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WINTER 2019

T HE O NLY MAG A ZI NE FOR A PPRE NT ICE EL EC T RICIA N S

INSIDE... OUR GUIDE TO THE 18TH EDITION 20 QUESTIONS WITH THOMAS NAGY HALL OF SHAME

“THE SPARKS ELECTRICAL APPRENTICE OF THE YEAR COMPETITION IS INCREDIBLE”


COULD YOUR EMPLOYER BE THE

SPARKS EMPLOYER

OF THE

The SPARKS Employer of the Month awards celebrate the employers who are passionate about the future of the electrical industry and have gone above and beyond in training and supporting their apprentices, helping to shape the future of the industry. Apprentices or colleagues can nominate an employer by sending us an email or direct message on any of our social media channels.

Send to: tom.tracey@sng-publishing.co.uk For more information on the competition and how to enter visit:

www.sparks-magazine.co.uk


Welcome to the Winter 2019 edition of your favourite study companion, SPARKS Magazine, and Happy Birthday to us! This edition marks 10 years of our SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year competition, and we’re so excited to get started.

T

he next few months will see talented student and apprentice electricians compete in 7 regional heats, and eventually in our Grand Final in March. This year’s competition is looking bigger and better than ever, and the team here at SPARKS can’t wait to meet you all.

This edition is jam-packed full of great interviews, features and exercises to help you along in your course. We had a lovely chat with YouTube sensation Thomas Nagy to find out what he’s loving at the moment, as well as catching up with 2011 SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year winner, Chris Randall. His story since winning is incredible and you’d be a fool to miss it. As always, we also have tons of exercises, quizzes and info to give you a studying boost. In this issue, we also have a special focus on the new 18th Edition of the Wiring Regulations, talking to lecturers and manufacturers about what it will mean for students like you. So here’s to SPARKS giving a buzz to your winter slump and, as always, don’t hesitate to get in touch!

Celia Matthews Managing Editor

MANAGING EDITOR: CELIA MATTHEWS celia.matthews@sng-publishing.co.uk EDITOR: HOLLY CARTER holly.carter@sng-publishing.co.uk DIGITAL EDITOR: TOM TRACEY tom.tracey@sng-publishing.co.uk GRAPHIC DESIGNER: LEE OWEN design@sng-publishing.co.uk TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTOR: Mike Davies ADVERTISING: PATRICK BLORE & ZOË TANNER sales@sng-publishing.co.uk PRINTERS Stephens & George, England

DISCLAIMER SPARKS Magazine is published by SNG Publishing Ltd (SNG). All content and artwork is © SNG Publishing Ltd or its contributors and SNG is a trade mark of SNG Publishing Ltd. No part of SPARKS Magazine may be copied, transmitted or published in any form or by any means without prior permission. Although SNG has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it does not verify any claims or other information appearing in the advertisements contained in SPARKS Magazine. It therefore cannot accept any responsibility whatsoever for consequences that may arise from the content or artwork contained in SPARKS Magazine, including any errors or omissions or any opinions or advice given therein. This publication and its content is not a substitute for professional advice on a particular matter. Advertisements are accepted for publication in SPARKS Magazine only upon SNG Publishing Ltd standard terms of advertising.

S PA R K S - M AG A Z I N E . C O . U K

@sparksmag

@sparks_magazine_

@sparksmagazine

GENERAL ENQUIRIES To subscribe to SPARKS Magazine call 0870 774 3049 or subscribe online at www.sparks-magazine.co.uk

www.linkedin.com/company/ sparksmagazine/ © SNG Publishing Ltd, 2019


CONTENTS FEATURES

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01. Editor’s Note 04. News 06. What’s New? 08. Schneider Electric Competition 10. Interview: Previous SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year Winner

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12. SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year 2019 14. Through the Keyhole: York College 16. What Does the 18th Edition Mean for You? 20. New Year, New Regulations: A Guide to the 18th Edition 22. Lightning Strikes on New Wiring Regulations 24. Are You Adhering to the 18th Edition Changes?

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26. The Tools to Work Safer 28. Quizzes to Give a Kahoot! About 30. Connected Elements 32. Consumer Unit Meter Tails 34. Prove Your Skills with the ECS Card

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36. A Breath of Fresh Air 38. 7 Steps to Silence 40. SPARKS on Tour 42. App-rentice 44. 20 Questions with Thomas Nagy 58. Hall of Shame 60. Tea Break Time 61. Product Showcase

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SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I C ON T EN T S


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40

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30

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44 EXERCISES 45. Heater Circuits Tasks 46. Circuit Protection Devices Questions

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48. Electrical Distribution Questions 50. Circuit Protection Multiple Choice Questions 52. Electric Heating Multiple Choice Questions 53. Distribution and Supply Systems Questions 55. Electric Heating and Ventilation True or False Questions 57. Wordsearch

C O N T EN T S I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

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INDUSTRY NEWS READ THE FULL STORY IN THE NEWS SECTION OF

SPARKS-MAGAZINE.CO.UK ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL NIGHT AT POWERBALL 2018 powerBall 2018, run by The Electrical Industries Trading Company in support of the Electrical Industries Charity (EIC), raised over £160,000 in November, with dozens of companies and individuals donating £1,000 each in support of those who are suffering with mental health issues. Over 700 industry professionals got together to celebrate a successful year in the electrical sector at the Dirty Dancing themed event, which took place at one of the most prestigious London locations – Grosvenor House on Park Lane.

ELECTRIC CAR REVOLUTION SET TO CREATE OVER 1 MILLION JOBS

KNIPEX RELEASES NEW SELFADJUSTING CRIMPING PLIERS

Over 1 million new jobs are set to be created in the European electric car market by 2050, according to a new report from the European Association of Electrical Contractors (AIE). The study found that full electrification of the passenger car market across the current 28 members of the EU would generate 1.2 million jobs. These would largely be associated with the manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance of charging points and batteries, and electricity generation.

German manufacturer KNIPEX has released new self-adjusting crimping pliers, offering the user optimum flexibility even in confined spaces. The pliers automatically adjust to the end sleeve (ferrule) used, so there can be no crimping errors as a result of an incorrect setting. The slim crimp head can be freely adjusted for different crimping situations and rotated 360°, with 8 tactile locking positions. The square crimp profile has a high capacity range of 0.14-16mm² and twin end sleeves up to 2 x 6mm² can be crimped without adjustment. As the crimp opening is accessible from both sides, extra-long end sleeves can also be crimped simply by feeding them in further.

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SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I N E WS


BRIGHT SPARKS APPRENTICE SCHEME AWARDS 2018 WINNERS

THOMAS LEWIS REPRESENTS UK AT EUROSKILLS

The C.K Tools Bright Sparks apprentice scheme was back for its 13th year in 2018. Providing free C.K tools for college workshops, sponsorship for 60 colleges across the UK and Ireland, and bursaries to reward their best students, the scheme continues to flourish. This year’s winners include Coral Allen, who works for Young Electrical and Fred Brant for East Goscote, who both took part in an ERASMUS project to Seville and progressed to become UK ERASMUS Apprentices. Claire Griffiths, Product & Marketing Executive for C.K Tools said: “Electrical apprenticeships continue to grow in popularity and we are very happy to support their work through our Bright Sparks initiative for young people seeking a career in the electrical trade.”

Thomas Lewis, an apprentice at Blues Electrical and third year Level 3 apprentice at Cardiff and Vale College, represented Team UK in Electrical Installation at this year’s EuroSkills, which was held in Budapest in September. Held every 2 years, the competition encourages world-class standards in skills and trades. The Electrical Installations competition was held across 3 days and is part of the ‘Construction and Building Technology’ category. Of his work, Thomas said: “I’m happy with what I’ve done, a couple of things I would have changed but I tried my best and gave it everything I could.” Team UK also won a gold in Beauty Therapy and Hairdressing and 7 Medallions for Excellence.

100 YEARS OF MK ELECTRIC MK Electric is celebrating a century of success. Born of humble beginnings back in February 1919, Charles Arnold set up the Heavy Current Electric Accessories Company with just two employees and some second-hand machinery. In 1928 Arnold came out with the first shuttered socket featuring concealed live and neutral contacts; a design which formed the basis of the British electrical system as we know it today. MK Electric remains committed to quality and unwavering in its determination to find ever better and ever safer ways to meet the needs of its customers now and in the future.

N E W S I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

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BY TOM TRACEY, DIGITAL EDITOR

It’s been an exciting few months for SPARKS digitally, as more and more people have come across our new website. The last few months on social media have been great at SPARKS. We surpassed 5,000 followers on Twitter and celebrated with a giveaway, with Schneider Electric providing a toolkit bag as the top prize. Not stopping there, we ran a 12 Days of Christmas giveaway with more than 1,000 entrants hoping to win prizes from the likes of Super Rod, Connexbox, Megger, WISKA, Klein Tools, Schneider Electric, WAGO, KNIPEX and 3M. We took our Kahoot! quizzes on the road before Christmas, visiting colleges around the country and showing students and apprentices how they can help support their studies in a fun, interactive way. Plus, it’s a great excuse to get your phones out during class! If you haven’t checked them out yet, what are you waiting for? There are a mix of quizzes based on topics within the syllabus, or more general quizzes based on terminology and products. Starting in February, we will be launching our new Employer of the Month award where you can nominate your employer if they’ve gone above and beyond in their training and supervision. Take a look at our website for the full details. We will be posting fun content regularly on our YouTube channel over the coming months, including highlights from the upcoming SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year competition. So stay tuned to all of our social media channels!

GET IN TOUCH!

WHAT'S NEW?

DIGITAL COLUMN

At SPARKS, we’re passionate about keeping students and apprentices informed of changes and trends within the industry. Soon you will be a big part of an ever-evolving industry, and there’s no time like the present to get stuck in. The most important of these changes in this Winter 2019 edition of SPARKS is the publication of the 18th Edition of the Wiring Regulations, also known as BS 7671. We’ve devoted 6 whole pages of this magazine to the 18th Edition, giving you insight from some of the biggest manufacturers and the ECA. We also chatted directly to some big names from all over the industry to ask them how the 18th Edition will affect you, the electrians of the future. You couldn’t get better insight than in SPARKS!

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This edition, we also take a crossover into other trades. As technology advances, simple and efficient appliance control becomes more and more desirable for customers, meaning electrical elements are now included in many more household appliances. As everyday objects become internet connected, and the market becomes increasingly environmentally conscious, electric heating and ventilation are becoming more and more common on the job reel for electricians. To keep up with this, we talked to Vent-Axia and Glen Dimplex, for their insights on the increasing demand for electrical technologies, and how electricians can use this to their advantage. This ties in with our App-rentice feature, where we showcase some of the best apps on the market for making an electrician’s job easier, safer and more efficient.


FUN FACTS star ted off vis Presley both El d an on ris George Har electricians. as apprentice

KS is you, R A P S f o rt a e “ The h students and le ib d re c in r ou e future of apprentices, th the industry ” As always, safety is key, and in this edition we explore safety from both an industry and customer perspective. Klein Tools talks about the importance of insulated tools, which not only help you do your job, but can also save your life. However, saying that you’re a safe and qualified electrician may not be enough, so we got the great ECS to show off their card scheme, which provides proof that your qualifications and skills have been verified, giving peace of mind to any prospective customers and protecting you and your business. The heart of SPARKS is you, our incredible students and apprentices, the future of the industry. We’re so lucky to be part of such an incredible learning community, and we’re so excited to cover that in our SPARKS on Tour and Through the Keyhole features in this edition. We’ve loved meeting so many of you throughout the last year, and we can’t wait for more in 2019. So, without further ado, flip the page and get learning!

RTER, BY HOLLY CA OR IT ASSISTANT ED

r uses The typical ca 1,500 approximately which copper wires, nearly a would stretch to end. mile if laid end

Renewable energy was pioneered over 150 years ago by Lord William Armstrong, who lit his home with hydroelectricity.

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WH AT ’ S N E W ? I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

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MYSCHNEIDER

ELECTRICIAN COMPETITION WIN A BOSCH SDS DRILL WITH MYSCHNEIDER ELECTRICIAN Don’t miss out on this exclusive offer from Schneider Electric – only for SPARKS readers! The Bosch GBH2000 110V SDS Plus Drill is a 3-function tool that is both versatile and reliable. An overload clutch keeps user and machine protected on the job and the device is supplied with an auxiliary side handle, with a rubber coating for comfort when in use. There is also a depth stop for accuracy and precision and the tool is fitted with replaceable carbon brushes for easy maintenance. The compact design and accompanying carry case make transportation and storage simple too.

HOW TO ENTER… SIMPLY VISIT www.schneider-electric.co.uk/electricianpartner to find out more and start your journey with us! Use promo code SPARKS19 on the registration form before Friday 10th May 2019 to enter this fantastic prize draw.

Good Luck!

Available on mobile and desktop, mySchneider Electrician offers everything you need to save time, be more productive and to help you grow your business.

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H IP I AU TUMN SPARKS I WI NTE 2 0R1 2 80 1 I 9C OI MCPE OM T IPE T IO T INT IO N


t us for ts e m de en Th gui tud ve l s ha trica c ele

Student’s Guide to the IET Wiring Regulations (BS 7671:2018)

The popular Student’s Guide to BS 7671 has been updated to the 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations This book helps you to: ■ Understand technical terminology ■ Learn how to find the information you need, every time ■ Improve confidence when working with BS 7671

Designed specifically to help those studying for a career in the electrotechnical industry, the guide makes it easy to work with BS 7671.

Get your copy now at: www.theiet.org/studentguide-sparks The Institution of Engineering & Technology is registered as a Charity in England and Wales (No. 211014) and Scotland (No. SC038698). The IET, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, Herts, SG1 2AY, UK.

Sparks Autumn Ad.indd 1

08/08/2018 09:22

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PREVIOUS CHRIS WINNER RANDALL With the 2019 SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year Competition nearly upon us, we decided it was time to catch up with an old friend. Chris Randall won the competition back in 2011, and we had a chat with him about his experience and what he’s been up to since. SPARKS Magazine: Tell us a little bit about yourself. Chris Randall: I’m 26, I’ve been in the electrical industry for 10 years. I found an apprenticeship aged 16 with a local company which carried out a variety of work. I did a 3-year course at Coleg Sir Gar in Ammanford.

SPARKS: What originally made you enter the SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year Competition?

SPARKS: Can you describe a little bit about the competition for those entering this year?

CR: It’s quite odd how I was entered! I was out of class on the phone and while I was out, the tutor asked if anyone was interested in entering a competition. A friend thought it would be funny to put my name down without telling me; I didn’t find out I had been entered until the following week! All I was told was that it was a small competition but you could keep all the tools you were given, so I thought it would be worth a go. It was only when I arrived that I realised it was the regional qualifiers for the UK Apprentice of the Year!

CR: The morning of both the regional and the final were very relaxed. We were given detailed instructions and you could ask questions at any point if you were stuck, which was really nice. Once time was up, your work was marked and the winner was named at the end of the day, so you didn’t have long to wait! One of the main highlights was meeting Tony Cable, one of the judges. It was also amazing that you could keep all the tools and there are brilliant prizes. SPARKS: What have you been up to since you qualified? CR: I spent a year travelling and working in New Zealand. When I returned to the UK, I went back to the company where I was an apprentice and was promoted to Site Manager. In 2015, I started work for the family business and over the past 2 years I’ve slowly been growing my own electrical business, which has really taken off. SPARKS: How has winning Apprentice of the Year helped you? CR: Winning the competition has helped me hugely in the past, and still does. I was able to pick up electrical work in New Zealand easily and having Apprentice of the Year on my CV definitely helped.


SPARKS: What are the best and worst things about being an electrician? CR: I always like the feeling when you finish a job and you can tell the customer is over the moon with what you’ve done. One of the worst things is crawling around in tight attics full of insulation, especially when you feel something rustling underneath you! SPARKS: What’s your best story? CR: I was doing an electrical installation condition report (EICR) on a public building, which was rewired about 3 years prior to the test. I couldn’t get a Zs on the external ground lights. I opened the light switch to see the earth had been used as a switch wire! I was also called to look at a job where a previous contractor had run a twin and earth cable through a sink waste pipe to get power to a kitchen island! SPARKS: Do you have a brand that you swear by and why? CR: I try to stick to popular brands where possible, like Legrand, Crabtree, Domain Smith and Schneider Electric. SPARKS: Would you encourage others to do apprenticeships? CR: I always recommend apprenticeships to people, young and old. School wasn’t really for me if I’m honest, but college was completely different to school. Everyone in college wants to be there and learn. SPARKS: Is there a particular person who has really influenced you? CR: The first electrician I was put with when I started my apprenticeship. He was very particular with everything which I think put me in the right direction from the off. SPARKS: Have you got any advice for current students? CR: Stick at it and enjoy college because it will soon be over!

“ It was amazing that you could keep all the tools and there are brilliant prizes ”

HOT TIP STICK AT IT AND ENJOY COLLEGE BECAUSE IT WILL SOON BE OVER!


APPREN OF THE YEAR 2019 This year we’re celebrating the 10th birthday of the SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year competition. Here’s what you can expect from our best competition yet. Spanning across 7 UK regions with entrants from over 70 colleges, heats take place throughout January and February. The winner of each regional heat and the highest scoring runner-up will go on to the grand final, which will take place at the 3M Customer Innovation Centre in Bracknell, Berkshire. Level 2 and 3 students will compete in practical tasks, and be judged by industry experts. Last year’s finalists completed the most comprehensive test to date. Without giving too much away, this year’s competition is set to be even more exciting!

Once again, the SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year grand final will take place at the state-of-the-art 3M Customer Innovation Centre

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The stakes are high, with an incredible list of prizes worth up to £10,000 up for grabs, not to mention the prestige for both the winning student and their college. The prizes have been donated by well-known industry names including Schneider Electric, Electric Center, WAGO, 3M and HiKOKI. In addition, each student in the competition will receive a free Schneider toolbox. Last year’s winner, Matt Taylor, from Farnborough College of Technology,

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I APPRE N T IC E O F T H E Y E A R 2019

said: “I’m ecstatic – I just didn’t see myself winning. I entered to give myself a challenge and I’ve definitely achieved that. The other competitors were great and what I’ll take away from this is the knowledge that I can do something that I thought I couldn’t.” Taking part in the competition can do amazing things for an electrician’s career, and we now have 9 years’ worth of SPARKS winners out in the world. We had a proper catch up with 2011 winner Chris Randall on page 10-11 of this issue to find out what he’s been up to since his win. Pick up our Summer issue to meet the talented 2019 competition winner. We can’t wait to see all competing apprentices and their lecturers throughout the next couple of months. The SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year competition is an incredible showcase of young electrical talent, as well as a great opportunity for electrical students to connect with each other and industry experts.


“ Prizes worth up to £10,000 ”

#SPARKS AOY19

NTICE 2018 WINNER Matt Taylor

“ The SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year competition is an incredible showcase of young electrical talent ” “ I’m ecstatic – I just didn’t see myself winning ”


THROUGH

THE KEYH LE Ever fancied a nose around another college? Then look no further. This issue, we were let loose in the electrical department at York College – and we liked what we saw!

York College is the largest further education college in North Yorkshire, with its own Construction and Skills Centre. Amongst its many other curriculum areas, the college delivers courses in Plumbing, Electrical, Brickwork, Plastering, Carpentry & Joinery, Stonemasonry, Painting & Decorating as well as Construction & the Built Environment. Teaching the electricians of the future, York College has its own specialist electrical workshops. With individual booths equipped with the latest tools, equipment

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and accessories, these provide the perfect teaching environment for Electrical Installation courses at Levels 1, 2 and 3. Rob Holmes, Head of Construction at York College, is proud of his electrical team. “Our tutors have worked in the industry and are experts in their field”, he told us. “They work effectively with students and employers to ensure career progression in the industry. With up-to-date teaching facilities and a good work ethic, they motivate students to succeed at every stage of their studies.”

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I T HRO UG H T HE KE Y H OL E


Sparks flew when York College student Tom Burdett was named the regional winner of the SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year competition last year. Tom won the college’s in-house competition before he impressed the judges at the regional heat, completing the complex PVC conduit and twin and earth cable work an hour early! Tom progressed from Level 1 to Level 3, firstly as a full-time electrical student and then for 2 years as an apprentice, working for Advanced Electrical Services in York. York College tutor Jonny Brown competed in the SPARKS UK Electrical Apprentice of the Year 2012, when he worked for Nigel Lightfoot Electrical Contracting. After completing his training, he decided to progress into teaching and is now an Electrical Installation Tutor. Jonny now enjoys working with students to prepare them for competitions, allowing them to build up their confidence and skills.

“ York College… provides the perfect teaching environment ”

www.yorkcollege.ac.uk T H ROU G H T H E KE Y H OL E I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

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E H T S E O D T A H W

N O I T I D E H T 8 1 ? U O Y R O F ME AN

The new 18th Edition of the Wiring Regulations, also known as BS 7671, is an important change within the electrical industry. We asked some of the biggest names in the business what the changes will mean for students and apprentices.

I E Sand Retired Lecturer V A D E K I M Technical Advisor y to

rg SPARKS ctrical ene , e need ele w me t o a h th t a t c r hethe w “It is a fa s e v li y lectrical ur dail me. The e ti go about o re u is le in our nt step in at work or d an importa is ip of qualifie h s e c wide team n apprenti o ti a le n ro a l f ita one o at play a v becoming tricians th c ur lives le o e l in a n s io l system profess a ic tr c le e ntly. g the and efficie ly in ensurin e v ti c e ff e fely, operate sa the 18th uary 2019 n Ja On 1st 018, BS 7671:2 ical Edition of ctr nts for Ele Requireme ame into ns c Installatio u are whether yo o s effect, lified tice or qua an appren you , make sure electrician e ledge of th gain know .” s dard latest stan

PA U L W I T H E RINGTON

M ar ke ti n g M an ager U K an d Ir el an d, WA GO “It is most impo rtant that stud ents and apprentices fa miliarise them selves with sp important chan ecific ges within BS 7671:2018, in particular in section 411. Th is states the requirement fo r equipotentia l bonds and th fact that no bo e nd is required if there is an insulating sect ion at the poin t of entry. A fu important area rther is section 421 which discusse the introductio s n of Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDD s) to mitigate th e risk of fire. Apprentices sh ould be aware that these are currently a 2-p ole device, whi ch will mean larger consum er unit distribution bo ards.”


Y A SianNanAd G Yo u Tu b e r T HdoOn M E le c tr ic currently in

who are ung people dition in their stride yo f o t lo a “I think the 18th E ad the l just take when we h r e b m e m training wil I re ling to y hiccups. nd red cab y a k c la b m without an fro controvers ur change sed a huge u major colo a c the older is h T . blue ow a lot of h r e b m e brown and rem is change arks and I led with th g g u tr s s among sp rk e game erved spa been in th d a h y e e and time-s th took a whil because so long. It got le p before peo w o s ith used to it, dition the 18th E k it I don’t thin ate huge should cre s for trainee problems fresh as they are stry and to the indu dapt to the can just a ith ease.” changes w

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Pro ided olleg ve prov nable c 8th a e h o t e s w e t “At EAL n upda of the 1 alificatio plementation ts. For u q d n a im en age the for stud fication, to man the best way li u q ical a 18 are in Edition 3 Electrotechn 20 ly u J el rom the Lev s registered f version of the ior er n pr all learn he 18th Editio ers registered t n t g r e a in y e follow ation. L who have not he t qualific is d te to th comple it ition un d E h 18t nsfer to may tra version er the new lification, a u q of the nobody g in ensur d.” vantage d a is d is

C HRIS R AND ALL

2011 Compe ti ti o n W in n e r “Every time th ey update the regulations things are gett ing safer and safer. It’s a bit of a pain when they do update things but it’s definitely nece ssary. The elec trical industry has changed a lot over the last few years with LED lights beco ming the norm , USB sockets, arc protection devices, etc., so the regulations need to keep up .”

STE VE MART IN ch

Director of Te

nical, ECA “BS 7671 is no t retrospective, so the changes are ai med at new in stallations. However, the 1 8th Edition ha s highlighted some areas th at were perhap s lacking clarity in the pa st. ECA would re commend that installers continue to en sure their installations ar e kept up to da te by carrying out regular insp ections of elec trical systems, to highlight an y potential faili ngs and areas of improvement.”


DAV I D WAT T S

E E N DchEnicValIN S T E Vgin lat ion s, IET gu Re Te ee r,

Se nio r En been requirements for “Since 1882 there have These have changed electrical installations. rs but the fundamental significantly over the yea y the same. The 2 principles are essentiall Wiring Regulations are primary reasons for the and to protect persons to reduce the risk of fire ic shock. and livestock from electr and look at a new It is easy to stand back gulations and say edition of the Wiring Re regulations we need “here we go again, more at the world around to learn”. But if we look g the way that we us and how it is changin hout saying that the use electricity, it goes wit ical installations must way we carry out electr s to look out for in the change too. Some thing e of 18th Edition are the us , es vic Surge Protection De the recommendations for n use of Arc Fault Detectio ed nc ha Devices and the en requirements for the s support of wiring system to reduce the risk of premature collapse in the event of a fire.”

C o n su lt a n t a n d Yo u Tu b e r (S p a rk yN in ja ) “The 18th Editi on has introduc ed some minor changes with regards to the way we design and commissi on electrical in stallations, including quic ker disconnect ion times for a wider scope of installation type s. Devices now need consider ation for arc fa ult detection. All electrical in stallations now require fixings and wiring syst ems that will no t collapse in a fire situation and a differen t approach to determining th e requirements for SPD selection. Part 8 was mea nt to be introd uced covering energy efficienc y; instead it was held back with a minor append ix introduced fo r now. I’m looking forw ard to Amendm ent 1, as this is where signifi cant changes will be introduc that will impact ed the industry al l the way throug to the apprentic h eships, as we star t looking at energy efficienc y in more deta il and also take in other ar eas, such as power-over-Eth ernet!”


Hikoki - the new name for Hitachi Power Tools

www.hikoki-powertools.co.uk


“ The way products and components are used and installed changes rapidly as time goes by ”

NEW YEAR

NEW REGULATIONS: A GUIDE TO THE 18TH EDITION

Steve Martin, ECA Director of Technical, gives an overview of the key changes in the 18th Edition of the Wiring Regulations that came into full effect on 1st January. Also known as BS 7671, the new publication includes some subtle changes in wording, such as ‘in use without a fault’ being replaced with ‘under normal conditions’, in addition to some Regulations being introduced for the first time, rewritten or removed entirely. Existing installations that have been installed in accordance with earlier editions may not comply with this edition in every respect, but this does not necessarily mean that they are unsafe or require upgrading. > WHY THE CHANGES? The way products and components are used and installed changes rapidly as time goes by. This is largely influenced by the emergence of new technologies, shifts in end-user behaviour, as well as lessons learned from previous editions. What’s more, international IEC and European CENELEC standards,

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upon which BS 7671 is based, are published as standalone documents around the world and change frequently – BS 7671 needs to exist in harmony with these. > WHAT ARE THE MAIN CHANGES? Running at around 650 pages, the 18th Edition is not short on detail. Here is a brief summary of some of the key changes for installers and designers to be aware of: • The requirements on SPD (Surge Protection Device) consideration and usage have been revised • There are new requirements for AFDDs (Arc Fault Detection Devices) • Requirements for cabling support and fixings have changed • More emphasis has been placed on protective devices being selected properly and working together in a system

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I T HE 1 8 T H E D I T ION

• There have been some changes applying to work within special locations • There is a new appendix on energy efficiency

HOT TIP THE 18TH EDITION OF THE WIRING REGULATIONS IS ALSO KNOWN AS BS 7671

More information on other changes within the 18th Edition, training and other industry updates can be found at:

www.eca.co.uk/Project18


LIGHTNING STRIKES

ON NEW WIRING

REGULATIONS Electronic equipment is now more vital to our homes and businesses than ever. The changes in the 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations support this, focussing on Surge Protection Devices to keep us safe.

> WHAT’S THE DEAL WITH ELECTRICAL SURGES? An electrical surge is a short duration voltage peak occurring between 2 or more conductors. They can vary from a few to thousands of volts and can be caused by lightning, powerline damage or internal sources. Today, 90% of sockets run powersensitive equipment. In the home, this is at risk of damage or destruction if an electrical surge occurs. In commercial situations, disruption has a huge impact on essential services and business operations. In today’s world, protection against this risk is imperative. > WHAT DO THE NEW REGULATIONS INCLUDE?

formula, for which the installer must have knowledge of the final 1km of cabling. If the CRL is less than 1,000 or no risk assessment is performed, protection is required. > WHY GET SURGE PROTECTION? Consider all of the devices in your home which include some form of electronic controls. The combined cost of the equipment at risk here far outweighs the cost of devices that will provide protection. Schneider Electric’s Easy9 collection offers a comprehensive range of devices to provide complete residential circuit protection, including Surge Protection Devices (SPDs). Connected parallel to the incoming

breaker, the protection device has high impedance. When the overvoltage appears, the impedance of the device decreases, allowing the surge current to travel through the SPD, bypassing sensitive equipment. The incoming miniature circuit breaker will safely trip in case of incorrect wiring, protect the installation when the SPD is at the end of life, and enable isolation for maintenance.

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DID YOU KNOW? ELECTRICAL SURGES CAN VARY FROM A FEW VOLTS TO THOUSANDS OF VOLTS

The newest regulations no longer focus specifically on lightning. Although lightning is still a risk, the regulations now recognise that places near to sites with large switching loads, such as wind farms and industrial areas, are more often impacted. They also no longer use AQ criteria to determine if protection is necessary. Instead, protection is required in buildings providing hospital care, public services, cultural heritage, and apartment buildings. In all other circumstances, a risk assessment must review whether surge protection is required. This involves a Calculated Risk Level (CRL)

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To find out more about Easy9 surge protection and the 18th Edition, visit www.schneider-electric.co.uk/apprentice-electrician

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I T HE 1 8 T H E D I T ION


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KEY Electrotechnical qualifications for domestic, KEYFEATURES: FEATURES: Electrotechnical qualifications for domestic, commercial, and industrial installations commercial, and industrial installations Clear progression pathways - Level 1 to Level 4 Clear progression pathways - Level 1 to Level 4 INCLUDES: Inspection and Testing, Periodic Reporting, INCLUDES: Electrical Inspection Periodic Reporting, Designand andTesting, Verification, Electrical Design and Verification, 18th Edition Wiring Regulations

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17th Edition Wiring Regulations


ARE YOU ADHERING TO THE TH EDITION CHANGES

“ This is one New Year’s resolution students should be incorporating into their everyday practice ”

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1st January marked the implementation of the new IET Wiring Regulations, better known as the 18th Edition. This is one New Year’s resolution students should be learning and incorporating into their everyday practice to avoid any repercussions down the line. In the 18th Edition, the major areas of change concern Surge Protection Devices (SPDs), pinpointing assessment as a principal area. The new regulatory regime aims to further enhance safety standards across the industry. > SURGE PROTECTION DEVICES Surge Protection Devices are designed to prevent electric shock and stop excess voltage damaging the installation’s wiring infrastructure. Should an overvoltage event occur, the SPD diverts the resulting excess current flow to earth. To fully comply with the new regulations, installers must carry out a localised risk assessment of the electrical supply at single dwelling properties to determine if an SPD is needed. This risk assessment is based upon the property’s geographical location, the amount of lightning flashes per year and how the incoming electrical supply enters the building.

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SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I T HE 1 8 T H E D I T ION

The regulations make it a requirement that surge protection is used in domestic installations but for any student new to the industry, it will be good practice to presume responsibility when it comes to safety.

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DID YOU KNOW? IN THE 18TH EDITION, THE MAJOR AREAS OF CHANGE CONCERN SURGE PROTECTION DEVICES

For students looking for peace of mind or clarification on applying the new regulations, please visit www. beama.org.uk and download the surge protection guide. Alternatively, please visit:

www.bgelectrical.uk.


THE TOOLS TO WORK SAFER What’s in your tool box not only helps you do your job, it could also save your life one day. Malcolm Duncan of Klein Tools talks about how choosing the right kit is Safety 101.

Buying your first tools of the trade can be a minefield. A quick browse online or through the wholesaler’s catalogue will show you page after page of screwdrivers, snips and pliers and on the face of it, they all look pretty much the same. However, not all tools are created equal, and there are a number of safety features you can look for which make some tools stand out from the crowd. They might cost a bit more, but they could be a lifesaver. > INSULATION = INSTANT PROTECTION As a rule, electricians aren’t advised to work on or near live circuits, but unfortunately being a spark inevitably comes with the risk of coming into contact with electricity. For this reason, we advise apprentices to invest in a selection of hand tools which have a VDE rating. VDE rated hand tools, such as our new 160mm diagonal cutters, have an insulated handle which will provide protection for up to 1000V. So if you accidentally cut a live wire, it’s not game over. > CRACKED INSULATION = NO PROTECTION If you decide to buy a tool with an insulated handle, it’s important to remember that it only does the job if it’s kept in good nick. Any cracks in the insulation will mean it no longer provides you with the protection you need. We advise regularly giving insulated tools a visual check to ensure

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SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I SAF E T Y

they are in good condition. Most VDE rated tools from Klein Tools have a unique 3-layer insulation with a white underlayer at the bottom – so if you can see white, it’s time to change your tool. > ON GUARD Even with insulated handles, there is still a danger of coming into contact with electricity should your hands accidentally touch the conductive part of the tool (i.e. the metal bit). To stop your hand slipping onto the business end during use, some tools feature small thumb guards. These not only make the tools safer, but also more comfortable to use. > START YOUR CAREER WITH GOOD HABITS The best way to prevent accidents at work is to get into good safety habits from the start. Learn how to use your tools properly from day 1 – this means using the right tools for each job, making the tool do all the hard work so you remain in control and never touching the tool head to get more purchase or force. > LOCK, TEST, LIVE Ensuring you have taken every precaution so that you aren’t working on or near live circuits is also essential for safer working in the real world. Using a lockout kit and a voltage tester to prove dead before starting work should be like putting on your seatbelt – something you do every time, because you just don’t know what might happen next.


“ There are a number of safety features you can look for which make some tools stand out from the rest ”

Unfortunately, many electricians don’t follow basic safety procedures despite learning them as apprentices. We did a survey of more than 800 members of the Electricians Community forum on Facebook, and a quarter of them said they rarely or never use a lockout kit to isolate the electrical supply they are working on. Plus, 1 in 5 don’t even carry one in their van or tool bag. Of the installers surveyed, 10% didn’t use a voltage tester to prove dead either.

SAFETY TIP INSULATED TOOLS ARE KEY TO PROTECTING YOURSELF WHEN WORKING NEAR LIVE CIRCUITS

Working safer starts in the classroom and in what you put in your tool bag – so make good choices now for a long and prosperous career in the electrical industry.

www.kleintools.eu

SA F E T Y I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

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QUIZZES TO GIVE A KAHOOT! ABOUT Hopefully by now you’ve spotted the Kahoot! quizzes on our website – if not, what are you waiting for? There’s tons of quizzes tailored to the syllabus just waiting to be played!

Kahoot! is a game -based platform that takes you away from your textbook and makes learning interactive and quite literally hands -on. It enables you to compete with your classmates, your lecturers and anyone else who fancies the chance to test their knowledge. You can join in using your mobile phone, tablet or computer.

With the SPARKS Kahoot! quizzes - which can be found within the ‘Learning Resources’ page of our website speed is key as you race to beat your classmates and get the most answers correct.

C HALLENGE Take on the ‘Electrical Installation Methods, Procedures and Requirements’ Level 2 quiz and show us your score on social media. The highest score sent in by the end of April 2019 will win a mystery prize bundle!

sparks-magazine.co.uk/learning-resources

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SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I K AHO OT !


DAVE CARTER

Production Planner (also a keen fisherman)

A WINDOW INTO CABLE MANAGEMENT Dave, Marshall-Tufflex’s resident fisherman, is proud of our environmental commitment. Everyone knows that our PVC-U cable management products are high quality and competitively priced. But we’d bet you didn’t know that they’re produced using 80% recycled content, with material from windows otherwise destined for landfill. We are proud to say that our PVC-U products are Reassuringly Recycled.

JOIN US IN OUR VISION AND FIND OUT MORE AT MARSHALL-TUFFLEX.COM

MTUF_TDA32685_Sustainable-Plastic_Press-Ad_210x146_Sparks Dave 001 AW.indd 1

10/12/2018 18:22


CONNECTED ELEMENTS

“ App-controlled heating is nothing new, but modern appliances have greater functionality than ever before ”

Christian Hadley, head of product marketing at Glen Dimplex Heating & Ventilation, explores the growing trend for connected devices in electric heating.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is creating huge opportunities to drive innovation and efficiency in the home. A quick google shows some of the products available, with gadgets ranging from the dubious to the downright ridiculous. The real value of IoT, however, lies in using connected devices to reduce energy use in the home, thus supporting carbon reduction whilst cutting costs. Tomorrow’s electrical installers can make the most of business opportunities as the smart revolution continues to grow.

> INTELLIGENT APPLIANCES Modern app-controlled appliances have greater functionality than ever before. By linking individual appliances to a central hub, simple controls can be used to maximise comfort and efficiency in the home. Installers can also tap into remote diagnostic opportunities, saving time and costs on maintenance. All this before you even consider the benefits of intelligent features such as open window detection and anticipatory control. The revolutionary Dimplex Quantum off-peak electric heater and Dimplex Q-Rad electric radiator are just 2 examples of how manufacturers are integrating intelligent, advanced controls. > REGULATORY CHANGE DRIVING INNOVATION In the electric heating market, there is another driver which has been forcing manufacturers to innovate. Lot 20 of the EU’s Energy Efficiency Directive sets a minimum energy efficiency

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DEFINITIONS INTERNET OF THINGS: THE INTERCONNECTION OF EVERYDAY OBJECTS THROUGH THE INTERNET

standard for all ‘local’ room or space heating products. Products including the Dimplex PLXE and XLE range have been redesigned with intelligent features from a series of possible inclusions, all of which ‘score’ differently according to the ‘correction factor’ specified within the regulations, helping manufacturers to meet the standards. The greatest gains to installers and customers are from products which offer IoT compatibility, ensuring they can improve efficiency now and in the future through intelligent, adaptive controls and enhanced connectivity.


Prove your skills with the ECS card

 Get your Apprentice ECS card while you’re training.

When you've completed your apprenticeship you can apply for your ECS gold card straight away - and also get ECS Registered Electrician status if you have the 18th Edition Wiring Regulations.*

Download the MyECS app to show your virtual card from your mobile!

*If you hold the 17th Edition Wiring Regulations qualification you can gain an ECS gold card when you complete your apprenticeship. You can then upgrade to Registered Electrician status once you have the 18th Edition. To find out more visit www.ecscard.org.uk/apprentice


CONSUMER UNIT

METER TAILS Paul Chaffers, Technical Events Manager at the National Association of Professional Inspectors and Testers (NAPIT), clears up the confusion around consumer unit meter tails.

Historically, there has been confusion within the industry regarding who takes responsibility for the consumer unit meter tails. Some installers regard them as the property of the meter supplier, while others do not. The 18th Edition of the IET Wiring Regulations has introduced an important note to Regulation 522.8.5 to address this issue, requiring that every cable or conductor be supported so that it is not exposed to undue mechanical strain. This eliminates appreciable mechanical strain on the terminations of the conductors, with account being taken of the mechanical strain imposed by the supported weight of the cable or conductor itself. The note states that consumer unit meter tails are included in the requirements of this regulation. Therefore, it is important that meter tails are protected. This will avoid mechanical damage and disturbance at the incoming terminals in the consumer unit, which may result in loosening of the termination. This can be achieved by supporting the tails or installing them in trunking. Suitable cable entry glands must also be used.

Particular care needs to be taken when terminating the tails into the main switch. Remember, these conductors are carrying the full load of the installation. The problem is that most switch disconnectors have cage terminals which are square-shaped, so when the tail is terminated it is literally a round peg in a square hole. It has been common practice to twist the copper conductors when terminating into round tunnel terminals, but this is not considered best practice for cage terminals. It is essential to have good surface contact with the terminal, producing an effective and reliable termination.

HOT TIP GOOD SURFACE CONTACT WITH THE TERMINAL PRODUCES AN EFFECTIVE AND RELIABLE TERMINATION

Use the steps below to help you gain an effective and reliable connection: > TRIM THE SHEATH SLIGHTLY LONGER THAN REQUIRED > GENTLY MOULD THE COPPER INTO A FLAT PROFILE > TRIM STRANDS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH > TERMINATE TO THE CORRECT TORQUE SETTING For metal consumer units it is also important that the line conductor, neutral conductor and associated protective conductor enter through the same hole to prevent the build-up of eddy currents.

“ Historically, there has been confusion within the industry regarding who takes responsibility for the consumer unit meter tails � 32

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I C O N S UM E R UN I T S


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TRUE OR FALSE:

In urban areas, powerlines are usually buried underground?

Can you answer this question…? If so, there’s a Kahoot! for you!

Go to www.sparks-magazine. co.uk/learning-resources to find out more


PROVE YOUR SKILLS WITH THE ECS CARD Whatever stage you’ve reached in your apprenticeship, you’re probably already thinking about your future, when your dedication to work and training are rewarded with a fulfilling job and growing bank account!

Proving what skills and qualifications you’ve achieved is essential during your apprenticeship and your working life - whether it’s to allow you access to construction sites, or to progress throughout your career.

with the JIB or you can apply for one at any stage of your apprenticeship. Once you’ve got your card, download the MyECS app to show your virtual ECS card with pride!

The ECS Card provides this proof for you. Holding an ECS Card shows that your skills and qualifications have been checked and verified by the Electrotechnical Certification Scheme. It’s the only card scheme for electrotechnical operatives in the UK that’s partnered with CSCS, and it’s recognised and endorsed by the electrical industry. > ECS APPRENTICE CARD You may well already have received your first ECS Apprentice Card if your training provider registers you with the JIB. If not, they can still register you

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SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I SAF E T Y

> ECS GOLD CARD Once you complete your training, you can receive your ultimate ECS gold card - this becomes your employment ‘passport’ and shows that you are trained to the Level 3 industry standard. If you have, or when you gain, the 18th Edition Wiring Regulations qualification, you can apply for ECS Registered Electrician status. Your college or training provider will be able to give you more information, so ask them about the JIB and ECS cards. You can also visit the ECS website for more information. Good luck with your apprenticeship! www.ecscard.org.uk


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A BREATH OF

FRESH

With a growing awareness of the dangers of poor indoor air quality, effective ventilation has become a key component of the sustainability agenda.

Here, Lee Stones, senior product marketing manager at Glen Dimplex Heating & Ventilation, which includes the Xpelair brand, looks at what steps can be taken to improve the quality of air we breathe inside buildings. Up to 90% of our time is spent indoors. Despite years of debate around the detrimental impact of poor pollution outdoors, taking measures to identify and improve the quality of the air we breathe inside our homes and other buildings is a relatively new (yet rapidly growing) notion. In fact, the levels of some air pollutants are often far higher inside than they are outside.

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DID YOU KNOW? THE BIGGEST CAUSE OF POOR INDOOR AIR QUALITY ARE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS)

The biggest cause of poor indoor air quality are Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), which can be emitted from a whole host of everyday items such as furniture, carpets, paints, cleaning products and even building fabrics and materials. VOCs can be detrimental to a person’s health, especially when exposed to them for long periods of time. They can also aggravate pre-existing health conditions and cause fatigue, dizziness and headaches. The effects become worse as increasingly stringent energy efficiency targets have driven the development of better insulated buildings, leading to a decrease in natural ventilation and a tighter building envelope in new build properties.

“ Effective ventilation has become a key component of the sustainability agenda ” 36

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I V E N T IL AT IO N

> DOMESTIC SOLUTIONS With dramatic changes to building standards and efficiency targets in recent years, new homes are warmer and more energy efficient than ever before, but they are unable to breathe naturally. Manufacturers have responded with continued development of products. One increasingly popular option is combining Mechanical Ventilation with Heat Recovery (MVHR). Whatever system you are working with, one constant of a modern ventilation system is the need to balance energy efficiency with management of indoor air quality. With modern ventilation systems, evolving Building Regulations and a greater focus on management of indoor air quality, this is now more accessible than ever.


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STEPS TO SILENCE

While bathroom ventilation is essential in the fight against condensation and mould, just improving indoor air quality (IAQ) is not enough for the modern consumer. The average extractor fan operates at 35 decibels, which is loud in a confined space. So how can you help a household achieve a tranquil bathroom?

> SELECT A SILENT FAN

> SILENT SCHEDULING

The acoustics of bathroom extractor fans have improved recently, so electricians can now easily select the right fan for the job. For example, Vent-Axia’s Lo-Carbon Svara runs at just 17dBA, quieter than a whisper.

The latest bathroom fans, such as the Svara, offer app control with silent scheduling and automatic cycles, offering flexible ventilation to suit a household’s lifestyle.

> THIRD PARTY ACCREDITATION The Quiet Mark is awarded by the Noise Abatement Society and is given worldwide to manufacturers of the quietest products. Quieter products, such as the Svara, can easily be selected via the online Quiet Mark Directory at www.quietmark.com. > SELECT THE RIGHT SIZE FAN Ensure the fan fits the needs of a bathroom, do not oversize. The more powerful a fan, potentially the noisier it will be. Avoid long duct runs that may result in excessive levels of air resistance, which can be noisy. > MOTORS Select fans with high efficiency motors, since the ball bearing technology used offers smoother and quieter performance. They will also last longer, meaning the fan won’t get noisier over time.

> AVOIDING NUISANCE RUNNING Quiet, disturbance-free running is the holy grail of ventilation. Good options are: light sensors that recognise room occupancy through light movement and shadows; a delay-on feature to avoid the fan being triggered in the night during quick bathroom visits; and fans that don’t trigger at ambient humidity changes in the night.

“ Quiet, disturbance free running is the holy grail of ventilation ”

> SITING THE FAN The ideal site is the shortest route to outside, preferably directly through an outside masonry wall. Where possible avoid mounting fans on plasterboard ceilings or stud partition walls, since vibrations may amplify noise.

DEFINITIONS IAQ: INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Consumers are increasingly switched on to the benefits of health and wellbeing with IAQ and silence central to household comfort. Therefore, now is a great time for electricians to make customers aware of the latest generation of silent extractor fans that offer the level of comfort and control demanded in the home. Find out more at:

www.vent-axia.com. 38

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ON TOUR Throughout last term, SPARKS went to visit colleges all over the UK, showing off our Kahoot! Quizzes and chatting to you guys about the mag and the industry. Here, we show off some pictures from our visits.

l College

iona Southern Reg

Stockton Rive

rside College

LOVE SPARKS MAGAZINE

ege

Havering Coll

TRUE O FALSE?R

Colche

ster Ins

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titute


THAT'S NOT FOOD

East Berkshire College

“ Thank you so much for coming down today. I would love it if we could arrange some more meetings in the future! ” – Celia McGilloway, Electrical Team Leader at South Gloucestershire and Stroud

College

le Cardiff and Va

BIG SMILES

ollege

Suffolk New C

Southern Reg

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Harrogate Co

SPA RKS ON TOU R I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

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APP-RENTICE Rag and bone, ringer, handset, mobile, bleeper, cell…whatever you call your phone, it’s unlikely that you’re ever without it. So why not use it to go further as an electrician? We take a look at some of the latest apps that are available to make all of that sparky malarkey just a little bit more straightforward…

ELECTRIC CENTER

RATED PEOPLE

ELECTRIC CENTER LOCATOR APP

RATED PEOPLE'S TRADES APP

Need help finding your nearest Electric Center branch in the UK? Look no further than the Electric Center Locator App. The app allows you to search by town, city or postcode for your nearest Electric Center, and it will also display a list of the nearest Electric Center locations. Select the branch that you want and the full contact details, including opening times and the manager’s name, are available. You can even directly link to Google Maps to get directions from your current location.

Rated People’s Trades App can help you to find homeowners in your area who need your skills and get all the leads you need with a Rated People membership. They do the marketing to bring in the customers, so you can do what you trained to do – get on the tools and get stuck in with all manner of electrical jobs. Features include messaging to communicate with your customers, a lead tracker to organise your work, and free invoicing software that you’d usually pay for elsewhere.

Free to download on iOS and Android.

Free to download on iOS and Android.

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SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I APP -RE N T IC E


3 DAY FULL COURSE £390 PER CANDIDATE

Make sure you meet the standard. 18th Edition Regulations course If you are an Electrician or any allied trade that requires you to possess the 2382-18 to perform your role, then the Oldham College 3 day course is for you. You will gain the current BS7671-2018 IET Requirements for Electrical Installations and will also enhance your CV if you intend to apply for employment in the electrical industry. Our next course is running 19th - 21st February 2019. Call 0161 785 4024 or email john.wrigley@oldham.ac.uk to book! oldham.ac.uk

Oldham College, Rochdale Rd, Oldham OL9 6AA

INCLUDES EXAM FEE AND CERTIFICATE Free loan of a copy of BS7671


QUESTIONS Thomas Nagy is an electrician and YouTuber, with over 50,000 subscribers and 3.5 million views of his many tutorials, reviews and tips. We caught up with him to find out what he’s loving right now. of all time? Favourite film gly Bad and The U The Good, The iece! – it’s a masterp

Favourite holiday desti nation? Anywhere cold. I went to Norway last year, that wa s fab!

t to follow? Best Instagram accoun user, so I’m not a huge Instagram ent. I’m unable to pass comm Most famous pers on you've met? I can’t say! I was wo rking at his home all day and he had a day off from actin g. I didn’t realise wh o it was until I got home.

Favourite thing to install? When you can push out numerous jobs smoothly, that’s very satisfying. It’s more about the process than the job itself. ? u've ever done Hardest job yo e ar bs mentally The toughest jo ur yo re you wipe in houses whe ay out. shoes on the w n? ever been give Best tip you've gr k is eat, said, ‘your wor When a client bbish.’ My unication is ru but your comm progress. n is a work in communicatio

Last song you listened to? Queen – I’m Going Sligh tly Mad. ay dish? Go-to takeaw ef, fried rice be Chinese crispy icken balls. and a side of ch Favourite emoj i? That half-head -tilted-sticky-o uttongue emoji!

Best way to re lax? I work for mys elf, what is this you talk about?! When I do get free tim e, I spend it rebuild ing my Ducati 999.

? Last series you watched es im Gr k Ric . ad De The Walking ss. bo e lut so is an ab Favourite tool in your toolbox? My side cutters. Without those, everything stops - literally! Tea or coffee? my channel?! Don’t you watch or car? Travel by train n. In London, trai , se car. Everywhere el

Most common job? Maintenance – replacing light fittings, lamps, electronic locks etc. you? What inspires n. Too unger generatio Inspiring the yo ry isn’t st du in that the n oa m le op pe it. many nothing about changing but do

gs? mornin ly r a e r hts o time. Late nig ornings every m 1! Early ed by 1 I’m in b

Dogs or cats? I always liked Doberman s, but where I live that isn’t really a po ssibility. ur phone? Best app on yo . e it for everyone WhatsApp. I us


HEATER CIRCUITS The following questions require you to study the relevant sections of Unit 203 of C&G 2365-02 and Unit 302 of C&G 2365-03 or EAL equivalent SIMPLE 3–HEAT SWITCHING: Where different heat settings may be required, for example in a convector heater or electric hot-plate, one method is to switch heating elements inside the device. If the convector heater or hot-plate is fitted with 2 sets of heating elements it will be possible to switch them in series, parallel or as a single element using a basic 3-heat switch. 3–HEAT SWITCH: A 3-heat switch will have an OFF position, a LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH heat setting. Each position is selected by turning the knob to the required position.

MEDIUM LOW

HIGH

The internal switching mechanism will connect line and neutral to specific terminals, labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4 in the circuit diagram. More than 1 switch connection can be made in any position, e.g. contact 1 may connect to contact 4 and at the same time contact 3 may connect with contact 2, and so on.

OFF TASK 1:

Complete the circuit diagram showing how the 3–heat switch should be connected to obtain Low, Medium and High heat settings. ELEMENT 1

ELEMENT 2

1

2

3 L

SUPPLY

4 N

TASK 2: Complete the following connection information table for each setting.

SETTING

SWITCH TERMINAL CONNECTIONS

HEATING ELEMENT CONNECTION ARRANGEMENT (SERIES, PARALLEL, SINGLE RESISTANCE)

Low

Series (low heat)

Medium

Single (medium heat)

High

Parallel (high heat)

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E X E RC I SE I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

45


CIRCUIT PROTECTION DEVICES The following questions require you to study the relevant sections of Unit 203 of C&G 2365-02 and Units 302, 303 and 304 of C&G 2365-03 or EAL equivalent To answer the following questions you will need the IET Requirements for Electrical Installations: BS 7671 Q1. State the current required to operate a 20A rated BS88-3 fuse in 0.1 seconds. Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q2.

A circuit is protected by a 45A rated BS3036 fuse and is designed to disconnect in 5 seconds, what fault current will be required to achieve this disconnection time?

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q3.

Instantaneous operation of a 100A rated Type B, RCBO to BS EN 61009-1 is achieved when the fault current reaches what value?

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q4. Identify: (a) The name of the device shown below, and (b) the type of fuses used in the device.

Answers: a) ............................................................

b) ............................................................

............................................................

Q5.

The Time / Current characteristic curves for circuit-breakers to BS EN 60898 and RCBOs to BS EN 61009-1 have a distinctive shape, what do the 2 parts of the curve represent?

10A

Answer : .............................................................................. ..............................................................................

TIME

.............................................................................. .............................................................................. .............................................................................. PROSPECTIVE CURRENT

..............................................................................

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46

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I E XE RC IS E


Q6.

State the recommendation regarding switching and isolation of circuits that supply equipment operating at voltages exceeding low voltage.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q7.

A 15kW 3-phase 400V induction motor is used to drive the impeller of a commercial ventilation system. The motor is to be connected in delta and has a power factor of 0.8.

a) Calculate the current rating of the motor. Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ b) State the Type and current rating of a suitable RCBO to BS EN 61009-1 for this motor. Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q8.

A distribution circuit is designed to carry a maximum load current of 60A.

a) State the disconnection time applicable to this circuit if the supply system is TN-S. Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ b) State the rating of a suitable Type B circuit-breaker for this circuit. Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ c) What is the operating current for the chosen circuit-breaker? Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

d) Identify the maximum earth-fault loop impedance permitted for this circuit.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

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E X E RC I SE I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

47


ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION AND CIRCUIT PROTECTION DEVICES The following questions require you to study the relevant sections of Unit 203 of C&G 2365-02 and Units 302, 303 and 304 of C&G 2365-03 or EAL equivalent Q1. Principally in domestic premises, the name of the unit providing control and distribution of electrical energy is called: Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q2.

Identify 1 key feature of a domestic consumer control unit.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q3.

Explain the meaning of the term ‘discrimination’ when applied to an electrical circuit.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q4.

State the consequences and actions to be taken regarding the following circuit arrangement: 10A BS 88 - 2 10A BS EN 60898 TYPE B 54A FAULT

16 BS 88 - 2 Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q5.

a) Define the term ‘over-current’ when associated with electrical circuits.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

b) State how an over-current can occur in an electrical circuit or installation.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q6.

Determine the fault current that will flow if a fault occurs between live conductors of a 230V single-phase supply. The impedance at the point of fault is 0.35Ω

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q7.

The code letters (Icn) found on a circuit-breaker refers to what information regarding the protective device?

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

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48

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I E XE RC IS E


Q8.

A 3-phase resistive load is rated at 50kW, 400V.

a) Determine the design current of the circuit.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

b) State the type and rating of a suitable circuit-breaker to provide protection.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

Q9.

A residual current circuit-breaker operates on which specific electrical principle?

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

Q10. Identify 1 example of a circuit where a protective device should not be used.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

Q11. State the maximum current rating currently available for a BS88-3 fuse.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

Q12. A circuit protected by a BS3036 fuse must disconnect in 5 seconds. If the fuse rating is 20A, what fault current will be required to achieve the disconnection time?

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

Q13. A 100A BS88-2 fuse operates at a fault current of 200A, how long does it take for the fuse to operate under these conditions?

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

Q14. How long will it take to operate a 32A rated Type B circuit-breaker to BS EN 60898 if the circuit is subjected to an overload current of 100A?

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

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E X E RC I SE I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

49


CIRCUIT PROTECTION The following questions require you to study the relevant sections of Unit 203 of C&G 2365-02 and Units 302, 303, 304 an 305 of C&G 2365-03 or EAL equivalent

semi-enclosed fuse operates on which Q1 A one of the following principles?

Ans.

generally can protect Q5 Circuit-breakers against which fault conditions?

a

Magnetic effect of an electric current

a

Short-circuit only

b

Inductive effect of an electric current

b

Overload only

c

Expansion of a fine metal element

c

Earth faults of low impedance

d

Heating effect of an electric current

d

Overload, short-circuit and earth faults of low impedance

disadvantage of a plug-top cartridge Q2 One fuse is that‌ a

The fuse element cannot oxidise

b

It can be easily replaced

c

Information about the fuse can be printed on it

d

An incorrectly rated fuse could be fitted

Which one of the following circuit Q3 protective devices provides the highest short-circuit breaking capacity? a

BS88-2 HRC / HBC fuse

b

BS88-3 cartridge fuse

c

BS1362 cartridge fuse

d

BS3036 semi-enclosed fuse

B, C and D all refer to which of the Q4 Type following types of protective device? a

Semi-enclosed fuses

b

High rupturing capacity fuses

c d

Ans.

A residual current circuit-breaker (RCD) Q6 will protect a circuit against which one of Ans. the following conditions? a

Earth faults

b

Overload faults

c

Short-circuit faults

d

Sustained overcurrent

The most appropriate type of circuit Q7 protection device to be used on a circuit supplying an inductive load is a‌? Ans.

Ans.

a

BS3036 semi-enclosed fuse

b

Type D circuit-breaker

c

Type B circuit-breaker

d

BS88-3 cartridge fuse

Q8 The part of the circuit-breaker indicated by arrow A will operate on which one of the following electrical principles? A

a

Thermal effect of electric current

b

Magnetic effect of electric current

Circuit-breakers

c

Temperature sensing

Cartridge fuses

d

Mechanical leverage

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50

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I E XE RC IS E

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.


Q9 An RCBO provides? a

Short-circuit protection

b

Overload protection

c

Earth leakage protection

d

All of the above forms of protection

kA rating of a protective device Q10 The indicates? a

Short-circuit rating of the device

b

Overload setting of the device

c

Maximum circuit design current

d

Minimum current required to operate the device

It is recommended that the arrangement Q11 of protective devices in a simple domestic consumer control unit be…? a

Randomly fitted in the CCU

b

Lighting nearest the main switch

c

Circuits supplying cooker outlet furthest from main switch

d

Largest current rated circuit nearest the main switch

Ans.

Ans.

Q13 The device shown below is generally known as a…?

a

Semi-enclosed fuse

b

Residual current device

c

Cartridge fuse

d

High rupturing capacity fuse

current rating of a protective device Q14 The indicates…? Ans.

Q12 A protective device must be connected…? Ans.

a

The operating current of the device

b

The load current of the device

c

The current rating of the load protected

d

The sustained current the device can carry

Ans.

Ans.

A circuit-breaker protecting an inductive Q15 load sometimes trips when the load is Ans. switched ON, this is NOT due to…

a

In parallel with the load to be protected

a

The circuit-breaker being incorrectly rated

b

In series with the load to be protected

b

The voltage rating of the circuit

c

In the neutral conductor of the load

c

The in-rush current of the load

d

In the line and neutral of the load

d

The incorrect type of circuit breaker being fitted

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E X E RC I SE I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

51


ELECTRIC HEATING The following questions require you to study the relevant sections of Units 202 and 203 of C&G 2365-02 and Unit 302 of C&G 2365-03 or EAL equivalent

of the following does NOT require Q1 Which the heating effect of an electric current…? Ans.

temperature control of a cold storage Ans. Q5 The room is achieved using a…?

a

A storage heater

a

On / off switch

b

An electric oven

b

Compressor

c

A transformer

c

Bulb-type, capillary tube thermostat

d

A filament lamp

d

Room thermostat

definition of energy is which one of Q2 The the following? a

The rate of doing work

b

The ability to do work

c

The force resulting from doing work

d

The effect on a substance when power is applied

Ans.

An industrial oven is rated at 24kW 400V delta connected. What is the Q3 3-phase phase current when the oven is operating Ans. at full power? a

104A

b

60A

c

35A

d

24A

The boiling ring on a domestic electric Q4 cooker hob is usually controlled by which Ans. one of the following devices?

The electrical energy consumed by Q6 a 1kW, 230V rated electric heating element in 1 hour is…? a

60J

b

3.6kJ

c

3.6kW

d

3.6MJ

An electrically operated power shower Q7 is rated as 9kW 230V single-phase, the current demand of the shower is…? a

60A

b

45A

c

39.1A

d

25.5A

a

Thermostat

a

Room, air thermostat

b

Humidistat

b

Rod type thermostat

c

Capillary tube type thermostat

c

Capillary tube type thermostat

d

Simmerstat

d

Simmerstat

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I E XE RC IS E

Ans.

A water tank is to be electrically heated an immersion heater. Which type Q8 using of thermostat is recommended to control Ans. the temperature of the water?

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52

Ans.


DISTRIBUTION AND SUPPLY SYSTEMS The following questions require you to study the relevant sections of Unit 202 of C&G 2365-02 and Unit 302 of C&G 2365-03 or EAL equivalent Q1. a) Complete the missing words and symbols on the following supply diagram. SUB-STATION TRANSFORMER U¹ or

phase

V Neutral V U² or

phase

U³ or

phase

V

b) State the alternative symbols that may be used to represent three-phase supply lines: Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q2.

Complete the missing word or words in the following statements.

a) The diagram in question 1 shows the b) The voltage measured between a and is identified by the symbol or c) The voltage measured between any pair of by the symbol or Q3.

of a 3-phase supply transformer. and the neutral conductor is called the

is called the

and is identified

a) State the formula used to convert line voltage to a phase voltage in a 3-phase system.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ b) The voltage measured between 2 lines of a 3-phase supply system is 400V, what is the voltage measured between one line and neutral of the same supply? Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ c) The phase voltage of a 3 - phase system is 240V, what is the line voltage of the same system? Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................

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E X E RC I SE I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

53


Q4.

State 1 advantage of the supply systems identified in question 1.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ Q5.

The electrical supply and distribution in large industrial or commercial premises will need to supply both single and 3-phase equipment; by using a simple labelled block diagram, show the sequence of control, distribution and protection for such an installation.

Answer:

Q6.

a) State the type of main switch and protective device located at the incoming 3-phase and neutral supply position of commercial premises.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

b) State the means of isolating the sub-main, or distribution circuit of a 3-phase and neutral supply.

Answer: ................................................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................................................... Q7.

a) State the electrical principle on which a residual current circuit-breaker operates.

Answer: ...............................................................................................................................................................................

b) Identify the reason for specifying a residual current circuit-breaker.

Answer: ............................................................................................................................................................................... Q8.

Identify the following 2 symbols in relation to electrical isolation and switching: a)

Answers: a) ..................................................

b)

b) ...................................................

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54

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I E XE RC IS E


ELECTRIC HEATING & VENTILATION The following questions require you to study the relevant sections of Units 202 and 203 of C&G 2365-02 and Units 302 and 305 of C&G 2365-03 or EAL equivalent For each question decide if the statement is true or false. Q1. Electrical energy is the rate of doing work. True

Why...

False Q2.

The line current taken by a star connected 3-phase 400V, 30kW, commercial bakery heating load is 43.3A.

True

Why...

False Q3.

The air conditioning in a commercial office building consists of resistive and inductive circuit components.

True

Why...

False Q4.

A rod-type thermostat is used to measure air temperature in a room.

True

Why...

False Q5.

A thermostat is connected in series with the component it is designed to control.

True

Why...

False Q6. The resistance of a conductor decreases with increasing length and increases with decreasing cross-sectional-area. True

Why...

False

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E X E RC I SE I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

55


Q7.

A circuit-breaker incorporates both thermal and magnetic components to protect against overload and short-circuit conditions.

True

Why...

False Q8.

The term ‘over-current’ only refers to short-circuit conditions.

True

Why...

False

Q9.

Fuses or circuit-breakers will be required in circuits that incorporate an RCD for earth leakage.

True

Why...

False

Q10. An electrode water heater or electrode boiler can be connected to either an a.c. or d.c. power supply. True

Why...

False

Q11. A plug and switched socket-outlet to BS 1363-1 provides isolation, emergency switching and functional switching. True

Why...

False

Q12. A single-pole lighting switch is classed as a ‘functional switching device’. True

Why...

False

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56

SPARKS I WI NTE R 2 0 1 9 I E XE RC IS E


WORDSEARCH The following words are from Part 5, Chapter 53, Protection, Isolation, Switching, Control and Monitoring of the IET BS 7671 Requirements for Electrical Installations

Try to locate the names listed below. Words may be left to right or top to bottom. A

B

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Contactor Isolator Fault Disconnection Functional Duty

Switch Fuse Overvoltage Protection Live On

Multipole switch Link Time Backup Plug Off

Residual Device Lock Emergency Firefighter Line

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E X E RC I SE I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

57


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While many electricians and electrical engineers are fully qualified and do a great job, there are still some people out there who do shocking work (sometimes literally!) and the results can be disastrous. Here’s some examples of what not to do! We teamed up with Crap Electrical UK to showcase some of the biggest electrical tragedies around.

de...

this si Looks okay from

s right of way The conduit ha

Oh wait...

Don’t put

your finger

Who ne ed

s joint b

in here

oxes an yway...

ving when you Who needs slee straw have a drinking

Crap Electrical UK is a Facebook group with around 2,000 members. It is run by Charles Billington, Lee Quince, Simon Allen, Lewis Boddington, Dave Spencer, Jake Simmons and Samuel Miles. If you’ve come across a nightmare installation, send your pictures to us and they could be featured on this page.

Email all photos to holly.carter@sng-publishing.co.uk.

H A L L OF SH A M E I WI NTE R 2019 I SPA RKS

59


TEA BREAK TIME MAZE GAME

You’ve lost your toolbag and need to get to college for class! Work your way through the maze to make it on time.

S TA R T

FINISH


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