SUSAN N. JOHNSON-ROEHR
P.O. BOX 1603, BLOOMINGTON, IN, 47402-1603 PHONE: (812) 360-4896 • E-MAIL: SNJR@SNJR.NET
HISTORY, PRESERVATION & DESIGN
RESEARCH FELLOW, RUTGERS CENTER FOR HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, 2012-2013 Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow in “Networks of Exchange” working group, with researchfocused on the design and construction of astro nomical observatories in India, United Kingdom. PH.D. ARCHITECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 2011 VISITING LECTURER, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 2011-2012 M.A. HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, 1997 Full-time faculty in the School of Architecture, History and PreservaM.A. ART HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, 1994 tion Division. Courses taught: Modern Architecture (c. 1860-1990), B.A. ART HISTORY, WESTERN WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, 1991 20th-Century American Architecture, Architecture & Science, History B.A. RUSSIAN, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, 1989 of South Asian Cities. A.A.S. DESIGN TECHNOLOGY, IVY TECH COMMUNITY COLLEGE, 2004 EDITING ASSISTANT, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 2006 Worked on edited collection (P. Pyla, ed., Landscapes of Develop ment: The Impact of Modernization Discourses on the Physical Envi- INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT, USDA FOREST SERVICE, 2003 ronment of the Eastern Mediterranean. Harvard U Press, 2012. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES COORDINATOR, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, 2000-2002 DESIGN ASSISTANT, LOUIS JOYNER, ARCHITECT, COLUMBUS, IN, 2004-2005 SYSTEMS SPECIALIST, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, 1998-2000 Projects included: measured drawings and written description of a CUSTOMER SERVICE REPRESENTATIVE, SYMANTEC SOFTWARE, 1995 former school; renovation of a historic storefront to accommodate a children’s museum; design development of church rectory, private residences, and emergency medical clinic; redemise and “Centering the Charbagh: The Mughal Garden as Design Module for the renovation of commercial spaces; organization of sample library. Jaipur City Plan,” Journal for the Society of Architectural Historians CONSULTANT, BLOOMINGTON RESTORATIONS, 2002-2004, 2010-PRESENT 17, no. 2 (March 2013): forthcoming. Construction management for historic preservation/affordable “The Archaeological Survey of India and Communal Violence in Post housing progran; surveyed properties; produced measured drawings, Independence India,” International Journal of Heritage Studies specifications, and contract documents; IT support; historical research 14, no. 6 (2008): 506-23 in local history archives. “Commodification and Spectacle in Architecture,” PAST 32 (2009), 137-140 ADJUNCT FACULTY, DESIGN TECHNOLOGY, IVY TECH STATE COLLEGE, 2002-2003 (book beview) Taught Architectural Layout, Construction Materials and “The Middle Class City: Transforming Space and Time in Philadelphia 1876- Specifications, introductory and intermediate levels; introduced 1926,” Material Culture 39, No. 2 (2007), 79-82 (book review) students to computer-aided drafting, model building, project manu- “William Henry Jackson: Framing the Frontier,” Annals of Wyoming 72, no. 2 als, construction drawings, and residential construction methods. (2000), 40-1 (book review)
TABLE OF CONTENTS HISTORIC PRESERVATION
902 & 904 W. SEVENTH STREET 934 W. SIXTH STREET 405 N. OAK STREET 1200 S. STULL STREET
ELSTON HAMILTON HOUSE KIDSCOMMONS
INTRAMURALITY SPECTACLE AND POWER INSTITUTIONS IN THE LOCAL LANDSCAPE EXTRAMURAL PASSAGES
ABANDON IN PLACE (COURAGE) NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY AESTHETIC HYBRIDITY POLITICAL HYBRIDITY WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
02 03 04 05
12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20
BLOOMINGTON RESTORATIONS, INC.
A non-profit organization dedicated to rescuing historic buildings in Bloomington and Monroe County, Indiana, Bloomington Restorations, Inc. (BRI) provides affordable housing in historic neighborhoods. The organization was founded in 1976 in response to the threatened demolition of properties in the historic North Walnut Street area of Bloomington. From its inception, BRI has worked to secure funding sources for local historic preservation projects, and much of its success during the past thirty-five years comes from the organizationâ€™s ability to marshal local, state, and federal funds for its preservation initiatives. City grants, together with loans from Historic Landmarks Foundation of Indiana, allowed for the establishment of a revolving grant fund that helps BRI purchase, restore, and re-sell endangered properties. Much of the hands-on work (research, registering of historic properties, publicity, and designing) is done by volunteers working together with local contractors and vendors.
902 & 904 W. SEVENTH STREET
The gabeled-ell at 902 W. Sixth Street and the shot-gun at 904 W. Seventh Street were renovated together. The shot-gun once functioned as a neighborhood store. It was unsuitable for habitation at the time of renovation, with rotted and missing floorboards and exposed wiring. The attic, which originally was used to store dry goods, was converted into a sleeping loft accessed via a spiral staircase. The kitchen was a later addition to the house and the remodel retained the exterior siding on the south wall of that room. The house at 902 W. Seventh required less work, most of which was focused on the removal of an illegal exterior staircase and the fittings for apartments on the second floor.
934 W. SIXTH STREET
The siding of this corner-lot Queen Anne cottage was severely water-damaged. The original sawdust insulation was saturated and had degraded over time. During renovation, the cottage was stripped back to the studs on the interior. Approximately 60% of the wood siding was replaced on the exterior. New windows were installed and a new rear entrance and utility room were constructed to replace a dilapidated lean-to porch.
405 N. OAK STREET
This limestone-clad single-story residence was relocated to N. Oak Street to save it from demolition. Structurally, the house was sound but a new hipped roof was installed and the chimney reset after relocation. The house originally had a basement, the stairway to which opened off the central hall. The new foundation provided clearance for a crawl space only, so BRI recovered the former stairwell and transformed it into a laundry area and closet. To minimize expenses, the bathtub was salvaged; otherwise, new features were installed in the bathroom and kitchen. Much of the structure’s historic detailing—front porch supports, interior moldings, tongue-and-groove flooring—was salvaged, restored, and reinstalled as appropriate. The building envelope was sealed, the crawlspace and attic were insulated, new plumbing, electrical, and mechanical systems were installed.
1200 S. STULL STREET
This house once stood just south of the Indiana University campus on N. Dunn Street. Built as a private residence, the structure functioned as an office building before being vacated and boarded up by the university. BRI purchased the building at auction with the understanding that it would be relocated to a different lot. After surveying the house and preparing initial renovation plans, BRI contracted with MCF House Movers to transport the house to a neighborhood with houses of a similar scale and style. The move required the demolition of the gable roof before transferring the main structure to the towing system. At the new site, the house was placed on a concrete block foundation. The original rusticated limestone entrance steps were retained and reset; the block foundation was treated to match at the street facade. BRI replaced all roofing matieral to meet current building code requirements. The rhythm of the new rafters echoes that of the original roof.
ELSTON HAMILTON HOUSE 3660 Woodhouse Place, Columbus, IN The design and construction of an observatory for an 8-inch telescope complicated the site plan for the Elston Hamilton project. The location of the observatory was constrained by sight lines to open sky, the routing of data cables for the astrophotography program used to operate the telescope remotely, and the location of the family lap pool. Louis Joyner, Architect, worked with Home-Dome to design a substructure capable of supporting a dome with integrated robotics, and with Astro Pier to produce a vibration dampening system for a permanent telescope mount.
KIDSCOMMONS CHILDREN’S MUSEUM
309 Washington Street, Columbus, IN The firm of Louis Joyner, Architect, was involved in this community adaptive reuse project from its inception. Housed in a former J.C. Penney building, Kidscommons has exhibits on three floors, all accessible by ramp or elevator. The interactive exhibits were designed to accommodate children ranging in age from infant to fourteen years.
The “Bubbl-ology” room was designed as a contained space with surfaces impervious to water and soap. A stainless steel countertop installed at a height appropriate for grade-school aged children and epoxy wall finishes aid the museum staff in water stain prevention. Plastic laminate countertops in the wash-up area were introduced as a cost-saving measure. The underflooring was sloped to a central drainage point and specified with a gritted epoxy surface (later replaced with low pile carpet). The vinyl wall decorations echo the color scheme used in the museum’s logo and wipe clean with a damp cloth. The overhead light fixtures repeat the circular motif. Birch wall caps visually link the bubble room to other programmed areas on the second and third floors of the museum.
FIRST FLOOR FINISH PLAN
The client requested finish treatments that incorporated a variety of colors and textures but avoided the use of solid primary colors. The initial finish schedule was inspired by programming concerns. High traffic, high spill areas were prime candidates for vinyl composition tile, while high traffic, low spill areas were treated with carpet. A durable cork floor was proposed for “Our House,” a collaborative exhibit highlighting Japanese culture. A second collaboration with the exhibit design team from the Cincinnati Museum Center produced the Children’s Garden, a permanent exhibt in which finish treatments were used to mimic natural surfaces (grass, moss, water, etc.). The entry was treated with earth-toned tiles to harmonize with a “kid-sized” wood block door.
RES 1 CPT 2
CPT 2 TILE
RES 1 VCT 3
VCT 4 VCT 1
VCT 1 (70%) VCT 2 (10%) VCT 3 (10%) VCT 4 (10%)
RES 4 RISERS RES 5 LANDING
RES 3 TREADS
VCT 1 VCT 1
BY ENTRE PRISES
EXISTING ROOF STRUCTURE EXISTING CEILING JOISTS NEW BLOCKING EXISTING PLASTER
NEW FURRING BLOCKS
EXISTING BLOCKING EXISTING TIN CEILING WOOD TRIM TO MATCH CLIMBING WALL 5/8" GYP. BD.
20 GA. STEEL STUDS 16" O.C.
UNISTRUT P1000 WELDED TO FRONT FACE OF TS4X2X3/16"
1" = 1'-0"
CLIMBING WALL SECTION
The 17-foot climbing wall on the second floor of the museum was designed by the firm of Entre Prises, Bend, Oregon, to resemble the facade of Kidscommons. The facade replica was meant to draw the attention of children to the shape and appearance of local architecture (a rejected design mimicked the county courthouse) and to give museum patrons a “hands-on” experience with the museum building. The climbing experience is echoed on the actual facade of the building in the form of painted steel figures climbing above the entry awning. Before installation, the firm of Louis Joyner, Architect, designed the floor-to-ceiling support system to which the wall was then attached. This exhibit was designed to be suitable for all ages, infant through adult.
LOUIS JOYNER, ARCHITECT
The original rear egress of the J.C. Penney building was a first floor exit only. The introduction of the steel stair to provided an emergency exit at the rear of the second floor and addressed structural issues with the existing carport. Sections of the original concrete slab in the carport area were demolished in order to sink a footer for the concrete masonry unit wall of the stair. A new slab was laid as part of the construction of a handicapped accessible entry into the first floor of the museum.
GATES OF JAIPUR
Dhruv Pol Gangapol Chaukari
ri Gate Shiv P ol (Sang ane
oad er R gan Ame r-Sa n
Observatory Badi Tripo lia Chaupar Bazar
rajpo l Ba
Roa Am er
SURAJ (SUN) GATE
ate Naya G
Pol Kishan AjmerAgra R oa
Kanak Vrindavan Gardens
INTRAMURALITY It is one thing to declare that all knowledge is locally situated (turning locality into a universal condition) and another to produce a methodology that takes into account the particularities of a single urban landscape. We need a theoretical tool that allows us to demonstrate not just that spatiality matters, but that specific landscape configurations create and mobilize a specific, contingent knowledge. Although observatories at Jaipur and Delhi produced congruous results, they occupied divergent geographies that resulted in different construction, labor, and science practices. This notion of specificity disappears in discussions centered on the “universal local,” but in deploying a vocabulary much more reflective of the built environment of the walled city of Jaipur, we can counteract that threat of loss.
“Intramurality” adds texture to these urban simplifications and draws attention to the actual boundaries raised by the architecture that simultaneously prohibited and enabled the movement of knowledge. These demarcations are numerSisodia ous: the mud brick walls of the observatory, the Rani ka Bagh numerous masonry walls of the City Palace and its multitude of chowks (courtyards), the stone city walls of Jaipur, and the fortified walls and ramparts extending between Amer and Jaipur. The intramural simultaneously gestures to a contained and bound knowledge, available or comprehensible only to a privileged few, and to all that which stands outside the wall, hovering in a region of ambiguity, poised for departure. Moreover, it speaks to the dissolution of the division between interior and exterior, as the built environment of Jaipur sends up multiple signals, most of which indicate that Sawai Jai Singh planned for a certain permeability of the city.
s’ Ha velis
Sh iv P o l (Sang aneri G ate)
The daily operation of the observatory required a AMER-JAIPUR TRANSPORTATION CORRIDOR constant flow of communications between patron and builder, and the maintenance of two court spaces, with all of the bureaucratic departments associated with the running of the government and construction of a new capital city, demanded Amer a secure communication and transportation corFort ridor between the new palace at the center of Jaigarh Maotha Fort Jaipur and the old palace at Amer. We have no Lake way of knowing how often Sawai Jai Singh made the twisting journey from Amer to the observatory, but each trip was probably well-noted and closely watched by the king’s subjects. The slow movement of the king’s procession south to Jaipur functioned as a political spectacle, providing Kanak Vrindavan ample opportunity for the contemplation of the Gardens king’s power against a backdrop of a landscape shaped according to his desires. The pageantry Man Sagar of resources inherent in the royal retinue made Charan a powerful assertion about the strength of the Mandir Jal Mahal ruler; to combine it with evidence of Sawai Jai Singh’s ability to manipulate and manage the spaces of a new city must have made the statement of control even more emphatic. And Brahmapuri nowhere was Sawai Jai Singh more capable of activating the latent power of the landscape Nahagarh Dhruv Fort Pol with his presence in this manner than in the Gangapol Talkatora spaces between the palace at Amer and the Chaukari Dhruv Pol of Jaipur. A vital component of the Chand Pol new urban development project, the Man Sagar City Palace Chan dpol Bazar Observatory Badi embankment, along with the lingering participaTripo lia Chaupar Bazar tion of Amer in this model, created a complicated Surajp ol Ba local network of transfer and exchange. The Suraj Pol zar Galtaji intramural was encapsulated not simply by the AjmerAgra R oad walls of the observatory, palace, and city, but by the walls surrounding and dividing the state of Amer, most of which pre-dated Sawai Jai Singh’s tenure on the cushion throne of Amer and Jaipur.
SPECTACLE AND POWER
Sisodia Rani ka Bagh
JAIPUR CITY PALACE COMPLEX
T R I P O LIA BA ZAA
INSTITUTIONS IN THE LOCAL LANDSAPE
Naqqar Khana Sireh Deodhi Darwaza
The Jaleb Chowk served as an intermediary between the privileged political spaces of court and the more scientific space of the observatory. The karkhanas dispersed around the perimeter of the courtyard enabled the production of purely scientific knowledge (the authoring of astronomical treatises and compilation of astronomical observations and interpretations). The creation of this knowledge drew on the resources of multiple karkhanas, forcing them to work in concert. Between the king, the chowk, the karkhanas, and the observatory developed a complex but strictly organized relationship of trade, communication, and movement, one cemented on a daily basis as the king passed through the productive spaces of the City Palace on his way to the observatory.
ZAAR HI BA DEOD SIREH
Sawai Jai Singh reached out to Jesuits in Bengal to circumvent the French colonial government and eliminate communication delays between India and Europe. However, three years passed between the date of Sawai Jai Singh’s invitation and the arrival of the Jesuits in Jaipur. The journey from Chandernagore to Jaipur was arduous for the priests. During their travels, theymade certain “geographical observations” that were later deemed inadequate by colleagues but, as reported in the Lettres Édifiantes, “this is all that they [Fathers Boudier and Pons] were permitted to do on this type of uncomfortable trip in this country, especially when one needed to make it by land, and with their poor health, both had thought that before returning they would die of disease caused by the hardships and the bad water that one is NEPAL forced to drink along the way.”
Sh ah F Ch Palw ari ja d al ab han M ha ta at a ab d hu S F ad Ga ra era Sh iroz u i A iko ab g g ha ad ra hat ba d
ge r lt Bh ang a a n Ka gal j ha pu lg r Sa aon cr ag Ra al jm ah li al
Ba h Ba ar r ia pu
Su ra ig
an S a De asa bad hr ram iG ha t
Mahabalipur Naubatpur Pa tn a
ja dp Al ur la h Sa ab id a a d Sa bad ra iJ ag ad ish Va ra na si Sa id r M aja oh an ia
K Ja ora ha Ka na ju ba Fa a d te hp ur
Ja Et swa aw n ah tna Aj ga itm r al Si ka nd ra
West Bengal Cassimbazar
Indore Kolkata (Calcutta) Susan Johnson-Roehr
ROUTE OF FATHERS PONS & BOUDIER, C. 1734
ABANDON IN PLACE (COURAGE), 2011
Launch Complex 34 (LC 34) was the site of the 1967 Apollo 1 fire that claimed the lives of astronauts Virgil “Gus” Grissom, Edward H. White, and Roger B. Chaffee. LC 34 was officially abandoned by NASA in October 1973. In 1984, it was listed as part of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s National Historic Landmark District. Aside from the addition of a Historical Site Kiosk and three memorial benches at the edge of the concrete pad, the complex has been abandoned in place per NASA’s 1973 instructions.
NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY
The orchards of Brewster Flats, Washington, have long served as a stage for the development of space and communication technologies The hills rising behind the small town of Monse have hosted a COMSAT (now U.S. Electrodynamics Comsat Earth Station) dish since 1966. Shown here is the Brewster antenna of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a radio telescope consisting of ten 82-foot receivers. Built in 1986, the VLBA dishes connect via transmission lines to form a massive high-resolution interferometer.
The chhatri (“umbrella” or “parasol” in Sanskrit, Hindi, and Rajasthani) functioned as a symbol of power for Indic kings, serving as a metonym for territorial rule, military authority, heroism, and Hinduism. Under the Rajputs of northwestern India, the chhatri was developed into an architectural marker, usually associated with permanent funerary monuments of the royal family. The chhatri, together with its symbolic potential, was absorbed into Mughal design culture at least by the era of Akbar (r. 1556-1605). The appearance of the chhatri at the Purana Qila, a fort built by Sher Shah Suri (r. 1540-1545 ) on the ruins of Humayun’s city, Dinpanah, suggests that the form was adopted from Rajasthani architecture even before Akbar deployed it in his imperial fiat city of Fatehpur Sikri.
CHHATRIS, PURANA QILA, DELHI
The jharokha window appears in both Rajasthani and Mughal architecture. The heavy vertical supports, the designs for which were based on indigenous wood building traditions, raise a stylized dome reminiscent of the chhatri above the window. Together, the dome and supports frame the viewer, emphasizing his separation from and elevation above the crowd. The jharokha windows at Purana Qila demonstrate not only the Mughal ability to absorb aesthetic forms from their Rajput neighbors, but also their practice of adapting religious forms in order to establish their authority over the local population. The daily appearance of the Mughal emperor in the jharokha echoed the familiar Hindu practice of darsana (“sight,” “vision,” or “glimpse” in Sanskrit). Hindu devotees gathered at the temple to receive darsana from their favored deity, a moment usually enacted when the face of a sculpted icon was uncovered to permit visitors to make eye contact with the deity. Although Mughal rulers placed little emphasis on eye contact, they adopted the ceremonial practice of “revealing” oneself to one’s subjects by making regular appearances at the jharokha windows throughout the kingdom.
JHAROKHA, PURANA QILA, DELHI
WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Stepwells (baoli) have been used for centuries in the arid regions of India to access water stored in natural aquifers and to free villagers from dependence on seasonal rains. Deep trenches were dug to reach the water table. Masons lined the trenches with stabilizing stones and introduced flights of stairs down the steep slopes to the water. Thousands of these stepwells once dotted the landscape of northern Indian, offering not only a means of obtaining fresh water for drinking and cooking, but a place to escape the burning desert heat. Although some wells, such as the Agrasen ki Baoli, remained simple in design, with a single flight of steps leading to the exposed aquifer, many more were developed with spaces dedicated as temples or used for daily life.
AGRASEN KI BAOLI, DELHI, C. 14TH CENTURY
AZIM KHAN’S TOMB, LADOO SARAI, DELHI