municipality of Tubigon has a total population of 40,385 and total households of 7,714. Average household size is 5.2 persons per household. Average mean density is 4.9 persons per hectare. In the urban district the density is 32 and in the rural area it is four persons per hectare. The average growth rate from 1980 – 2000 is 1.2. Although outmigration is a very common concern in most rural municipalities, Tubigon is experiencing in-migration in recent years as evidenced by the sudden surge of its population growth (2.5 percent) in the last five years ( 5,807 increase in five years; 1995 –2000 census). This fact verified the claim that Tubigon is fast becoming the major growth center in this part of the province.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

steel windows and steel gates for shipment to different areas in Bohol and the region as well. The economic activities in Tubigon are largely fueled and influenced by the Port of Tubigon which has 21 trips, the most in the province including Tagbilaran City, a day to Cebu City. The average incoming traffic to the port recorded at 3,000 passengers a day. As a major port of entry to the Province of Bohol and the number one gateway to the Queen City of the South, Tubigon plays a very vital role in the development not only of the Province, but of the region as well, considering the flow of commerce and people passing through the town. Tubigon and northeastern Bohol could be major suppliers of agricultural and fishery products and manpower requirement to Cebu City and also offer an alternative residential retreat from the crowded and densely populated City.

2. Major economic activities Major economic activities in the municipality, like other rural communities, are farming and fishing. Trading and commercial activities are very active in the poblacion or urban area, mainly because of the easy access to Cebu City. Farm and fishery products are traded in the main commercial center, the Tubigon Public Market, for distribution to neighboring municipalities and to Cebu City. The opening of the new Tubigon Commercial Complex has triggered a surge in economic activity in the area. Likewise, commercial goods and hardware products are shipped from Cebu City for distribution to different areas in the province. The Bohol Aquamarine Development Corporation is the only major processing industry in Tubigon, processing marine products, mainly tiger prawn, for export. Metal craft is also a thriving industry in Tubigon producing metal products such as ferocraft furnitures,

3. Employment distribution by sector The majority of the labor force are into farming and fishing, with about 60 percent directly or indirectly engaged in the sector. Trade and commerce, services, public service and small and medium enterprises cover the major categories of the labor force. The lack of labor-intensive industries and manufacturing establishment have kept the labor force to rely on fishery and farming as the main livelihood opportunity in Tubigon; however, an increasing trend towards microenterprises and trade and commerce has been very significant lately. This may be attributed to the emerging status of Tubigon as a major growth center in the area. C. MUNICIP AL FINANCE MUNICIPAL 1. Income class Tubigon is a third class Municipality based on Income Classification set by the Department of Finance, Bureau of Local Government Finance. The upgrading of the income classification was approved in December 2001. Annual income of the municipality of Tubigon for the year 2004 was P55,372,682.75 generated from the following sources: Internal revenue 50 % Business taxes and rentals 33 % Real property 5% Economic enterprises 11 % Other sources (fees & charges) 1% 100 % The Bohol Experience


The approved annual budget for the year 2004 including the various economic enterprises of the LGU was pegged at P61,876,500.00

TUBIGON POVERTY MAP (Households Below Income Threshold by Barangay, 2003) Inset of Tubigon Islands

The MDGs in Tubigon When the municipality of Tubigon affirmed its commitment towards achieving the MDGs, it also directed its efforts at revising its 10-year municipal development plan to incorporate these goals and align targets with that of the MDGs by 2015. This report features the status of the MDGs in Tubigon as well as the related plans, targets and estimated budget in realizing the MDGs at the municipal level. In Percent




to 0.48 by 2015. To achieve these, it will focus on the major challenges and priorities of action: the promotion of alternative and supplemental livelihood for the target group and strengthening of local government and civil society capacities. The 2003 Municipal Poverty Profile showed that 589 out of 5,205 children in Tubigon aged 0-5 are malnourished. They constitute 11.32 percent total. This is a slight improvement from the previous year’s 12 percent. Nevertheless, it is quite disturbing since the municipality was cited for having the best nutrition program of the province for the year 2003.

Target: Lesser Households Living Below Income and Food Threshold 35


30 25 In percent

As of 2003, a total of 780 households (HHs) or 9.6 percent in the municipality of Tubigon were living below the food threshold (PhP8,134 per capita per annum). These are more pronounced in the island barangay and the hinterlands where economic opportunities are least. However, only 10 HHs were reported to have no food for three full meals a day. In terms of overall poverty incidence, 2,645 HHs or 32.43 percent of Tubignons live below the income threshold despite Tubigon’s being tagged one of the major growth centers of Bohol. Tubigon’s poverty incidence is higher than that of Central Visayas and the national level, placed at 23.7 and 24.7 percent respectively. Much higher still are the poverty incidences of its poorer barangays. The poorest among the barangays of Tubigon is Bagongbanwa with poverty incidence at 77.6 percent. The other poor barangays are Banlasan (51.5 percent poverty incidence), Bilangbilangan (49.55 percent), Villanueva (44.3 percent), Cahayag (44.12 percent). Unemployment rate in 2003 stood at 10.49 percent or 2,281 persons in the labor force were without work. Among the barangays of Tubigon, Pooc Oriental had the highest unemployment rate at 19.42 percent followed by Banlasan at 18.99 percent, Panaytayon at 17.97 percent, Cahayag at 16.17 percent and Panadtaran at 16.11 percent. The local government aims to bring down the unemployment rate to five percent by 2015. The Municipal Government of Tubigon also intends to reduce poverty incidence from 32.43 to 1.62 percent and subsistence incidence from 9.56 percent

14.35 – 30.16 30.17 – 45.98 45.99 – 61.80 61.81 – 77.60

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

20 15 10

16.215 9.56 4.78

5 0


2010 Year

1.62 0.48 2015

The Municipal Nutrition Council, in an effort to reconcile result with input resources, has drawn up major policy reforms for the nutrition program of the LGU, targeting the most depressed areas and specific underweight children. A community-based project is also on the drawing board. Dubbed “ZERO” malnutrition in the barangay, it encourages the participation of communities, civil society, NGOs and local governments in addressing malnutrition concerns. An going supplemental feeding program under the Early Child Development (ECD) program is being undertaken with support from the LGU and the Feed the Children Phil., Inc, an NGO working for the welfare of children.

GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION For SY 2004-2005, total enrolment in both public and private elementary school was 6,558. Tubigon enjoyed a relatively high participation rate at 98.32 percent. Cohort survival at elementary level, or the proportion of children reaching grade six, is relatively high at 74.27 percent compared to the national level, 64.15 percent (SY 2003-2004). There is, however, a huge disparity by gender in relation to cohort survival at the elementary level; female cohort survival is at 84.51 percent while male cohort survival is at 65.17 percent. Literacy rate for the town is 97 percent. The municipality has 37 day care centers, 32 elementary schools and five high schools. Almost all barangay including the islands have elementary schools. Classroom-to-pupil ratio is 1:32 and teacher-to-pupil ratio is 1:38. The three remaining barangays without a public elementary school are located in the poblacion district and within the coverage area of the Tubigon Central School.

Education Indicators SY 2003-2004 120

In percent


96.32 74.27

80 60 40 20 0 Participation rate

Cohort survival

Repair and maintenance of school buildings and classrooms are the major challenges of DepEd and the LGU, notwithstanding the nonavailability of reading materials and books for the school children.

GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN The disparity of opportunities accorded women has not been a major concern in Tubigon. Data shows that more women than men are in school and the literacy rate is higher among women. However, gender equality and empowering women remains a serious challenge in other areas, such as domestic violence involving women, women’s share in nonagricultural employment as well as women’s participation in local governance. The recent MDG survey by the Municipality of Tubigon brought to the surface cases of domestic violence. Among the households surveyed, 404 or 16.1 percent of households said they know or heard of cases of domestic violence in their community; 339 or 13.5

Cases of domestic violence heard about in the community, 2005 Others 11%

Grave threats 27.6%

Battery 15.5%

Verbal abuse 22%

Rape 23.9%

percent claimed that these incidents were reported to authorities. In addition, 103 or 4.1 percent of households admitted that incidence of domestic violence happened in their households. It is significant to note that rape cases are among the highest reported by the respondents. Grave threats and verbal abuse are the other common cases of domestic violence in the community. Within the household, respondents admitted verbal abuse as the most common incident, with few cases of battery. Women’s participation in local governance, although making headway, still has room for improveThe Bohol Experience


Table 1. Cases of Domestic Violence

* The number is more than the figure above since more than one case may be selected by the Household respondents.

ment. As reflected in the Elected Women Official Index, although female participation/representation in SK has reached 50 percent, female barangay officials comprise merely 31 percent. The women also still have a lot of work to do in gaining representation at the municipal level since decision-making and power over the municipality’s resources remain solely in the hands of the men. The MDG survey also looked into women’s membership in organizations. Most of the women who responded said they belong to church-related organizations (747) while others are members of youth organizations (284) and/or cooperative/microfinance groups (125). The survey also showed there are more cellphones owned or controlled by women. These opportunities, together with recent initiatives, such as: • The formulation by the municipality of the GAD plan and budget Table 2. Elected Women Official Index

*The overall index is computed based on the weighted average of the three indices with the corresponding weights (Municipal=3 pts.; Barangay=2 pts.; Youth [SK]= 1 pt.). The municipal index is computed by getting the average of the female-to-male ratio of the top 2 officials – Mayor and VM and the female-male ratio of Municipal Kagawads. The same is also done with barangay officials female-male ratio of Barangay Captains and of Barangay Kagawads.


• The setting up of Women’s Desk and VAW program at the municipal level; and the VAW programs in 34 barangays of Tubigon • Gender-sensitive training in 12 of the 34 barangays of Tubigon if further enhanced, can help pursue a favorable environment for women to achieve empowerment and gender equality. Municipal efforts are geared toward the attainment of gender equality. Training and seminars on the subject matter are now conducted jointly by government, the private sector and women’s organizations. Social and economic opportunities for women are now strongly promoted and pursued. TESDA and DepeD are providing training programs designed to advocate and promote gender equality, major development programs of the LGU include gender sensitivity components. The municipal government of Tubigon has earmarked P2.5million for its GAD budget and targets another P2million from external sources to fund programs and projects for this goal.

GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY In 2004 children under-five mortality in Tubigon was recorded at 28 deaths per 1,000 live births. In the same year, the health unit recorded five infant deaths. The MDG survey however revealed 19 infants who died in a span of 12 months. To reduce infant and child mortality rates, Municipality of Tubigon prepares to strengthen its programs and services for children. Infant given immunization against measles is relatively high at 81.52 percent. Full immunization cov-

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

erage of children nine to eleven months old is also relatively high at 82.83 percent. Full implementation of health friendly programs by the LGU are among the factors that contributed to this achievement such as the expanded immunization program, the Early Child Development (ECD) project, implementation of the ASIN law and several others. However, to reach and attain the MDG target for 2015 of 100 percent immunization, efforts to enhance these existing programs should be sustained including sustained advocacy and education of parents. These programs must also be mainstreamed with LGU priority concerns for sustained funding support. The Municipal government of Tubigon targets a budget of Php 2.5 million to be generated internally and Php 5 million from external sources until 2015 for its IEC, immunization program and marriage counseling.

In addition to maternal mortality rate, other indicators such as safe reproduction, teenage pregnancies and family planning practices were monitored to better describe maternal health status. Administrative data showed a high proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel such as doctors and midwives. Of the total 987 live births, nearly two thirds (615) were attended by midwives and 336 were attended by doctors; the remaining 36 were attended by trained hilot. The MDG survey noted that 209 of 211 births (or 99 percent) were attended by skilled health personnel such as doctors, nurses and midwives. Of the

reported 209 deliveries, a significant number (61 percent) took place at home while the rest took place in health facilities such as the rural health units or hospitals. Teenage pregnancies, an additional indicator for monitoring maternal health, was generated through the MDG survey. Its accompanying medical problem includes the incomplete development of the young mother herself. The survey identified seven cases of teenage pregnancies (three of whom were still pregnant while four have already given birth at the time of interview). Teenage pregnancy incidence is at 1.2 per 100 (or seven in 585 young women aged 15 to 19). The survey determined that among household members practicing family planning methods, 36.29 percent use the rhythm method followed by 31.13

Deliveries Attended by Health Personnel

Households Practicing Family Planning


Trained hilot 3.65%

Condom 7.58% Doctors 34.04%

Midwives 62.31%

Tubal ligation 15.32%

Rhythm 36.29%

Pills 31.13%

The Bohol Experience


percent with the use of pills and 15.32 percent with tubal ligation. Condom use is low at 7.58 percent. The LGU had estimated a budget of P200,000 pesos until 2015 to achieve as reduction of maternal mortality from 1.1 percent in 2003 to 0.25 percent in 2015.

GOAL 6: COMBAT HIV/AIDS, AND OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASE The LGU of Tubigon hopes to drastically reduce if not completely eradicate Pneumonia and Tuberculosis in the municipality by 2015. Pneumonia is among the major causes of death in Tubigon. In 2004, recorded pneumonia cases reached a high 202 (102 males and 100 females). Almost half of the cases came from Barangay Ubojan. The recurrence of Tuberculosis in Tubigon (71 cases in 2004, 42 males and 29 females) poses another big challenge to the health program of the LGU. There is a matter of concern in the sense that TB control programs have been in place. Although efforts to eradicate TB in the locality have been pursued, there’s the big challenge of reviewing the existing TB control program to really address the TB menace in the LGU. Continuous educational campaigns should be undertaken and a better data base should be in place to properly monitor the effectiveness and outcome of the program. The LGU has initially estimated that some P40,000 will be needed to pursue its campaign and monitoring of program outcomes.

Incidence of Tuberculosis and Pneumonia, 2004

The LGU has passed and approved landmark legislation to effectively manage its environment and natural resources. The municipality was among the very first to enact a Municipal Environment Code in 1998, which laid down the foundation of other relevant measures to manage the environment. The municipal Coastal Resource Management Code was passed in 2000 and it is now finalizing its Solid Waste Management Code. Forgoing partnerships with National Government Agencies, NGOs and the private sector is one of the major strategies adopted while relying on a community based approached to optimize participation of communities in these efforts. Nonetheless, much has still to be done to ensure environmental sustainability. In terms of waste management, the MDG survey has shown that as of 2004, only 35.7 percent of HHs were practicing waste segregation. And about 77.4 percent of HHs were using solid fuel (firewood/charcoal) for cooking.



Percent of Families Practicing Waste Segregation Pneumonia


100 80



150 200 No. of cases


350 In percent


GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Environmental and natural resource management is a major strategic development thrust of the LGU.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

60 40 20 0


Percent of Households which Segregate Various Types of Materials

Harmful waste disposal practices are still prevalent. Burning is still done by 67.6 percent of households and dumping of hazardous elements such as expired medicines and chemical containers in open pits is still prevalent (about 25 percent of households). However, positive undertakings and measures are happening for the municipality. A couple of environmental management initiatives are being implemented or under way to improve environmental management. These include efforts towards increasing forest cover from 395 has to 425 has by 2015. The Comprehensive Land Use Plan adopted and approved in 1998 has clearly identified strategies and measures in municipal spatial development to effect sustainable environmental management. Current development trends include the establishment of a sanitary landfill, mangrove reforestation, social reforestation and establishment of marine protected areas. The LGU is also a pilot area for the “Eco-Budget� project, an environmental management system supported by the International Council on Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and the European Union (EU). The LGU also hopes to improve household access to safe water from 89 percent in 2003 to 96 per-

Target: More Access to Safe Water and Sanitary Toilet by 2015 120

In percent


96% 89% 97%

80 60 69% 40 20 0


2010 Year


cent by 2015. Due to geographic location the six island barangays of Tubigon are the most deprived areas in terms of access to safe drinking water. About 95 percent of the inhabitants in the islands depend on rainwater for their water needs including water for drinking. About 850 HHs are affected. Over all, about 10.97 percent of total HHs in the LGU have nonpotable water source. Relative to this problem is access to sanitary toilets; 30.76 percent of total HHs are involve. The LGU intends to increase household access to sanitary toilet from 69 percent in 2003 to 97 percent in 2015. Major steps are onstream to address the issue. Construction of additional rainwater collectors and the introduction of water treatment technology are programmed to address the issue of potability in the island areas. Privatization initiatives have been discussed for the municipal waterworks system to enhance the capability to deliver safe water to more HHs. An intensive educational program is also under way to resolve the issues of sanitation and sanitation services. To concretize initiatives towards environmental sustainability including ensuring sanitation and access to safe drinking water, an estimated budget of P17.8 million, of which P7.6 million is to be generated internally and the rest P10.2 million, from outside the LGU. The Bohol Experience


MONITORING THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS The Municipal Poverty Profile The Municipal Poverty Profile (MPP) generated through the Local Poverty Reduction data base will be the main tool to be used in monitoring the effectiveness and outcome of the implementation of initiatives designed to attain the eight goals of the MDG. The Municipal Poverty Profile, which provides information down to the household level, is an excellent tool for focusing on gaps in delivery of services down to the community. It can be effectively interlinked with other information management systems (MIS) such as the Dev Info, LGPMS and CBMS for a better understanding of the current poverty situation of the community or the LGU. Its information will be used to formulate legislation, policy framework and development initiatives to better address poverty needs down to the household level.

GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Forgoing partnerships, domestic (local) and international, has been a key strategy for Tubigon for its development initiatives. It has directly linked with international donor agencies for technical and financial support for its development programs. Tubigon has been a partner of the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung and CIDA for its international partnerships program and several others. Through various NGOs, it has gained hospital equipment for its municipal hospital, owned and operated by the LGU, and technical and financial assistance for potable water supply.

It can be updated regularly (annually) with major updates every three years to make the data and information more relevant and substantive. Advocating and promoting the MDG The attainment of the MDG needs a strong advocacy for ownership and sustained action to operationalize the goals and targets at the local level. The local government unit (LGU) will spearhead its advocacy and promotion among different sectors of the community through the following: a. The Sangguniang Bayan – through a resolution adopting and localizing the MDG b. Local Development Council – MDG goals and targets and the

The LGU is also a recipient of aid from major government projects such as the ARCDP, BIARSP, PACAP and several others. It will continue to tap and link with the international community to seek support for its propoor agenda. The LGU aims to generate 20 percent of its budget through ODA by 2015.




Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

MPP will be major inputs in the updating and revision of the Municipal Medium-Term Plan to make it more responsive to address poverty. c. Strong support from civil society organizations in achieving the MDGs Financing the MDG Attaining the MDG needs more than just financial resources. It needs innovative leadership and commitment from everybody. But above all it needs sustained and substantial funding support . This may be generated from internal (local) and external sources. Roughly, Tubigon will need about P43 million from 2006-2015 to implement MDG-related programs, projects and activities. About 35 percent or P15 million will come from internal sources and the rest from outside. It will come in the form of either technical or financial support.

VISION As we move into 21st century, we believe that it is necessary to create a vibrant future for our citizens that will improve our overall quality of life. Our vision for the Municipality of Tubigon has been designed to allow us to manage the significant changes that we will experience. Further, it will assist us in organizing our activities logically to meet the needs of our people. We will ensure that our future is designed to be respective of our rich culture and traditions, yet diverse enough to foster sustainable developments that will increase our tax base and create jobs and wealth for our citizens. It is our hope that our visions builds a confident and stimulating atmosphere for all to move forward by: • Improving and sustaining a positive environment for orderly business and economic growth; • Recognizing our past and using our experience to guide our future decision making; • Relying on our municipal values to assist us in our democratic decision making process

Tubigon By the year 2010, the municipality of T ubigon will be: • Recognized for its diverse economic base while continuing to develop its strong agricultural sector. • A role model for other local government administrator to emulate and recognize for its effective and efficient means of governance. • A major port-of-entry that will have the capa-

Conclusion Government and communities have been waging war on poverty since time immemorial. With the advent of globalization, waging this war is no longer the turf of individual governments nor of singular communities but of aggregated leadership and communities, rich and poor alike. Poverty has become a global phenomenon that affects every aspect of life on the planet. Its effects can no longer be confined to its original geographic location but cuts across all nations around the world. It is therefore everyone’s responsibility to share in conquering this menace. The municipality of Tubigon affirms its commitment towards achieving the MDGs, and will continually and dutifully do its part in these efforts. We encourage other stakeholders to contribute and do their part as well. Together we will make the difference.

bilities to transport locally grown and developed products to market across the region and country. • Able to provide its citizens with basic level of service at a reasonable cost which will include: • Primary health care facilities • Water and sanitary sewage facility’s • Adequate housing for all • Care facility’s for our elderly population • Recreation and cultural based opportunities and facilities for our youth • Education facilities • Paved roadways and transportation facilities • A pollution free environment • A peaceful and safe community managed by trained police force

MISSION The purpose of the Municipality of Tubigon is to create a positive environment for sustainable growth through the provision of effective and efficient municipal service and local governance that will improve the quality of life of our citizens

Plans: Recent municipal development trends and constraints Consistent with the municipal vision of making Tubigon a primary growth center and major port of entry for the Province of Bohol, with a strong and diverse economic base , and with affordable and quality basic services for its citizens, recent developments in Tubigon have been geared toward the realization of these goals. The Bohol Experience


The completion of the Bohol Circumferential Road Phase 1 has improved transportation services and reduced travel time to key destination in the province. Tubigon boasts of four telephone companies (PLDT, CRUZTELCO, GLOBE-ISLAPHONE, BUTEL) offering direct dial services to its clientele. Cellular phone sites have been established to cater to the skyrocketing demand for cellular services. The current upgrading and expansion of the Tubigon port would make it a major port of entry to the Island Province. At present, 16 regular two-hour trips are on the Tubigon-Cebu route and five fast craft services with plying time of 45 minutes only. RollOn-Roll-Off services are also available twice a day. With the completion of the upgrading and expansion program, it is expected that passenger and cargo traffic will be more than double and will be a catalyst for more economic and commercial activities in the municipality. Basic services such as health, education, social welfare, and environmental protection have been pursued vigorously, making Tubigon a prime destination by other LGUs as model in terms of municipal services delivery. The Tubigon Coastal Resource


Management Program is being considered as one of the best-implemented community-based and community friendly program in the region. Tubigon operates a municipal hospital wholly owned by the LGU and considered as one of the best primary health facility in the district. Collaboration is a major strategy for development by the LGU. The municipality boasts of five NGOs working in 10 pilot barangays and possible expansion to more areas, collaborating with the LGU in the implementation of the different development project of the local government. Tubigon has very strong partnership undertakings with the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung of Germany and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, which have been modeled or other partnership programs by the FCM. The current economic slowdown is a constraint to the realization of the Municipal Development Plan, and has affected business and investor confidence. The current peace and order situation has added to this predicament. Foreseen obstacles are political in nature. A changing of political leadership in the region may affect the current development thrust of the present leadership.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Programs And Budget Allocation

The Bohol Experience


The Millennium Development Goals Monitoring System

Translating Information into Plans and Strategies The Tubigon Experience By Engr. NOEL MENDAĂ‘A


HE Municipality of Tubigon is one of the pilot municipalities in the Province of Bohol where the MDG monitoring system is being implemented and tested. However, even before the project, the local government had already used other measures and mechanisms that enabled it to translate data and information into plans and actions to address specific community needs and issues. This local government initiative is done annually through the LGU annual strategic planning workshop and monitored periodically during monthly joint executive and legislative conferences. The MDG monitoring system has enhanced this particular LGU mechanism in the sense that the LGU response to the needs of the community, especially the marginalized sectors, has become more focused on the MDG goals and targets. The output generated has provided local functionaries and elected officials with a wider base of information to respond to priority needs with respect to the MDG goals and targets; and provides a simple but clear picture for monitoring and evaluation of the initiatives being implemented.

The Annual Municipal Strategic Planning Workshop The Municipal Strategic Planning Workshop is an annual activity of the local government unit, with all department heads of offices and all elected officials attending and the presiding Mayor. This activity enables the LGU to review and evaluate the performance of each department with respect to their approved annual work plan and the overall development agenda of the municipality; identify the gaps and weaknesses with respect to its implementation and the corrective measures needed to address the flaw. It also gives an opportunity for local leaders to see what initiatives and programs were effective, and how these can be enhanced and replicated to improve other operational mechanisms of governance. The outcome of this workshop is the development agenda of the LGU for the ensuing year, given the different outlook and development initiatives proposed by the different sectors/departments with respect to the Medium Term Development Plan of the

Engr. Noel MendaĂąa is the Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator of Tubigon, Bohol. He is also the president of the Local Planning and Development Coordinators of the Philippines, Bohol Chapter.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

local government and the Provincial and the National Development Agenda. A preliminary or draft financial plan is also formulated to tie in programs, projects and activities with budget allocations to ensure a workable development agenda and not just pay mere lip service. Critical to the workshop is the quality and quantity of data and information exchanged and analyzed, as such would dictate the outcome of the activity. The MDG monitoring system, program, projects and activities that contribute to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals and Targets are now given emphasis since the system’s output clearly defines the gaps and issues of each particular sector. As indicated earlier, the MDG system has enhanced the LGU tool and mechanism, and this is clearly evidenced by the inclusion of specific projects, programs and activities that relate to MDG. The enhanced information also triggered the review of action plans and implementation strategies because gaps in the achievement of work plan targets were clearly highlighted. The 2006 Development Agenda of the Municipality of Tubigon clearly mirrors the reflection of the MDG monitoring output. Whereas before, the sectoral annual work plans of the local government departments, though enriched in social services and development initiatives, are more generic and thus respond to a general issue, these now clearly and specifically define the programs and strategies leading toward the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals and Targets; and allocated their corresponding financial support to ensure implementation. A good example is the nutrition program in which the LGU of Tubigon has been a consistent winner for several years. A review of the percentage of malnourished children 0-5 years old showed a discouraging 13 percent rate which is high, considering the success rate of the Municipal Nutrition Program as evidenced by its awards. It was found out that the feeding program strategy was not effective. The implementation strategy was redesigned and policy reforms introduced to include in the supplemental feeding program only those children who were identified as malnourished and to institute a better monitoring scheme. Given the right environment of political support and community involvement, the 2006 development agenda is expected to paint a clear picture of MDG bias and hopefully help realize the vision of the Millennium Declaration.

Lessons Learned Political support and commitment: The strategic planning process has been the key to the level of political support and commitment the LGU is getting from its elected officials. Their involvement in the “Process” from the very beginning, especially in the identification of gaps and issues and in the formulation of plans of action and strategies, has lent them a high degree of ownership of the outcome of the activity (development agenda); thus they commit themselves to its achievement. Political involvement should not be limited to just debates in the session halls and in their offices, but should also include their contribution at the ground level. The implementation of the Millennium Development Goals monitoring system in Tubigon was no different as political support and commitment was secured and ensured from the very beginning. Good organization The creation of a multisectoral and multidisciplinary Technical Working Group (TWG) was perfect for the project, and it made data gathering and information sharing easy. It allows for individual expertise to float while maintaining its grip on a collective output.

Conclusion There’s no denying that the task of improving the lives of our citizens is Herculean, and it is the mission of the municipality. No single individual may be able to handle it alone. Thus, both the executive and the legislative branches of the local government have forged together, binding ourselves to work in one direction, one voice and one vision, guided by the principles of teamwork, perseverance and optimism to pursue the ultimate goal of improving our citizens’ quality of life. The Bohol Experience




Prepared by TECHNICAL WORKING CORE GROUP PHYSICAL CONDITION Geographical location and physical characteristics ILAR is situated 42 kms northeast of Tagbilaran City, in the interior portion of Bohol’s mainland. It is accessible by land transportation within one hour and twenty minutes from the capital. Its topography is rolling to mountainous, with slopes reaching a steep 50 percent in some places. It is 1,200 feet above mean sea level, with a cold and humid climate. The municipality is bounded on the north by the town of Batuan, east by Dimiao, southeast by Lila,


south by Loboc and west by Sevilla. It is also bounded by two forests, the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape in the east and the Loboc Watershed to the west, and surrounded by hills, forested mountains and valleys. The vast forested area has become a watershed for the NPC Hydroelectric. It has an abundant supply of water flowing towards the lower level of Dimiao, Lila and Loboc River. Land use The total land area of the municipality is 13,315 hectares, 45.81 percent of which is forested. More than 7,360 has. is considered alienable and disposable.

The Technical Working Core Group (TWG) of the Municipality of Bilar is composed of Loel Maglente, Focal Person (Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator), Jose Jeffrey Bernasor (Municipal Local Government Operations Office), Evangeline Delfin (Municipal Health Office), Municipal Engineering Office, Helen Quion/Darlene Magtajas (Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office), Tabitha Loy-a/Ireneo Macalolot (Municipal Agriculturist’s Office), Ma. Cristina Calamba (Division Office of the Department of Education), Ma. Flor Mascariñas (Municipal Accountant), Liga Ng Mga Barangay, Public Employment Services Office and Soil and Water Conservation Foundation Inc. (CSO partner institution)


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

BILAR Location: Northeast of Tagbilaran City Population: 16,628 (2000) (19 percent in urban areas) Average growth rate: 1.46 percent Municipal income class: Fifth class municipality Topography: Rolling to mountainous terrain Area: 13,315 hectares Alienable and disposable area: 55 percent Forest cover: 45.81 percent Barangays: 19 bgys. (Rural – 17, Urban – 2) Major economic activities: Agriculture (mainly rice and corn farming) Cottage industries (food, handicrafts, blacksmith)

The Bohol Experience


BRIEF HISTORY THE town of Bilar was officially organized into a municipality by Royal Decree in 1830. It is said that the town’s name was the product of a misconception by Spanish explorers of the period who were tasked to survey the island of Bohol. They had listed the town’s name as Binlad, since what they chanced upon in the village were women drying palay or “nagabinlad”. Bilar used to include the land area of what are now four other towns – Sierra Bullones, Sevilla, Carmen and Batuan. The present-day Bilar was organized in 1974. In July 10, 1997, the timber lands in the east portion of Bilar, Batuan and Carmen, including those of Valencia, Garcia-Hernandez and Sierra-Bullones, with their unique physical values and beauty that have development potential, were officially proclaimed as Rajah Sikatuna National Park (RSNP) by virtue of Presidential Proclamation 129 issued by President Corazon Aquino. Following the R.A. 7586 (NIPAS Act of 1992), it is now known as Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, per Proclamation 287.

Major economic activities Agricultural activities provide the main source of income for the majority of the population. They rely on farming mainly rice and corn, the major staple food. The total land area devoted to rice, irrigated and rain-fed, is some 1,096.4686 has. Its gross production is some 6.4 MT per ha. Bilarnons also plant assorted vegetables, including legumes, root crops, fruit trees and industrial crops. Root crops such as ube, camote, cassava and gabi serve as alternates to rice and corn as food staples in case of scarcity. The people also gather timber. They raise livestock and poultry. Almost every household has a backyard poultry and piggery and some are producing in commercial volume. Although Bilar is situated in the interiors, its waters are inhabited by various marine species. Local residents, particularly those living along river banks, depend on the river for their fish and other aquatic needs. Also providing livelihood are cottage industries such as handicraft, food processing, and blacksmithing. There were 24 listed industrial establishments in 1998, including seven rice mills, four corn mills, five black-

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS Population The town’s population was listed at 16,628 (2000 Census), with an average growth rate of 1.46 percent. Its population density was 1.22 per hectare (2005). There were 2,967 households, with an average size of 5.6 persons per household. At least 19 percent of the population lives in the urban areas.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


smith shops and three welding shops. Trade and commerce is not as fast as in highly urbanized cities or municipalities. Education and health Bilar has seven complete elementary schools and 12 primary schools. It also has two public high schools. The Central Visayas State College of Agriculture, Forestry and Technology (CVSCAFT) is also based here. Bilar has only one Rural Health Unit and four barangay health stations. It has at least 12 health personnel but they are supplemented by some 113 barangay health workers and 25 trained hilots.

In 2004, the overall poverty incidence of Bilar was high at 54.18 percent compared to 23.7 percent for Central Visayas and 24.7 percent (2003) at the national level. While 2003 subsistence food threshold in the country was 10.4 percent of households, the municipality got a high incidence at 42.57 percent in 2004. Employment opportunity in the municipality is scarce. In 2004, 1,069 (14.75 percent) out of 7,746 able-bodied individuals were unemployed, of which 59.40 percent are male and 40.60 percent female. The percentage of unemployed was particularly high in Barangay Dagohoy and Poblacion. Only 17 out of 2,981 households (0.57 percent) were below the meal threshold in the same year. Eight of those households were residents of Barangay Cambigsi.

BILAR POVERTY MAP (Households Below Income Threshold by Barangay, 2004)

The MDGS in Bilar Committed to uplifting the economic and social conditions of the local people, the Municipality of Bilar is determined to pursue the MDGs. It is doing this by integrating these goals with the local needs and development plans. and reflecting these in the town’s vision and mission statements.

VISION A community that is productive, economically stable, selfreliant and environment-friendly, with just, humane, peaceloving and God-fearing people.

MISSION • To provide livelihood employment opportunities to its people, in order to achieve equitable distribution of income • To support ecotourism development and sustainable agriculture • To enhance moral values of the Bilarnons

In Percent 8.08 – 31.6 31.07 – 54.05 54.06 – 77.04 77.05 – 100.00

Source: PPDO LPRAP 2004

In terms of malnutrition, 295 (17.72 percent) out of 1,665 children from zero to five years old were malnourished, of which 53.56 percent are male and 46.44 percent female. Cabacnitan recorded the highest malnutrition at 59 percent, Quezon (36.36 percent), Bugang Norte (31.75), and Villa Suerte (31.34). The Muncipal Government of Bilar aims to lower poverty incidence to 20 percent and subsistence inciThe Bohol Experience


Target: Lesser Households Living Below Income and Food Threshold

Education Indicators SY 2003-2004




42.57 In percent

In percent


30 20

20 15

0 2003

2015 Year

dence to 15 percent by 2015 through the implementation of the following programs: • Self-Employment Assistance • Creation of the Municipal Employment Placement Office • Agricultural Productivity • Livestock and Fishery Dispersal (Goat and Tilapia) • Skills Training Program These programs also aim to push unemployment down from 14.75 percent to 4 percent. To reduce malnutrition to nine percent from 17.72 percent and the meal threshold level from 0.57 percent to 0.05 percent by 2015, the following programs will be implemented • Seed Money for Feeding • Food Always in the Home (FAITH) In addition, the LGU aims to totally eliminate crime incidence from 0.93 percent by strengthening the Barangay Tanods and sustaining the PNP programs.

85% 63.09%

Participation rate

Cohort survival

programs and home visitations to unconcerned parents. It also aims to achieve 100 percent literacy through nonformal education. In addition, the LGU will provide first aid kits to school clinics.

GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN The MDG survey revealed that 46 households (2.8 percent) experienced domestic violence while 166 (9.9 percent) households said they know or heard of cases of domestic violence in their community. At least 132 or 79 percent claimed that these incidents were reported to authorities. Most domestic violence identified were battery, grave threats and verbal and emotional abuse. A few identified rape and incest in the community. It is targeted to

GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION For school year 2003-2004, participation rate for public elementary school was recorded at 85 percent, jus a few percentage points lower than the national average of 88 percent for the same period. Even the cohort survival figure is low at 63.09 percent and still below the national average of 69.84 percent for the same school year. Bilar’s LGU aims to raise primary school participation to 97 percent and cohort survival to 83 percent as well as lower dropouts by 2015 through ECCD


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Cases of Domestic Violence Heard About in the Community Others 16.2%

Verbal abuse 28.8%

Battery 34%

Grave threats 20.9%

Table 1. Cases of Domestic Violence

absolutely eliminate incidence of violence against women earlier than 2015. Membership by gender in organizations is more or less equal, but more women are involved in religious/ civic organizations while more men belong to cooperatives and farmers groups. Men accounted for 49.9 percent while women constituted 50.1 percent. The survey revealed that there is practically no difference between male and female in terms of literacy rate among 15 to 24 years old in Bilar. With respect to the ratio between men and women among elected officials, expectedly, the political arena of the municipality is dominated by men. The overall index is quite low at only 0.11. No woman were Table 2. Elected Official Index

*The overall index is computed based on the weighted average of the three indices with the corresponding weights (Municipal=3 pts.; Barangay=2 pts.; Youth [SK]= 1 pt.). The municipal index is computed by getting the average of the female to male ratio of the top 2 officials – Mayor and VM and the female-male ratio of Municipal Kagawads. The same is also done with barangay officials female-male ratio of Barangay Captains and of Barangay Kagawads

elected for posts at the municipal level while men dominate the Barangay Councils. For the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) or Youth Councils, the number of females is quite significant even as males remain dominant in the youth organization. To empower women and promote gender equality by 2015, the formulation of the Gender and Development Plan is a priority action of the Bilar LGU. The plan will cover strengthening of women’s association in all barangays, implementation of the AntiVAWC Law, promotion/IEC on Women’s and Children’s Rights and sustaining the PNP Women’s and Children’s Desk.

GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY The MDG survey in Bilar identified eight infants deaths and 144 live births in a span of twelve months. Agency data however recorded only one infant death and 265 live births for year 2004. Measles and full immunization covered only 60 percent of the total population of children who needed immunization. Bilar LGU aims to reduce Child Mortality to zero percent by 2015. To achieve this, it will launch massive immunization, vitamin A and iron supplementation and de-worming. It will also promote IEC on proper child care and enhance child health care services in all barangays. It aims to have 100 percent measles vaccine coverage and full immunization earlier than 2015. The Bohol Experience


GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH Of 265 live births recorded in 2004, 28 (10.57 percent) were deliveries attended by doctors and 185 (69.81 percent) attended by midwives while the remaining 52 (19.62 percent) were attended by trained hilots. The MDG survey identified 112 births (or 79 percent) attended by qualified health personnel such as doctors, nurses and midwives. Of 144 deliveries, 72 percent took place at home while the rest took place in health facilities such as the rural health unit or hospitals. Maternal mortality was zero percent.

Deliveries Attended by Health Personnel Trained hilot 19.62%

Doctors 10.57%

ods, 58 percent use the rhythm method, followed by the use of IUD at 14 percent and pills at 11 percent. The use of condom is low at zero percent. The average usage of family planning methods, both natural and artificial, reaches 22 percent. There were five cases of sexually-transmitted diseases reported. By 2015, 100 percent safe reproduction, 0 percent maternal mortality and 50 percent of the total reproductive age using family planning methods shall be achieved through IEC on family planning and adolescents’ reproductive health, maternal and child care and iron/vitamin A supplementation for pregnant and lactating mothers.


The survey also identified 10 cases of teenage pregnancies, two of whom were still pregnant while eight had already given birth. The survey showed that 10 in 464 (or 2 of every 100) young women aged 15 to 19 were either pregnant or have given birth. Furthermore, it was known that among household members practicing family planning meth-

For the year 2004, reported cases of pneumonia reached 185 (89 of which are male and 96 are female), with six reported related deaths. Reported cases of tuberculosis reached 31 (20 of which are male and 11 are female), with three reported related deaths. Five cases of dengue were also reported. Water-borne diseases which include diarrhea, amoeba and skin reactions were very high, with 467 cases reported in the same year. Five other STD cases were also reported. There were six cases of other infectious diseases reported. Bilar LGU aims to combat infectious diseases by IEC on TB, water-borne diseases, dengue, AIDS and other STDs, strengthening the “Bantay Baga” Campaign, 4 o’clock habit and Clean and Green Program and procurement of necessary medicines/drugs and other logistic support. It targets to completely eliminate tuberculosis, dengue, waterborne diseases and other STDs by 2015.

Family Planning Practices

Incidence of Tuberculosis and Pneumonia, 2004

Midwives 69.81%

Condom 5% IUD 14%



Pills 11%



Rhythm 58%



100 No. of cases


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals




Percent of Families Practicing Waste Segregation 100

In percent

80 60 40


20 0

In the same year, 259 of 2,981 (8.69 percent) households did not have access to potable water supply. Barangay Dagohoy ranks as having the most households (58.14 percent) with nonpotable water supply. It was followed by Cambigsi and Rizal. These water supply and sanitation problems explain the high incidence of water-borne diseases. Lack of access to safe drinking water shall be reduced to zero percent by 2015 with Bilar LGU’s Expansion of Waterworks System Rehabilitation and access to sanitary facility raised to 100 percent with the Formulation of its Ten-Year Solid Waste Management Plan and IEC on solid waste management. It aims to increase forest cover by five percent through a Reforestation Program and by strict enforcement of forest laws, rules and regulations in protected areas and zon-



100 In percent

Bilar is one of the few municipalities in the country that have reached 45.81 percent forest cover, surpassing the recommended world standard of 40 percent forest cover. Thus, Bilar has already reached this particular goal of achieving a balanced ecosystem. In terms of practices in environmental management, the MDG survey showed that 33.5 percent of households practice waste segregation but burning is still done by 85.2 percent of households; and 88.3 percent of households were using solid fuels (firewood/charcoal) for cooking. In 2004, 20.8 percent had no tenure rights or were squatters and 19.15 percent lived in make-shift houses. In addition, 401 of 2,981 (13.45 percent) households have no access to sanitary facility. Among the bottom raters are Barangays Dagohoy and Bonifacio, with half of the households having unsanitary toilets, while Cambigsi, Bugang Norte and Yanaya had over 30 percent of households with unsanitary toilets.

Target: Full Access to PotableWater and Sanitary Toilet



90 85


80 75


2015 Year

ing ordinances. It also aims to reduce the number of squatters from 24.44 percent (2004) to 10 percent by 2015 by enhancing agreement between land/house owners and lessees for security of tenure.

GOAL 8: DEVELOP GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Eleven nongovernment projects are currently being implemented in the municipality. These projects range from agricultural development, water system improvement and environment conservation. Foreign development assistance is expected to increase by 10 percent by 2010, and 20 percent by 2015. Another important indicator for this goal is access to communication and information technology. The MDG survey showed that 17.7 per 100 population are telephone and cellphone subscribers, and only 0.60 per 100 population have a computer at home. To achieve Goal 8, Bilar LGU aims to continuously collaborate with NGOs working in the municipality and develop partnership with Bilarnons International and other funding institutions.

The Bohol Experience


Monitoring and advocating the MDGS

Financing the MDGs

The attainment of the MDGs primarily lies in the commitment of the LGU to operationalize its MDG goals and targets. Fortunately, with the MDG localization project in the municipality, the passing of the Sangguniang Bayan (SB) resolution adopting the MDG in the development agenda of the municipality was accomplished. In addition, the Executive Order creating the MDG Technical Working Group was signed. Full legislative support geared towards realization of the MDGs plays a vital role. The Poverty Development Monitoring System (PDMS), previously the Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP), is the main system for monitoring the MDGs as adopted by all municipalities in the province. All 12 indicators monitored by the tool are part of the MDGs. Some important indicators for the MDGs are monitored using the additional indicator survey, for which a separate data sheet was provided. These include reproductive health, family planning, organizational membership, waste disposal, energy, communication and domestic violence. The two sets of data generated separately would be integrated in the DevInfo software to produce the overall set of MDG indicators for the municipality. The MDG concept is new to the municipality. Even the political leaders in the town have a limited understanding of them. The project paved the way for the promotion of the MDGs not only among the officials but the grassroots as well. Advocating the MDGs is now being done by the municipality through informal discussions in the barangays during Solid Waste Management Orientations and orientation of BHWs during the MDG survey. In schools, they were popularized through the MDG poster-making contest and continue to be promoted there. Posters and brochures on the MDGs were also disseminated during these activities.

The estimated annual budget to achieve the MDGs is P 10 million. The ongoing municipal budget for the provision of basic services accounts for 30 percent. The remaining 70 percent will be solicited from assisting institutions in any kind of support (technical, projects, etc.).


Conclusion Achieving the MDGs is a great challenge for the local government unit. But the establishment of a comprehensive and functional monitoring system is a good starting point to set up targets and programs to ultimately respond to the concrete situation of deprivation in the municipality.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals



Advocating for the MDGs and Its Monitoring The Case of Bilar By CRESENTE NELSON E. LOMOD, MARIA ALITA LUGO AND JOMEL BAOBAO


ILAR is an agricultural town in the interior part of the province. It is a fifth-class municipality that contributes to the province’s agricultural harvests of rice, corn, vegetables and other crops. Blacksmithing and construction are two other support industries with local workers. The town is located between two large forests – the Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape (RSPL) and the Loboc Watershed Reforestation Project (LWRP). Being the seventeenth poorest town in the province is a great challenge to its local government. The town really needs external help to resolve underlying poverty concerns like the lack of potable water, low income threshold and the high percentage of makeshift housing. People welcome assistance in any form to reduce poverty. The inclusion of Bilar among the pilot areas of the MDG Local Monitoring Project is timely and appropriate. When the project started in the municipality,

the LGU had already started with the provincial government’s Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) Monitoring System, being one of the 17 pilot areas. Unfortunately, its survey still lacks approximately 550 households, owing to the lack of time, finances and logistical support. The survey was conducted by the Municipal Poverty Reduction Action Team (MPRAT) TWGs through barangay assemblies. Two or more barangays with an average of 80 households each, were visited by the TWGs; household heads were given a set of questionnaires to answer. Interviews were simultaneous with the explanation of some ambiguous questions. Both TWG enumerators and respondents were pressured with the limited time since the former still had to move on to the next barangay. The data submitted to the Provincial Planning and Development Office was marked “incomplete” during the Municipal Development Council (MDC) Meeting late 2005. This was because the data

Cresente Nelson E. Lomod was the former focal person of TWG-Bilar, Maria Alita D. Lugo is the research and development officer of PROCESS-Bohol while Jomel G. Baobao is a project staff, also seconded by PROCESS-Bohol Inc.

The Bohol Experience


submitted were lacking around 30 percent thereby unable to depict the real poverty status of the municipality. During the July training on MDG Information and Monitoring System Training-Workshop in Bohol Plaza Resort-Hotel, the entire assembly, analyzed the monitoring situation of each pilot area. Bilar was still behind the other pilot municipalities. It lacked the legislative back-up. The standard executive order (EO) on the implementation of the MDG project and the creation of the MDG TWG was not yet ready for signing by the local chief executive. The local legislative body had not yet issued the appropriate supportive ordinance. The same was true in relation to the

LPRAP. The local legislative body or Sangguniang Bayan (SB) was not familiar with the existing local monitoring system that the provincial government requires. The municipal mayor was and is very supportive of the project and aware that the new project will help his administration. The challenge was in convincing the entire Sangguniang Bayan (SB) assembly to issue the necessary resolution. It was imperative to secure assistance from the MDG Project Management Team of AER and PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. in the ground working for the adoption of the resolution of the MDG Local Monitoring Project. External help to orient and convince the councilors on the importance of the project in resolving widespread poverty may convince the local legislators on the importance of the project and ease any oppo-


sition. The orientation conducted for the Bilar SB was not easy. There was reluctance, opposition and a barrage of inquiries. Convincing the minority of the SB was not simple. As expected, they were concerned with the expenses the local government may incur from the implementation of the project, given that they feel pressured to raise resources for their urgent anti-poverty plans and projects. Thus, they assumed that the monitoring system project may be an additional undertaking that may only waste time and effort. After an intensive orientation and discussion, the assembly began to get the message and admitted that Bilar needs help – even if they need to sacrifice first to get them. There may be an existing partnership with foreign and local NGOs, but it has to be further nurtured and strengthened. The orientation team composed of the MDG TWG and the Project Management Team explained to them that the project cannot provide a subsidy for the project to resolve the present poverty issues. The project can only collect all necessary poverty-related data to complete what is needed for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. These data will help the LGU identify the barangays that are highly deprived and their types of deprivation. Based on these data, the existing Municipal Development Plan could be reviewed and target areas realigned to what needs help most. The same process may be applied to existing ordinances and directives – review and realign. Moreover, the project team cited the comprehensive and reliable poverty profile presented by Tubigon to promote development challenges in the municipality and forge partnership, both local and foreign. That is the problem - the Bilar LGU has no centralized database system on deprivation and the LPRAP is not yet operational. Its data are still scattered in various departments. The survey on LPRAP needs validation. Given this situation, it will be difficult for the LGU to define its needs, priorities and targets – the level of deprivation of families, what specific barangays do not have potable water supply, what is the reason behind low enrollment rate in a particular area, etc. The MDG TWG had to wait for one more week to know whether the SB will support or reject the submitted draft of the resolution. After a week, majority of the councilors agreed to approve the resolution. The vice mayor reiterated that any project will not succeed unless appropriate legislative support is

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

provided by the council. The approval of the resolution was a turning point and a signal for the TWG to pursue its objectives. The survey on the remaining households not yet covered by the LPRAP was conducted under the project. Selected Barangay Health Workers (BHWs)of the target barangays were tapped as enumerators. During the project orientation for the BHWs, various issues were raised relative to the previous survey on LPRAP. The enumerators said they participated in the conduct of the stated survey but were unaware of its purpose. They suggested a more complete and reliable resurvey of all households in Bilar. The Project Team and the MDG TWG explained to them that the actual target of the project was to just complete the LPRAP and conduct a supplemental study on the MDGs. During survey assessment and submission of accomplished survey forms, feedback was received from the enumerators. A lot of household heads who were already covered by the previous LPRAP wanted a resurvey because they were uncertain if they were able to provide accurate answers. They were afraid that if there is inconsistency in previous responses, the data collected might not reflect their areas’ true condition. We knew then that the Bilarnons are already aware of the project objectives and are already concerned with the possible outcome in case what will be developed is an unreliable MDG Project. The team did not give an assurance for the possibility of a resurvey which may be but appropriate to once and for all come up with a reliable database.

The LPRAP is Bohol’s unique and very own poverty monitoring system. The things that we, in the MDG TWG, did not see in the previous monitoring system now overwhelmed us in magnitude. The monitoring system’s comprehensive information compelled the MDG team to keep it as a benchmark. The completion of the LPRAP and the MDG survey showed a picture of the municipality’s poverty situation. It is already clear for us where to direct our efforts, what interventions we can carry out using internal resources and what projects we need require external assistance. The LGU departments on health, education, agriculture, planning and development and social work and development were challenged to look into and analyze their respective concerns during the agency data collection. They later on saw what they were trying to discover – a clearer picture of the town’s various forms of deprivation. They knew what to target and the next important thing was to address the financing requirements to support their projects. Now, the departments were vocal about what they need and want simply because they know the bases for their clamor. The municipal government appreciates the partnership with NGOs which supported the MDG monitoring project, the AER and PROCESS-Bohol, the European Union and the Spanish NGO La Aldea for their efforts to help in completing our surveys in time without sacrificing reliability. The partnership that has been forged will surely go a long way in addressing development challenges in the Municipality of Bilar. The Bohol Experience






his report was based on a survey conducted for three months (mid-June to mid-Septem ber 2005). It was based on the Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan ((LPRAP) indicators and questionnaires generated by Local Government Units (LGU) from the 33 barangays of the Municipality of Jagna. The LGU-generated questionnaires incorporated the other MDG indicators not included in the LPRAP indicators. The municipality of Jagna conducted the LPRAP survey after it was selected as one of the three pilot sites of the project for the Local

Monitoring System on the MDGs. This required the production of poverty baseline data for the municipality. The municipality is not totally lacking in data, however, all its component barangay have their own Barangay Development Plans and the town has its Ten-Year Municipal Development Plan for 2005-2015. The LPRAP complements all these and its indicators serve as a useful tool in understanding better the conditions of the locality. This MDG Report of the Municipality covers 6,139 households in the 33 barangays with a population of

The report was prepared by the Technical Working Core Group (TWCG) of the Municipality of Jagna whose members are Engr. Ronie Galabo (Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator), Nimfa Abaya-Lloren (Bohol Initiatives on Migration and Community Development (BoholDev)), Lovella Escolano (Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office), Camilo Rizano (Municipal Agriculturist’s Office), Catalino Berro (Municipal Public Information Officer), Celeste Ballentos (Municipal Health Office), Johanna Bagaipo (Vice Mayor’s Office), Melba Acera (Municipal Planning and Development Office) and Celso Jamero (Environmental Desk Officer).


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

JAGNA Location: Southeast Bohol coast Land area: 12,063 hectares, 64percent karst formation Municipal income class: Fourth class municipality Population: 30,643 (2000) Households: 5,957 (2000) Barangays: 33 divided into Metro Jagna: 8 Upland Jagna: 17 Coastal Jagna: 8 Major economic activities: Farming and fishing Major industries: Calamay making and cottage industries, body building (jeepney and motorela) Health: 3 major health institutions 218 barangay health workers Public Education: 19 elementary schools 3 national secondary schools

The Bohol Experience


BRIEF HISTORY THE earliest mention of Jagna in historical documents occurred when Miguel Lopez de Legazpi’s expedition from Camiguin island to Butuan in March 15, 1565 was blown by unfavorable winds into Jagna Bay. Three days later, Fr. Andres Urdaneta and other friars from the ship “San Pedro” celebrated the first mass on the shores of Bohol. It is believed that the early Christian settlers of Jagna were Loboc natives who arrived in the area with Fr. Jose Sanchez, S.J., 31 years later in 1596. These settlers were bound for Mindanao aboard their sailboats, called “bilos”, when inclement

31,833. The data have undergone validation by the 33 Barangay Councils and by some sectoral representatives and organizations. Except for the income indicator, the changes after the validation were finished in 18 barangays have been incorporated in this report. However, a resurvey of individuals affected by the changes in the income indicator will be conducted to determine their real condition.

Municipal brief Jagna is a fourth class municipality in southeastern Bohol. It is the only coastal town in the area with a commercial port facility. This makes Jagna not only a strategic point for sea transport as it straddles a major Visayas-Mindanao sea lane, but also an important trading and commercial center.

weather forced them to seek shelter in Jagna. Apparently finding the place favorable for settling, they stayed on. In 1631, Fr. Sanchez founded the parish and town of Jagna with San Miguel de Archangel as the patron saint. According to oral tradition the name Jagna was derived from the legendary vernacular exclamation, ni hagna na. Local folklore relates that the now dried-up Bohol river used to teem with fish called “tigue”. When this fish played near the water surface, it is said that the water sizzled like boiling coconut oil. Upon seeing this, the people would exclaim ni hagna na, literally meaning that cooking was almost done.

Only 63 kms away from Tagbilaran City, Jagna can be reached by land from the capital in approximately 1.5 hours’ travel time. The municipality has been identified as part of a tourism loop and an important gateway in the south including to and from Mindanao. This port town consists of 33 barangays with a total land area of 12,063 hectares. Its composite barangays are further categorized into: the urbanizing barangays or the Metro Jagna cluster comprising eight barangays; the coastal cluster with eight barangays and the upland cluster with 17. As of the year 2000, the municipality had a total population of 30,643 in about 6,000 households. At least 35 percent of the town’s population resides in Metro Jagna. About 14 percent live in the coastal cluster and 51 percent dwell in the upland barangays. Occupational groups are mainly farmers and fisherfolk. Employment in the public and private sectors is predominantly situated in Metro-Jagna. Private employment is largely limited to micro, cottage and small-scale enterprises in the locality. Very significant is the support that overseas workers, about three percent of the population, provide to around 15 percent of total households in the municipality. The male OFWs are sea-based workers while the women OFWs compose the majority of the landbased overseas workers.

Economic profile Predominantly an agricultural town, farming is the main occupation of the 17 upland barangays. Four barangays in the coastal cluster also resort to farming when fish catch is scarce. Likewise, one urban barangay also turns to farming when paid labor is unavailable. While 67 percent of the total land area is devoted to agriculture, farming in Jagna is small, scattered and


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

backyard scale. The major products include coconut, vegetables and spices, rice, corn, rootcrops, bananas, fruit trees, flowers and ornamentals. Livestock and poultry are also small in scale. On the other hand, subsistence fishing abounds in this coastal town even with the presence of a few smallscale commercial fishing in the area. However, only two of the eight barangays under the coastal cluster, and one under Metro Jagna, depend on fishing as the main source of livelihood. The rest of the coastal communities primarily source their income from farming combined with fishing. Jagna is the center of trade and commerce in southeastern Bohol. It is a bustling town with a few medium, several small and a great number of micro enterprises, with varying number of employees. Most of the enterprises are into trading, particularly retail of various types and services. Only a few are into manufacturing and agribusiness. These establishments facilitate the influx and availability of goods and services in the locality. The employment and income these generate help reduce poverty. The marketplace is the center of trading and commercial transactions in the municipality. The abattoir within plays an important support facility to the market structure. Calamay1 making and body-building (jeepney and tricycle) are considered major cottage industries in Jagna. Other minor cottage industries in the municipality with all the potentials for development are foodrelated ventures.

Physical and infrastructure profile Jagna has adequately developed physical and infrastructure facilities e.g. a road network system, transport and terminal facilities, port and communications facilities and other physical infrastructures. The municipality has 20 waterworks systems serving safe and potable drinking water to 23 out of the 33 barangays. Jagna’s Level III waterworks system serves many of the Metro Jagna barangays. All of the barangays in Jagna are 100 percent energized and about 97 percent of all households have electricity powered by BOHECO II. Most of the homes in Jagna are of single house type and 90 percent of the households own the dwelling they occupy. With the increasing population in the urban area, many households are now leasing out their houses. 1

Calamay is a local delicacy which is mixture of sticky rice, coconut milk, and sugar packed in a coconut shell.

Environmental profile Sixty four percent (64 percent) of its land area is karst formation of the Sierra-Bullones limestone. This is classified as delicate since all types of pollutants and contaminants may find their way into the water source. Its soil composition is predominantly clay and almost 58 percent of its land is highly susceptible to erosion due to the sloping and steep terrain. Man-made factors also worsen the environmental degradation. The protected areas of Jagna include six upland barangays, four of which are declared watershed areas belonging to the Alejawan-CansuhayAnibongan Watershed Forest Reserve. The protected forest of the municipality is mountainous and its ridges covered with forest moss. A number of endemic trees are still found in these protected areas. The forest zone area of the municipality totals 2,968.548 has. with a total of 875 has. of forests. The coastline of the municipality stretches up to 14 kilometers, passing 14 barangays (eight from the coastal cluster and six from Metro Jagna). It is endowed with rich coastal resources consisting of 146 fish species belonging to 27 families, six species of seagrass and the excellent coral reef cover in 10 out of the 14 coastal barangays. The Ten-Year Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan is in place and serves as the concrete effort of the local government in properly managing the waste of the municipality.

VISION Jagna will be the leading center of trade and sustainable agro-industrial-tourism municipality in southeastern Bohol, with a self-reliant and God-loving people living a better quality of life, preserving their cultural heritage and wisely using the natural resources through good governance.

MISSION In order to realize our vision and fulfill our aspirations, we therefore commit ourselves • to the promotion of good governance by transforming the local government unit into one that is committed to defend and serve the interest and welfare of its people; • to the preservation of our rich cultural heritage and the foundational values of the municipality as reflected in its noble history; • to the promotion of Jagna as a municipality conducive to initiatives for economic development, tourism promotion and environmental protection

The Bohol Experience


Development goals of the municipality of Jagna


Recognizing the enormous potentials of the municipality and, at the same time, considering its current realities, the aspirations of the people are articulated in its vision and mission.

(Households Below Income Threshold by Barangay)

The municipal targets and the MDGs The Municipality of Jagna is in the process of integrating the MDGs in its development plans. Looking through the lens of the MDGs and the different aspects of deprivation, hunger, a threatened environment and high dropout rates are the issues and concerns that the municipal government should give priority to. The succeeding report gives the readers a glimpse of the current realities related to each goal and the corresponding targets, programs and projects to meet each goal.

In Percent 11.45 – 26.31 26.32 – 41.18 41.19 – 56.05 56.06 – 70.89



Source: PPDO LPRAP, 2005

Target: Lesser Households Living Below Income and Food Threshold

In percent

According to DSWD’s Rapid Poverty Mapping Report in 2003, Jagna ranked No. 36 of the province’s 47 municipalities in terms of poverty incidence. In a recent report by the National Statistics Coordinating Board in its Small-Area Estimation of Poverty in the Philippines, it is No. 41 with a poverty incidence of 32.315 percent. At the municipal level, the barangays have been ranked based on the four indicators of deprivation levels – health, water quality, sanitation, and education. Of the most deprived 15 barangays, 11 belong to the upland barangays, three to the coastal cluster and one to Metro Jagna. The recently concluded survey (September 2005) of the LGU showed that 41.86 percent (2,570 of 6,139) of the households in Jagna live below the income threshold while 28.25 percent (1,734) households live below the subsistence threshold with some 13 households eating less than three meals a day. In addition, data from the municipality’s health unit recorded that nearly one out of 10 children aged zero to five years old are considered malnourished in 2004. The same survey noted that unemployment rate is at 12.46 percent (with 2,144 unemployed). The local government hopes to reduce by 75 percent the number of households living below the income and subsistence threshold, as well as reduce by 75 percent the number of unemployed in 10 years. The goal is that by 2015, poverty inci-

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0





14.13 7.06 2005

2010 Year


dence will just be around 9.45 percent while subsistence incidence will be at seven percent and unemployment rate at three percent. The LGU also gives priority to malnutrition by setting an earlier target of eradicating malnutrition among zero to five year olds and ensuring that all households are eating at least three meals a day by 2010. To realize these targets, the municipal government has initially come up with the following set of development strategies with their corresponding programs and projects

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table 1. Goal 1 Targets

Development Strategies, Programs and Project Integrated Agricultural Development • Water impounding/ irrigation project • Vegetable production • Cut flower and ornamental production • Ubi production • Improved coconut production • Clonal garden and demo farm on organic farming, multi-cropping and inter-cropping • Poultry and livestock dispersal program • Capability building on agro technology and diversified farming system • Pre and post harvest technology projects • Inland fisheries development project • Integrated livelihood programs • Capability building for farmers organizations

Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneur Development • Capability building on entrepreneurship • Agri-business development Integrated Infrastructure Development • Construction and improvement of farm to market roads • Completion of the public market • Repair and improvement of roads, drainage and bridges • Construction of terminals for goods and transportation • Jagna reclamation area development and management project Sustainable Eco-Cultural-Tourism Development • Community-based-eco-tourism host family development project • Eco-tourism site development project in five areas • Improvement of access roads to priority tourism sites

GOAL 2: ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION Jagna is becoming the center of learning in southeastern Bohol with three primary schools, 19 elementary schools, three national barangay high schools, four private high schools, one school for special children, TESDA and a college institution. There are also 33 daycare centers operating in 32 barangays and about five privately owned and managed preschool centers in the municipality. The said centers have received several citations and awards from the provincial and regional levels for their performance. While the town boasts of a high literacy rate of 97 percent, the biggest challenge in education is ensuring a high cohort survival rate in the elementary and secondary levels as well as providing good quality and responsive education. Based on the report on performance indicator of the Jagna District of the Department of Education, Jagna’s elementary cohort survival rate at 78.21 percent (SY 2003-04) is higher than that of Bohol’s 72.47 The Bohol Experience


Development Strategies, Programs and Project

Education Indicators SY 2003-2004

• • • • •

87 78.21

In percent

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

11.05 Participation rate

Cohort survival


Source of basic data: Jagna District, Deped

percent (SY 2002-03), or that of Central Visayas’ 67.58 percent (SY2002-03) or the national level’s 69.84 percent (SY 2002-03). Unfortunately, its dropout rate at 11.05 percent is also higher than the na-

tional average of 8.90 percent. Jagna, however, intends to drastically reduce if not eradicate school dropouts by 2010. To achieve quality and responsive education, Jagna intends to provide the hardware and software conducive to improving education performance of the children. It will rehabilitate school buildings, provide computers and other facilities, perform reading and comprehension tests and train teachers.

Table 2. Goal 2 Targets


Informal reading inventory program Oral reading verification testing program Acquisition of additional classroom facilities/equipments Renovation/ repairs of school buildings Trainings programs for teachers

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN The women sector makes up about one half of the total population. While most of the womenfolk, especially in the upland barangay, do housekeeping, many of them also assist in the farms. Most of the employed women registered as part of the labor force are in services and trading, mainly as sales workers, house help, clerical and technical workers and in administrative and managerial positions both in government and private offices. Many are practicing their profession in the health and education sectors, in business and in civic and religious organizations. Table 3. Jagna Gender Statistics Based on LPRAP Survey Data for 2005

Eight female barangay captains and several barangay kagawad are evidence of the women’s growing involvement in politics. Currently, females comprise 23 percent of barangay officals in Jagna. And although women comprise 44 percent of the SK officers, a lot of work remains to be done to boost women’s participation in decision-making at the municipal level, which is currently in the hands of the males. In peace and order, the top local police post is headed by a woman officer.

Table 4. Elected Women Official Index

*The overall index is computed based on the weighted average of the three indices with the corresponding weights (Municipal=3 pts.; Barangay=2 pts.; Youth [SK]=1 pt.). The municipal index is computed by getting the average of the female - male ratio of the top 2 officials – Mayor and VM and the female-male ratio of Municipal Kagawads. The same is also done with barangay officials femalemale ratio of Barangay Captains and of Barangay Kagawad.

Women are also members of various organizations. The survey noted that in terms of affiliation, women have basically the same organizational membership compared to men, although women have a higher preference for church groups. Nevertheless, gender bias is still prevalent in the homes, in the community and in the workplace. It is manifested in the daily interaction between the sexes. Though violence against women and children are not so prevalent, cases of domestic violence, rape, incest and related problems do occur. The survey showed that 79 or 3.8 percent of respondents admitted the incidence of domestic violence in the family. The municipality has a GAD plan and budget. It also has a Women’s Help Desk and VAW program focused on orienting all of Jagna’s barangays on the Law on Violence Against Women and Children. The barangay councils in coordination with the women’s desk of the police either facilitate or conduct the discussion. Currently, the municipality is also concerned with identifying a focal person for gender and strengthening organizational structures for women.

The Bohol Experience


Table 5. Goal 3 Targets

Development Strategies, Programs and Project Gender and Development • Education and training on gender and development • Livelihood program for women • Capability building for women’s organization • Crisis Intervention for women and children • GAD budget allocation

GOAL 4: REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY There are three major health institutions based in the municipality. A few small and private medical and dental practitioners also serve the populace. Augmenting these are 218 barangay health workers and barangay nutrition scholars who provide basic health care remedies and check on the nutrition and sanitation. Visiting physicians in the district hospital complement the lack of specialized medical personnel. A number of accredited and non-accredited local midwives (hilot), masseurs and therapists also do various

related health care services in the municipality. Medical facilities, equipment, supplies and medicines are inadequate while in-house medical specialists in the district hospital are insufficient. Almost all complicated medical cases are referred to Tagbilaran City for adequate medical attention. Latest data showed that there were eight deaths among children one year old and below and three deaths among children one to four years old. The data also showed that not all children are fully immunized and some children have not been immunized against measles. The municipality hopes to provide complete immunization for all children by 2010. Development Strategies, Programs and Project Efficient Delivery of Health Care Service to Children Under Five • Sustained immunization program for children • Strengthened barangay nutrition and supplementation feeding • Responsible parenthood program

Table 6. Goal 4 Targets


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table 7. Goal 5 Targets

GOAL 5: IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH The survey showed that not all pregnant women have access to prenatal care and not all lactating mothers have access to post natal care. The survey identified 238 cases of miscarriage – 20 percent of female household members below 50 years old. The survey also identified four cases of abortion. It showed that 74.8 percent of those who practice family planning use the natural method. Administrative data from the health units showed that of 609 live births recorded in 2004, 74 percent (448) were deliveries attended by skilled health professionals such as doctors and midwives and the remaining 36 percent (161) by trained “hilot”. By 2010, the municipality of Jagna intends to increase by 50 percent the number of pregnant women and lactating mothers who access maternal healthcare. Hopefully by 2015, all pregnant women and lactating mothers should be able to access maternal health care.

Deliveries Attended by Health Personnel Hilot (trained) 26.44%

Development Strategies, Programs and Project Efficient Maternal Health Management Program • Sustained maternal health care program • Integrated reproduction health programs eg. • Safe motherhood and family planning

GOAL 6: COMBAT DISEASES AND REDUCE INCIDENCE OF THE LEADING CAUSES OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY Data from the health units noted that for year 2004, reported cases of pneumonia reached 59 (of whom 33 are male and 26 female). There were 42 deaths reported related to pneumonia. Reported cases of tuberculosis reached 34 (of whom 19 are male and the remaining 15 female). There were three tubercu-

Incidence of Tuberculosis and Pneumonia, 2004

Doctors 27.59% 34





Midwives 45.98%



30 40 No. of cases



The Bohol Experience



Table 8. Goal 6 Targets

losis-related deaths in 2004. In addition, there were three cases of other infectious diseases reported in the same year. The Municipality of Jagna is determined to reduce by 30 percent the leading cases of morbidity and mortality by 2010; and in another five years, reduce these further by 50 percent. It hopes to do these through a sustained disease-control program, especially for all communicable diseases, and sustained preventive measures for all types of diseases, among others.


Development Strategies, Programs and Project Comprehensive Healthcare Program for All • Sustained mass information program on all sexually related diseases • Sustained disease control program especially for all communicable diseases • Comprehensive cleanliness program • Sustained preventive measures on all types of diseases • Healthy lifestyle program

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

GOAL 7: ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Currently, only 2.64 percent (209 out of 6,139) of households do not have access to potable water and about 4.19 percent (268 out of 6,139) households do not have sanitary toilets in Jagna. However, the municipal government is bent on improving access such that all households shall have access to safe drinking water and sanitary toilets in five years (by 2010). Most households in Jagna do not yet practice waste segregation. Based on the recent survey, only 36.9 percent of households do so, and the remaining 63.1 percent of households do not. The survey also showed that 77.4 percent of households use solid fuel (firewood/charcoal) for cooking. Harmful waste-disposal practices are still prevalent. Over half of households disposed of used water Table 9. Goal 7 Targets

The Bohol Experience


Target: Full Access to Safe Water and Sanitary Toilet by 2010 100


In percent

99 98 97 96

97.36 95.81

95 2005



GOAL 8: DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Currently, except for a US-based NGO for health (PHILOS), almost all of Jagna’s partnerships for devlopment are with domestic institutions and NGOs. The municipality targets that by 2010 it will sustain existing partnerships and linkages with development institutions as well as establish direct linkage with five international donor organizarions and by 2015 it will sustain networking and partnership with existing development partners.

Jagna’s current realities Households Practicing Waste Segregation, 2004 Practices waste segregation 36.9%

Does not practices waste segregation 63.1%

directly into the land or backyard. Burning is still done by 44.6 percent of households. Dumping of hazardous elements (such as expired medicines and chemical containers) in open pits is still prevalent (about half of households). Through an information and education campaign and the implementation of the Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan, among others, the municipality projects that by 2015 all households will be practicing waste segregation and avoiding harmful waste-disposal practices. Development Strategies, Programs and Project • Implementation of the Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan • Low-cost housing project • Rehabilitation of the Jagna Waterworks System · Watershed Reforestation and Management Project • KARST Management Project • Urban Reforestation and Drainage Project • Coastal Resource Management Project • Sustained massive IEC on environmental issues


A view of Jagna’s poverty situation (refer to E1 below), from four dimensions based on the indicators, indicates it is not very deprived. However, looking further into the individual indicators, the goal on hunger and poverty tops the list, followed by that of environment and dropouts (Refer to E2). While these are the issues and concerns that the municipality should give priority to, the other indicators should also be addressed. E1. 1. Total deprivation based on the 4 indicators 2. Total deprivation based on the 8 indicators 3. Total deprivation excluding the income indicators 4. Total deprivation

– 3.85 percent – 5.13 percent – 4.56 percent – 9.56 percent

E2a. Goals with high incidence of deprivation Goal 1. Hunger and poverty 1. Income threshold – 41.86 percent 2. Food threshold – 25.44 percent 3. Unemployment – 12.46 percent Goal 7. Environmental sustainability 1. Land tenure – 12.64 percent 2. Water source No potable water – 2.64 percent Using bottled water – 6.92 percent 3. Sanitation – 4.19 percent 4. Housing – 2.09 percent Goal 2. Education 1. School dropouts

– 8. 05 percent

Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) The poverty profile generated through the LPRAP and the LGU supplemental indicators has given a human face to the MDP and the BDP. While it needs

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

• Involving the civil society organizations and other institutions in the locality in MDG – related activities.

Financing the MDG About PHP 500 million is budgeted to implement the MDP, within which the targets of the MDG have been integrated. About 20 percent will come from internal sources and the 80 percent will be generated from external support – financial, technical and logistical.

Conclusion further refinement, this data base can already be used as benchmark and tool for the monitoring and evaluation of development initiatives. As most of the BDP in the barangays are due for evaluation, the profile especially at the barangay level can serve as reference in the performance and delivery of community services. It can also serve as basis for the setting of new targets for the next period. On the other hand, the municipal poverty profile will enrich and sharpen the MDP which is on its first year of implementation. The regular updating for all indicators can be done every three years, and annual updating can be done on certain indicators to be determined depending on the need. As the LGPMS and the Dev Watch monitoring systems are in place, these should be linked up with the LPRAP or integrated, as the case may be. The cost effectiveness of many monitoring systems, the results of which will not be different from each other, should be looked into. What is important is that the system adapted generates information that will be useful in the formulation of legislation, policies and frameworks to address the needs of the constituency.

The eradication of poverty, as envisioned by governments and nations many hundreds of years ago, remains a goal until today. Making poverty history by 2015, is a lofty goal and an arduous task. As the Municipality of Jagna joins the global movement against poverty, it takes upon itself the challenge of leadership, commitment, responsibility and the generation of resources to be able to achieve the MDGs, ten years from now. It requires innovative and responsive leadership and active involvement of civil-society organizations, the rest of the constituency and other stakeholders. It is therefore the responsibility of everyone to share and contribute to this undertaking. Ultimately, ending poverty is in our hands.


Advocating and promoting the MDG


Sustaining the pursuit of the MDG targets as integrated in the development plans will require advocacy work with all sectors in the locality. The creation of the Municipal Poverty Reduction Action Committee through Executive Order 4 and the consultation with all major stakeholders in the community were the first steps taken to promote the MDG. The next steps involve the following: • Resolution by the Sangguniang Bayan adopting and localizing the MDG as complementary to the Executive Order • Resolution by the Municipal Development Council adopting and localizing the MDG and integrating these into the local development plans


The Bohol Experience


The Jagna Household Survey Experience By NIMFA ABAYA LLOREN Introduction


H my God! We seem to be in penitence. The road to the purok is like Calvary!” “Mama ..Help! The P120 honorarium cannot pay if this bus overturns. Hurry! Jump! Get that big stone to block the tires!” These were only some of the difficult experiences of enumerators who had to conduct a quality survey of more than 6,000 households. Indeed, to establish a baseline data within three months was a big challenge after the Municipality of Jagna was selected one of the project sites for the Local Monitoring System of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Unlike the two other project sites which were LPRAP priority areas, Jagna had to conduct its household survey at the start of the project implementation. Working under a very tight schedule, we assimilated the lessons of the other two municipalities in conducting the survey, not through a “cut and paste” method but by undergoing a process of our own.

Preparing For the Survey (May 31 – June 28, 2005) After the Project Launch in April 2005, attended by most of the Executive Committee members of the MPRAC, the localization process in Jagna was urgently attended to. The creation of the Municipal Poverty Reduction Action Committee through Executive Order 4 was the first step in the right direction. As the framework of the MDG Localization Process was aptly stated in the legal mandate, the requirements MPRAC activities, particularly for implementing the project, were facilitated. From the MPRAC members were selected the Technical Working Group (TWG) — eight LGU employees and one member from the NGO (Bohol Initiatives on Migration and Community Development, formerly Bohol Unlad Kabayan). While the major LGU offices in charge of basic services delivery were represented in the TWG, unlike the other two pilot sites, its members are not the heads of offices except for the MPDC, who is the focal person.

Learning from the experiences of other project sites in the Orientation Seminar Workshop on MDG Monitoring and Localization in May 2005, the TWG returned from a three-day training with lessons and insights, and lost no time in organizing the requirements for the project implementation. It undertook the selection, orientation and training of the enumerators, formulation of the LGU supplemental indicators and the preparation of the project launching in the municipality. Earlier, a P500,000 budget for the household survey was approved by the LGU.

Selection of enumerators As the household survey would take one third of the project timeline, the role of the enumerators was a crucial factor. The criteria considered for hiring were: commitment to the work despite the meager pay and at least a college-level educational attainment. Experience in conducting surveys was a plus factor. A brief profile of the 55 enumerators (including the TWG): a. Category : 35 newly-hired enumerators (64%) 14 LGU employees (25%) 6 NGO staff (11%) b. Sex: 38 Female (69%) 17 Male (31%) c. Educational Attainment: 38 College Graduates (4-year Course) (69%) 9 College Graduates (2-year Course) (16%) 6 College Level (11%) 1 Vocational Course (27%) 1 High School Graduate (was considered on the basis of experience) (2%) d. Level of Experience: 25 have experience in different types of survey 30 or 55% do not have experience e. 20 out of the 33 barangays were represented by the enumerators:

Nimfa Abaya Lloren is with the Bohol Initiatives on Migration and Community Development (Bohol-Dev) that was recently spun off from Unlad Kabayan Migrant Services Inc. for which she was the Bohol Area Project Manager. She is the Chairperson of the Jagna Federated Women’s Organization and a president of the Globalik Jagna 2006.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

31% represented 9 of the 17 upland cluster; 7% represented 3 of the 8 coastal cluster; and 62% represented the 8 Metro Jagna cluster f. Age Groups: 37 or 67% belong to the 20’s 15 or 27% belong to the 30’s 1 or 2% belong to the 40’s 2 or 4% belong to the 50’s The selection of enumerators encountered a minor problem. Racing against time to get the needed number, TWG members personally selected the enumerators without benefit of a formal interview before they were officially accepted. The orientation had to be deferred for a day to give way to the individual interviews with enumerators on the issues of wages, workload and commitment. For varied reasons, six of those originally selected did not make it and were replaced.

Jagna MDG project launch The Jagna MDG Project Launch on June 16, 2005 aimed to level off on the MDG and the localization process and to unite the stakeholders in its implementation. This was attended by the MPRAC members, Punong Barangay, enumerators and other stakeholders from the church, education and private sectors. Despite the substantial attendance at the project launch, some key stakeholders from the education sector were absent, along with several barangay captains. To make up for this, subsequent follow-throughs should have been considered for all key stakeholders to internalize the MDG.

Orientation and training for the household survey As the quality of the survey results is determined by the performance of the enumerators, we saw to it that the orientation and training on the conduct of the household survey will better equip them for the work. The workshop consisted of two parts: a. Discussion of the Terms of Reference of the Enumerators and Guidelines in Conducting the Interviews; and b. Discussion of the Questionnaires and the Inter-enumerator Interviews. True enough, the two-day activity was tough work, and for some time those involved had to decide whether to pursue it or back off. “The P120 daily pay is meager compared to the work!”, “It is not just the

pay that I am after but the experience!”, “I better work at the office rather than walk around and get the same pay!”, “P120 is better than nothing!”, “I have been looking for work and this is a good opportunity!”, “I don’t have any commitment for the next three months!”. These were some of the mixed attitudes of the survey workers. It was a time spent to understand the terminologies, familiarize oneself with the questionnaires and practice interviewing. “Do household and family mean the same?”, “What if the residents interviewed are from another place but work in Jagna, will we include them?”, “Why does the questionnaire concentrate only on income and not expense?”, “What if the respondent does not divulge the real income?” The inter-enumerator interview initially determined that about 1½ -2 hours is allotted for one household, or a minimum of four and a maximum of six households each day for a pair of enumerators. Though the orientation and training workshop had prepared the TWG and the enumerators for the survey, more time should have been allotted to the practicum aspect for better familiarization with the questionnaires. Because this was not done, the output of some of the enumerators, especially on the questionnaires related to income and unemployment, had to be reviewed and rechecked.

Formulation of LGU supplemental indicators and questionnaires From the LPRAP discussions facilitated by the PPDO and from the experiences shared during the first training, the TWG decided to formulate supplemental indicators, particularly on environment and gender, as well as additional indicators on education and health. Working on the additional indicators was not easy. How to determine the indicators — applicability and relevance, how to ensure that the formulation is concise yet precise and the time element for the supplemental questions — had to be taken into account. It took two weeks, seven revisions and a trimming down from 160 to 75 questionnaires before the final output came out. On hindsight, we realized that the formulation of the supplemental indicators could have been more scientific, if there was a short course in designing and developing the survey instrument, considering that the LPRAP was in place. Comments both from the enumerators and respondents like “The questionnaires are too long” or “This section should be deleted” or “This question should be reformulated” The Bohol Experience


and other similar suggestions could have been considered earlier.

Undertaking the household survey (June 21 – September 20, 2005) The social survey was an enriching experience for the TWG and enumerators. While skills in conducting surveys were enhanced and the methodology of the field survey was improved in the process, the three months of interacting with the people and listening to and understanding their lives had a significant impact on the survey workers’ attitudes and perspectives. 1. Methodology of the field sur vey survey a. Predata gathering • Arrangements were made with Barangay Captains regarding the survey schedules to inform and prepare residents for the interviews and to designate guides for the enumerators during the survey. • The Record of Barangay Inhabitants (RBI) served as reference for the household identification and assignments for the survey • The enumerators were grouped into four, each headed by two TWG members. The groups were designated to particular puroks where a pair of enumerators was assigned to conduct household interviews in each purok. The preliminary arrangements were important in managing time efficiently and in ensuring the respondents were not only present, but also knew the objectives of the interview. Despite hitches in particular barangays, the survey schedules were on time. b. Pr etesting the inter view schedule Pretesting interview A pretest was conducted in three barangays representing the upland, coastal and Metro Jagna clusters. It tested the conduct of the LPRAP survey and checked the validity of the supplemental interview schedules. Secondarily, it provided the experience of the whole process of predata gathering up to the stage of data consolidation. The pretest resulted in the revision of some parts of the LGU supplemental interview schedules, and some clarifications of the LPRAP as well as the improvement of the methodology. c. Inter viewing the household rrespondents espondents Interviewing Meeting and interacting with different respondents for three months was a challenge to the interviewing skills, attitudes, character and disposition of the enu-


merators. It was a test in how to deal with people and how to get the appropriate responses. Our experience showed most of the respondents were enthusiastic, cooperative and accommodating, as they related the stories of their lives through the interviews. “Good morning. Can you interview me now because I have to work early in the rice field?” requested a respondent in a far-flung barangay from the enumerators who were barely out of bed. “Can you come during lunch to the field for my interview? I have no other time available.” or “We have reserved this day for the interview. Our apology for our small house.” While we faced many more of these kind gestures during the survey, there were also a number of indifferent respondents. In a Metro Jagna barangay, a respondent told the enumerators: “Before I answer your interview, I have several questions for you. What survey are you conducting. Perhaps, the communists are behind this.” “This is useless because the government has no plan to solve the hardships of the people.” or “What is the use of the survey? Will this be reported to the BIR?” or “We do not want to be interviewed. This is just wasting our time”. To the enumerator’s questions of “Was there a case of domestic violence in your home?” or “How much is your income from farming and what are your other sources?” came such replies as: “The questions are very personal” or “This is my only source of income” or “It is difficult to compute the harvest from my crops.” From these experiences, we learned that in interviewing, one should consider the following: • The importance of informing the respondents of the interview objectives and how the information will be handled and used, so that they will be motivated to participate; • The interview should be focused and questions asked in an appropriate way to get relevant responses. Focus on relevant information may be achieved through concentration, practice and an ability to separate the important from the trivial; • The questions should be asked as worded and answers should be recorded as given. There should be an accurate recording of responses, and no attempt should be made to summarize them; • Interviewers should master the art of probing to clarify responses and enrich the data gathered. Probing skills are developed after knowing what to look for in an interview, listening carefully to what is said and not said, being sensitive to the feedback and needs of the respondent;

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

• The interviewer should be courteous, respectful in his or her manners and maintain a pleasant expression. d. Data consolidation of the completed inter views interviews Each barangay survey was followed by checking of the completed interviews and consolidation of data by the teams and groups. The TWG and the enumerators regrouped from the field and spent from a half to one day for this procedure, depending on the size of the barangay. This process included the following: checking of each interview schedule with the supervision of the TWG and assigning the identification number of the households; making a checklist of households which were not yet interviewed and their schedules; and conducting a short assessment of the field survey of each barangay – discussing the problems, their resolutions and recommendations. By undertaking this process, we were assured that the completed interview schedules were the accurate data gathered. By assessing each barangay survey, the concerns and issues were acted upon immediately to avoid their recurrence. e. Computer data entr entryy and analysis A pool of encoders was assigned for data entry for the LPRAP and the LGU-generated questionnaires. The four-person team was pulled out from their designation as interviewers and three of them were assigned to the LPRAP, and one to the LGU-generated questionnaires. The PPDO trained encoders on the LPRAP software while the LGU had to seek assistance in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to be used for the LGU questionnaires. The encoding job for the LRAP software proceeded without much problem except that only two encoders were left from the original three. Getting the work done at a faster pace with quality results was an issue for the LGU supplemental indicators. f . Validation of data The TWG validated data after the interviews in all the barangays and the encoding of the LRAP indicators. We did not include the supplemental indicators in the validation because these were still in the process of consolidation. For the validation process, the Barangay Council and representatives from the BHW, Nutritional Scholar and other existing groups composed the quorum.

A review of the objectives of the survey, the relationship of the MDG and the BDP and the next steps after the survey were discussed prior to the validation. “He does not belong to the below income threshold because he receives money regularly from his son in the US.” or “His average harvest from his rice field is 40 cavans per season.” or “How can he not be among those in the category of below income threshold when he has no regular income. How boastful can he be!” These were only some of the most common comments during the validation. Among the 12 indicators listed, the indicators on income threshold, food threshold and unemployment had the most number of corrections in relation to the households. For the corrections of the income and food threshold indicators, a revisit was necessary. However, the other indicators were corrected at the office. 2. Lessons fr om the field sur vey from survey • “After three months, I have acquired the skills in interviewing and feel very confident that I can do better if given the opportunity of another field survey,” quipped most of the enumerators after checking the last interview schedule. But more than gaining knowledge and developing one’s capability, the field survey had a significant impact on the enumerators. Following are some of the personal insights: • There was one family which I interviewed who at times missed one full meal a day. It made me stare at the wall for almost an hour. How does it feel to be on an empty stomach when I can’t imagine myself skipping snacks! • Before, I was not contented with what I had and always wanted more. But after the survey, I realized how lucky I am to be provided with all the necessities unlike those living in the upland who were already happy with the simple things needed to survive. • I saw the many faces of poverty in the households I interviewed. I have many problems but seeing these people, I realized their conditions were worse than mine. • Yes, there is so much deprivation but if the government and the people work together in coming up with concrete programs and projects, poverty eradication is not impossible. • We had to give our ‘baon’ to the respondent’s family because they did not have anything for lunch. • Seeing the conditions of the people has made me realize the disparity of the rich and the poor in Jagna. I can be a catalyst for change. The Bohol Experience


Mayor Lloren Receives an Award on the Millennium Development Goals By CATALINO BERRO


UNICIPALITY of Jagna Mayor Exuperio Chiong Lloren received an award on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from the League of Municipalities of the Philippines (LMP) on November 15, 2005 at its fifteenth General Assembly at the Westin Philippine Plaza in Pasay City. The award was conferred on Mayor Lloren for directing development efforts towards achieving the MDGs and mainstreaming the MDGs in Municipal Plans and Programs. Before the conferment of the award, the LMP held its Visayas Island Conference on July 28-30, 2005 in

the presence of United Nations representative Dr. Zahidul Huque, who assisted in information dissemination about the MDGs and at the same time gathered basic data on the MDG localization from member-mayors. In behalf of the LMP, Mayor Lloren was asked to give the response. He presented the localization process in the three pilot LGUs of Bohol, particularly Jagna. Other recipients of the same citation were two mayors from Mindanao, two from Luzon and two from Visayas.

Catalino Berro is the Municipal Public Information Officer of Jagna, Bohol.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Bohol Experience



Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals



URING the 2000 United Nations Millen nium Summit, 147 heads of state and 189 member states affirmed their commitment to eradicate extreme poverty and ensure sustainable human development. The Philippines – a signatory to the UN Millennium Declaration1 adopted during the summit – committed to pursue the attainment of eight inter-connected goals and 15 targets. Collectively referred to as the Millennium Development Goals, the MDGs serve as an internationally set agreed framework for measuring development. The MDGs outline specific measurable and timebound targets in addressing poverty and hunger,

education, gender equality, child mortality, maternal health, diseases, environmental sustainability, and partnerships for development. It is both a synthesis and an expansion of past international human development covenants and their outcomes. More than numbers and proportions, however, the MDGs underscore the importance of human well-being and security. It represents the urgency of protecting human life threatened by unmet needs; preserving human dignity endangered by inequality and exclusion; and promoting human development vulnerable to unwise decisions and environmental variability.

Evelyn Nacario-Castro is the Executive Director of the Eduardo Aboitiz Development Studies Center (EADSC) and member of the Management Staff of the Ramon Aboitiz Foundation Inc. (RAFI).

The Bohol Experience


Taken individually and as a whole, the MDGs represent a road map towards a desired future. With it – governments, civil society, the private sector – chart a shared agenda of development.

Moving from rank 41 to rank 60, if not better in 2015. Are our plans adequate? In stipulating its targets for the 1990-2015 period, the Philippines set a poverty reduction target of 45.3 percent (1991) to 22.7 percent (2015). According to the latest official data from the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), the proportion of the poor population has decreased to 30.4 percent as of 2003. This indicates fair chance for achieving the country’s target. This figure, however, masks the disparity and unevenness of growth between regions, provinces and municipalities. Bohol, situated in a primary fisheries resource area in the Visayas, ranks 41st among 79 provinces in the Philippines in terms of the Human Development Index (HDI). With a poverty incidence rate of 35.3 percent in 2003 (47.3 percent in 2000), poverty remains a major challenge for the province despite its improvement in poverty ranking2 . Figures from the three pilot municipalities of Bilar, Tubigon and Jagna show mixed profiles. Bilar appears to be the poorest municipality, with a poverty incidence rate of 54.19 percent. Tubigon is next at 32.43 percent and Jagna 32.32 percent. As a land-locked, interior, and wholly rural municipality, the standing of Bilar confirms the general finding that poverty is twice as intense in rural than in urban areas. Tubigon and Jagna, both port municipalities, enjoy the comparative advantage of trade and commerce, and hence, a lower incidence rate of poverty.

Fine-tuning our plans With the introduction of the local MDG monitoring system, a project supported by the European Union, these three Bohol municipalities and the provincial government embarked on the beginnings of MDG mainstreaming. The overall goal of the project is to improve the capacity for MDG monitoring and localization, and thus help meet the country’s MDG targets for 2015. The project’s components include policy setting, capability- building, monitoring design, MDG database- building, MDG report and partnership building. A key project feature, MDG reports (i.e., local MDGs) from the four local government units (LGUs) were presented in December 2005. To fine- tune these


reports, ensure adequacy, and facilitate actual implementation, reviews and comments were sought and presented. In an effort to contribute to this localization process, the following points and queries were raised • Value of the MDGs. Serving as a backbone for development, the MDGs work not only as a tool for monitoring and evaluation but also for planning and programming of interventions. It provides the social architecture and design for development and enhances approaches towards good, accountable, transparent and participatory governance. • Data Gathering. In gathering data, it is important to look beyond and deeper into respondent-presented information. Beyond numbers and statistics are reasons why such conditions are occurring. “Why” questions should be asked to probe into particulars. The results allow a better analysis of the situation3 and hence, a more targeted, focused, and logical plan of action. • Data Management. Information and statistics need to be disaggregated. Disaggregation contributes to clearer focusing and more targeted interventions – enabling plans and action to be focused on where the need is greatest. It delineates and isolates fragments, segments and pockets4 which otherwise get obscured by ‘averages and generalizations’. This approach in data management recognizes the disparities and differences between: (i) regions, provinces, municipalities, barangays, puroks or sitios, or even between households; (ii) sexes and other demographic characteristics; and (iii) classes of the poor. Disaggregation

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

facilitates segmentation – assisting policy and decision-makers in directing its efforts and resources to priority target groups. It further helps in determining budgetary allocations for programs and projects that directly or indirectly target or benefit the poor. • Data Treatment. To enable easier and quicker monitoring and comparison between sites, information and other data may be presented in graphs and matrices. An element of standardization can thus be introduced, particularly in terms of components and aspects for monitoring. • Target and Indicator Specifications. In determining local targets and defining indicators, the area’s population growth5 needs to be considered. Factoring increases in population in the local targets and indicators, particularly in terms of actual numbers, enhances operational and financial planning. With this considered, the level of accuracy6 will be enhanced and the level of ambiguity minimized. • 5-Point MDG Framework. To enhance these plans and reports, the following framework is suggested: (i) Relationships - this facet requires the identification of stakeholders and the relationship-building strategies and mechanisms that need to be incorporated in the plan7 . With the objective of promoting ownership, the plan and its implementation stand a better chance of succeeding. (ii) Process - this aspect allows the planner to ‘begin with the end in mind’ and to design a process that leads to that end. This same process and its design can be shared with the larger community to al-

low them to see and navigate the ‘map’ together. (iii) Activities - this third point enables the planner to think of and incorporate appropriate and well-timed events and activities that move the process forward. Within the process design, specific activities and timelines can be identified. (iv) Systems and Structures - the need for structures and systems cannot be overemphasized as it provides form and gives flesh to the substance (i.e., local MDGs). Well-defined systems and structures enable the plan’s attainment. (v) Substance – the local MDGs their specific targets and indicators, are the substance upon which this framework is grounded. Without these and in this context the form, process, activities, and relationships hold no meaning and significance. • Three Final Questions. The discipline and practice of introspection and reflection should come in like second nature to planners and decision-makers. As a guide in this process of reflection, three key questions need to be asked. Questions that must be answered include, but are not limited to, the following: (i) Are the poor better off?; (ii) Have we eradicated poverty?; and, (iii) Have we made poverty history?.

We are the future. Why are we “out” today? “ Are we ‘in’ or ‘out’?” This seems to be the primary question raised by the youth regarding the Bohol MDG endeavor. This apparent clamor highlights the value of comprehensive stakeholder identification and analysis, and the need to design ways of engaging identified stakeholders in the process. From the speech of Alvin Acuzar9 , one can deduce that the youth have been left out of the MDG localization process. Asserting that “they are the future and the future is theirs” the youth representative presented the significance of youth participation in the MDG mainstreaming process. A corollary question “What’s in it for the youth?” signifies the call for inclusion of major youth concerns in the MDGs itself. Citing realities that affect the youth today, there are six principal concerns, namely: (i) education, specifically access to quality education – from primary to tertiary level and beyond; (ii) sports, The Bohol Experience


physical exercise, and recreation; (iii) smoking, drinking alcohol, and illegal drugs; (iv) suicide and suicide attempts; (v) livelihood and employment; (vi) participation in organizations10 and in processes and efforts that address current issues as well as the future.11

Exclude goal number 7. Would the future be as we want it to be? Goal number 7 outlines the need to ensure environmental sustainability. Targets 10 to 12 deal with: (i) strategies for sustainable development and the importance of reversing the loss of environmental resources; (ii) improving access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation; and, (iii) improving the lives of 100 million slum dwellers. Now, imagine the exclusion of such goal and targets. Would the other goals remain attainable without it? The answer of course is obvious. Without Goal 7, poverty will not be eradicated in 2015 – it will probably deteriorate further; hunger and malnutrition will remain, if not worsen; universal primary education will continue to be a ‘moving target’12 ; and so on and so forth. Stressing the need to address environmental sustainability first, William Granert13 stated that 75 percent of all poor people worldwide rely on the environment. In Bohol, most of them are marginal farmers and fishers who derive their daily food and livelihood from natural resources. In urban and rural areas, they are the homeless or “partially-sheltered” 14 segments of society who do not have access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation facilities. Addressing the sustainability of the ecosystem, including climate change adaptation, therefore, redounds to the achievement of the other millennium goals. Priority must be given to this area, and to ensuring that plans and programs consider its central significance.


Leadership. Localization. Buy-in. Do we have what it takes to move forward? Three factors stand out in ensuring the attainment of the MDGs. These are: (i) leadership – referring to the necessity of having local and national leaders who champion the MDGs and its mainstreaming in governance; (ii) localization – requiring ‘the adaptation and adoption’ of the millennium goals vis-à-vis local realities and contexts; and, (iii) buy-in or sense of ownership – a prerequisite, securing that leaders and followers alike carry and accept the goals as their own and contribute to its realization. These are the insights shared by Roque Bongcac15 when sought to comment on the MDGs. Indeed, with all else considered, do we have what it takes to move the MDG mainstreaming process forward? 1


3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11

12 13



The Millennium Declaration was drafted based on the outcomes of UN global conferences in the 90s. Bohol is already out of “Club 20”; it improved its poverty ranking from 16th to 33rd, according to the 2005 Philippine Human Development Report. consider cause-and-effect scenarios in the analysis. specific sectors of the population & localities. as projected over the next 10 year period in terms of targets and indicators and required investments to facilitate its implementation for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation youth representative to the public forum on the MDGs and launching of GCAP – Global Call to Action Against Poverty on September 2005. church, religious, sports, recreational and youth organizations all six concerns are inter-related and may all be traceable to the issue of education that is, interventions will remain on a ‘catch-up’ mode Executive Director, Soil and Water Conservation Foundation Inc. - in expressing his views during the December 2005 conference on MDG monitoring. That is, those who are living in slums and those who do not have adequate and decent housing Dr. Roque Bongcac is with the HNU Research Center.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Challenge of Meeting the Millennium Development Goals for the Women in Bohol For Peace and Development By ROSALINDA G. PAREDES Introduction


HERE is always a touch of something differ ent when like-minded women gather together. There is a general feeling of warmth, of kinship, of camaraderie! It is a kind of bonding and a feeling of oneness not known in other gatherings. The young have a term for this;“vibes.” We can call this “charisma” inherent in the psyche of a woman. And this charisma is that palpable energy a woman feels when she is with fellow women. This was the electric feeling when women in Bohol gathered March 24, 2004 at the Bohol Cultural Center to culminate the month-long celebration of the International Month for Women. During this celebra-

tion, women came forward, proud of their gender and strongly proclaiming their place in development and governance! It was my distinct privilege and great honor to be their guest speaker and part of what I shared during that event are excerpted in this article.

Republic Act No. 9262: “Tiptoe No More” There is every reason for women, not only in Bohol but also elsewhere in the country, to celebrate. A significant accomplishment of a lifetime took place when the Women’s Month started in March of 2004. A landmark legislation that took nine years to pass, was finally approved after persistent lobbying and advocacy

Rosalinda G. Paredes is the Acting Board Chairperson of PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. and member of National Selection Committee of Galing Pook Awards

The Bohol Experience


Violence Prevention Program. We need to come forward and claim our rights as women and children with dignity as human beings worthy to be respected by all – by fellow women and especially by men. This is enshrined in the United Nations Convention for the Rights of the Child or UNCRC and the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women or CEDAW. And the State has the mandate and obligation to respect, recognize, promote and fulfill these rights. Likewise, Only when the rights of women and children are respected, recognized, promoted and fulfilled, can we say that we have lasting PEACE here in Bohol!!

The Bohol situation from women’s groups and women and children who are victims of violence. Republic Act NO. 9262, which is the “AntiV iolence Against W omen and Their Childr en of Women Children ” , or also known as Anti VAW-C Act, 2004 Law Law” was signed by President Gloria Macapagal – Arroyo on March 8, International Women’s Day, at a packed Cuneta Astrodome in Pasay City. The Act is a triumph of the Filipino woman. It consolidated three bills into one law the Anti-Domestic Violence (DV) Bill, the Anti-Abuse of Women in Intimate Relationship (AWIR) Bill, and Senate Bill No. 2723 or the Anti -Violence Against Women Bill. This law also complements Republic Act No. 9208, known as the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, which prohibits trafficking in women and children for commercial sexual exploitation. There can be no peace until women and their children are protected from violence. There can be no true and lasting peace, if we continue to inflict violence against women and children right in our very homes, which ought to be a shelter and a sanctuary for children and women. Now, we have the Anti VAW-C Act to ensure that children and women will cry no more or will no longer suffer in silence. This landmark legislation on women’s rights will put an end to the stigma, suffered by women and their children who would like to “shout out loud” to cry for justice after being victims of violence for many years. Now, women and children will “tiptoe no more,” says the slogan for the National Network of Family


Is there really peace and development for women in Bohol? What is the situation of women and children in Bohol? What are the basic needs and concerns of Boholano women that government officials need to recognize and fulfill, especially in the light of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)? Following are key data on the status of women and children in Bohol: Health. In the 2001 Report of the Social Watch Philippines (a nonprofit organization that monitors social commitments forged by the government and influences the outcomes of policy decisions), 48.6 percent of lactating mothers in Bohol have Vitamin A Deficiency, higher than the 28.9 percent for the entire Central Visayas; and 16.5 percent Vitamin A Deficiency nationwide. Children’s health and nutrition. If mothers are Vitamin A-deficient, one can expect the health of children to be adversely affected. In this same report, 31.9 percent of Boholano children 0-5 years old are underweight compared with Central Visayas, which is higher than Bohol at 33.8 percent The national rate for prevalence of underweight children is 32.0 percent However, the prevalence of stunting in children 0-5 years old is high in Bohol at 45.8 percent compared with Central Visayas at 40.2 percent and the entire country at 34.0 percent These health concerns arise from the fact that Bohol has a high incidence of poverty. A poverty mapping commissioned by the Peace and Equity Foundation (PEF) showed the levels of deprivation experienced in the province, which can be appreciated using the following categorization:

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Color Codes from 1st priority to none-priority municipality: Top 10 municipalities 2nd 10 municipalities 3rd 10 municipalities 4th 9 municipalities 5th 9 municipalities

Source: Poverty Mapping of PEF, 2004

Map of Bohol above shows first, and second ,priority municipalities (in red and orange color codes) with high incidence of severe malnutrition

or APIS. This was confirmed by studies made by the Holy Name University Research Center in its periodic Bohol Poll, which put themselves below the poverty line or feel that they are poor and life is not getting better. In the scoping study made by the Australian Agency for International Development or AusAid, the second district ranked the poorest based on the following poverty indicators – (a) school participation rate; (b) access to safe and potable water; (c) malnutrition and (d) sanitation and presence of latrines in households. This is now the basis for the Bohol Poverty Reduction Framework designed by the Provincial Planning and Development Office Water and sanitation. Because of the province’s poverty situation, only 70.57 percent of families (based on DOH records) or 67.8 percent (based on APIS) have access to safe water supply compared with 76.40 percent in the Central Visayas and 75.15 percent in the entire country. In terms of percentage of households with sanitary toilets, however, it is better at 78.50 percent (DOH) and 93.6 percent (APIS) compared with just 62.93 percent in the Central Visayas and 69.91 percent in the entire country.

Pover ty situation. This underweight concern is Poverty related to the poverty status of Bohol. In this same Social Watch Report, Bohol was placed among the top 20 poor provinces in the country, ranking 15 th based on the 1999 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey

Source: Poverty Mapping of PEF, 2004

Map shows municipalities with no access to sanitary toilets, especially those in red and orange color codes.

Source: Poverty Mapping of PEF, 2004

Map of Bohol showing municipalities with no access to safe and potable water in Bohol Province. The areas in red are critical and severely deprived; followed by those in orange.

The unmet needs of children and women in terms of health, gender and development are somehow attributable to the poverty situation of the province. Maternal health. There were 14 maternal deaths recorded in 2003; And, one death out of 10,000 live births in 2002. Leading causes of maternal deaths included post-partum hemorrhage, placental retention, The Bohol Experience


pre-eclampsia, ectopic pregnancy and prolapsed uterus. These leading causes for death could have been addressed if there was good prenatal care. Distance, late referrals and lack of specialists are considered primary factors in maternal mortality. (UNFPA Bohol Situation, October 2004) Most nonprimary health care facilities are concentrated in Tagbilaran and the “poblaciones.� Bohol has 33 hospitals and clinics, 48 municipal health centers, 356 rural health midwives, 51 rural health doctors, 68 public health nurses are LGU-paid and 370 barangay health stations, serving about 1.3 million Boholanos. Bohol can provide an average of one hospital bed per 1000. Ideal ratio is one bed per 500. Public hospitals rely heavily on the provincial budget. All these data come from the UNFPA Bohol Situation, October 2004. There are just too many clients for every health provider and health facility. Repr oductive health. In the 2001 Social Watch Reproductive Report, only 71.3 percent of pregnant and lactating mothers (15-49 years old) received iron supplement; only 64.5 percent have iodine supplement and a small 51.5 percent tetanus toxoid injection. This simply shows that not much reproductive health care is provided to lactating and pregnant mothers. The sad note here is that, Bohol being a very religious province, only 42.8 percent of our women practice family planning. This perhaps accounts for the fact that our annual population growth rate is 2.9 percent, higher than the national figure of 2.36 percent. Region Province

1990 (Base)

Male Life Expectancy at Birth Philippines 62.2 Region VII 64.32 Bohol 63.69 Female Life Expectancy at Birth Philippines 67.45 Region VII 68.58 Bohol 68.43




63.58 65.52 64.69

65.58 67.02 66.69

67.08 68.52 68.19

68.83 69.78 69.43

70.83 71.78 71.43

72.33 73.28 72.93

Source: NSO/NSCB/UNDP, 1995 Census-based National Regional and Provincial Population Projections

Despite these gaps and deficiencies in maternal and reproductive health, Boholano women have managed to take care of themselves. Women and men have manifested consistently higher life expectancies than the national average as can be seen from the table above.


Domestic violence. A study by the Bohol Poll of the Holy Name University Research Center, showed Boholanos have personal knowledge in the different forms of domestic violence happening in the homes. These include rape of children by a member of the family, physical violence, wife battery and husband battery. At least 14 percent of Boholanos claimed they have personal knowledge of incidents of rape. This personal knowledge is highest in District 2 with 22. percent; 17 percent of Boholanos know that there are some cases of physical abuse on children. District 2 posed the highest awareness level at 22 percent but Tagbilaran City was still highest at 30 percent. At least 26 percent of Boholanos know incidents of wife battery in their places. District 3 registers the lowest awareness percentage at 17 percent. It is interesting to note that 51 percent of Boholanos in the age group 18-24 personally know of occurrence of wife battery. 16 percent of Boholanos personally know of husband battery in their place, with District 2 registering the highest percentage of awareness at 21 percent. The Bohol Poll from 2000 to 2003 noted that of the four types of domestic violence, wife battery tops, followed by physical abuse on children. We can see here that women and children, indeed, in a supposedly peaceful and religious province of Bohol, are disadvantaged. In another study done by PROCESS-BOHOL, Inc. in 2001 in 16 coastal municipalities, physical abuse is the common form of domestic violence – to include hitting the woman with a fist, slapping, throwing things/objects at women and whipping/lashing. How-

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

ever, only 13 percent of the reported cases are filed in court, the 87 percent are either settled amicably between partners or withdrawn. PROCESS-BOHOL, Inc. also studied why women remain in abusive relationships and these are the answers of women who were asked in a focused group discussion (FGD): (a) economic dependence on the husband; (b) firm adherence to the cultural norm and church teaching on the sanctity of marriage over and above her safety and rights as a woman and as a person; (c) love for her husband and the hope that with this love, he will stop abusing her; (d) embarrassment of being the subject of gossip in the community; (e) very low self-esteem and lack of confidence to make decisions for herself due to long years of abuse (learned helplessness); and (f) fear of retaliation from the abuser. Recently, the Supreme Court made a landmark ruling on the phenomenon of “wife-battery syndrome,” which absolves a woman in the murder of her husband, mainly because she has been a longtime victim of wife battery. Role of women. A great majority of Boholanos (72 percent) believe that “women are good only in the management and care of the family and other church activities.” Only 26 percent believe that “it is more fitting for women to actively participate in political and other affairs which are headed by men.”

Bohol’s response: our response Government’s response: Conscious of the poverty situation of the province, our provincial lead-

ers, headed by our Governor Erico B. Aumentado and assisted by our three congressmen, Representatives Chatto, Cajes and Jala, developed the Bohol Poverty Reduction Framework and hope to focus development intervention on these areas, especially, as I mentioned earlier, in the second districts and some municipalities in the third district. The Bohol Poverty Reduction and Management Office or BPRMO has been created to provide livelihood activities in the rural areas – bringing government services closer to people who most need this. The Bohol Technology and Livelihood Development Office, managed by the Bohol Investment Promotions Center under the Office of the Governor, is charged with developing appropriate technologies and livelihood skills training to equip our women with the technical knowledge and expertise to embark on small businesses and income-generating micro enterprises. The Bohol Provincial Government has provided funds and logistics, through the Office of the Provincial Social Welfare and Development (OPSWD), for a residential facility serving as sanctuary for women and children victims of violence and abuse, and whose lives are at risk in their homes and communities, The facility offers them refuge and psychological help for rehabilitation and recovery from being abused. Started by the former governor Rene Relampagos and continued by the present governor, Erico Aumentado with technical advice from Board Member Godofreda Tirol, who chairs the Management Board of the BCIC, the center now caters to more than 30 abused Boholano women since it started its operations in 2001. Some municipalities now have put in place a Child and Women’s Desk at the PNP. The National Agencies in Bohol are not left behind in providing assistance to build the capabilities of Boholano women in undertaking productive activities. These include the TESDA, the DTI, the DOLE even DAR and DA, as well as our Provincial Agriculture Office to provide agriculture-related income-enhancing activities for our women and their men. In short, our leaders in the provincial government as well as the municipalities have a heart for women and are responding. But more help is needed if Bohol were to meet the challenge of meeting and fulfilling the Millennium Development Goals of Boholano women. This is probably because of the presence of many women leaders in government. We have five out of 10 provincial board members who are women. BM Maly Tirol of the second district, who chairs the committee The Bohol Experience


on culture and arts and BM Ma. Fe Camacho-Lejos, who chair the committee on livelihood and cooperatives; the third district is more blessed with three board members, namely, Conching Lim, the “mother” and moving spirit behind the Bohol Women’s Council, Board Member Azon Galbreath, who chairs the Tourism Committee and Board Member Freda Tirol, one of the champions on women, children and family concerns. To add to these lady provincial lawmakers are lady mayors: Mayors Nanie Maniwang and Mayor Jasmine Balistoy of Cortes of the first district, Mayors Roygie Jumamoy, Marianita Garcia and Theresa Camacho of the second district, Mayor Myrna Scheurs of the third district .They, along with the many women SB members, barangay captains and barangay councilors all over the province, are our models in good governance. But, we still need to increase our tribe – double and even treble the number of women participation in governance. We still need you to be actively involved in the affairs of government. We need more of you to run for elective positions in government, at all levels – barangay, municipal, provincial and even national. We need more women barangay captains, more female barangay officials, more women SB members and more if not all women board members in the provincial board (with my apologies to our esteemed male board members of the provincial council). GAD budget policy policy.. This is the policy support of the National Government to all efforts of women’s groups, especially the National Council on the Role of Filipino Women or NCRFW to mainstream gender and development (GAD) into local governance. The GAD Budget Policy authorizes government agencies, offices, bureaus, state universities and colleges, government-owned and controlled corporations, and now, local government units, to utilize at least 5 percent(could be more) of their annual budgets for GAD-related activities. The GAD Budget Policy began as an expressed public financing commitment to the specific goals, services and activities for women as identified in the Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development of PPGD, 1995-2005, followed by a Presidential Memorandum issued through the Department of Budget and Management during the time of President Fidel Ramos in 1996. Then the NEDA, DBM and NCRFW issued administrative guidelines in Joint Circular No. 94-4, which was further strengthened by Section 27 of RA 8760,


known as the General Appropriations Act, passed also in 1999. What is the GAD Budget for? This is the fund to support GAD-related activities. The expansion of the GAD Budget into the realm of LGUs effectively opened the public finance window to codetermination and access by ordinary women’s groups like you. Local communities can now lobby for funds in support of your own projects, beginning from the lowest administrative unit, or the barangay, all the way to the provincial level. This has given a new significance to the GAD Budget: it has now become an enabling mechanism for broadening the democratic and participatory governance process. Our role is to “access the GAD Budget” and document efforts and successes in accessing these funds for gender-related development initiatives. GENDER ADVOCATES must use the GAD Budget as a springboard to seek from government the basics of good governance for poverty eradication and gender-fair social development in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. The GAD Budget Policy is a vital instrument that ensures that programs to empower women will remain at the forefront of government priorities. However, there is also an obligation on our part as women’s or gender groups. We also need to become strong, viable and accountable organizations to earn the trust of government in handling the GAD funds. This is our continuing challenge. NGO role. The NGOs fill in the gaps and limits of government funds and support. Here in Bohol, we are proud to say that we have a vibrant and dynamic NGO community, partnering with our local and national governments in the promotion, protection and fulfillment of the rights of women and children and in the delivery of social services to men, women and children. NGOs provide the training and capability building for our women’s groups, to sensitize them on the rights of women and children and make them claim and assert these rights, which is the true nature of EMPOWERMENT. In this regard, I urge and enjoin you to actively participate in development efforts in your locality undertaken by NGOs in partnership with local governments. As NGO leaders, we are saddened by the low turnout of community participation in community trainings and seminars. Church and academe: The Church has always supported the welfare and development of our women and children. The Academe, especially the Holy Spirit

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

School, has integrated lesson on gender into their curriculum starting in the elementary grades

Our continuing challenge An old American adage says, “a cowboy’s/ cowgirl’s task is never done!” We are far from over with our desire to unite together to bring Peace, Prosperity and Good governance to Bohol and to promote the rights of women and fulfill their Millennium Development Goals. We need to do more and here are a few points that we can do. These tips come by the acronym A R T. Advocacy: We have long been marginalized as a sector, despite all these gender – related initiatives. There are still Boholanas in our and outside the province, who are disadvantaged and discriminated againts. We continue with our own advocacy. We might be doing something local but its impact and effect may be national or even global. We take a look at what Mother Theresa did when she was still alive. From a small village in Calcutta she was doing her best to help the lepers and attending to the sick, but her small efforts gained global recognition and she has been emulated worldwide, and declared a saint. Be aware of the women and children’s issues in your locality and do something about them. The situation of Boholano women needs to be responded to. As women, what can we do to ensure that the needs and aspirations of Boholanas are adequately met? We can do something! What is frightening and worrisome is apathy and indifference. Resources. Without resources, our best advocacy efforts, will all be in vain. We look for resources. We

have this “gold mine,” which is the GAD BUDGET – 5 percent of the total budget of the barangay, municipality or the province. This is for gender. We need to claim this right. We need to avail ourselves of these resources. In this regard, we need to make good gender-related projects and advocacy campaigns. To be self-sufficient and self-sustaining, we also need to embark on our own resource-mobilization efforts. Training. We need to be skilled. We need to be experts in our fields of specialization. We need to be professionalized even if we are just right there in our remote and far-flung barangays. We need to be our best and give our all. That is the spirit of womanhood.

Conclusion Women play very important roles in our communities. When we go back to our barangays and municipalities, we need to be strong and steadfast to carry on the crusade for the cause of women in our province and so that we can rightfully assume fullfilling our roles and continue our tasks in asserting the rights of women to be protected and their Millennium Development Goals, while at the same time promoting peace and good governance in our province. We shall not rest until every Boholano woman is accorded the gender equality and equity she deserves, the empowerment due her, the gainful employment and livelihood she needs to support herself and her family and the good health and quality education that will make her a productive member of the Boholano community. The Bohol Experience


Addressing Environmental Sustainability By WILLIAM GRANERT


ORLDWIDE, the living organisms are disappearing from the face of the earth at a faster rate of 100 to 1,000 times; and a third of all amphibians, apes and all birds are threatened with extinction. At least 35 percent of the mangroves and 20 percent of the coral reefs are gone. First, if we are going to address all the Millennium Development Goals, we have to address how to make the environment sustainable. We are already behind the goal to reduce poverty by 50 percent by 2015. It is estimated that it will take 50 years and beyond. Poverty continues to be in the forefront of Tagbilaran City. If we have to meet our goal after five years of implementation, it is being met without better environmental protection. At least 75 percent of all the poor people of the world rely on the environment for their livelihood. In Bohol, most of them are farmers and fishers. The absence of other livelihood opportunities leaves local communities with no option but to continue with destructive activities such as the use of cyanide, fish aggregation devices and fine mesh nets, coral extraction, illegal sand extraction and timber poaching, wildlife trading, kaingin making and other exploitative practices affecting our natural resources. We have to give prior consideration to the sustainability of the ecosystem to automatically address all other Millennium Development Goals. If we do not address the environment, we will have to forget these goals. If we address the sustainability of our ecosystem, we automatically address all of the other millennium goals. If we are going to address the MDGs, we can’t feed our family if our farms have poor soil. We can’t have healthy children if we are polluting the drinking water thus risking water-borne diseases. If we reverse the situation, we produce enough food and extra in-

come and provide opportunities for a good education for our youth, as well as good health. However, the seventh millennium goal is not a priority. The municipal MDG reports do not show a sustainable program for managing the environment, except for Bilar which has reached 45 percent forest cover vis-Ă -vis the world standard of 40 percent. The town has reached the goal of a balanced system. Bohol municipalities are characterized as karst. Where do the waste materials we drop in the toilet go? In Tagbilaran City, for instance, many of the septic tanks and waste materials of the streets pass through the karst soil. These waste materials go straight down and hit some of the caves in the city. All the waste goes to the groundwater throughout the city. It is not just simply building a sanitary toilet. We have to deal with where the waste is going after we build it. We may pollute the water under the ground. It may not

William Granert is the Executive Director of Soil and Water Conservation Foundation (SWCF), Inc.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

show up for five kilometers, but somebody may take the effluents if we are not careful. This is the kind of problem we are watching out for when we push sustainability of the environment. Sustaining the environment involves a series of activities and to attain sustainability, the entire cycle should be considered. Second, on a provincial scale, the Province of Bohol does not have a monitoring system for the environment. There is a need for a system of monitoring the environment at the provincial level. The Soil and Water Conservation Foundation conducted a water quality monitoring to know the extent of effluents from one area to another. We reviewed some indicators, the birds for one. The more birds we have in the area, the better the quality of the environment. Rajah Sikatuna National Park has 86 species of birds, down from 120 species. Tagbilaran has maybe only five species. The better the environment, we would have better poverty eradication results. For example, if we have

one-hectare of good mangrove, the family will have $1,000 yearly. The value of a 1-hectare shrimp farm is $20,000. Among the three municipalities, many target to increase the water supply per family. However, their MDG reports do not state how we are going to protect the source of water, which is more critical than delivery. During municipal planning to target the MDGs, all other factors that may eventually affect each area should be given prior consideration. Third, environmental sustainability has to be worked out in climate change adaptation. In all three reports, global climate change is not addressed. It is going to hit the Philippines. It is already here in Bohol. The karst areas are going to be the first affected by this change. The incidence of El Ni単o in the country from 1950-1960 was once every 10 years. It is now once every two years. Climate change adaptation has to be considered. Our environment system in the Philippines is getting drier. In 30 years, the ocean level will rise probably between 20-30 centimeters. Tubigon 30-50 years from now will be under water. Local government units should start planning on where to put their people. London, Los Angeles and Tokyo, in a century, will no longer exist because they will likewise be under water. Thus, if we are going to plant fruit trees, we have to make sure they are going to be sustainable for 20 years. If we expect a lot of water, we may not have it. The Bohol Experience


Factoring the Youth into the MDG Programs By ALVIN ACUZAR


E in the youth sector appreciate the focus of the local government units (LGU) on nutrition and maternal health concerns. The Municipality of Jagna highlighted these and gave them as much weight as education concerns. The Municipality of Bilar acknowledged its high poverty incidence at 52 percent of households. We also appreciate the effort that went into coming up with reliable data and information for the MDG Report, as presented by the Municipality of Tubigon. From our sector, the youth, three points have been observed: First, what are the direct and indirect benefits that we can get, for example, from the goal on education, our concern these days? Is there anything

for us, the youth? As part of the youth and student sector, our concern is not only primary education but up to the tertiary level, and beyond! What is our reality now? There are 15.1 million (2000 Census) of us youth, 20 percent of the total Philippine population, with an annual growth rate of 2.1 percent. Of the 1.7 million babies born in the country every year, around 30 percent come from young women among us, especially those who are out of school, in low-paying jobs and residing in rural areas. A third of those 2024 years old would have given birth to their first child before reaching the age of 21 and another third would have to to three children. The number of those who have begun childbearing is rising, from nine percent

Alvin Acuzar is the youth representative to the Public Forum on the MDG. This article was culled from the speech delivered by Acuzar during the launching of the Global Call to Action Against Poverty on September 9, 2005 at the Bohol Cultural Center, Tagbilaran City, Bohol.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

in the 1993 National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS), to 11 percent in the 1998 NDHS. At age 18, 10 percent are already mothers and at age 24, 50 percent. The LGUs talked about the concerns of children and mothers, education at the primary level and the training of teachers. Who will benefit? The children who will become the youth? Indeed, we appreciate these efforts for our children. But what about us? As part of the youth and student sector, our concern goes far beyond primary education. What is our reality? While most of us (88 percent) possessed skills in the “3 Rs” (1994 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey or FLEMMS) and exhibited the highest functional literacy rate among all age groups; while there was an increase in the proportion of “inschool” youth among the 15-19 year olds, rising from 61.3 percent males and 63.9 percent females in 1994 to 65.2 percent males and 71.7 percent females in 2002, access to quality education remains a key problem for the youth. Statistics from the Department of Education show that of 100 pupils who enter grade 1, only 66 will complete elementary education, 43 will finish high school but only 23 will enter first year college, and only 14 will eventually earn a college degree. Further two percent of the youth and children have had no schooling at all. Even more alarming is the fact that less than one percent of those who completed elementary education acquired basic competencies in English, Science and Math. What else is our reality? One in eight claimed to be active members of sports or recreational organizations and in church or religious organizations; a tenth in youth organizations. In addition, only one in 20 participated in sports, did athletic work or exercised daily. (Social Weather Stations, 1996) Almost half (47 percent) of the Filipino youth have tried smoking, with males being more prone to cigarette smoking than females. Most smokers in their 20s have low educational attainment. The trend also shows that younger women are picking up the practice, faster than males. Almost 70 percent of our young people have tried drinking alcohol. It is almost universal among the younger male adolescents (83 percent) and increasing among females (54 percent in 1994 to 70 percent in 2002), with the working and out-of-school or idle groups more prone to it. Only two out of five females who have tried drinking alcoholic beverages are current drinkers. (Young Adults Fertility and Sexuality Survey or YAFSS, 1994 and 2002) Half or 1.8 million of the 3.4 million Filipinos on

illegal drugs come from the youth, and the 1996 SWS survey showed drug use was rampant among high school and college students. The proportion of young people exposed to drugs also rose for both sexes, from six percent in 1994 to 11 percent in 2002. More users were male, but the females exhibited a faster rate of increase compared to males. Working youth (18 percent) are more into drugs than in-school ones (seven percent). In addition, six percent claimed to have sold illegal drugs. (YAFSS, 1994 and 2002) An alarming 12 percent of the youth have had at least one suicide attempt, with females (17 percent) being more prone to commit suicide than males (seven percent), and 26 percent unsuccessful (of which 28 percent are male; 26 percent female). The idle group (15 percent) showed a higher incidence of suicide attempts compared to students or working youth (both 11 percent). Of these attempts, those in their early 20s exhibited the highest rate of suicide. (YAFSS, 1994 and 2002) This is the reality of the youth of today. Were these considered in the local MDG programs of the province and the municipalities? Are there programs to address these concerns? We believe that addressing our reality and its underlying issues will greatly reduce poverty by 2015. When we talk about 2015 and poverty alleviation, we must talk about the young people. But little was highlighted about the young people in the reports when, by the year 2015, the year we say we will reduce poverty, I, 24 years old, will be 34. I will be part of such poverty reduction. This is the point the youth want to emphasize and which we want the local governments to appreciate. The year 2015 talks about the future. What we want to show is that the present are the youth and the future is our young people. The second is the issue of livelihood. I hope we do not talk of the livelihood only of parents but also the livelihood of the youth because unemployment is most pronounced in the youth sector, in the 15-30 age group. Republic Act 8044, otherwise known as the “Youth in Nation-Building Act” signed in June 7,1995, defined the youth in the Philippines as those who are 15-30 years old. Nearly half (47 percent) of the 3.13 million unemployed persons in the country in 2002 belong to the youth sector. This indicates the lack of job opportunities for young entrants to the labor force. Their unemployment rate has gradually increased for the past six years. The October 2002 Labor Force Survey showed their unemployment rates were higher The Bohol Experience


in urban rather than rural areas, with almost three in 10 urban males and more than one in 10 rural males unemployed. Yes, we, the Filipino youth, are unemployed or underemployed. Yet, in 2002, the Filipino youth comprised one third of the total 45.3 million working age population (15-64 years old). About half of us were already in the labor force, either employed, accounting for 20 percent of the total number of employed persons, or still looking for work (unemployed). Three in every 10 of the youth are gainfully employed but the proportion of the idle youth (neither in school or working) ranges from 16 percent to 29 percent nationwide. Due to the lack of jobs for young adults (2024) and adolescents (15-19), the national dependency ratio is 11 dependents for every six working persons. There is also an observed increase in the Filipino youth’s participation in overseas work, particularly for young females. The youth accounts for 12 percent of overseas workers, with females constituting the majority at 70 percent of the total youth deployed in 2001. How serious is our Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) group? What is unique about GCAP that the youth can be proud of? There are already many government programs on poverty alleviation. So many programs in the country that they drive us crazy but, just the same, they are so constricting. How serious is our MDG effort? What will be its impact? On our part, maybe it is not clear because in the process of designing this and everything else, we have not really participated. We were invited to be part of GCAP and we came forward because we believe in this effort, in its agenda, that’s why we participated. We have taken the challenge and affirmed our participation in the GCAP launching because poverty and the MDG matter to us. But it’s not the end. It’s just a stage in our effort. We have a lot of issues, a lot of concerns. Where will we be in 2015? Are we sure that we will still be here? We, the youth, are the ones who will claim our success. Yes, we claim, as young people, that 2015 is ours; we will claim the success of ending poverty by


2015. That is the third concern we want to show. What do we need to do? What is our share? In the MDG programs presented by the municipal governments, the participation of young people or any intent to tap young people was never mentioned. Thus, what is our role? The actions being done now are simple preparations for our future. Yes, we have the Sangguniang Kabataan or SK (Youth Council). But in the MDG programs, there was no mention of the participation and role of the youth. Whatever design or agenda or program is forwarded, the youth need to know what is being talked about. We also have the Local Youth Development Council. I hope that we will be given a chance to participate. We see this as a venue for participation. We are not asked for anything. How can we participate if we are not asked to participate? We have to empower the youth sector so that we can join in the collective action to reduce poverty. Another point is how do we sustain this effort? Who will be responsible for this effort by 2015? Who do we look for? What is our assurance that in 2015, our province will be poverty-free? That’s what we want to see. So, we hope that in the future, the participation of young people in the fight against poverty will be highlighted. We want to participate for our future. Give us the chance to do so – to mobilize the youth - so that we may contribute meaningfully in the fight to end poverty. References State of the Philippine Population Report Second Edition (SPPR 02) Pinoy Youth: Making Voices, Building Voices Commission on Population, RP The Situation of Filipino Youth: A National Survey (1996) Gerardo Sandoval, Mahar Mangahas and Linda Luz Guerrero Social Weather Station National Statistics Office (NSO). Labor Force Survey, October 2002. National Statistics Office (NSO). Survey on Overseas Filipinos, 2000. 1994 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey or FLEMMS

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Let Us Practice What We Are Preaching By DENNIS CALUNIA


HURCH has defined itself as the one taking care of the spiritual aspect of humanity while the temporal aspect was delegated to the government. The church has a self-imposed limit as to the coverage of its spirituality role. It seems to be comfortable with its role as an academic teacher to its flock. It can be compared to a General in an army who shouts at the top of his lungs to his men and forces them to win the battle against their enemies without having a chance to feel the anxiety, the fear of bloodshed and the pain over possible losses in lives and properties. It has always described injustices, poverty, oppression as evil yet so far it has taken only a few phenomenal actions of significant force to at least effect changes in society and foster justice, freedom, equality and prosperity. It seems to be very easy for us to teach people that God is love and God is peace, God is just‌God is good! But for a long time these things also seem to be very elusive among God’s people. Why? Because only a few are practicing what they preach. No less than the late Jaime Cardinal Sin has admitted that the church failed the poor. It has not redeemed the poor as promised. It seems to be contented only with its role to remind the people to pray and sacrifice in the face of all disenchantment and aridity.

However, after the Vatican Council II, the church made a significant change in its thrusts towards the integral and holistic development of the human race. It already has the courage to actively participate in attaining social justice and poverty alleviation which is a significant deviation from the previous doctrines of the church. It already pierced into the temporal aspect of humanity which was previously left to civil government only. It has recognized the fact that poverty is the primary root of human frailties and evils. Through the Global Call to Action against Poverty (GCAP) Campaign, it made a bold step towards accepting a social responsibility. Because of these development initiatives, it has awakened the consciousness of the people in the community such as; nongovernment organizations, civil society groups, church sector, people’s organizations and the like to show the spirit of compassion and care towards their fellowmen especially the poor. These Millennium Development Goals which seek to eradicate poverty and thus make poverty history pose a great challenge to all of us. It may sound daring and ambitious but we believe this is achievable. Just like us, people, we love fairy tales and we love to watch cartoon movies not because they are telling us that dragons exist but because we believe that they can be beaten.

Dennis Calunia is the Operations Manager of the Social Action Center (SAC) of Bohol. He has been working with SAC since 1999. The Bohol Experience


MDGs from the Vantage of the Academe By DR. ROQUE BONGCAC Introduction


HE poverty reduction program of the Prov ince of Bohol has been in place for many years. Although the number of people living below the poverty line has fallen slightly and the poorest have tended to move closer to the threshold, the program’s full impact on poverty appears limited. Despite efforts of local government officials and their constituents, poverty has remained a major problem. Bohol is still the 41st poorest province of the Philippines. The introduction of the MDGs in Bohol’s three selected municipalities — Tubigon, Jagna and Bilar — is a welcome development. The goals did not only provide a comprehensive paradigm for propoor equity enhancing programs, but they also serve as bases

for prioritizing courses of action and allocation of resources. The MDGs’ full impact on poverty is too early to be judged because their implementation has just begun. However, if there is one area where the direct benefit of adopting the MDG is felt, it is in strategic planning. The goals easily translate into a doable course of action which serves as basis for directing initiatives and resources where they are most needed. At present, the programs and priorities of the three municipalities operate on well-defined goals which give premium to poverty reduction and improving the lives of the people. Certainly, the same goals will serve as a tool for a more objective performance evaluation of the local government officials.

Dr. Roque Bongcac is the editor of the Holynamian Online Edition, the official publication of the Holy Name University.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Stimulating propoor growth and development A number of international researchers who studied the Philippine economic condition had been struck by the country’s lack of a development agenda for the poor (A World Bank Social and Structural Review, 2000). A range of studies showed that development efforts, if they had initially spurred growth, were primarily intended to make the country’s economic growth reach respectable rates by international standards. They also indicate that the country invested heavily in infrastructure and technology. These gaps in the development programs could have prompted the national and local leaders to put poverty reduction back on track and to make growth more pro poor. In the event, the development programs have advertently included strategic plans tailored to the needs of the poor. The introduction of the MDGs in the three municipalities of Bohol coincided with a marked shift in the province’s development paradigm toward reducing poverty. The MDGs offer a more comprehensive and a more coherent development framework which gives emphasis to improving the lives of the marginalized. Their comprehensiveness lies in the fact that these

goals were formulated based primarily on the needs of developing countries. Although they were not formulated in the local context, they reflect what the poor and the underprivileged really need. They assume a highly humanitarian character, giving greater value to lives rather than infrastructure and materials development. The MDGs easily fit the development paths of communities. The three Bohol municipalities which adopted them operate on clear and strategic directions. These were made so because the goals complemented the three municipalities’ existing strategic plans, which had been formulated before the adoption of the MDGs. Whatever limitations the existing plans contain, these goals fill the gaps. In fact, they gradually change the prevailing belief of local leaders and people that development is confined within the intent of keeping the economy in shape and making technology globally competitive. The MDG indicators brought awareness that development becomes more meaningful if it includes programs which reduce poverty, provide education, respect the rights of women, improve health and save lives of mothers and children. Moreover, the inclusion of goals to contain the spread of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases is not commonly found in the existing strategic plans of local government units. Although its absence from such local plans may be seen as a signal that AIDS is not a serious threat, its inclusion is a realization of an advocacy that one way to protect the lives of people is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The provision on protecting the environment through water access, sanitation, housing, tenure status, waste management, comprehensive land use and maintaining biological diversity addresses a major problem at present – ecological and environmental degradation. The goals also bring people closer together by breaking barriers of disinformation or lack of information through improved telecommunication facilities. Furthermore, the goals recognize the importance of the youth in the development process. The provision on youth development is a good step towards molding the youth to be responsible citizens and active community leaders. The goals assume a coherent character which provides continuity of efforts and initiatives. They mutually reinforce one another. For instance, poverty reduction program, the first goal, recognizes gender equity and women and youth empowerment. This The Bohol Experience


means that a program to reduce poverty only becomes more meaningful if it addresses gender inequalities. The MDGs is not a new set of goals. They have been partly the concern of local leaders, except that some of them were not given priority in the development agenda. It may be said that the government’s development efforts have not been wanting but still their impact has not trickled down to the poor. It is high time to consider where and why the efforts failed. Perhaps, the failure lies in not being able to address the real issue. The MDGs are among the best tools to redirect efforts toward the real problem – poverty. The goals unify all initiatives for development which have been hampered by the absence of strategic directions, exacerbated by political bickering and interventions. They provide continuity of programs at the turn of the new administration that used to pursue its own political agenda.

Lessons learned The MDGs reflect the universal need of the majority of the people in the world. Thus, there are cer-


tain factors which are present in their successful implementation: Leadership. The goals will remain only a laundry list of aspirations and ideas unless they gain the support of the top leadership, local or national. Localization. Although the goals apply generally to all settings, there is a need to localize them in terms of translating them into concrete steps or programs based on the existing resources and problems of the community. Buy-in or Send-of Ownership. The involvement of the constituents in the municipalities is crucial to ensuring the success of the MDG’s implementation. The people should own the MDGs by allowing them to participate in the formulation of specific programs in a highly participatory manner. The MDGs are far more than just an ordinary plan. A central principle in their attainment is the need to build the commitment of the constituents and leaders. The process of consultation, communication and education are some of the means for generating active citizen participation and of making them feel that they have executive control over the factors which contribute to the successful implementation of the MDGs.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Bohol Experience



Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) By MARIA MAY-I FABROS


HE Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) Philippines’ national campaign Kahirapan Wakasan! (End Poverty Now!) is part of the biggest anti-poverty movement in the world, the Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) — composed of individuals, organizations, networks and national coalitions committed to eradicating extreme poverty by taking decisive action to force world leaders to tackle the causes of poverty, and meet and exceed their own promises to the Millennium Declaration. GCAP was borne out of the 2000 UN Summit in New York, where the eight most powerful countries promised to halve global poverty and hunger by 2015 and to put development issues at the center of actions and decisions; thus, the birth of the Millennium Development Goals. Globally, GCAP is known as the White Band campaign, where people from all walks of life wear the white band to symbolize their commitment and participation in poverty eradication. It can be any white band tied made out of anything. The White Band Campaign became the venue that linked people all over the world in demanding for change, for action against poverty. The year 2005 had three fundamental events happening; the Group of Eight (G8) Summit in Gleneagles, Scotland in July, the United Nations (UN) Summit in New York in September, and the sixth World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Meeting in Hong Kong in December; and so on those dates known as the White Band Days, citizens wearing white bands mobilized to put pressure on the world’s richest countries to end the worst of the planet’s poverty.

White Band Day 1. July 1 saw a series of actions across the world to highlight the problem of global poverty. The Live 8 concerts was part of it where more than 60 performed in London, Paris, Rome, Berlin and Philadelphia on July 2, including legends like Madonna, Stevie Wonder, Robbie Williams and Coldplay.

Here in the Philippines, a People’s Concert-Rally was organized in Metro Manila’s prime business and financial district (Makati) to dramatize and highlight the issues of worsening poverty and debt in the Philippines, bringing together 18,265 people who then marched on Ayala Avenue to the beating of drums and with white ribbons flowing. At the head of the march were GCAP slogans “Kahirapan Wakasan” and “End Poverty Now”. White Band Day 2. To mark the WBD2 Wake Up to Poverty campaign, the series of activities fo-

Maria May-i Fabros is a volunteer to the GCAP-Philippines

The Bohol Experience


cused on assessing the Philippine government’s implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. September 5 saw the peoples’ testimonial on the status of the MDGs in the Philippines from the point of view of ordinary citizens and grassroot activists. Social Watch Philippines presented to the public its Shadow Report on the MDGs on September 8. To remind the government that all eyes would be on them, a send-off picket was organized for President Arroyo as she flew to New York for the UN Summit. Educational forums focusing on poverty, education, health, and debt were brought to the campuses and communities. White Band Day 3. Six thousand women and some men came together on the eight of December to rally against poverty and the ill effects of globalization on women under the World Trade Organization, led by the Women’s March Against Poverty and Globalization. It was the biggest women-led mobilization in the Philippines. Women from different sectors pushed carts decorated with visuals symbolizing various themes. The march commenced at Delta at the corner of Quezon and West Avenues in Quezon City towards Welcome Rotonda, all the way to Plaza Miranda in Quiapo, Manila (approximately a fivemile walk) where a program was staged. The mobilization was a colorful, creative, and ingenious cry — that no deal is better than a bad deal, and that women will no longer take things sitting down. A series of media events was held for the trade campaign, “Putting A Spotlight on Trade Injustice”.


Campus tours and speaking engagements with young people were undertaken, giving focus and attention to the poverty and effects of trade injustice on Filipino students, in addition to the regional educational caravan that brought the discussion on trade justice back to provinces. On December 5 Kabataan Kontra Kahirapan conducted a forum that featured former UP President and Anti-Poverty Advocate Francisco Nemenzo as he spoke before some 300 college students and faculty members of Univesity of the Philippines Los Baños, about the importance of good governance in putting forward genuine development of the nation; and the three people’s organizations in GCAP Philippines, organized a “People’s Caravan of Pedicabs Against Poverty,” to show how poor Filipino families normally go about their daily lives in pedicabs as “only the poor ride pedicabs” in Metro Manila. Two pickets by Piglas-Kababaihan, Kasama-

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

“GCAP is not just about spreading the word on poverty. We are also about action and mobilization because given the depth and spread of poverty and growing despair in our country. We believe that it can no longer be business as usual for our leaders. Now is the time for action.” – Marivic Raquiza GCAP Philippines Coordinator

“Sometimes it falls upon a generation to be great. You can be that great generation. Let your greatness blossom.” – Nelson Mandela, Febraury 2005 Trafalgar Square, GB

Pilipinas and Assalam, and rural development NGOs and farmers groups under the aegis of Task Force Food Sovereignty (TFFS), were staged at the Department of Agriculture (DA) on September 5 and 6 to dramatize before Philippine trade negotiators that Filipino farmers are being killed due to the massive dumping of cheap imported goods in the country. GCAP-Philippines also ensured the participation of civil society networks engaged in policy advocacy on trade, on the policy dialogue on the sixth of December together with the UP Third World Studies Center to provide a venue for critical collaboration between the government and social movements. GCAP Philippines reached out to the Filipinos through a Philippine GCAP click ad commercial shown on MTV Pilipinas, ABC 5 and ABS-CBN Channel 2. This featured local celebrities Diether Ocampo, Epy Quizon, Kristine Hermosa, Noel Cabangon, John Lloyd Cruz and Bea Alonso, along with local anti-poverty advocates like Leonor Briones, Ana Maria Nemenzo, Francisco Nemenzo, Wigberto Tañada, Teresita Ang-See, Horacio Morales, Isagani

Serrano, Edwin Napkil, Penny Disimban, and others clicking their fingers and taking a strong stance every three seconds to signify how often someone dies of poverty, how hungry and impoverished Filipinos are, and that together we can change it. This campaign run alongside the series of international television ads that featured celebrities such as Nelson Mandela, Bono, Brad Pitt, George Clooney, Cameron Diaz, Justin Timberlake and P Diddy speaking up and pledging their support for the campaign. GCAP Philippines set up two photo exhibitions, Images of Poverty and Spotlight on Trade Injustice. Mobile exhibits on both themes were used on all mobilizations. The photo exhibits provided the space for private companies like Fuji-YKL and Silver Lens to take part in the campaign. GCAP Philippines’ national campaign Kahirapan Wakasan! (End Poverty Now!) is a movement that cuts across ideologies and social class. Through the initiative of Social Watch Philippines, it brought together groups within the social movement like AER, Freedom from Debt Coalition, WomanHealth Philippines, E-Net, AnthroWatch, Assalam BangsaMoro People’s Organization, Kasama Pilipinas, Piglas Kababaihan, Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement, Phil-Net, IRDF, with individuals and groups from the broader sphere. GCAP Philippines engaged many people from the political to the apolitical, the organized and unorganized, to take part in the campaign. Instead of alienating people, it mainstreamed the campaign, and brought together people from all walks of life to make poverty history; engaging everyone; making everyone stakeholders of change. It made people think, question, wonder about poverty, igniting their natural need to take part and act. GCAP Philippines provided the peg for people to come in and take part in the struggle for poverty eradication because nobody benefits from poverty. The Bohol Experience


Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP) in Bohol By MARIA ALITA LUGO


CAP first reached Bohol during the NGO Orientation on the MDG on May 6, 2005 which was attended by representatives of NGOs actively working in Bohol, including those not affiliated with the Bohol NGO coalition BANGON1 . Ms. Marivic Raquiza of GCAP-Philippines was invited to orient the participants on the MDG international campaign. The participants also discussed issues encountered by community groups during the implementation of their respective projects. As a result, Feed the Children-Philippines (FTC), PROCESS-Bohol, Inc., Social Action Center (SAC)-Tagbilaran, People’s Fair Trade Assistance Center, Inc. (PFTAC) and Soil and Water Conservation Foundation (SWCF) formed the GCAP-Bohol Core Group to take charge of the discussion and planning of GCAP activities. On June 30, a nondenomination and nonpolitical GCAP caravan of around 900 from Wisdom School 1

Seventeen active organizations organized themselves into the Bohol Alliance of Non-Government Organizations (BANGON) with the aim of capacitating its members on the implementation of better practices, through collaboration and not through competition between and among its member NGOs.


in North CPG and Dauis Junction converged on Plaza Rizal and proceeded to the Old Capitol Building in Tagbilaran City in time with the internationally-coordinated simultaneous First Whiteband Day initiated and supported by the United Nations Millenium Campaign. Delegates from the towns of Bilar, Datuan, Tubigon, Carmen, Sagbayan, Candijay, Ubay, Dauis, Panglao, Trinidad and Baclayon participated in this first GCAP mobilization in Bohol and speakers included no less than Gov. Erico Aumentado, Calape Mayor Ernest Herrera and sectoral representatives of the women, fishers, youth and urban poor sectors, the academe and GCAP-Philippines. It was highlighted by the signing of a Covenant by both government officials and civil society representatives. The Covenant articulates the unity in eradicating poverty and working towards the attainment of the MDGs. The second GCAP public assembly cum forum on the MDGs was held on September 9, 2005 at the Bohol Cultural Center, Tagbilaran City, in time with the Second White Band Day and also on the occasion of the United Nations’ World Summit that was about

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

to open in New York. The assembly was attended by various community leaders and PO representatives from different sectors from all over Bohol. It was highlighted by the presentation of the preliminary MDG Reports of municipal governments of Tubigon, Bilar and Jagna, the reactions from a panel of resource persons representing civil society groups and an open forum. New participants signed the Covenant that serves as a pact between the local government and civil society to join hands in meeting the MDG targets by 2015. The event also served as an important step towards building local MDG coalitions in the three municipalities. The agricultural or farmers’ sector aired that they have been left behind in terms of fair pricing, with the purchasing price of both corn and rice almost 85 percent lower than fish and other protein sources. Unfair trade is the reason why the province cannot resolve poverty issues specifically malnutrition, food threshold and fair trade. The money they get from selling their products does not suffice for their daily consumption. They call on the government to shift their attention to the vital sector that feeds its people. Fishers, on the other hand, want the government to take responsibility for controlling illegal fishing activities within their municipal waters. The intrusion of big commercial fishing boats has resulted in the decline of fish catch and longer time at sea. They said the issue can never be settled unless concerned national and local government agencies strictly implement the Fishery Laws and other related rules and regulations. The youth expressed the need to capacitate and make the present young population take part in any

project related to the GCAP or MDG, they being the significant players of society come 2015. Attaining the goals and targets on maternal health, malnutrition and education is not sufficient. Integrating the youth in pertinent endeavors is necessary. Soil and Water Conservations (SWC) Executive Director, Bill Granert, said that the condition of the environment dictates the condition of the lives of the community that lives or relies on it for livelihood and sustenance. A dry and contaminated farmland or lack of farmland forces farmers and their families to relocate to areas with better environment or to the city to look for other sources of living. If not lucky, a farmer or any member of his family could end up either in prostitution or thievery. GCAP provided good opportunities for the NGOs to sit down together and discuss matters like politics and legalities. It is not too often that NGOs and other community groups are given the chance to unreservedly and without time limit discuss among themselves how the government has affected their respective projects. Local NGOs believe that the GCAP is the right venue to air their ideas and have asked that they be continuously consulted on the campaign. The civil society groups may have different ideas but their unity and contribution to the campaign is important. The government should be held accountable for the poverty situation of the Filipinos, being key signatories of various international conventions and agreements like the CEDAW, EDHR and SCS. They should be pushed and pressured, with no attempt to whitewash, to explain various unscrupulous activities. GCAP participants are now advocating both the campaign and the MDG at the grassroots level, who are the most deprived. They wear the white band in the field to express their support to the campaign. For example, Feed the Children-Philippines has been strongly advocating the MDG. During the Children’s Month, they conducted a Children’s Summit attended by students of different schools that formed a Junior GCAP-Bohol Group. This is also in response to the call of the youth sector that the present young generation be included in the eradicate poverty projects. The Bohol Experience


COVENANT AGAINST POVERTY THE Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) were affirmed by the 189 member states of the United Nations in 2000 as the global commitment to peace and development. It is now 2005. While the Philippines have made some progress in meeting the MDG targets, a wide disparity in accomplishment across regions and provinces exists. The poorest among them will more likely miss most of the targets set for 2015 - unless we collectively do something. In our own province of Bohol, which ranks among the poorest in the country, development is hindered by widespread poverty, limited livelihood opportunities and inadequate public services and resources. The time is now to make poverty history. WE, whose signatures are affixed hereunder, pledge with integrity, sincerity and commitment to do our best, within our personal capacity and within the sector where we belong, to achieve – if not to exceed - the following Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and targets:

and at all levels by 2015 4. REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY • Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five 5. IMPROVE MATERNAL HEALTH • Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio 6. COMBAT HIV/AIDS, MALARIA AND OTHER DISEASES • Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. ENSURE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY • Integrate the principles of sustainable development into government policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources 8. DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT Furthermore, we declare to uphold the global call to

1. ERADICATE EXTREME POVERTY AND HUNGER • Halve the proportion of families living below the national food threshold by 2015 2. ACHIEVE UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION • Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling 3. PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMEN • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005,

“Make Poverty History in 2015” END POVERTY NOW! Kahirapan Wakasan! “No more Excuses, Keep the Promises” thereby ensuring that all promises that are made, specifically those related to poverty alleviation, will be carried out at all cost. This covenant is signed this 9th day of September 2005 at Bohol Cultural Center l, Tagbilaran City.

PARTIAL LIST OF SIGNATORIES Hon. Paolo Lasco Mayor, Municipality of Tubigon TO THE COVENANT Hon. Erico B. Aumentado Bohol Governor Hon. Julius Caezar Herrera Bohol Vice Governor Hon. Edgardo Chatto Congressman, First District Hon. Roberto Cajes Congressman, Third District Hon. Josephine Socorro-Jumamoy President, League of Municipalities of the Philippines (LMP-Bohol)


Hon. Exuperio Lloren Mayor, Municipality of Jagna Hon. Fanuel Cadeliña Mayor, Municipality of Bilar Atty. Juanito Cambangay Coordinator, Provincial Planning and Development Office Ernest Herrera II Calape Vice Mayor and MP-Bohol Vice Chairman Rev. Fr. Ernesto Lagura Holy Name University, Academe Sector

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Mr. Saidali Dika Representative, Muslim Sector Ms.Carolyn Daquio Head, ATI Mr. Samuel Gulayan Executive Director, BLDF Rev. Fr. Efren Bongay Social Action Center (SAC) – Tagbilaran Rev. Fr. Rogelio Mendez Social Action Center (SAC) – Tubigon Mr. Leonilo Lafuente Bohol Environment Management Office

Ms. Linda Paredes Acting Board Chair, PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. Ms. Nimfa Lloren UNLAD-KABAYAN Ms. Mila Baisac Visayas Cooperative Development Center, Inc. (VICTO) Mr. Leo Petarco Bohol Institute for Rural Development Inc. (BIRD) Mr. Enrique Auxillo Bohol Integrated Development Foundation, Inc. (BIDEF) Ms. Ann Piquero-Dy Community Awareness & Services For Ecological Concerns, Inc. (CASEC) Mr. Efren De Rono Mr. Roel Sumalinog Ms. Gertrudes Zagnason Ms. Ruth Corona Ms. Fe Corazon-Licong Ms. Iris del Corro Mr. Rodrigo Galeune Ms. Ma. Stella Macabudbud Ms.Mary Jane Lazarte Ms. Emilia Roslinda Executive Director, PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. Mr. Rene Raya Project Coordinator, MDG Project, Action for Economic Reforms Ms. Virginie Lafleur-Tighe Contracts Officer, Delegation of the European Union to the Philippines Mr. Alessandro Iellamo Board Member, La Aldea Ms. Rosalinda Pineda-Ofreneo University of the Philippines Mr. Roger Alegado Provincial Planning Development Office Dr. Nestor Pestelos Head, Bohol Poverty Reduction Management Office Dennis Calunia Social Action Center-Tagbilaran Mr. William Granert Executive Director, Soil and Water Conservation Foundation Mr. Vicente Loquellano Bohol Alliance of Non-Government Organizations

Mr. Ernesto Golosino Holy Name University-Research Ma. Cristina Calamba Division Office, Department of Education Ms. Yolanda Labella Municipal Agriculturist’s Office Mr. Gerardo Chagas Municipal Office, Tubigon Mr. Noel Mendaña Municipal Office, Tubigon Ma. Angelita Libante Osmundo Abayon Municipal Office, Ubay Rhubee Jones Omaña Municipal Office, Tubigon Mr. Ronie Galabo Municipal Office, Jagna Melba Acera Municipal Office, Jagna Mr. Dionisio Sarpamones Municipal Office, Tubigon Ms. Evangeline Delfin Municipal Office, Bilar Ms.Ma. Johanna Bagaipo Municipal Office, Jagna Ms. Celeste Ballentos Holy Name University-Research Ms.Ma. Lovella Escolano Municipal Office, Jagna Ms. Adelaida Lopez Ms. Ma. Lourdes Gimena Municipal Office, Tubigon Ireneo Macalolot Municipal Office, Bilar Ms. Rhodora Wapanio Ms. Letecia Penaso Cipriano Palen WEPFA-Albur Teresita Anquillano Boholwide MDG Conference Mr. Christopher Racho MPDC, Balilihan Rosavilla Villamor MPDC, Inabanga Tifilito Rulida MPDC, Katigbian Ma. Mercedes Salinas MPDC, Dauis

Mr. Loel Maglente MPDC, Bilar Efren Logroño MPDC, Buenavista Hon. Roberto Salinas Mayor, Catigbian Wilma Monillas MPDC, Getafe Fe Corazon Chavez Luis del Corro Bohol Poverty Reduction Management Office Rodrigo Galendez MPDC, Garcia-Hernandez Hon. Elsa Tirol Mayor, Buenavista Hon. Tranquilina Maniwang Mayor, Sikatuna Hon. Leonides Tiongco Mayor, Loay Ruth Corona-Yucot CASEC, Inc. Evelyn Oraña PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. Mary Jane Lazarte PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. Marissa Hinacay PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. Gertrudes Lagnasan PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. Marissa Gamutan-Genson PROCESS-Bohol, Inc. Mr. Celso Jamero Environmental Desk Officer, Municipal Agriculture Office of Jagna Rodolfo dela Torre Mr. Lare Tumulak Bohol Alliance of NGOS (BANGON) Mr. Rene Penales Chairman, MAKAMASA (Federation of Bohol Fishers) Ms. Remedios Yana Chairman, PAGKAINA (Federation of Women) Mr. Aurelio Salgados, Jr. Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP) Mr. Alvin Acuzar Youth SectorRepresentative

The Bohol Experience




HE localization of MDG monitoring began with a challenge, in Bohol, and ends with a challenge – the rest of the country. The primary challenge is that, as several Human Development Reports have validated, disparities in development can be so pronounced between places in this country that no single template is possible for fighting poverty. It is bad enough that conditions are so different and gaps so pronounced: sometimes, community attitudes to change also vary and any effort to even finish the first step, i.e., getting a reliable picture of the quality-of-life indicators and assessing needs, runs up against formidable barriers. What makes it worse is that LGUs, which bear the brunt of development, are also differently inclined in approaching poverty conditions. And then, even if the LGUs were correctly predisposed or have successfully forged viable partnerships with various sectors and communities, they may run up against the impact of dysfunctional policies from the national level. In the final analysis, only an unlimited supply of creativity, of openness, of political will can help make the MDGs realizable on a fairly equal level by 2015. More than just meeting the aggregate targets, the bigger challenge seems to be to avoid as much as possible sharply uneven results by 2015. It is hoped that the Bohol experience shows that challenge can be met, albeit with great effort.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


THE TRAINING COURSE ON MDG MONITORING AND LOCALIZATION Course description THE training course is about improving local capacities to plan and operationalize the MDGs, monitor their progress and report on their status in the local areas. Thus, the learning objectives and processes revolve around equipping participants with knowledge on the MDGs, the tools to localize these goals and the necessary skills in status reporting. Target participants in the training course are representatives from the local government and local NGOs active in development work in the area. Specifically, these are development planners, poverty action officers, information staff, social welfare officers, health officers, education officers and resource managers. Among the NGOs, target participants are those involved in health, education, environment and livelihood or those who work among children and women. The training package, covering a span of nine days, consists of three basic modules and two complementary modules. The basic modules are: Module 1) Basic Orientation on the MDGs: Contextualization and Localization; Module 2) Tools for MDG Monitoring, Localization and Advocacy and; Module 3) Participatory MDG Reporting. The complementary modules can be used to help deepen understanding of selected goals and to enhance skills for local application. The first module, while providing the MDG context at both global and national levels and introducing efforts at localizing these goals, generates the participants’ collective appreciation of their local situation using the MDG framework. In addition, the participants are also expected to come up with an MDG matrix for their respective local areas which contains, among others, proposed local targets and priorities. In the first module, participants conduct their own assessment of the resulting MDG matrices. Should there be any indication of knowledge gaps in any of the goals or should the participants themselves express the need to discuss further any of the goals, the complementary module can be used to help facilitate discussion of additional locally applicable and measurable indicators for the goals. The second module, essentially technical in character, presents a menu of tools to monitor the MDGs at the local level. Participants

are shown the basic features and local applications of various software using geographic information systems (GIS). With the ensuing exercises, the participants are expected to come up with local maps which reflect road and river networks, as well as health and education facilities and other relevant landmarks in their respective areas. These hand-drawn maps can be digitized using the open source GIS and stored in the MDG database that they will build up. Should the participants express the need for more hands-on practice in using these GIS tools, especially when customizing the tool to their specific areas, another complementary module is available. This complementary module is designed to hone the skills of participants in locally applying specifically the survey tools, the Open Source GIS, Variants of DevInfo and customized to suit local color, and the MDG Planning Software. The third module focuses on eliciting participatory MDG reporting. It was specifically designed to enhance the local MDG reports through consultations, validation and critiquing. After the peer critiquing where participants present the reports to the other technical working groups, the reports are then presented in public and before a panel of reactors representing different sectors. On the whole, the training combines inputs from resource persons with group sharing and discussions, case analysis, problemsolving exercises and critiquing. More important, the training incorporates planning workshops that concretely set MDG local targets, identify corresponding programs and proposed budgets geared towards integrating these into the local development plans. Thus, from the initial MDG matrix resulting from the first module, the participants are expected to substantiate these matrices in the succeeding modules, and refine plans to operationalize the MDGs in the local areas. The first two modules can be conducted one after the other with a one-month break to allow for consultations with stakeholders and refinements in the local MDG matrix. The third module can be conducted after the MDG survey and agency/LGU profiling is completed. The survey and agency data generated shall be used to substantiate the MDG report. The complementary module on skills enhancement can be conducted after encoding the baseline data and other relevant data/information into the GIS software. The training course invites local planners, resource managers and development practitioners, both from inside and outside local government, to replicate and enhance the experience.

The Bohol Experience




Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Bohol Experience



THE LOCAL MDG MONITORING SYSTEM FRAMEWORK AND DESIGN THE local monitoring system on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is designed to keep track of the progress in meeting the MDGs based on a set of indicators that are feasible and appropriate to the local setting. The monitoring system is a powerful tool for policy-setting, development planning and evaluation. It can provide valuable data needed to develop programs, set concrete targets and formulate strategies. It serves as a mechanism for evaluating the effectiveness of development programs in terms of their impact on poverty and people’s livelihood and well-being. Finally, the system is designed to improve services and facilitate better governance. Development goal. To effectively address poverty and ensure the improvement of the people’s well-being and quality of life by 2015 in accordance with the MDGs.

Objectives 1. To improve the capacity of Local Government Units (LGUs) in local planning, target-setting and decision-making towards developing more appropriate programs that effectively address poverty, human deprivation and environmental degradation. 2. To ensure an objective assessment of local realities and better monitoring and evaluation of programs, services and projects implemented. 3. To localize the MDGs and integrate its goals and targets into the local development plans. 4. To strengthen coordination among the local offices and synergize the different programs and projects. 5. To link local monitoring to initiatives done at the national and global levels.

The monitoring design and MDG indicators The design of the MDG Monitoring System starts with the global and national monitoring templates and builds on the existing local poverty monitoring system, specifically the Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) that has been widely implemented in the Province of Bohol. The LPRAP monitoring system, known also as the Provincial Database Monitoring System (PDMS), was designed and developed for use by the poverty reduction teams at the local levels in the province of Bohol. It is a cost-effective process to prepare the local poverty reduction plans at the barangay and municipal levels. The LPRAP uses 12 Indicators: education (school dropouts); health (malnutrition; child mortality; sanitation); unemployment; water source; income, meal and food thresholds; housing; tenure status. Information on access to electricity; disability and illiteracy has also been included in the list of indicators monitored.


The global MDG monitoring template contains the eight goals and the 18 targets and 48 indicators adopted by United Nations Secretariat in consultation with a panel of international experts from other international organizations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Overseas Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank. The identified relevant indicators are used to assess progress over the period from 1990 to 2015, when targets are expected to be met. Each year, the SecretaryGeneral prepares a report on progress achieved towards implementing the MDGs based on data on the 48 selected indicators, aggregated at global and regional levels. At the national level, the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) compiles available data on the MDG indicators. The assessment made on the availability and applicability of the MDG indicators in the Philippines showed that out of the 48 indicators, 29 could be obtained from government surveys and administrative records; eight indicators are not available; and 11 are found not applicable in the Philippines. At subnational or local level, the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), in cooperation with the National AntiPoverty Commission (NAPC), developed the Core Local Poverty Monitoring System (CLPIMS) as a local MDG benchmarking and poverty monitoring tool. The core indicators, composed of 14 carefully selected human development and income-based indicators, are used for poverty diagnosis and planning. These indicators tookoff from various existing local poverty monitoring systems such as the Minimum Basic Needs (MBN), the Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP) and the MIMAP-CommunityBased Monitoring System (CBMS). The core indicators cover the following concerns: income, food and nutrition, crime incidence, school participation, child and maternal mortality, water, sanitation and housing. The Local MDG Indicators adopted for this project were based on these monitoring systems. Through a series of workshops, consultations, validation and feasibility studies, the set of indicators was selected and adopted for local application. Additional research was done to firm up the indicators for gender and environment. The project team and the technical working groups of the pilot municipalities referred to the reports of the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Education and Gender Equality and the Task Force on Environmental Sustainability. Gender and environment specialists were also consulted about the appropriate local indicators for goal 3 (gender) and goal 7 (environmental sustainability). The final listing of the Local MDG Indicators is presented in the next section.

The survey instruments The MDG monitoring system uses several instruments to generate the required data: • LPRAP Survey Questionnaire (Bohol Version of the MIMAPCBMS Questionnaire) • MDG Survey Questionnaire (developed by AER for this project to complement the LPRAP Questionnaire)

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

• Municipal Profile Sheet • Barangay Profile Sheet The survey is a complete profiling covering all households in a particular barangay and municipality. The LPRAP and MDG survey questionnaires are administered preferably to the household heads. The data from the questionnaires are encoded and processed using the LPRAP software which automatically ranks households, purok (subvillages) and barangays (villages) in accordance with indicators used by propoor programs in line with the Millennium Development Goals. The MDG survey is processed using the SPSS software package which generates statistical tables. Once data are processed, the survey results are validated in community meetings attended by local officials and other stakeholders. The Municipal and Barangay Profile Sheets rely on available data from secondary sources, specifically from local agencies, including the Municipal Planning and Development Office, the Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office, the Municipal Health Office, the Municipal Agriculturist’s Office, Environmental Office and the Department of Education. The agency data provides additional information not otherwise available at the household level such as forest cover, enrolment statistics and crime incidence. The agency data are also used to cross-validate information obtained from the survey.

The integrated MDG database system The MDG database uses the BoholInfo which is a customized variant of UNICEF’s DevInfo. Developed by AER for this project, the BoholInfo database integrates global and national statistics on the MDGs, with local MDG data generated from the surveys and from available agency data. In addition, information that can be culled from

the official census and national survey data are, likewise, integrated into the MDG database. Customized databases were also developed for specific municipalities. A full discussion on the features of BoholInfo is available in the next section.

The GIS and MDG Planning software tools The MDG monitoring system also includes software tools that were developed as part of the project. The AER MDG-Monitoring GIS Toolkit is a collection of opensource applications used for analyzing the MDGs using thematic maps. The toolkit also facilitates digitized mapping of local areas at minimal cost to the local government. The use of the software is free and can be distributed to local agencies that need the application software. The MDG Planning Matrix, a software developed by AER for this project, facilitates and guides the MDG planning process at the local level. It provides MDG baseline figures and targets and a menu of best practices for different development concerns. The features of these software packages are discussed in the next sections.

Organizational arrangements To set up and develop the MDG monitoring system, a local committee must be formed to supervise and coordinate the monitoring activities and to serve as the repository of all MDG-related information and databases. An interagency technical working group is appropriate to ensure representation and commitment from the different local agencies. The participation of NGOs in the interagency technical working group is important to strengthen partnership with civil society in MDG monitoring and planning.

The Bohol Experience




NSCB MDG Indicators


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


NSCB MDG Indicators As Proposed by the Task Force on Gender Equality of the UN Millennium Project


The Bohol Experience



NSCB MDG Indicators MBN; used as proxy for women’s decision powers



Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


NSCB MDG Indicators As Proposed by the Task Force on Gender Equality of the UN Millennium Project


The Bohol Experience



NSCB MDG Indicators

Notes: All relevant indicators generated by the monitoring system should be disaggregated by sex Other data can be generated using administrative or agency data and not necessarily through HH survey.


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals



The Integrated MDG Database

BoholInfo is a customized variant of DevInfo, a database system developed by the UNICEF for the collation and presentation of data on human development. Initially conceived as a database for the MDG indicators, the DevInfo software provides a method to organize, store and display data in a uniform format to facilitate data sharing at country level across government departments and agencies using the same system. DevInfo is essentially a tool to assist countries in their monitoring and reporting on the MDGs. Its features can be used to produce tables, graphs and maps for inclusion in MDG reports, presentations and advocacy materials. The software supports both standard and user-defined indicators. The standard set of indicators, the MDG indicators, is at the core of the package and cannot be modified. However, at the regional and country levels, database administrators still have the option to add their own sets of local indicators to their databases. DevInfo (version 4.0) includes maps to the second administrative level for many countries; however, the system allows as many as 10 levels of geographic coverage. This feature allows national administrators to link the database to all relevant administrative levels to be able to analyze geographic relationships of key indicators. The “look” of the software can be customized as an integrated part of nationalizing MDGs and building the necessary capacity to maintain the database for monitoring progress. Adapting the DevInfo technology in the local setting affords comparison across provinces, regions as well as national and global statistics. It immediately places the local data into a global database.

BoholInfo Template of Indicators by Goal (Global, National and Local MDG Indicators) Goal 1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger • Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day • Poverty gap ratio • Share of poorest quintile in national consumption • Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years of age • Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption Goal 2. Achieve Universal Primary Education • Net enrolment ratio in primary education • Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 • Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds Goal 3. Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women • Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

BoholInfo: The MDG Database • Accessible data on human development compiled in one database system • Local data (Barangay and Municipal level) comparable to national and global statistics • Local data integrated into a global database • Towards evidence-based policy-making, setting of priorities • Localized MDG Database • A monitoring and advocacy tool

BoholInfo has been developed for the province of Bohol along with three other customized variants for each of the pilot municipalities (BilarInfo, TubigonInfo and JagnaInfo) as part of building the MDG database for the local monitoring system in the areas. The database contains selected data such as census data, line agency data, statistics from local offices and household surveys. The range of data covers the national up to provincial level. It also includes selected municipal- level data for the province of Bohol and barangay- level data for the three municipalities. In coordination with UNICEF Philippines, municipal- level maps for the province and barangay-level maps for the three municipalities were installed in the system. This enables the creation of thematic maps at the local level. The poverty maps in the MDG report of the three municipalities were generated by BoholInfo. The database may be updated anytime. BoholInfo hopes to provide easy access to existing data on human development up to the local level and contribute to a more evidence-based policy-making to set priorities and achieve localized MDGs.

• Ratio of literate females to males of 15-24 year-olds • Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament Goal 4. Reduce Child Mortality • Under-five mortality rate • Infant mortality rate • Proportion of 1— year-old children immunized against measles Goal 5. Improve Maternal Health • Maternal mortality ratio • Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases • HIV prevalence among 15-24 -year -old pregnant women • Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate • Number of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS (to be measured by The Bohol Experience


• • • •

the ratio or proportion of orphans to non-orphans aged 10-14 who are attending school) Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria Proportion of population in malaria risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measures Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course (DOTS)

Goal 7. Ensure Environmental Sustainability • Proportion of land area covered by forest • Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area • Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP) • Carbon dioxide emissions (per capita) and consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP tons) • Proportion of population using solid fuels • Proportion of population with sustainable access to improved water source, urban and rural • Proportion of urban population with access to improved sanitation • Proportion of households with access to secure tenure (owned or rented) Goal 8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development • Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/ DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation) • Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied


• ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs • ODA received in small island developing States as proportion of their GNIs • Market access • Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and LDCs, admitted free of duties • Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries • Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as percentage of their GDP • Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity (OECD and WTO are collecting data that will be available from 2001 onwards) • Debt sustainability • Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and the number of those that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative) • Debt relief committed under HIPC initiative, US$ • Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services • Unemployment rate of 15-24 -year -olds, each sex and total (an improved measure of the targets is under development by ILO for future years) • Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis • Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population • Personal computers in use per 100 population and internet users per 100 population

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


THE AER MDG-MONITORING OPEN SOURCE GIS TOOLKIT THE AER MDG-Monitoring GIS Toolkit is a collection of open-source applications and tools intended to support Local Government Units in localizing and analyzing Millennium Development Goal indicators within a spatial context. All applications included in the toolkit are licensed using open source compliant licenses (BSD and GNU GPL) and will run on both Unix and Windows environments. The toolkit is composed of three core applications. 1) The PostgresSQL RDMS with PostGIS spatial extensions 2) Quantum GIS 3) AER MDG Map Generator (MAPGEN)

Postgre SQL Postgre SQL is a powerful, open source relational database system. It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness. It is fully ACID; compliant, has full support for foreign keys, joins, views, triggers, and stored procedures (in multiple languages). It includes most SQL92 and SQL99 data types as well as support for the storage of binary large objects, including pictures, sounds, or video. It has native programming interfaces for C/C++, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Tcl, ODBC, among others, and exceptional documentation. PostgreSQL prides itself in standards compliance. Its SQL implementation strongly conforms to the ANSI-SQL 92/99 standards. It has full support for subqueries (including subselects in the FROM clause), read-committed and serializable transaction isolation levels. On the other hand, PostGIS is a project which adds support for geographic objects in PostgreSQL, allowing it to be used as a spatial database for geographic information systems (GIS), much like ESRI’s SDE or Oracle’s Spatial extension. With the toolkit, PostgreSQL’s main role is to act as the main data store, housing both MDG indicator data as well as map and spatial data. It’s client server architecture allows for various deployment configurations – from stand-alone desktop use to client-server enterprise-level deployments.

Quantum GIS Quantum GIS (QGIS) is a user – friendly Open Source Geographic Information System (GIS) that runs on Linux, Unix, Mac OSX, and Windows. QGIS supports vector, raster, and database formats. Some of the major features include: • Support for spatially enabled PostGIS tables • Support for shapefiles, ArcInfo coverages, Mapinfo, and other formats supported by OGR • Raster support for a large number of formats Within the toolkit, QGIS’ main role is to enable the creation of new maps or new household data points. It can layer map data from various sources (vector data, raster or from GPS units) and allows the user to create new new polygons, lines and points. The ability to create new maps is vital in ensuring that LGUs are prepared to adapt to changes in the local environment (as new spatial features are discovered, created or defined within a given locality).

AER MDG Map Generator AER MDG Map Generator or MAPGEN is a Philippine-made, web-based, free and open source application intended for data entry and visualization of spatial information. Because the application is web-based, it can be employed either as a stand-alone system, or in a LAN environment or over the Internet. Mapgen is also designed to inter-operate with existing databases and spatial information systems. Some of the core features include: • users can view maps, identify spatial features and indicators associated with the features, and create thematic maps • users can add new types of indicators into the system • users can add new maps or layers into the system • users can enter new data into the system either via direct encoding or data importation The application was developed by the Applied Technologies and Information Solutions (ATIS) Unit of the Institute for Popular Democracy (IPD) for the Action for Economic Reforms’ (AER) project on monitoring the Millenium Development Goals in 2005. The main developer of the program is Mr. Gregorio Luis Igaya. Additional information about Mapgen is available at the ATIS website:

The Bohol Experience



MDG PLANNING MATRIX SOFTWARE THE MDG Planning Matrix is an internet-based software program that facilitates and guides MDG planning designed especially for Local Government Units (LGUs) as well as NGOs involved in development work. Developed by AER, the software provides users with planning templates for each of the key MDG indicators. It details the various goals, strategies and activities of the local governments involved to get their areas moving towards achieving the MDGs. The users are prompted to enter the baseline data, the corresponding target, the relevant programs and projects to meet the targets and the budget required to implement the programs and projects. The software provides planning templates for the following MDG concerns: Goal 1: Income Nutrition Employment Goal 2: School Participation Rate Dropouts Cohort Survival Rate Literacy Rate Goal 3: Gender Parity in Basic Education Gender Parity in Literacy Women Participation in Local Governance Goal 4: Child and Infant Mortality Rate Immunization Goal 5: Maternal Mortality Reproductive Health Goal 6: HIV/AIDS Prevalence Malaria and Tuberculosis Prevalence Goal 7: Water and Sanitation Housing Forest cover Solid Fuel Usage Goal 8: Communications The MDG Planning software was customized to facilitate dynamic and interactive planning and monitoring at the local level. It facilitates ease in updating the plan and immediate feed-backing to all concerned agencies. The planning software provides a multi-user environment which consolidates inputs of different agencies into a single planning tem-


plate. It, therefore, becomes convenient for the local government to assign concerned agencies to formulate plans for specific goals or targets. For example, the Municipal Health Office can fill up the templates for food and nutrition, child and maternal health, HIV/ AIDS and infectious diseases and water and sanitation. The Department of Education accomplishes the templates for goal #2 (education) and the relevant portions of goal #3 (gender parity in education). The submissions will automatically be consolidated for review by the local planning office and other concerned agencies. To help the local agencies and NGO development workers in the planning exercise, the software contains a context sensitive guide, presenting the national and regional MDG baseline per goal and key target. Thus, the user can easily refer to the latest poverty statistics, education indicators and nutrition figures at the national level. The software also contains the global and national targets for the relevant MDG indicators. Thus, planners will be guided by these targets in formulating their own plans and targets for the year 2015. The planning software also contains reference documents that users can consult at any time during the planning process. The user can refer to the Millennium Declaration, the MDG global and national indicators, the corresponding descriptions of the indicators and to any section of the progress report of the Philippines on the MDGs. Other documents can be uploaded in the future so that the software is continuously updated about new documents and studies relevant to the MDGs. One of the powerful features of the planning software is its facility to provide a menu of best practices on various development concerns that are relevant to the MDGs. The library contains actual experiences and projects implemented by local governments, NGOs and the private sector in livelihood development, education, health, gender and the environment. Planners using the software can refer to and consult these experiences in the course of preparing their respective plans. The software presents a list of best practices and a brief description of the experience. The software also provides the internet links to these experiences which the users can visit to learn more about the project experience. The software is a free and open-source software which will be uploaded in the internet. This can be used by LGUs, NGOs, development agencies, the academic community, the private sector and other interested groups. The MDG Planning software will continuously build up its library containing local development plans which can be accessed by other users to guide them in their MDG localization, monitoring and planning processes.

Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals



IN localizing the Millennium Development Goals in the Province of Bohol, this statistical annex presents a compilation of social development indicators to help understand current provincial realities and monitor progress of the local governments in realizing the MDGs in their areas. These data are culled from national government agencies, local government agencies, and research institutions and serve as a handy reference for development planning. This annex was designed to highlight Bohol in relation to national and regional level indicators as well as to present municipal level data for a more substantive appreciation of provincial realities. The annex is divided in five parts. Part A consists of social indicators with provincial breakdown. It affords comparison of how Bohol measures up with all other provinces in the country in terms of poverty indicators, human development, quality of life and genderrelated indices. Part B comprises socio-economic indicators focused on the four provinces in the Central Visayas Region. The indicators show whether Bohol performs above or below national and regional averages as well as show how Bohol fares compared to the three other provinces in the same region. Part C contains a variety of indicators ranging from economic to agricultural and infrastructure data reflecting the current situation of the province. These data were part of the profile compiled by the Provincial Planning and Development Office (PPDO). Part D contains socioeconomic indicators for the 47 municipalities of the province culled from the poverty map/chart of

Bohol produced by the Peace and Equity Foundation (PEF) citing agencies such as the National Statistics Office, the PPDO and Provincial Health Office as sources of basic data. PEF also generated their own indicator in the form of the PEF development index. Part E consists of core poverty indicators generated by the Provincial Database Monitoring System (previously called the LPRAP database) of the PPDO. It reflects municipal level data breakdown but grouped according to congressional districts. By generously sharing data, these sources have made it possible to publish important human development statistics appearing in this annex. The statistical annex intends to capture provincial realities in relation to the MDGs. Although it does not have data for all 48 indicators of the MDGs, it does however have proxy indicators. The annex may not yet reflect the whole situation of the province but it can definitely surface issues and inform policy. It is hoped that the annex can call the attention of concerned government units, interest groups and stakeholders to validate identified issues and work towards decisively addressing such issues and concerns using evidence-based planning, prioritization and decisionmaking. Maria Luz R. Anigan Research Associate Action for Economic Reforms

The Bohol Experience


List of Tables A. POVERTY, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY OF LIFE Table A1. Annual Per Capita Poverty Thresholds, Poverty Incidence of Families and Population by Province: 1997 and 2000 Table A2. Human Development Index by Province: 1997, 2000, and 2003 Table A3. Gender-Related Development Index by Province Table A4. Quality of Life Index by Province: 1999 B. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS BY PROVINCE, REGION VII CENTRAL VISAYAS Table B1. Number of Provinces, Cities, Municipalities, and Barangay and Income Class: 2004 Table B2. Population Size, Density and Growth Rate: as of May 2000 Table B3. Number of BHS, Active BHWs, Doctors in LGU: 2002 Table B4. Number of Licensed Hospitals and Bed Capacity: 2003 Table B5. Live Births by Attendance: 2002 Table B6. Vitamin A given to Children and Lactating Mothers and Women Given Iodized Oil Capsule: 2002 Table B7. Prevalence of Underweight among Children 0-5 yrs. old: 1998 (NCHS Standard) Table B8. Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency, Anemia and Iodine Deficiency: 1998 Table B9. Infant, Under Five, Child and Maternal Mortality Rates: 1990 and 1995 Table B10. Proportion of Households and Families with Access to Safe Water and Sanitary Toilet Facility: 2002 Table B11. Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios in Primary Education in Public Schools: SY 2002-2003 Table B12. Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios in Secondary Education in Public Schools: SY 2002-2003 Table B13. Simple Dropout Rate in Elementary level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003 Table B14. Simple Dropout Rate in Secondary Level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003 Table B15. Reconstructed Cohort Survival, Coefficient of Efficiency, Years Input and Completion Rate, Elementary Level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003 Table B16. Reconstructed Cohort Survival, Coefficient of Efficiency, Years Input and Completion Rate, Secondary Level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003 Table B17. Status of Land Classification - Details of Classified Public Forest: As of December 2003 (In hectares) Table B18. Status of Land Classification (in hectares): as of December 2003 Table B19. Status of Irrigation Development: December 2004 C. BOHOL AT A GLANCE D. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS BY MUNICIPALITY, BOHOL (PEACE AND EQUITY FOUNDATION) Table D1. Resources Table D2. Population Characteristics and Distribution of Household Members by age group Table D3.1. Housing Characteristics Table D3.2. Housing Characteristics Table D4. Overseas Workers and Percentage of Household Head Workers in Agriculture Table D5. Highest Educational Attainment of Household Head, School Attendance of 6-12 yr old, and Elementary Cohort Survival Rate Table D6. School attendance of aged 13-16, 17-24, 25, and above 25 Table D7. Number of RHUs/Health Centers, Barangay Health Workers and Percentage of Malnourished Children E. CORE POVERTY INDICATORS BY MUNICIPALITY, BOHOL (LOCAL POVERTY REDUCTION ACTION PLAN, PROVINCIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OFFICE, PROVINCE OF BOHOL) Table E1. Number and Percentage of Households with Child Mortality and Below Meals Threshold Table E2. Number and Percentage of Households below Income and Food Threshold Table E3. Number and Percentage of Malnourished Children by Gender Table E4. Number and Percentage of Unemployed by Gender Table E5. Number and Percentage of Illiterates by Gender Table E6. Number and Percentage of Dropouts by Gender Table E7. Number and Percentage of Disabled by Gender Table E8. Number and Percentage of Households with Unsanitary Toilet and Non Potable Drinking Water Table E9. Number and Percentage of Households with Makeshift Housing and Households Not Owning the Lot Table E10. Number and Percentage of Households without Electricity and Households with Crime Incidence and Total Percentage


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

STATISTICAL ANNEX A. POVERTY, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY OF LIFE Table A1. Annual Per Capita Poverty Thresholds, Poverty Incidence of Families and Population by Province: 1997 and 2000

The Bohol Experience



Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Note: Districts of NCR cover the following: 1st District - Manila 2nd District - Mandaluyong, Marikina, Pasig, Quezon City, and San Juan 3rd District - Valenzuela, Caloocan City, Malabon, and Navotas 4th District - Las Pi単as, Makati, Muntinlupa, Para単aque, Pasay City, Pateros, and Taguig Source: Social Sectors B Division of National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB).

The Bohol Experience


Table A2. Human Development Index by Province: 1997, 2000, and 2003


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Source: Human Development Network, Philippine Human Development Report 2005

The Bohol Experience


Table A3. Gender-Related Development Index by Province


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Source: Action for Economic Reforms (AER) in Social Watch Philippines 2001 Report

The Bohol Experience


Table A4. Quality of Life Index by Province: 1999


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Source: Human Development Network, Philippine Human Development Report, 2005

The Bohol Experience


B. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS BY PROVINCE, REGION VII CENTRAL VISAYAS Table B1. Number of Provinces, Cities, Municipalities, and Barangay and Income class: 2004

Notes: Income Classification for Provinces and Cities was Based on Department of Finance Department Order No. 32-01 effective November 20, 2001 Source: National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)

Table B2. Population Size, Density and Growth Rate: as of May 2000

Source: National Statistics Office (NSO)

Table B3. Number of BHS, Active BHWs, Doctors in LGU: 2002

Source: Department of Health (DOH), FHSIS 2002


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table B4. Number of Licensed Hospitals and Bed Capacity: 2003

Notes: Provincial data excludes cities Source: Department of Health (DOH)

Table B5. Live births by Attendance: 2002

Source: Department of Health (DOH), Field Health Service Information System (FHSIS), 2002

Table B6. Vitamin A given to children and lactating mothers and Women given Iodized Oil Capsule: 2002

Notes 1 Vitamin A given to lactating mothers refers to lactating mothers given a single dose of vitamin A (200,000 IU/capsule) within one month from the date of delivery. 2 Vitamin A given to Children (9-11 mos) refers to children 9 to 11 months old who were given an annual dose of 100,000 IU of vitamin A capsules. 3 Vitamin A given to Children (12-59 mos) refers to children whose ages range from 12 to 59 months old who were given an annual dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A capsules. 4 Women 15-49 given iodized oil capsule refers to women between ages 15-49 years old who were given iodized oil capsule. The dose is one capsule once a year. Source: Department of Health (DOH), Field Health Service Information System, 2002

The Bohol Experience


Table B7. Prevalence of Underweight among Children 0-5 yrs. old: 1998 (NCHS Standard)

Sources: Department of Health (DOH), Field Health Service Information System, 2002 and Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI)

Table B8. Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency, Anemia and Iodine deficiency: 1998

Source: Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI)

Table B9. Infant, Under Five, Child and Maternal Mortality Rates: 1990 and 1995

Source: National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table B10. Proportion of Households and Families with Access to safe water and sanitary toilet facility: 2002

Sources: Department of Health (DOH); Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) citing NSO (National Statistics Office) as source of basic data

Table B11. Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios in Primary Education in Public Schools: SY 2002-2003

Notes: Enrolment - is based on the consolidated reports (DECS Order No. 66, S.1993). It is the preliminary enrolment count one month after the opening of classes. The actual enrolment count is the total number of pupils/students who have registered as of August 31 in a given school year. Gross Enrolment Ratio - refers to the total enrolment in a given level of education as a percentage of the population which according to national regulations should be enrolled at this level. It is a measure of the “capacity” of a region’s elementary and secondary schools. Source: Department of Education, Basic Education Information System, SY 2002-2003

The Bohol Experience


Table B12. Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios in Secondary Education in Public Schools: SY 2002-2003

Notes: Enrolment - is based on the consolidated reports (DECS Order No. 66, S.1993). It is the preliminary enrolment count one month after the opening of classes. The actual enrolment count is the total number of pupils/students who have registered as of August 31 in a given school year. Gross Enrolment Ratio - refers to the total enrolment in a given level of education as a percentage of the population which according to national regulations should be enrolled at this level. It is a measure of the “capacity” of a region’s elementary and secondary schools. Participation Rate - the ratio between the enrolment in the school-age range to the total population of that age range. Source: Department of Education, Basic Education Information System, SY 2002-2003

Table B13. Simple Dropout Rate in Elementary level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003

Dropout Rate - is the proportion of pupils/students who leave school during the year as well as those who complete the grade/year level but fail to enroll in the next grade/year level the following school year to the total number of pupils/students enrolled during the previous school year Source: Department of Education, Basic Education Information System (BEIS) 2002-2003


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table B14. Simple Dropout Rate in Secondary Level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003

Notes: Dropout Rate - is the proportion of pupils/students who leave school during the year as well as those who complete the grade/year level but fail to enroll in the next grade/year level the following school year to the total number of pupils/students enrolled during the previous school year Source: Department of Education, Basic Education Information System (BEIS) 2002-2003

Table B15. Reconstructed Cohort Survival, Coefficient of Efficiency, Years Input and Completion Rate, Elementary Level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003

Notes: Cohort Survival Rate - is the proportion of enrollees at the beginning grade or year who reach the final grade or year at the end of the required number of years of study. Completion Rate - is the percentage of first year entrants in a level of education who complete/finish the level in accordance with the required number of years of study. Source: Department of Education, Basic Education Information System (BEIS)

The Bohol Experience


Table B16. Reconstructed Cohort Survival, Coefficient of Efficiency, Years Input and Completion Rate, Secondary Level, Public Schools: SY 2002-2003

Notes: Cohort Survival Rate - is the proportion of enrollees at the beginning grade or year who reach the final grade or year at the end of the required number of years of study. Completion Rate - is the percentage of first year entrants in a level of education who complete/finish the level in accordance with the required number of years of study.Source: Department of Education, Basic Education Information System (BEIS)

Table B17. Status of Land Classification - Details of Classified Public Forest: As of December 2003 (In hectares)

Source: National Mapping and Resource Information Authority; National Statistical Coordination Board


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table B18. Status of Land Classification (in hectares): as of December 2003

Source: National Mapping and Resource Information Authority; National Statistical Coordination Board

Table B19. Status of Irrigation Development: December 2004

a/ - Estimated Total Irrigation Area (ETIA) is based on the 3% slope criteria. For provinces with service areas greater than the ETIA, it means that more area are now irrigated beyond the ETIA, eg. Benguet& Mt. Province. b/ - Includes CY 2004 newly developed areas. c/ - Data of Private Irrigation Systems are based on CY 1998 inventory Source: National Irrigation Administration (NIA)

The Bohol Experience




Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Bohol Experience



Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

The Bohol Experience


Sources: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol citing NSO/NSCB-UNDP 1995 Census-based National, Regional & Provincial Population Projections and NSCB as sources of basic data


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


The Bohol Experience


Table D1. Resources (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the Provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data

Table D2. Population characteristics and Distribution of Household Members by age group


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table D2. Population characteristics and Distribution of Household Members by age group (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data

The Bohol Experience


Table D3.1. Housing Characteristics


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table D3.1. Housing Characteristics (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the Provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data

Table D3.2. Housing Characteristics

The Bohol Experience


Table D3.2. Housing Characteristics (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table D4. Overseas Workers and Percentage of Household Head Workers in Agriculture

The Bohol Experience


Table D4. Overseas Workers and Percentage of Household Head Workers in Agriculture (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data

Table D5. Highest Educational Attainment of Household Head, School Attendance of 6-12 yr old, and Elementary Cohort Survival Rate


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table D5. Highest Educational Attainment of Household Head, School Attendance of 6-12 yr old, and Elementary Cohort Survival Rate (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data

The Bohol Experience


Table D6. School attendance of aged 13-16, 17-24, 25, and above 25


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table D6. School attendance of aged 13-16, 17-24, 25, and above 25 (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the Provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data

Table D7. Number of RHUs/Health Centers, Barangay Health Workers and Percentage of Malnourished Children

The Bohol Experience


Table D7. Number of RHUs/Health Centers, Barangay Health Workers and Percentage of Malnourished Children (continued)

Source: Peace and Equity Foundation, Poverty Map of Bohol citing National Statistics Office (NSO) and the Provincial Planning Development Office of the Province of Bohol (PPDO) as sources of basic data


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals


Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS

The Bohol Experience


Table E2. Number and Percentage of Households below Income and Food Threshold

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database/PDMS


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table E3. Number and Percentage of Malnourished Children by Gender

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS

The Bohol Experience


Table E4. Number and Percentage of Unemployed by Gender

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table E5. Number and Percentage of Illiterates by Gender

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS

The Bohol Experience


Table E6. Number and Percentage of Dropouts by Gender

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table E7. Number and Percentage of Disabled by Gender

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS

The Bohol Experience


Table E8. Number and Percentage of Households with Unsanitary Toilet and Non Potable Drinking Water

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals

Table E9. Number and Percentage of Households with Makeshift Housing and Households Not Owning the Lot

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS

The Bohol Experience


Table E10. Number and Percentage of Households without Electricity and Households with Crime Incidence and Total Percentage

Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office, Province of Bohol, LPRAP Database / PDMS


Making a Difference: Localized Monitoring System on Millennium Development Goals