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Acknowledgments Social DOers’ team has a strong appreciation for the support of everyone, who has contributed in the design and implementation of the project “NGO Coalition for the Rights of Young NEETs”. A special thank you goes for: - All the project’s participants, young people in NEET situations, youth workers and representatives of public institutions - without whom this initiative wouldn’t have been possible. - The member organizations of the NGO Coalition for the Rights of Young NEETs – who have transformed this in a permanent initiative, strengthening the efforts of the project - NGO Fund in Romania-EEA Grants, in a time when available funding for capacity building of civil society organizations is rather limited, we appreciate the opportunities that allow us to work for the most vulnerable categories, such as young people in NEET situations - Media Partners, particularly to Eurodesk and the European Youth Portal, as well as to the National Press Agency-AGERPRES, who have promoted and supported the closing conference “The Romanian Invisible Generation” - All Volunteers and collaborators within the project, who have contributed to the development of a new subject, unexplored in Romania - All Youth Workers and Experts in both Romania and Europe, who work with and for young people, from whom we have learned about this phenomenon, during the past years, and who have offered us the motivation and inspiration to join their efforts.

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About Young people and rights Working for the rights of young people in NEET situations is the result of years of activism with Youth led organizations, while gradually understanding that outside of the “organized sector” there are many young people whose voice remains unheard and who seldom have the possibility to actually know their rights. With this in mind, and in a national context of void of research or governmental initiatives, together with Social DOers we have decided to better understand what is the current situation of these young people as well as of those who already work for them (Youth Workers) and how we can support their efforts (including the organizations) in order to ensure better services for the young NEETs. Furthermore, being actively involved at European level, we wanted to understand to what extent has Romania taken into account the recommendations of EU institutions and how it used the financial allocations.

“Young NEETs” – where are they and why do we speak about them?

Young people in NEET situations are not a new phenomenon, for many years we have worked with them or at least we have known that somewhere there are young unemployed, school dropouts or young people who come from “disadvantaged” backgrounds (parents who immigrated to work and left their children behind, families with low income etc.). Nevertheless, we often disregard what happens with a young person who is in all of these situations-the NEET situations. So far, reality shows that once young people get in NEET

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situations they mostly become invisible. They are out of public institutions’ evidence, without access to social services, and while for those under 18 there might be some institutional tracking, after this age the situation is, to say the least, uncertain (since they are not anymore registered in formal education institutions, or in the employment agencies...or anywhere else). At the end of 2015, Romania can only estimate the number of young people n these situations (aprox. 4440.000), without specifically knowing where they are and what they do. Therefore we are confronted with questions like – where are they

and what is going on with this “Invisible Generation”?

Public institutions don’t have (yet) a permanent mechanism to reach them and, thus, they can’t offer them the services they might need. The European funding, that has been used so far, doesn’t show efficient solutions-since 2007, when Romania started to have access to structural funding, until 2014, the percentage of young people in NEET situations increased form 13,3% to 17%.

“We hit the point, but we miss the target”

An expression used by one of the most experienced Youth Workers I have ever met and from whom I have learned what “NEET” means - Howard Williamson (also a well known professor and expert in European Youth policies). Although the expression might trigger some smiles at first sight, it fits like a glove to the approach we had so far towards the NEET issue. Much too often we have used the (already) classic measure: professional counseling-training/internships or entrepreneurship, in a context where the situation of young NEETs is very diverse: from young people who dropped out of school (before graduating from compulsory education) to higher education

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graduates who can’t find a job; from young people who are socially excluded (for health issues, not having support in raising their children etc.) to young people who don’t accept a job if it doesn’t meet their professional expectations.

“One size DOESN’T fit all”

Trainings or internships can’t be used as the only measure for integrating young NEETs. Efficient labor market integration needs an integrated and personalized approach, according to the particular needs of young people. Furthermore, experiences of those who have already worked with young people in NEET situations show that finding a job is not the only issue, but also keeping it. Therefore, the measures addressed to young NEETs should include a mixture of job skills development as well as a tailored approach to the personal needs, especially for those who are inactive or in NEET situations for long periods of time. Last, but not least, we notice a need for more measures of Prevention and Early intervention. All these issues, and much more, were at the core of our initiative “NGO Coalition for the Rights of Young NEETs-Investing in Social DOers”. At the end of the project we are happy to say that we can better grasp the NEET phenomenon and all the results will allow us to build on everything that was achieved. Further on, we plan to strengthen the cooperation with both public institutions and youth workers, in order to ensure that young people in NEET situations have real Access to their Rights.

Veronica STEFAN President & Co-Founder, Social DOers

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INDEX NGO Coalition for the rights of young NEETs -why a Coalition and how this initiative started-

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Social Costs of Young People in NEET situations, a Romanian Overview 14 - Exploratory Research -

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Who are the Young people in NEET situations?

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General situation in Romania

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Main recommendations

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Profile of young people in NEET situations according to the Eurofound analysis

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Research Methodology 22 1. Conclusions of the qualitative research – case studies and analysis of NGOs experience 22 A) General conclusions - Case Studies 22 B) Why did young people get in NEET situations? 23 C) How did youth in NEET situations adapt to their own situation? 24 D) Other conclusions 25 2. Conclusions from analyzing the experience of NGOs offering services for Young people in NEET situations 26 3. National survey conclusions 26 A) Regarding the Youth Guarantee 26 B) Regarding Young people in NEET situations 27

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Description of Research Methodology 27 The unit of analysis in the Case Studies 32 The criteria for data interpretation 32 The results of Case Studies for the used instruments 33 I. Romanian society has legitimized theft, immorality and corruption - Frederic Bastiat's indicators 33 II. Maslow's hierarchy of needs 34 III. Time Budget 36 IV. Leo Srole’s anomia scale 38 V. The model of installation in adulthood (Olivier Galland) 40 Analyzing solutions implemented in other countrie 42 Triangulation of methods 47 REFERENCES 52 ANNEXES I. Examples of good practice II. Examples of Daily time budgets III. Voices of Social DOers VI. Member Organizations of the Coalition V. Strategic priorities of the Coalition

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53 57 69 79 82


NGO Coalition for the rights of young NEETs -why a Coalition and how this initiative startedThe NGO Coalition for the rights of young NEETs Investing in Social Doers began with the project with the same name initiated and implemented by the Social DOers during June 1st - December 31st 2015, financed through EEA Grants 2009-2014, within the NGO Fund in Romania. The main aim of the project is to increase the capacity of NGOs working with young people in NEET situations (not in employment, education or training), and to empower young people in these social situations, in order to actively engage in public policy development and advocacy initiatives for the benefit of young NEETs. The project has been developed in response to the needs of youth workers and non-governmental organizations working with young people in NEET situations or at risk of becoming NEET in order to: ďƒ˜ be recognized as stakeholders in youth policy development (at local and national level), ďƒ˜ professionalize the methods of working with young people in NEET situations or with those at risk,

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 encourage innovation in social inclusion and in civic participation of Young NEETs. The project has brought the issue of young people in NEET situations on the public agenda, that previously had been largely seen in terms of the labor market, although young people get in these situations long before labor market integration and have prolonged effects (after age 25 or even 29), aiming also at highlighting:  the role of youth workers in Romania - yet little recognized in Romania (although formally recognized as a profession)  the role of Civil Society Organizations, that have mostly young beneficiaries (without a specific objective in the statutes), in developing public policies for young people Project Activities-what was achieved:  Forming a nationwide Coalition of 34 NGOs and organizing 3 meetings of coordination and development for the Coalition  Developing a national research on "Social costs of young people in NEET situations”  Organizing 3 regional capacity building trainings for youth workers/representatives of 36 NGOs and 16 young people in NEET situations, in 3 of the developing regions of Romania- SE, NE and SW  Organizing 3 multi-stakeholder meetings in these regions, bringing together representatives of local governments, Civil Society and youth in NEET situations, in order to understand the NEET phenomenon and see which are the

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local support mechanisms for this group of young people and for youth in general. The 3 meetings brought together 33 representatives of local and county level authorities (eg. prefectures, county Councils, local municipalities, employment agencies, social assistance and child protection services, school inspectorates) along with 55 representatives of the Civil Society and youth in NEET situations.  Online campaign to promote and increase awareness on Young people in NEET situations.  Organizing the first national conference on public policies addressing the needs of young people in NEET situations and of NGOs working with them (both through intervention and prevention programs) Projects’ target groups:  34 NGOs (from 17 counties), members of the NGO Coalition for the rights of young NEETs - NGOs working with young people in NEET situations or at risk: their staff (volunteers and employees), especially youth workers, social workers and community facilitators. The organizations were involved in creating the Coalition and attended the multi-stakeholder meetings, as well as the capacity building trainings-where they had the opportunity to share best practices with other NGOs in the same region & directly discussing with local/regional decision makers.  36 Youth workers, social workers and community facilitators from the developing regions: South-East, SouthWest and North-East who participated in the Advocacy

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Trainings-"Social DOers Academy" - dedicated to those who: - are active in non-governmental organizations at local or regional level - work at grass-roots level, involving young people in various forms of civic engagement - work with young people at risk or from disadvantaged backgrounds, preventing them to reach NEET situations - work in communities, with young people already in NEET situations ďƒź 16 young people in NEET situations who participated in Young Multipliers for Social Justice Trainings- "Social DOers Academy". These trainings have helped to inform Young NEETs on the rights and opportunities they can benefit from, the means by which they can access such rights and opportunities, and at the same time, supporting the development of active participation by involving them in discussions with key stakeholders (other NGOs offering support services, Public Authorities etc.). Follow-up Beyond the project, the NGO Coalition for the rights of young NEETs became a permanent initiative, and its members have established the following elements that will guide the future actions of the Coalition: Vision: an inclusive society in which Young people in NEET situations become an active resource for a sustainable future.

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Mission: Increase access for Young people in NEET situations to the labor market, by influencing public policies and through active measures of prevention, training or employment. Activities proposed for 2016 o Monitoring public policies affecting Young NEETs or at risk of becoming NEET o Monitoring the implementation of the Youth Guarantee scheme, by the Ministry of Labor and employment agencies o Organizing the "Young NEETs Week" Joining the Coalition will continue: • Free - by signing the joint agreement • Designed for organizations working with or for Young NEETs, or at risk of becoming NEET, and identifying with the Coalition's mission. Also, Social DOers will continue working with the community created and plans the following measures: Supporting the members of the Coalition at local/county level through: - constant online meetings organizing campaigns in order to monitor programs/legislation affecting Young people in NEET situations (in particular the Youth Guarantee) at county and national level. In this regard Social DOers plans to develop advocacy micro-projects at local level, while we will support the Coalition members in developing and writing projects, as well as identifying opportunities for collaboration with other

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interested institutions or organizations (at national as well as European level) etc.; Disseminating the results of the Study and of the project, overall (with focus on conclusion of multi-stakeholder meetings and Coalition’s strategy), both towards national public institutions and regional/county level ones (including municipalities, employment agencies, child protection services etc.). This activity will include an extended communication on the part of the Coalition, towards all interested stakeholders (public institutions, international organizations, civil society representatives). Therefore, the project results, recommendations and suggestions for cooperation at European level, shall be also submitted to interested European organizations and institutions. The total project budget (approved at the submission of the draft): 41,315.00 Euro

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Social Costs of Young People in NEET situations A Romanian Overview - Exploratory Research -

Who are the Young people in NEET situations?

Not in Employment Education or Training =

NEET

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General situation in Romania - In 2014,17% of the Romanian young people aged between 15 and 24 were in NEET situations, compared with the European average of 12.5% (EU28). In 2007, 13.3% were in NEET situations, compared with the European average of 10.9% (EU27)1 - For the age category of 25-29, the Romanian Young NEETs’ rate increases to 24.6% (2014), compared to 17.6% in 2007

- Young girls in NEET situations represent 18.8%, compared to NEET boys 15.3% - for the age group of 15-24, while their percentage increases to 31.3% compared to 18.3% NEET boys 1

Data according to EUROSTAT (http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do)

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- for the 25-29 year old age group

- Economic losses in Romania due to NEETs are 1.54% of GDP, compared to the EU average of 1.2%. (2011)2 - Only 78,5623 Young NEETs are registered with the Employment Agencies (compared with 441,000, as ESTIMATED by the National Institute of Statistics in 2013). The exact number of young people in NEET situations is not known - Child and young people are the most vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion (2014): 51% of children under 18 are at risk of poverty, 46.8% of young people aged between 18 and 24, respectively. The general population at risk of poverty in Romania is of 40.2% (data according to Eurostat, 2014) – the EU average from 28 to 24.4%. Persons of 60 years old and above - 32.8% 2

NEETs - Young people not in employment, education or training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe, Eurofound 2011 3

Data of March 2015 reported by the Ministry of Labor

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- When it comes to the Severe Material Deprivation – the general population - 26.3%, children under 18 - 31.5% (EU average, 10.4%); youth of 18-24 years old - 27.9% (EU average, 11.1%); 60 years old and above - 25.2%

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Main recommendations for the integration of young people in NEET situations, in Romania  INTEGRATED PROGRAMS are needed to ensure longterm integration of Young people in NEET situations.  Creating Permanent Mechanisms for identifying and monitoring the Young NEETs and their situations  Young NEETs should have access to personalized programs, and should be addressed case by case, and not as a uniform group of Young NEETs  Addressing NEET issue needs a broader approach in terms of the age at which young people have access to socioprofessional integration programs, given that the proportion of Young NEETs is increasing for the 25-29 age segment (in the current programming documents, Romania has adopted only tackling the issues of 15-24 years Young NEETs)  For every young person a focus should be given to the skills already acquired, in order to ensure their success in everyday life  The existing programs must become truly ACCESSIBLE: Youth Guarantee scheme, school reintegration programs like "the Second Chance", protected workshops for young people with disabilities

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Profile of young people in NEET situations according to the Eurofound analysis According to the EUROFOUND analysis in 2011, there were the following categories of young people in NEET situations:  Conventionally unemployed: the largest subgroup, those that are officially registered as job seekers and available for the labor market. They can be further subdivided into longterm (>12 months) and short-term unemployed. Often this group of people receives unemployment benefits and is the target of different kinds of (youth) employment measures.  Unavailable: young people who are mentally, socially or physically unavailable, because of care tasks for family members, because of (mental) health or a disability that prevents them from working, because of homelessness or extreme poverty. They have other things on their minds to take care of.  Disengaged: young people who have given up or do not find their way (anymore) through the system. For some reason they are not (or no longer) seeking jobs or education, even though they are not constrained by other obligations or incapacities (like the Unavailable). This category can be further divided in

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discouraged workers (losers from the system) and other young people who are pursuing ‘alternative lifestyles’ at the margins of society (illegal activities to make a living etc.)  Opportunity-seekers: they are actively seeking work or training, but are holding out for opportunities that they see as befitting their skills and status. They consciously put their working lives on hold to reach their objectives. Their  Voluntary NEETs: those young people who are travelling (e.g. a gap year) or constructively engaged in other activities such as volunteering (e.g. EVS), art, music and self-directed learning (outside the education & training system. According to the same analysis, there were 4 clusters created, including different characteristics of young NEETs, Romania being included in the 2nd one as it follows:

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In connection to these characteristics we can add:  Romania has the greatest long-term unemployment rate among young people (40%) of EU  Romania has the largest percentage of Young people in NEET situations without work experience in the EU (70% vs. 52% average)  Romania is ranked 20th of 28 countries in fighting youth unemployment, according to Eurostat 2014 Other elements that support the emergence and proliferation of Young people in NEET situations in Romania must be added: Romania ranks 26th of 28 in the EU for early school leaving (18.5% vs. 10% average) the most serious situation is in the rural areas where school leaving is 1.5 times higher than in urban areas only 20% of the youth in Romania have part-time contracts, compared to 30% in the EU only 1.5% of young Romanians are employers or businessmen

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Research Methodology The research included the analysis of Young people in NEET situations in Romania, in terms of triangulation of methods:  Case Studies - young people in NEET situations and at risk of becoming NEET - qualitative research  Analysis of NGOs experience in integrating Young people in NEET situations - qualitative research  National survey carried out on a representative sample of the population -1,104 persons - quantitative research 1. Conclusions of the qualitative research – case studies and analysis of NGOs experience A) General conclusions - Case Studies  Every young NEET should be treated as a PARTICULAR CASE, based on his biography and the customs of the community in which he/she lives  Young NEETs will not get out of their precarious condition if they do not decide by themselves to take the decision and "save themselves"  Young NEETs can “save” themselves if allowed to highlight their already acquired ABILITIES. What matters is to be SUCCESSFUL IN EVERYDAY LIFE  On short term, the "BLACK MARKET" is a rescue solution for Young NEETs. On long-term it condemns them to a STATE OF PERPETUAL PRECARIOUSNESS.  Strong Young NEETs- for whom REACTIONTRAINING mechanism works - manage to escape the

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difficult situation  For Young people in NEET situations the need of affection prevails. B) Why did young people get in NEET situations? - Because of school leaving “No one supports me any - evening classes cannot be longer. My grandmother and pursued because they end too my grandfather, who took great care of me, died.” late, given that public Young NEET, 18 years old transportation (in rural or boy small urban communities) does not run up to that time; - issues of insecurity; - Transport costs are too high for what these young people or their families can afford, and schools don’t cover full costs; - teachers are perceived as "too demanding", with a low level of empathy toward youth issues or see as applying a wrong pedagogy – they address to the class and to the advanced students, but not to students who might have some particular difficulties; - family poverty; - lack of family support. “I worked in Italy for - Because of the black-market which is 2 months at attractive to young people and silkworms, on the black market, sometimes becomes a “custom” in some especially in communities greenhouses at temperatures above - Because of the need to attend to 40 degrees.” parents, grandparents or own children Young NEET, 16 (causes met especially in young people in years old girl rural areas and in young women)

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- Because of the non-functioning of Protected Workshops for People with Disabilities (young people with health problems) - Because of the nonfunctioning of programs “I’m not looking for work; I study to like “the Second Chance” become a Judge; I completed the - Because of a major BACCALAUREATE in 2011, I graduated psychological trauma in Law in 2014; now I’m studying 4h/day and in a month I shall study 8-9 h/day” (the death of a parent) Young NEET, 20 years old woman - Because of aggression and lack of understanding-on the part of the family or legal guardians - Because of the "system", which translates into a desire to emigrate - given the lack of attractiveness of their community, of misunderstanding with parents or of family/friends leaving to another country - Due to clear and planned grounds to postpone social integration-the case of volunteer NEETs C) How did youth in NEET situations adapt to their own situation? By working on black-market on a daily basis - especially in rural areas - By passivity "anything goes" “In the village we do not have a place - By active unplanned search of to meet. We solutions - analysis of job shouldn’t have to advertisements, contacting meet only in the employers, volunteering in NGOs, streets” working online NEET young, 15 - By volunteering in a number of years old boy

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specialized NGOs – implementing a state of altruism - By joining groups of friends who set standards of behavior in their everyday life, sometimes parallel to the system (sometimes illegal) - By focusing on physical movement in order to reduce stress: sports (group or individual), long walks, jogging - Through careful planning of the future (only in the case of NEET young volunteers) “The Center provided me with education, taught me D) Other conclusions the alphabet and  All Young people in NEET everything, since I was 5. It situations analyzed gave me food, clothes, anticipate they will come taught me break dance” out of this state until the young NEET young, 18 average age of 31 years years old boy old (see The Installation Model);  The situations generating the Young NEETs state are very different and this requires treating and resolving NEET cases individually and not as a homogeneous NEET category (according to the prevailing approach so far).  Young people in NEET situations recognize as a factor in their social integration a number of NGOs specialized in such matters (for those who have benefited from the social services of some foundations or organizations)  In any of the personal projects of the Young people in NEET situations, the STATE doesn’t appear as a major player except when the education system is criticized or when they have been direct beneficiaries of the social services. (in the case of

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young people in the institutional system)  None of the Young NEETs investigated through the qualitative research has heard of the Youth “I have queries regarding the Youth Guarantee scheme (many Guarantee Program. I called to the of them have never employment services in G. town to ask heard of the County information about the program and to Agencies for propose them to come with us also in Employment) the rural areas, to organize information campaigns. I spoke with the Officer in charge of these projects, but he replied that nothing works, yet, regarding the Youth Guarantee. What do I do next? How can I help these young people??? Should I still tell them to go to employment services and enroll in the program?” Question received through social media - Youth Worker, former participant in the project

2. Conclusions from analyzing the experience of NGOs offering services for Young people in NEET situations - Most of NGO leaders recognize that fail to fully take out the Young NEETs from their difficulty state - The most common conclusion they reach: it is more important to contribute to the personal development of the young people and not to focus on their employment. - They can do this by developing the young people’s skills. 3. National survey conclusions A) Regarding the Youth Guarantee o From the total population, 86% of people have never heard of the Youth Guarantee scheme, while only 14% had

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heard o Young people of 18-24 are slightly better informed: 22% of them declare to have heard of the program o Population in the SW and SE areas of Romania are said to be better informed: 21% and 20% B) Regarding Young people in NEET situations o Overall, 42% of the population considers that 50% of young Romanians could be classified as NEET o The more realistic are the residents of Bucharest and the Center who estimate that in Romania 21% of young people would be NEET, compared to the actual percentage of 17 %. C) Regarding the stakeholders who should take responsibility in addressing the Young NEETs issues, the most important were identified as: Ministry of Labor, through territorial agencies (88%), followed by the institution of the Government (85%) and Employers associations (84%), on the last places being mentioned the NGOs (52%), the media (40%) or the Church (30%). Description of Research Methodology Background As highlighted in previous chapters, Romania proved a deficient management in tackling socio-economic integration of young people in NEET situations. This happens even though public institutions aimed, at least in theory, at solving this problem. For example, through programs funded in recent years, a

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National Network of Centers for Social Integration of Young People has been created. Young people, especially those in NEET situations, are qualified for jobs in demand by some contractors with which, there are signed agreements that ensure jobs. After the training and after getting the job, surprisingly for the initiators, very few (former) NEETs remain in their job, most of them leaving, especially, on their own initiative. After discussing this phenomenon in multiple contexts, the conclusion remains the same - tens of millions of euros were spent without having a sustainable outcome. WHY did young NEETs, mentioned in the example above, take this decision? HOW were implemented the socio-vocational integration programs so far? With what consequences? The current study aims to answer such questions at least in part. In fact, the answer to these questions is not a reflection of a Romanian concern but, we could say, of an European one. In the study “NEETs-YOUNG PEOPLE NOT IN EMPLOYMENT, EDUCATION OR TRAINING: CHARACTERISTICS, COSTS AND POLICY RESPONSES IN EUROPE’ conducted by the European Foundation for Improving of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) in 2011, it has been said very clearly that the mechanism by which young people become NEETs and remain NEETs for a long time is, in fact, not known. The social and economic crisis faced by Europe may not even be indicated as the main culprit. During the economic crisis in Germany, Austria or Switzerland the

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number of young NEETs diminished. As the questions to be answered are HOW and WHY, the "specialized" CASE STUDY was chosen as a method, in order to find answers to the above questions. We have tried to describe the real life of young NEETs by analyzing multiple cases - a reflection of the complex definition of the young person in NEET situations, which shows at least 5 distinct situations (according to EUROFOUND structure). The theory behind collecting the necessary information in the Case Study method In order to remove a young NEET from his condition of difficulty is not enough to apply a single governmental program, following only the vocational and educational field (qualification, training, reinsertion into educational system or employment), but it is necessary to bring the young NEET in the situation to take by himself/herself the decision to get out of the difficult situation. Through this study it was actually tested, in fact, the validity of two rival hypotheses: 1. To remove a young man from NEET situations one must implement a program of qualification, training, reinsertion into the educational system and employment (the classical method used until now in Romania); 2. To remove a young man from NEET situations one must support them to make their own decision to get out of such situations, along with actual measures taken by specialists to enable them to get out from this situations,

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realistically. - In their NEET situations, the young person, due to multiple problems they go through, record a decline both psychically and physically. These situations determine them to not react conventionally to formal, social integration methods - like "I study and I pass the exam." - The interview guideline for Young NEETs included a series of tools for measuring the level of Young NEETs psychic deterioration, considered as statements in the theory previously advanced. This psychic deterioration leads to pessimistic, defensive perceptions, to passivity and derisory, like "everybody lives badly”. Statements that make up “I work for the house in the corn the Young NEETs behavior field, in the vineyard, theory I love horse riding.” I. The Romanian society has NEET young legitimized theft, immorality woman, 16 years old and corruption: we used a vision of Frederic Bastiat to build the tool; II. Maslow's hierarchy of needs: it has been started from the premise/hypothesis that young NEET, due to lack of material means places at the forefront the need for food and clothing, stage 1 in Maslow's pyramid; III. The time budget: by this instrument we have tried to faithfully describe a normal day in the life of young NEET, starting from the assumption that the structuring of time will emphasize aspects of the specificity of this type of young person;

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IV. Leo Srole’s Anomia scale: We started from the hypothesis that, overall, Young NEETs are quite anomalous. Anomia is a psychic experience of the situation of lack of time, due to rupture of the traditional order. Under the conditions of economic crisis it appears objectively induced by certain values succumbing and others being “born”. There is also the situation of the 'death' of some values and 'non-birth' of others, which leaves an axiological vacuum felt as difficult at the individual level: one cannot guide in life after landmarks any longer. Neurosis, passivity, and even worse in the case of young people, the impossibility to find a way on the road to adulthood, turn people from possible social resources in possible problems. V. The installation model of Olivier Galland- this instrument reflects very well the real state of young NEET’s life - the age at which they believe can enter the adulthood by: a. completion of the educational cycle they want, b. employment under indefinite employment contract c. buying a house and starting a family. The hypothesis is that Young people in NEET situations do not perceive the definitive entry into adulthood until 25 years of age, as normal for young people living in an efficient era, but much later. VI. Aspects of the philosophy and life experience of young NEET will complete the information and will explain some of the decisions taken by them. We assume that the pedagogy of the young NEET integration must start from customizing life situations and not from their generalization.

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The unit of analysis in the Case Studies The unit of analysis was the ROMANIAN YOUNG NEET, aged between 15 and 29 YEARS OLD. This includes several categories of youth: 1) Short and long term unemployed 2) Unavailable youth: caring for other people; help with work at home; sick; psychophysically impaired 3) Non Participating youth: discouraged workers (disappointed by the system); delinquents; do not believe in the system 4) Young opportunists: looking for something matching the qualities they know they have 5) Voluntary NEETs: consider that other things are more important than their integration into the system; trips, special education, hobbies etc. 6) Other categories: immigrants, young people whose parents are working abroad The logic linking the data obtained through Case Study with the statements included in the theory -"Pattern Matching" The data obtained in Case Studies shall be confronted with the statements set forth, before starting to apply the method. If they do not match, the theory will be reevaluated. Analytical Generalization method (and not statistical) is applied in the sense that it is observed to what extent the events observed coincide as manifestation with the theoretical assumptions. The criteria for data interpretation We’ve tried to include in the interview guide measuring devices that would capture the observations as objectively as

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possible: Likert measuring scales, setting minutes for all activities. The results of Case Studies for the used instruments I. Romanian society has legitimized theft, immorality and corruption - Frederic Bastiat's indicators 1. Do you think something can still be done today in Romania? (the distinction between just and unjust/right and wrong) 2. Do you think people still have moral values? 3. Do you think people respect the law? 4. Do you think theft has become usual, natural? The hypothesis of the study was that Young NEETs would perceive that in Romania abnormality was, somehow, legitimized compared to what should be an efficient functioning of a society. After analysis of data obtained we concluded that this hypothesis should be nuanced. Massively, Young NEETs surveyed considered that "theft has become common, natural" - 77% of cases - and that people do not "have respect for the law" - 68% of cases. But not in the context of a social "disease": 63% of Young NEETs believes that YES, "the distinction between just and unjust/right and wrong can still be made today, in Romania�. In other words, they don’t think people are perverted, but that the system is poorly designed, and this is essential!

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Moreover, voluntary NEETs and those actively seeking to come out of their condition consider that, "robbery has not become usual or natural, in Romania". Therefore, a great part of investigated Young NEETs considers that people can perceive good, when it exists. II. Maslow's pyramid of needs As stated when we defined the theory behind the Case Study method, we proposed the hypothesis that Young NEETs will prioritize the basic need "I need to eat and to dress appropriately". The justification would be that they, personally, have no material means of support that would ensure a decent living, depending almost entirely upon their families. After analyzing the data obtained through intensive interviews, this hypothesis was rejected and the order provided bellow shows the contrary. Here are the data obtained in order of preference: I: I need affection from family, friends, neighbors, and other people; II: I need a steady job, in order not to worry for tomorrow; III: I need to be given the chance to do what I like, to use my talents and qualities; “I’m 50% supported by my IV: I need others to family. They do not have time respect me; for me. During day they work V: I need to eat to and in the evening they take repletion and to dress care of my younger sisters: of 3, appropriately. 10 and 12 yrs old.” young NEET, 18 years old boy

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Although there resulted that nearly half of the investigated Young NEETs live below a decent life, they place primary needs in the last place. The above choice might have various explanations, which will have to be verified later, in research conducted on representative samples. To exit the temporary condition of difficulty in which there are, youth need to be successful in everyday life, a success manifested by actions, which run good and mitigate the problems of their daily life. Affection, called into act, for example, by understanding, praise and appreciation from others can be a panacea of resistance in everyday life. The young people surveyed suggested another explanation, more pessimistic, to us:

“In my village there are many unemployed. Rather than work they prefer to stay home. They ask in the village for work, in the black-market. They got used to little, they do not want more. They are negligent, living out of aids, they do not want to get employed. They do not think that someday they will not have a pension. The world has become accustomed to “getting by”, not to have an education.”

If this explanation is true, it indicates a high risk for the Young NEETs. To not perceive the fact that you live in abject poverty and that this lifestyle can affect your health significantly, means to get used to the idea that your life

35


expectancy is low and that nothing good will happen. This conclusion is reinforced by a recent study SOCIAL JUSTICE IN EU-INDEX REPORT- SOCIAL INCLUSION MONITOR (October 2015), conducted by Bertelsman Stiftung. With an index of 3.74, Romania ranks 27th of 28 countries (Sweden has 7.27). When it comes to health, Romania is last in the EU28 (3.09 index) and has the lowest budget for health in the EU. Of course, the life expectancy of the Romanians is also in last place. With regard to Poverty Prevention we rank 27th of 28 states. “Sheltered workshops for III. Time Budget disabled people in my town From the studies are only on paper� analyzed, we notice a NEET young man, 25 great variety of years old situations, covered under the same umbrella: the ROMANIAN YOUNG NEET. These young people without jobs, structure their time very differently, depending on their residency environment (rural, urban), on the economic situation of their families and their particular life situations (sick parents, sick grandmother, physical impairments, preparation for master degrees, abject poverty at home/opulence at home). Youth from most vulnerable situations-orphans, physically impaired, residents in rural areas - are also most likely to perform volunteer work. In this context it can be

36


interpreted as an opportunity to escape from social exclusion. It is true that in the case of rural communities, where the surveyed Young NEETs originated, the opportunity came from outside, through "implantation" of NGOs financially supported by international donors, not a widespread situation any longer (in Romania or in Europe). However, in the analyzed case studies, Volunteering is also seen an event of Reaction-Training: a psychological defense mechanism, which helps them to face major system assaults. They feel that they have been "punished by fate" and their behavior becomes somewhat paradoxical, becoming more altruistic and willing to help others. It is their form of psychological protection from social aggressions. We encountered this kind of reaction-training in other Young NEETs. For them the reaction-training has become the main weapon of struggle to motivate themselves to succeed in life. For young people in rural areas who do volunteer work, the existing NGOs are seen as "God-send". These foundations structure their leisure time and help them materially not to step into the decision to drop out of school. They also receive hot meals and clothing, go on trips and help other needy neighbors. There are young NEETs in such a difficult financial situation, “If I get a job, my grandmother dies in 3 weeks. that if they receive a hot meal However she will not live at the foundation center, the more than 6 months.� family does not give them a Young NEET, 25 year old hot meal at home, so their man siblings could have an additional food source.

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One problem is that young people who have become NEET because of school drop-out - sometimes for reasons related to their family situation or objective life situations cannot benefit of the services offered by these NGOs. However they are tolerated, given their difficult condition, and they receive services in exchange for voluntary actions. Only 31% of Young NEETs who were interviewed work daily on the black-market or in the family household. They assign to this kind of work, on average, 9 hours/day. In the countryside a day's work is paid "off the books" with 50 Lei/day. Examples of individual Time Budgets may be found in the Annexes to this document. IV. Leo Srole’s anomia measurement scale As shown in one of the above theory’s sentences, Young NEETs are anomalous. The Likert measuring scale in 5 degrees has been used. Value 5 is given if the subject very largely agrees with the assertion, and 1 to a very small extent. In Romania, Catalin Zamfir calibrated the scale. Results above 3.66 indicate a good situation and those under 3.66, a poor situation. Leo Srole’s scale: ASSERTION Life is hard in Romania One can trust nobody these days Public officials are not interested in ordinary people's problems

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It would not be a good idea for young people to have children It is best to think about the present and not worry about the past, and especially not about the future Compared to the margin of 3.66 after analyzing the case studies, different results have been obtained for the degree of anomia among young NEETs, depending on their life situations: - Highly-educated NEETs, voluntary NEETs and active NEETs - 3.34 value of anomia; - Unavailable NEETs (physical difficulties, attending other persons) - 2.2; - NEETs with low education and school leaving - 1.81. There is also a difference of the degree of anomia between NEETs from the rural area and NEETs in the urban areas: 1.7 in rural areas and 2.7 in urban areas. This result is strengthened by the fact they belong to subcultures that lead to the same type of manifestation - same city, same community etc. This is explained most likely by the different levels in education of the various subjects, as resulted from previous typology. Two subjects ÂŤ Disappointing for both, them obtained anomia indices (Young NEETs) and for us (NGO leaders) was the fact that at the well above the 3.66 completion of these trainings or margin. A voluntary projects, part of the young people NEET from the urban returned in the same lethargy and area, a girl, (3.80) inactivity of which they had come who even though she out during the project activities Âť found work a month Organization working with Young NEETs

39


before, she left the it, considering it far below her professional skills and an active NEET from a small urban area, for whom the reaction-training acts very strongly and who has a level of intelligence, tested by specialized psychologist, well above average (4.0 coefficient of anomia). These young people express strong traits that will enable them to get out of the difficult situation. V. The model of installation in adulthood (Olivier Galland) The installation model shows the perception of young people upon entering adulthood. In our case we are talking about cases of Young people in NEET situations. As a first finding it is remarked their state of optimism regarding this route. This might be due to the fact that they have already built their adaptation scenarios that include as a parameter getting used to the "bad situations". We are talking about how "to get on in life". This significantly lowers their aspirations but allows them to live, to subsist. In some rural areas, young people are working especially on “I confess that there were the black market, times when some youngsters but this kind of refused to participate in activity allows project activities after they had enrolled, but there are them to live. Due always solutions. I had no to the disappointing results, I only opportunity of the had lessons to learn ". black market, it Youth Worker seems that their low aspiration to a longer

40


education cycle is also influenced, ending education at 18.3 years of age (on average). The greatest achievement, for some of them, is completing the Baccalaureate final examination. They are very optimistic regarding the age at which one can buy their own house: 24.3 years of age. Why? All surveyed Young NEETs from that environment said family helps them very much. Important to notice is that this custom does not exist in other rural areas, where young people have said family was not a support for them. This is why the age at which they believe they can buy a house of their own increases: 31 years of age. In connection with the support Young NEETs said they have received in life is noteworthy that apart from family, friends and relatives are also indicated. There is no reference to the system, except for a subject from a large urban area (also an orphan), who mentioned the public social services (due to which he found a home (where he still lives in co-location with other people). There also mentioned cases of assistance on the part of NGOs (2) and church (2). Also, two subjects with a very difficult situation think that believing in God is a solution to resist in their difficult life. Asked if they would leave education, in case they would find a suitable job, most young people said NO. Except for some young people belonging to a rural community, coming from a poorer financial situation and without major support of their family, who said they would be willing to give up education if they could find a suitable job. Nevertheless, she same young people added that they would not leave school to work on the black

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market. It would seem that the opportunities to "succeed in life" influence Young NEETs answers to another question from the Interview Guide: "If they would be willing to permanently leave Romania". In general, most Young people in NEET situations surveyed - 68% - said they would permanently leave Romania. Some of them (rural area) would leave because they already have relatives working abroad. Young NEETs living in citiesboth large and small urban areas-invoke reasons related to the quality of life: respect, superior culture, suitable jobs, stability, good living, good salary. They also invoke language knowledge. The most desirable countries are Great Britain, Germany, and Italy, followed by Spain, Denmark, Norway, Dubai and the US. Analyzing solutions implemented in other countries (getting out of the NEET situations) Through the interview guide, Young people in NEET situations were presented with a number of solutions that other countries have successfully applied for youth employment. For young people of 18 yrs. old and under the following solutions were proposed: - ALTERNATE PEDAGOGY: school provides professional training and the employer ensures adaptation to work and retraining, according to changes in technology. These shall be favored by: - an allowance during the training period;

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- the possibility of using the knowledge acquired in school in the respective job; - the employer will ensure the presence of a tutor trainer, a good professional and teacher at the same time. - A training contract shall be signed, taking into account the needs of the young person, the school and of the employer. All Young NEETs interviewed, under 18 (included), agreed to this solution. Note that it is a variant of "dual education" as practiced in Germany, which assures the student, at school completion, a diploma of skilled worker. This solution has been proposed to youth since 1994-THE STATUS OF ROMANIAN YOUTH-the outcome of a research conducted by the Research Center for Youth Issues. Young people, also, then agreed it was a solution. The dual education system is set in Romania, as a partial solution, only after approx. 20 years. Currently it still does not work effectively, so far only the employers with German investments made it work. For young people over 18 yrs. old, several solutions have been proposed: The most agreed upon solutions by Young NEETs were:

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Percentage

Solution proposed

50%

ENTERPRISES FORMED BY AND BY MEANS OF UNEMPLOYED YOUTH

41%

SHARED TIME CONTRACT

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Detailing the solution This model is addressed to skilled young people, who temporarily find themselves in difficulty. Based on PROJECT GRANTS This model combines a genuine contract of employment (part-time) with training one. The young is an apprentice/intern and is receiving an allowance based on the number of hours of training attended


36%

23%

PROXIMITY SERVICES

Insertion ENTERPRISES

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Locally one may propose a range of flexible services that meet the needs of population/customers in the vicinity where they live. Young people in difficulty shall provide the services. Local interventions are conducted to detect the needs of community services (eg. in rural areas, child care or support at homework) address the most disadvantaged youth long term unemployment, delinquency, drugs, etc. With these young people the focus is not on training, but on a PREADAPTATION, applying the pedagogical methods of success, and training through work


23%

SHARING TIME WORK WITH THE ELDERLY

23%

INSERTION CONTRACT

18%

9% 5%

HALVED TIME ACCOMPLISHED BY WEEKLY ALTERNATES BINOMIAL PRINCIPLE PROGRESSIVE CONTRACT

a senior worker who is over 55 years old is replaced progressively is concluded with some economic sectors which usually need to resort to forms of employment of limited duration, which corresponds to a seasonal fluctuations of their activity: construction, agriculture, tourism etc. 4 hours in the morning, in one week and 4 hours in the afternoon, in the other week; (attractive option for young women with children especially) two young people share the same position from year to year the labor time increases

These solutions were also presented to the Romanian youth in 1994 (the same study cited above) but, although approved by the young, they have not been applied until now. At the time the study was commissioned by the Minister for

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Youth and Sports, Mr. Alexander Mironov and was closely supervised by the Romanian Presidency. In the Youth Guarantee Scheme, all these solutions could provide real basis for substantiating the efficient spending of European funding. Triangulation of methods To make sure the units of analysis were objectively identified, we compared the results from several sources:  Interview Guide  The applied questionnaire of NGOs  Desk research on similar subjects  Opinion survey conducted on a representative sample of youth  Discussions with NGOs representatives dealing with the integration of Young NEETs, within the framework of the present project. ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIENCE OF NGOs DEALING WITH YOUNG NEETS Content analysis method was used for an online questionnaire Among the solutions proposed by NGOs to get young people out of their NEET situations, we mention:  Educating Young NEETs’ families  Young NEETs involvement in community service activities  Volunteering  Trainings in other countries

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 Volunteering in other countries  Personalized advice for increased self-confidence  Reinstatement of workshops, laboratories and practical classes in schools;  For young people at risk of becoming NEET is important to ensure mixt programs - support them to attend school while in the “After delivering some information sessions for same time students (final year) about international training support them opportunities (with the aim of acquiring the to work experience often required by employers) we have found that most students are at risk of becoming (including NEETs. This situation is present in Constanta because jobs in of the low interest to work on a entry level salary agriculture) (minimum wage). These young people prefer to stay at home receiving financial support from parents (NEET or get cases) or to benefit from unemployment allowance" engaged in Youth Organization, Constanta

apprenticeships.  Invest in early education of children and teenagers, in order to prevent school leaving. NATIONAL SURVEY ON THE NOTORIETY OF THE "YOUTH GUARANTEE" SCHEME AND THE YOUNG NEETs SITUATIONS Thanks to the courtesy of TNS-CSOP company, in October this year an omnibus survey was conducted which targeted the Young NEETs issues in Romania. The analysis was carried out

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on 1,104 people, the margin of error being of +/- 3. Four questions surprised the development of NEET phenomenon in Romania: I. Question: “Have you heard of the Youth Guarantee scheme for Young NEETs?” (yes/no answer) II. Question: “What proportion of young people in our country do you think it would fit into the category of young NEETs?” III. Question: To what extents (none, a little, a lot) do you think the following stakeholders should deal with solving Young NEETs problems in Romania? Answer options: European Union, Presidency, Government, Ministry of Labor through territorial agencies, the Ministry of Education through territorial agencies, local Authorities (Municipality, Local council, Prefecture, etc.), Church, the media (press, TV, radio, etc.), NGOs, School, Employers Associations/ Employers, Family / Friends. IV. Question: “At what age do you think you will end these cycles of life: education; finding a job; starting a family; acquisition of a personal house.” Unlike the case studies conducted with Young people in NEET situations, the survey on the general population indicate that friends and family are NOT seen as key players in addressing the issue of NEETs (while young NEETs indicate them as the main support in their lives), the former obtaining a score of 62%, lower in comparison with that obtained by institutions such as the Ministry of Labor (88%) or the Ministry of Education 77%.

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This can be seen as a gap between expectations (particularly targeting public institutions) and reality, where they (family and friends) play a more important part. This aspect should be studied in depth also in other research. Last question: "At what age do you think you will end the following cycles of life: studies, finding a job, starting a family, acquiring a house-has been designed to compare the Installation Model of the youth population in Romania (youth covered in the national sample) with that of Young NEETs analyzed in the Case Studies. The comparative results below further indicate that there are not as many Young NEETs but Young NEETs subcultures, and that the solutions of removing them from the difficult situations are individual and not general. Thus it can be seen that there are no big differences between the scenarios of life that the two categories of youth imagine: a. Completing their education: young people aged 18-24 in the national sample believe that they will complete their studies during 18-24 years of age (29%) or during 25-29 years of age (22%). Young NEETs estimated on average that they would finish their studies at 22.2 years of age. b. Finding a job: youth of 18-24 years of age in the national sample estimate that they will find a job as follows: 21% between 18-24 years old; 37% between 25-29 years old; 34% stated that they already have a work place. Surprisingly, 14 % of young people aged 29-34 believe that

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they will find a job between 25-29 years of age (which means they do not have a job yet or had difficulties in getting one). The surveyed Young NEETs consider, on average, that they will find a job at 26.2 years old. c. Starting a family: 24 in the national sample 41% of young people aged 18-24 consider that they will build a family in segment of 25-30 years of age, and 29% between 30-35 years of age. 18% of young people aged 25-34 believe that they will make a family in the age range of 30-35. NEET young people believe that they will start a family at 30 years. d. Building/owing a house: on this chapter of a life scenario the youth in the national sample are more skeptical than NEET young people. Thus, 35% of the young people aged 18-24 believe they will have their own home in the age range 30-35 and 24% of the young people aged 25-34 count on getting a house after 35 years old. NEET young people believe they will have their own house at 29.4 years old. DESK RESEARCH Content Analysis has been performed on Young people in NEET situations information included in References.

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REFERENCES 1. Eurofound (2015), Social Inclusion of Young People, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 2. Bertelsmann Stiftung, SimEurope –Social inclusion monitor (2015), Social Justice in EU – Index Report 2015. 3. Eurofound (2011), NEETs-Young People not in employment, education or training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. 4. Centrul de Cercetari pentru Problemele Tineretului (CCPT), 1994, Starea Tineretului Roman, Editura CCPT. 5. BCS (2011), Ancheta nationala “Starea Tineretului Roman”, proprietate Schultz Consulting SRL. 6. Ian Goldring, NEETs and Youth Work, Project, Bucharest, may, 2015. 7. Olivier Galland, Sociologie de la Jeunesse, Armand Colin, Paris, 1997. 8. Robert K.Yin, Case Study Research- Design and Methods, Third Edition, Sage Publications, London, 2002. 9. Ion Dan Trestieni, Raport asupra lucratorului de tineret in Danemarca, 2011, proprietate Schultz Consulting SRL. 10. Ion Dan Trestieni, Raport asupra lucratorului de tineret in Norvegia, 2011, proprietate Schultz Consulting SRL

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ANNEXES I. Examples of good practice extracted from questionnaires addressed to NGOs working with young people in situations NEET or at risk of becoming NEET  Fundatia Andrei (Andrei Foundation), Targoviste - Target group: vulnerable young people aged 9-15 (rural) and 15-17 (urban) - Counseling activities of on conscious career choice made by voluntary Retired people; The network of nonformal education centers in the rural areas of Dambovita - training and counseling sessions - through non-formal methods we help them develop basic skills and abilities in selfawareness g (the “gifts”, but also native limits), methods of learning, choice of a suitable profession, first labor market interactions (CV, interview) - Sessions of self-awareness and personal development techniques - increasing self-esteem, increasing efficiency of individual actions. - Relevant conclusions: although very common, the training and counseling activities are less effective when carried out in large groups. We recommend that counseling activities for NEET young people or at risk of becoming NEET be held in mentoring schemes, with each young person individually. A particular need has been noted-to have the opportunity to talk about personal needs, thus indicating the need for psychological counseling services and not only vocational

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training. In parallel, support approaches are needed for the basic living costs of youth in rural areas, such as covering transport/travel to school costs. These situations are frequently causes for school leaving. Furthermore, concrete steps are needed in relation to public institutions for solving concrete situations of young people in NEET situations --------------------------- Fundatia Bunul Samaritean – Centrul de zi, Nicoresti (Good Samaritan Foundation - Day Center, Nicoresti) - Target group: young people at risk (future Young NEETs) graduates of 8th grade - The "No to School leaving” program - through material support (costs related to meals, school necessary items etc.), in order to continue secondary education - Relevant conclusions: there are major difficulties in identifying young people at risk, and there are major difficulties in supporting a large number of young people in such situations (the funds come only from private sources, without the support of public institutions). The involvement of more NGOs and Public Institutions is necessary to expand programs for children and youth at risk, especially for those in rural areas. Such programs play a very important part in preventing NEET situations. -----------------------------

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 Asociatia ‘Learn for You’ Slatina (‘Learn for You’ Association) - Target group: pupils from vulnerable groups - Relay Day - pupils from vulnerable groups were in a position to take up the relay from a mentor, whose profession they wanted to follow. Students were able to learn more from the person practicing the profession and directly experiencing that environment. - Relevant conclusions: The early professional orientation is important for young people because they need more time to prepare or to choose a future profession. Being supported in this choice they will be more concerned with the development and formation of appropriate professional skills. Vocational guidance services are needed early in the life of a young person, so that both educational and vocational choices will be made knowingly. Also, the choice of methods through which the professional counseling/vocational training is made is as important, and in this respect more creative options can be chosen, without limitation to the classical approach in an office with a psycho-pedagogue. ------------------------- Asociatia Crestin-Umanitara ‘Slujirea Vietii’ Iasi (Christian Humanitarian Association 'Serving Life' Iasi) - Target group: disadvantaged young people in rural communities in Iasi - The BUSINESS CLUB project aimed at creating different learning situations in a club and outside, in a real environment by organizing activities to challenge and motivate the young people, in order to acquire entrepreneurial skills, specific to rural areas. The central activity of the project was the training:

55


"Ready to become an investor." Training sessions were held in two stages: 1. School of Business: Discover how to grow an idea from A to Z 2. Practical workshops (the flower greenhouse, the green goods and vegetable garden). - Relevant conclusions: The training brought youth closer to the reality and opportunities that life in the countryside offers, promoting the personal development of the participants. During the project young people were able to discover their personal potential regarding the possibility of starting a business, have enriched their knowledge on traditional occupations, have developed practical skills and theoretical knowledge required for starting a business; have developed their teamwork, communication and organizational skills. --------------------------ď ƒ European Project, TG.JIU – The Complex of community services for children with special needs - Target group: children with special needs - Regular workshops (origami, painting Easter eggs etc.) - Relevant conclusions: improvement of mood of children with disabilities, increasing confidence in their own strengths, development of teamwork skills, and improvement of communication skills; It would be helpful if more NGOs, and public institutions would get involved in support of children with special needs (because they are at a high risk of becoming future NEETs), emphasizing activities to develop their creativity and teach them to do concrete things which may be useful later. -----------------------------

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II. Examples of Daily time budgets 1. Time Budget NEET young man -18, rural-school leaving situation & unavailable young NEET TIME STRUCTURING I. SLEEP TIME II. IMPOSED TIME a. Normal professional work b. Informal professional work (black economy, household) c. Normal work overtime d. Informal work overtime e. Formal education hours (school, university) f. Non-formal education hours III. SEMI-IMPOSED TIME a. Daily routes: home -formal workplace, informal workplace, school, faculty, nonformal education (including waiting) b. Meals taken outside home c. Breaks taken during the day d. Errands, weekly shopping e. Household work: cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, various f. Attending to others (children, sick people, elderly, etc.): food, medicine, toilet, lessons, conversations, walks, errands, waiting in the station

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TIME ASSIGNED IN HOURS AND MINUTES I-7h II-12 h a. 0 b.12 h: family household work animals, garden c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 f. 0 III-3 h a. 0

b. 0 c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 f. 3 h: taking care of 3 year old sister


IV. PERSONAL TIME a. Personal needs: care, fitness, sports, health etc. b. Meals and snacks at home and outside of home - unrelated to III b c. Siesta, recreation, games, walks, recreation (dancing, fishing etc.) d. Information, culture and education - training, classes, reading, theater, film, TV e. Social involvement - party, trade union, religion, NGOs, others

IV-2 h a. 0 b. 30 min c. 0 d.1h 30 min e. 0 24 HOURS

V. TOTAL I+II+III+IV

Other biographical elements: The youngster’s mother is alcoholic. The young man takes care of his mother and since he was 16 yrs. old he has been calling the ambulance when she goes into an alcoholic coma. He has completed 8 classes but the family forbade him to continue, due to poor material situation. When the family finally agreed for him to go to school, the school refused to enlist him. Currently he wants to complete a vocational school to qualify as a mechanic or a baker. He is very unhappy that after 18 years old the system does not allow him to go to a "regular" school and is forced to resort to programs of 'Second chance' type, which are not functional in his village because of "lack of students�.

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2. Time budget - NEET young girl of 16 years old, rural area, NEET situations unavailable and school leaving TIME STRUCTURING

TIME ASSIGNED IN HOURS AND MINUTES I-5 h: “I come home from work at night and I wake up in the morning to go to work again” II: 18 h: family household or illegal work a. 0 b. 18h

I SLEEP TIME II IMPOSED TIME a. Normal professional work b. Informal professional work (black economy) c. Normal work overtime d. Informal work overtime e. Formal education hours (school, university) f. Non-formal education hours III SEMI-IMPOSED TIME a. a. Daily routes: home formal workplace, informal workplace, school, faculty, nonformal education (including waiting) b. Meals taken outside home c. Breaks taken during the day d. Errands, weekly shopping

c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 f. 0 III – 45 min a. 0

b. 0 c. 0 d. 20 min /day “On Saturday I go to Tecuci and spend 2 hours shopping, if we have money” e. 25 min /day

e. Household work: cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, various f. Attending to others (children, sick people, elderly, etc.): food, medicine, toilet, lessons, conversations, walks, errands, waiting in the station IV PERSONAL TIME

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f. 0

IV- 15 min


a. Personal needs: care, fitness, sports, health etc. b. Meals and snacks at home and outside home - unrelated to III b c. Siesta, recreation, games, rides, recreation (dancing, fishing etc.) d. Information, culture and education - training, classes, reading, theater, film, TV e. Social involvement - party, trade union, religion, NGOs, others

a. 0 b.15 min c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 24 HOURS

V. TOTAL I+II+III+IV

Other comments:

“I work because I support the house, my parents are sick, and they took care that I got rid of a serious disease - TB (which I was born with). We are 12 siblings in the family, we were 15 but 3 died young. I am the youngest child and staying home. I stay with my brother who also works on a daily basis-he is 22 years old (the payment for work day is Ron 50). He works in construction and brings wood home-he works for a neighbor, works for 10 weeks, 12 hour/day. Instead of money he gets wood. In winter I remain with the horse, pigs, animals. My brothers and sisters have left the country but cannot send money, because they also have other problems. I do not go to school. I completed 8 classes, I was supposed to complete 10 classes, but I left to Italy for 2 months for money. I left school because of the situation. School should behave differently with students, teachers should not ask money from children. It should no longer put everyone in the same pot, some just cannot go to school regularly�

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3. Budget time - NEET young woman, 23 years old, large urban area, voluntary NEET TIME STRUCTURING

TIME ASSIGNED IN HOURS AND MINUTES I -9 h II- 4 h a. 0 b. 0

I SLEEP TIME II IMPOSED TIME a Normal professional work b Informal professional work (black) c Normal work overtime d Informal work overtime e Formal education hours (school, university) f Non-formal education hours

c. 0 d. 0 e. 4h f. 0 III 1h and 35 min. a. 0

III SEMI-IMPOSED TIME a. Daily routes: home -formal workplace, informal workplace, school, faculty, nonformal education (including waiting) b Meals taken outside home c Breaks taken during the day d Errands, weekly shopping e Household work: cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, various f Attending to others (children, sick people, elderly etc.): food, medicine, toilet, lessons, conversations, walks, errands, waiting in the station

b. 30 min c. 0 d. 5 min/day e.1h/day f. 0

IV PERSONAL TIME

IV 9h si 25 min

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a Personal needs: care, fitness, sports, health etc. b Meals and snacks at home and outside home of - unrelated to III b c Siesta, recreation, games, walks, recreation (dancing, fishing etc.) d Information, culture and education - training, classes, reading, theater, film, TV e Social involvement - party, trade union, religion, NGOs, others

a. 2h/day b. 25 min c. 1h/day d. 6 h/day - reading e. 0 24 HOURS

V TOTAL I+II+III+IV

4. Time budget -NEET young man of 25, large urban area, young without parents (institutionalized) TIME STRUCTURING

TIME ASSIGNED IN HOURS AND MINUTES I -8h II- in search for a job – 4 h a. 0 b. 0

I SLEEP TIME II IMPOSED TIME a Normal professional work b Informal professional work (black) c Normal work overtime d Informal work overtime e Formal education hours (school, university) f Non-formal education hours

c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 f. 0

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III SEMI-IMPOSED TIME a. a Daily routes: home formal workplace, informal workplace, school, faculty, nonformal education (including waiting) b Meals taken outside home c Breaks taken during the day d Errands, weekly shopping e Household work: cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, various f Attending to others (children, sick people, elderly, etc.): food, medicine, toilet, lessons, conversations, walks, errands, waiting in the station IV PERSONAL TIME A Personal needs: care, fitness, sports, health etc. B Meals and snacks at home and outside home of - unrelated to III b C Siesta, recreation, games, walks, recreation (dancing, fishing etc.) D Information, culture and education - training, classes, reading, theater, film, TV E Social involvement - party, trade union, religion, NGOs, others

III - 2 h a. Go to NGO -1 h

b.10 min at the NGO c. d. 34 min/day e. 16 min/day f. 0 IV-10h a. 2h/day-jogging around the block b. 30 min c. 2h/day d. 2h e. Salvation Army 3h30min 24 HOURS

V TOTAL I+II+III+IV

5. Time budget – Young man of 25 years old, large urban area, NEET unavailable (physical disabilities-childhood encephalitis), college graduate and masters TIME STRUCTURING

TIME ASSIGNED IN HOURS AND MINUTES

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I SLEEP TIME II IMPOSED TIME

a Normal professional work b Informal professional work (black) c Normal work overtime d Informal work overtime e Formal education hours (school, university) f Non-formal education hours III SEMI-IMPOSED TIME a. Daily routes: home -formal workplace, informal workplace, school, faculty, nonformal education (including waiting) b Meals taken outside home c Breaks taken during the day d Errands, weekly shopping e Household work: cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, various f Attending to others (children, sick people, elderly, etc.): food, medicine, toilet, lessons, conversations, walks, errands, waiting in the station IV PERSONAL TIME

I-8h II-4h: in search for a job- internet, associations, NGOs, AJOFM, friends, acquaintances a. 0 b. 0 c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 f. III-5h a. 2h

b. 0 c. 0 d. 2h e. 0 f. 1h: I live with my grandparents and my sister. The parents are in another city IV-7h

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A Personal needs: care, fitness, sports, health etc. B Meals and snacks at home and outside home of - unrelated to III b C Siesta, recreation, games, walks, recreation (dancing, fishing,etc) D Information, culture and education - training, classes, reading, theater, film, TV E Social involvement - party, trade union, religion, NGOs, others V. TOTAL I+II+III+IV

a.1h physiotherapy b. 0 c. 3h d. 2h e.1h UN Youth Craiova 24 HOURS

Other biographical details: Receive compensation for health problems.

He chose to be a volunteer to help underprivileged children.

6. Time budget -NEET young man of 25 years old, large urban area, a classic budget model for an active NEET TIME STRUCTURING

TIME ASSIGNED IN HOURS AND MINUTES I-7 h II - 4h job search, sites, ads a. 0 b. 0

I SLEEP TIME II IMPOSED TIME a Normal professional work b Informal professional work (black) c Normal work overtime d Informal work overtime e Formal education hours (school, university) f Non-formal education hours

c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 f. 0

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III SEMI-IMPOSED TIME a. Daily routes: home -formal workplace, informal workplace, school, faculty, nonformal education (including waiting) b Meals taken outside home c Breaks taken during the day d Errands, weekly shopping e Household work: cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, various f Attending to others (children, sick people, elderly, etc.): food, medicine, toilet, lessons, conversations, walks, errands, waiting in the station

III-6h30min a.1 h- job interviews going and coming

IV PERSONAL TIME A Personal needs: care, fitness, sports, health etc. B Meals and snacks at home and outside home of - unrelated to III b C Siesta, recreation, games, walks, recreation (dancing, fishing etc.) D Information, culture and education - training, classes, reading, theater, film, TV E Social involvement - party, trade union, religion, NGOs, others V TOTAL I+II+III+IV

IV-6h30 min a. 2h/day jogging, walking b.1h30 min

b. 0 c. 0 d.1h30min /day e. 4 h- I live with my parents who are retired f. 0

c.1h d. 2h internet e. 0 24 HOURS

Other comments:

“I would prefer to work in the private sector, but as an employee, not as the employer. I have graduated faculty for 3 years and I was enrolled with the unemployment services twice, now I'm not. Young people should immigrate! Adults have prejudices against young people: we are worthless, we do drugs etc.�

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7. Time budget- NEET young man of 25, large urban area, unavailable NEET TIME STRUCTURING

TIME ASSIGNED IN HOURS AND MINUTES I-5h II-2h/day, I search for a job on the internet, in the newspaper, CVuri, etc a. 0 b. 0

I SLEEP TIME II IMPOSED TIME

a Normal professional work b Informal professional work (black) c Normal work overtime d Informal work overtime e Formal education hours (school, university) f Non-formal education hours III SEMI-IMPOSED TIME a. Daily routes: home -formal workplace, informal workplace, school, faculty, nonformal education (including waiting) b Meals taken outside home c Breaks taken during the day d Errands, weekly shopping e Household work: cooking, cleaning, washing, ironing, various f Attending to others (children, sick people, elderly, etc.): food, medicine, toilet, lessons, conversations, walks, errands, waiting in the station

c. 0 d. 0 e. 0 f. 0 III- 10h 30 min a. 0

b. 0 c. 0 d. 30 min e. 3h I walk f. 7h-attending to my grandmother

IV PERSONAL TIME

IV-6h30min

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A Personal needs: care, fitness, sports, health etc. B Meals and snacks at home and outside home of - unrelated to III b C Siesta, recreation, games, walks, recreation (dancing, fishing etc.) D Information, culture and education - training, classes, reading, theater, film, TV E Social involvement - party, trade union, religion, NGOs, others

a.1h30min b.1h c. 30 min d. 3h 30 min e. 0 24 HOURS

V. TOTAL I+II+III+IV

Other comments: “I would rather work for the State, I worked in the private sector and I was disappointed. I have graduated in social sciences, department of journalism, for 3 years and I do not have a job. I did not enlist with the employment services. Adults should change their mentality; they should look at us through the prism of today's society and to guide us instead of accusing us. The system should offer young people the chance to develop both professionally and morally.�

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III. Voices of Social DOers This section is dedicated to those who participated in the project’s activities, either directly as active members within the Coalition, or as active participants in the project’s activities Eugenia-Ioana Vlad, Professor and Chairman of the "Learn for You" Association, member organization of the Coalition “I think it is great working with young people in order to find out their needs directly from them, without intermediaries, as it is important to have transparency in what we do if we want to have results in our work with them. Following the training I understood that young people are in a constant battle with contemporary society which considers them a category without a secure future, who do nothing for their well-being, who are content with the little that they have, who are outraged and unhappy. Therefore, we, the youth workers, must support them and guide them, as they are sometimes poorly informed. Working with young people should start from somewhere at grass roots, in early school, because there are illiterate children in elementary schools who refuse to overcome their condition because of negative examples provided by relatives, friends, society. Therefore, young people should be involved in as much as possible in activities, which aim to contribute to their professional orientation, sharing positive examples worth following in life, exposure to well know people who have managed on their own. Also, the multi-stakeholders meeting meant a lot to us, because we got connections with key-actors who helped us

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in our immediate work planned for our youngsters. So I did not hesitate much and I have concluded an after-school project with the Municipality, parents, school and our NGO. In this project partners support us, and children come happily to the activities offered in order to support their personal development and training, the objective being to give young people a complete education, so as to be ready to take over the relay at any moment. More than anything, love the young people, try to help them, to understand them, they are undiscovered personalities who dare not to assert and who need Social DOers in order to become known!� -------------------------Andrei Sasu, volunteers coordinator and project manager at the Swedish Organization for Individual Relief, member of the NGO Coalition “In the Swedish Organization for Individual Relief we advocate for the rights of youth with intellectual and associated disabilities, young people who are part of the large category of Young people in NEET situations. Basically, through specialized services such as occupational therapy, sensory stimulation, speech therapy, psychological and psychiatric counseling, physiotherapy, we try to develop communication & social skills, personal autonomy of young people, mainly in order to integrate them in the community/society. Indeed, working with Young NEETs is not easy-the causes for which young people get in these situations are

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extremely different and often complex or unknown. In my view, a main goal of the civil society together with public institutions would be working with the mentality of the general population through awareness campaigns aimed at raising awareness on the subject and generate debate about the NEET situations but also about the causes, risks and ways of preventing the spreading of this situation for future generations of young people aged between 15-29. Within the NGOs Coalition for the rights of young NEETS I had the opportunity to meet members of the civil society actively engaged in working with these young people, and activists and specialists in advocacy who militate for their integration in society through education, work and participatory democracy. We have learned from one another, we crossed our opinions, and we exchanged best practices. Also, through its members, the Coalition of NGOs for the rights of young NEETS supported the Swedish organization in all actions and projects initiated. Furthermore, we have learned about the different available funding and about strategies, laws and programs such as the National Strategy for Youth, developed by the Youth Ministry, Youth Law or Youth Guarantee. Statistics on Young NEETs situation in Europe and Romania helped us to achieve a Joint Position of the NGO Coalition for the rights of young NEETs in Romania, that we hope to be followed-up and have a major impact in future discussions and negotiations. I wish to thank all the activists and specialists who helped develop the Coalition and the Social DOers organizers, who have contributed with information, energy and logistics

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to the Coalition founding.� ------------------------Elena Cosmnia Melinte, participant to the young Multipliers for Social Justice Training, NE Region “As for me, I can say that the experience in the training opened my eyes to the problems faced by many young people in Romania, problems that we already knew, but did not realize their seriousness, namely: school leaving, unemployment, immigration, poverty and this is only part of what crosses my mind now. I consider that the keywords for addressing NEET young people in this situation are patience and commitment, a commitment which, unfortunately, I saw very little of on the part of the authorities in charge of youth work in general, and the involvement of young people in society, in particular. By implication I mean the creation of jobs, not only for students and graduates, but also for those who left school at a young age. It is true, there is the Youth Guarantee, a program which helps young people acquire a profession, but this program is too little exploited, as evidence stands the fact that many young people do not know about this opportunity created for them, among whom I found myself, too. The main problem that I have identified is the lack of information of young people and citizens in general, for example until I participated in the training I did not know my rights as a citizen, I did not know either about the youth law, or about the Youth Guarantee, things that I think every citizen should know in order to actually have access to those opportunities.

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For the organizers of the training I have only words of praise for they informed me and confronted me with some real problems, but also with wonderful people with whom I hope to meet soon.” --------------------------Marta Iozefina Bencze, legal counselor and vice president of the "Workshop of Ideas/Atelierul de Idei" Association Galati, a member of the Coalition “The "NGO Coalition on the Rights of Young NEETs " project brought me, a person involved in the nongovernmental sector for 20 years, a "mouth of fresh air" since I was pleasantly surprised that the team that implemented the project, although made up only of young people, is working professionally on the issue of young NEET. Youth Law, Citizens' rights, Youth Guarantee, which actually symbolizes the Young NEETs, are some of the topics addressed seriously in the training and the received information and the opinions of the other participants during the course helped me update part of the information I already had. In the past four to five years, one of the main criticisms of the educational system in Romania (Romanian society implicitly) targets school leaving. I think we need educators and teachers to be true leaders who inspire students, educational programs for all categories of young people, real involvement from each adult in the educational process, because the youth of tomorrow is brought up by us, the adults of today, therefore it is in our power to make the future grow beautiful.” -----------------------------

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Gabriel Brezoiu, General Manager GEYC, a member of the Coalition “Often young people in Romania do not participate in community life for two reasons: they do not know that they can or they do not believe they can. For 8 years I have been activating in the non-governmental sector and have met many beautiful people who believe in change. Some of them make it happen, too. But the NGO sector faces some persistent problems: lack of Coalition/networking and difficult access to resources. In fact, we may say that the two are interdependent. There are people who believe that young people 500 km away from Bucharest or who have no Internet access, might position themselves farter from to “power” and no longer get involved. Reality showed me that even those living at a stone's throw from Victoria Palace (government) and are always on the Internet can be equally disinterested and cut off from the community life. I think it's the NGOs purpose to transform community into a more relevant world for young people, a world in which they believe and get involved into.” ---------------------------Catalina Maria Riznic, Pedagogue Professor “Moldova” High School Tg. Frumos “In late October, I participated in Iasi, in the advocacy training as youth worker, having a background in working with young people at high risk of becoming NEET, after high school graduation. It's about young people visually impaired and

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blind, whose socio-professional integration occurs with some difficultly since they encounter various obstacles and faces discriminatory situations. In the ASIRYS Association I get in touch with many young people in the community , whom we motivate to become active volunteers, organize activities in their community and have initiatives for social and community development. During the advocacy training for Young NEETs in Iasi, I had a special frame to see clearly, specifically and in an organized manner the situation of Young NEETs in Romania and in the north-east of the country, we have worked specifically with advocacy methods which facilitate intervention, organization and collaboration strategies with authorities and NGOs for this purpose, namely: methods of effective youth "visualization" and concrete intervention tools; I initiated collaborations with other youth workers and youth groups who have generated concrete actions and activities. Also, the multi-stakeholders meeting from Iasi Prefecture brought into our attention the vision and strategy of local authorities on this subject and the willingness to collaborate.� ---------------------------Aurelia Stoian, Social Worker for the United Cristian-Aid Good Samaritan Association, member organization of the Coalition “Training Constanta = Hope-Hope for youth! Seven young people have left Nicoresti, Galati county, for the training in Constanta so confident that we were already seeing our problems solved, solutions, ideas. Here I’ve learned that youth problems are everywhere and it's

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the same: lack of information of young people and ours, as citizens. The training has the role to inform us, to put us face to face with real problems and people in the administrative apparatus, but true involvement must come from us. What do we want? What's next? What do we wish for? An outstretched hand of the authority towards young people", information campaigns and dialogue between generations. The "Youth Guarantee" program is, unfortunately, not promoted and young people know little about it. Registration with employment services remains unanswered or, at best, waiting for a solution lasts too long and in the end, we get nothing concrete. We want local information campaigns for young people and real solutions from employment services, which would really help us! Following this training, the voice of young people from Nicoresti community will surely be heard! Young people are motivated, they know their rights and we hope, this will lead authorities to meet them with solutions and not just with words.� -----------------------------Petronela Despa, young participant in the Multipliers for Social Justice Training, NE Region “I have thus found out about the Youth Law, Citizens' rights, Youth Guarantee, which actually symbolize Young NEETs. I also saw how to expose the problem, to make

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us heard and how to find solutions to these problems by establishing a plan of action from the very beginning, like establishing the Need, the Purpose and the Objective! Regarding the problem of Young NEETs, the first aspect is that they are unregistered - it is important to identify them in order to show them how they can evolve into the professional life by providing the opportunity to have a qualification degree and a job, even if they have not completed their studies. Well, to be able to make a small change to begin with, we must want to help and come together, to create something greater.” ----------------------------Victoria Harhoiu, Chairman “Andrei” Foundation Targoviste, member organziation of the Coalition. “The " Coalition for the rights of young NEETS " fit like a glove because we have young people from this category in our region and also because it comes as an extension of our previous activities, limited by financial resources. From the Coalition meetings in Sibiu, Bucharest and subsequently from the communications within the Coalition online community, I found out news in the national legislation/EU and even made significant steps to build a future project. At the Andrei Foundation, we want to help those in need, but who prove they make efforts to improve their situation. We support people who want a continuous personal development regardless of age and for who the aid received from

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the foundation is a leap in building a better social/professional life.� ---------------------------Raluca Elena Foca, Assistant Manager, T&CO Social Development Center, member organization of the Coalition

“ The situation of one of the most vulnerable groups, namely Young NEETs and the increase, in an alarming number both in Romania and at European level, of the number of people who are "invisible" generate discussions, desire for change, action, seeding the belief that everyone can contribute measurably to improve this situation, if they have specific knowledge and uses the ideal tools to find balance. Identifying regulations that target the support of this vulnerable group, information and awareness of the phenomenon inoculates the idea that our organized efforts are needed to change or influence public decisions targeting this social category. Therefore, the training initiative for learning advocacy techniques in order to empower youth workers working with disadvantaged young people or at risk, has built a strategic approach on the phenomenon and emphasized the importance of using arguments in support of a position. The diversity of activities undertaken during the days dedicated to the advocacy training, and the meeting with the local authorities were key to developing effective capacity building to get involved in social dialogue, in support of the interests of disadvantaged people and also, for proposing adequate solutions to the problems identified.� -----------------------------

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Gabriel Cateliu, Chairman Community Aid Association, member organization of the Coalition

Romania

“My experience in the NGO Coalition for the rights of young NEETS project was special because the organization of which I am part of targets these young people. This project was a true challenge for me because I wanted to assimilate information about how we could help them more, according to their specific needs. From this project I got a broader perspective, and the results materialized in a project of the association, which focuses on opening a youth center in Medgidia. I am aware of how young people can use their resources that are available to the legislative framework in Romania. Meeting with the public authorities proved to be beneficial to find solutions to various problems that young people face in society today.�

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IV. Member Organizations of the NGO Coalition for the Rights of Young People, as of 31st of December 2015 1.

Fundatia Agentia de Dezvoltare Comunitara Impreuna

2.

Fundatia Tineri pentru Tineri

3.

Fundatia Civitas pentru Societatea Civila

4.

Centrul pentru Resurse Civice

5.

Organizatia Suedeza pentru Ajutor Umanitar Individual

6.

GEYC- Group of European Youth for Change

7.

Asociatia CEDRU – Centrul de Excelenta pentru

Dezvoltarea Resurselor Umane 8.

Asociatia pentru Solidaritate, Cultura, Educatie si

Dezvoltare – ASCED 9.

Asociatia Expert-In

10.

Asociatia TEAM

11.

Asociatia Educația Da Viata

12.

Asociatia Tineri pentru Europa de Maine

13.

Asociatia Uniunea Civica a Tinerilor Romi din Romania

14.

Asociatia United Cristian-Aid Bunul Samaritean

15.

Centrul de Dezvoltare Sociala T&CO – CDS

16.

Asociatia European Project

17.

Asociația Creștin Umanitara Slujirea Vietii

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18.

Asociatia “Musatinii” Roman

19.

Asociatia Iona Valea Pesceanei

20.

Asociatia CRISPUS Sibiu

21.

Fundatia Andrei Targoviste

22.

Asociatia ”Learn for You!”

23.

Asociatia Serviciul APEL

24.

Asociatia ARES`EL

25.

Asociatia Lindenfeld

26.

Asociatia Atelierul de Idei

27.

Grupul EFES - Educatie pentru o Formare Eficienta si

Sustenabila 28.

Asociatia Youth Vision Constanta

29.

Asociatia Community Aid Romania

30.

Grupul DA pentru Dezvoltare Activa

31.

Asociatia Dunare.EDU

32.

Asociatia ” Saracii Anonimi”

33.

Asociatia pentru Dezvoltare Comunitara Durabila

ALUTUS 34.

Social DOers - Initiator and coordiantor of the

Coalition

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V. Strategic priorities of the Coalition I. Influencing public policies/national legislation affecting Young NEETs & promoting national prevention policies II. Developing research projects and providing data on the situations of Young NEETs, and examples of good practice (with emphasis on prevention programs) III. Influencing the funding methodology for programs addressed to Young NEETs (eg. human capital program) so that funding should be relevant to the needs of the direct beneficiaries, or accessible to the private sector in accessing them, and particularly to NGOs IV. Cooperating, at national level, with public institutions directly responsible for policies affecting youth (eg.: Ministry for youth and sport, Ministry of Labor, Ministry for European funds) V. Influencing European debates in relation to the special structures of the European Parliament and the European Commission (in particular the Intergroup on Youth of the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee etc.) VI. Raising awareness and quality of information on NEET phenomenon VII. Contributing to the development of integrated intervention programs for young people in NEET situations or at risk VIII. Monitoring the way the Funds for Young NEETs programs and for young people in general are allocated IX. Advocacy in being recognized as a stakeholder (the

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Coalition) in consultative discussions on the allocation of structural funding for youth and Youth Guarantee scheme X. Strengthening the cooperation and partnerships between NGOs working with young people, including forming consortia to apply for European funding.

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Romania's Invisible Generation-young people in NEET situations  
Romania's Invisible Generation-young people in NEET situations  

This booklet presents the results of the exploratory research "Social Costs of Young People in NEET situations, a Romanian overview" and tho...

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