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01 02 03 Artwork & Colour

Stock & Format

Print Processes

Artwork:

Stock:

Processes:

Document Setup: P1 + 2 Printers Marks: Pre Flight: Proofing: Sign off:

Substrates: Paper types and uses: Selecting stock: Types and samples: Inks:

Lithogrphic Printing: Gravure Printing: Screen Printing: Flexography Printing: Pad Printing: Hexachrome Printing: Letterpress printing:

Colour:

Format:

Terminology Descibing Colour Basics Brightness, Hue and Saturation Colour management Panton and Spot colours Colour in print Preparing colour for print Pages and Pannels CMYK and RGB Hexachrome Pantone Matching System PMS

Standard sizes: Paper and Envelope sizes: ISO sizes: RA and SRA sizes: Book and Poster sizes: International: American:


Con ten ts. 04 05 Finishes

Costing

Finishing Techniques:

Techniques and Quotes:

Binding: Die cutting and Die stamping: Embossing and De bossing: Blind embossing: Foil blocking: Laminates and varnishes: Thermography: Folding and trimming: Cutting and Creasing:


Substrates:

Paper Types:

A substrate is any stock or material that recieves a printed image, this can range from a standard sheet of paper to much more elaborate and tactile papers and boards. and this can even extend to promotional items sucha s coffee mugs, t shirts and even the human body. this extends to any 3d objects.

Paper types - this refares to any stock or substrate that can be printed with one of the conventional printing processes:

The Substrate that is selected for a specific job will be determined by its ability to take a printed design and the overall aims and intentions of the piece of work. For exmaple - colour image reproduction requires a different substrate that what is used for newspapers for example, in which case low cost is the priority, in addition to printability, substrates are often selected for their other qualities on offer such as “Tactile Stimulus.�

Substrate selection is a vital consideration at the start of a design process. The variety of substrates to print upon is now greater than ever before. giving much wider creative possibilities. for designers and other creatives: As colour weights and textures all have a bearing on the effectiveness of a piece. Identity design schemes, for example can be strengthened through consistent use of stock, which generates and element of individuality.

Cast coated: Coated peper with a high gloss finish obtained while the wet coated paper is pressed, or cast against a polished hot metal drum.: - High quality colour printing.

Paper type - Notes - Primary Uses Newsprint : This is made primarily of mechanically ground wood pulp, shorter life span than other papers - cheap to produce, least expensive papers that can withstand normal print processes: Used for Newspapers and Comics. Antique: Roughest Finish offered on offset paper: This is used to add texture to a publication such as anual reports Uncoated Woodfree: Largest printing and writing paper category by capacity that includes almost all office and offset grades used for general commercial printing. Office paper - printer and photocopy paper, stationary. Mechanical: Produced using wood pulp, contains acidic linguins suitable for short term uses as it will yellow and colours will fade over time. - news papers and directories Art board - Uncoated board: Cover stock Art: A high quality paper with a clay filler to give a great printing surface, especially for halftones where definition and detail are very important - has a very high brightness and gloss. Colour printing magazines:

Chromo: A waterproof coating on a single side intended for great embossing, and varnishing performance. Cartridge: A thick white paper that is used for penciland ink drawings - To add texture to publications such as annual reports Grey board: Lined or un lined made from paper waste: Packaging material.


Sto cks. F

C


Stock

When considering a print quotation for a specific project, it is very important to ensure that the stock that is selected suits the project. the main consideration should be the design and the objective of the project, the client will always have an idea of how much they would like to spend on the design and print, the aim is to achieve the highest quality of design that is as close to the budget as possible. it is a great idea to co ordinate a a wide range of print options Paper affects the perception of a project , colour reproduction will be changed by the choice of stock and finishes. an example of this would be the final dry page colour will differ from a coated or un coated stock. when specifying a stock you must firstly check examples that have previously been printed on the particular stock or stocks that are similar weight for example. If the papers weight is too heavy it can effect the way the stock folds and the mechanics of the publication. make sure to discus the weight of the stock with the client. take into consideration weather a certain stock will increase the postage of the final publication, this therefore increases the cost for the client once the design has been printed and finished. All of these considerations can affect the design and printing of the project.

Always discuss with your client the papers and stocks that you are personally considering, show them previously printed samples and some paper swatches. you and the client have always got to be aware of the final outcome of the printed document, to avoid any confusion regarding the paper weights and finishes. it is a great idea to ask a range of printers for quotes and production advice. Make sure to use only printers that have a large amount of experienced print and production that are similar to your project. Always ask a printer that is ok to produce a dummy or a blank mock up, of the proposed paper to investigate the texture finish and weight. involved he client as much as possible in the big design choices. Colour reproduction: When looking into paper stock and weight, you can also check colour reproduction through pantone swatches this illustrates accurate how a colour will be reproduced onto a particular surface. coated or uncoated for example it is crucial that examples are displayed where colour reproduction is different on surfaces, to show the differences - when you specifically choose uncoated paper stocks, show how the colour selected will be reproduced on a coated stock. There could be a requirement within a project that calls for the designer to produce a design on a smooth coated paper.

The designer must make conciderations to make sure the colour pallete you have selected is close as possible and is going to be successful when printed over a range of printed papers, surfaces and finishes. Make sure you work with the printer, to ask for examples and advice but make sure you do not accept that some colours just print that way. make sure to determine the final outcome of the colour selections, if the colours need slightly adjusting for uncoated stocks, make sure to amment them to achieve an effective comparative colour reproduction.


Sto cks. Stock Categories:

Coated paper:

Wove:

Weight of paper:

This paper has a clay coating applied to one or both sides. These papers are avilable in gloss, silk satin or matt finish, and are most commonly used for projects that require a fine finish, which is why coated paper is also refared to as ‘art’ paper. coated paper is produces sharper brighter images and has a better reflectivity than uncoated paper. coated paper is used to print brochures leaflets and posters and a wide range of design for print formats, especially high volume print runs.

Paper that is made on closely woven wire roller or mold and having a faint mesh pattern. wove is a popular choice for book publishing. wove is a premium quality paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or textured like laid paper:

It is common practice to specify a weight of paper in gm or GSM abbreviations of grams per square meter this indicates the weight of paper or other stock for example the a normal photocopier paper is 80gsm and good quality letterhead paper is around 120gsm a postcard is around 300gsm

Laid:

As papers are graded by weight one manufacturers 150 gsm paper may seem slightly bulkier that its competiters product a paper GSM rating is a great guide to how thick or stiff the paper will be and feel but you must always ask for paper samples if you are unsure, card or board as it is commonly called in the industry is some times measured in microns a micron is 1000th of a millimetre:

Uncoated paper: Paper that does not have any kind of coating applied is uncoated paper . although it does not have any kind of coating this stock is not as smooth as coated paper - it is available in a range of different finishes, colours and weights and is generally more absorbent than coated paper. premium quality uncoated paper is used for business stationary and is commonly used in laser printers uncoated stocks also used as alternate or in conjunction to coated stocks in a wide range of design and print disciplines.

Laid paper is premium quality paper with a textured pattern of parallel lines similar to handmade Paper: this is commonly used for business stationary:

Bond: An economic uncoated wove paper, often used for copying or laser printers, it is a higher quality bond stock and is used for letterheads.


Stock Categories: Coated paper: This paper has a clay coating applied to one or both sides. These papers are avilable in gloss, silk satin or matt finish, and are most commonly used for projects that require a fine finish, which is why coated paper is also refared to as ‘art’ paper. coated paper is produces sharper brighter images and has a better reflectivity than uncoated paper. coated paper is used to print brochures leaflets and posters and a wide range of design for print formats, especially high volume print runs.


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Stock Categories:

Uncoated paper: Paper that does not have any kind of coating applied is uncoated paper . although it does not have any kind of coating this stock is not as smooth as coated paper - it is available in a range of different finishes, colours and weights and is generally more absorbent than coated paper. premium quality uncoated paper is used for business stationary and is commonly used in laser printers uncoated stocks also used as alternate or in conjunction to coated stocks in a wide range of design and print disciplines.


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Stock Categories:

Wove: Paper that is made on closely woven wire roller or mold and having a faint mesh pattern. wove is a popular choice for book publishing. wove is a premium quality paper with a uniform surface, not ribbed or textured like laid paper:


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Stock Categories:

Laid: Laid paper is premium quality paper with a textured pattern of parallel lines similar to handmade Paper: this is commonly used for business stationary:


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Stock Categories:

Bond: An economic uncoated wove paper, often used for copying or laser printers, it is a higher quality bond stock and is used for letterheads.


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Stock Categories: Weight of paper: It is common practice to specify a weight of paper in gm or GSM abbreviations of grams per square meter this indicates the weight of paper or other stock for example the a normal photocopier paper is 80gsm and good quality letterhead paper is around 120gsm a postcard is around 300gsm As papers are graded by weight one manufacturers 150 gsm paper may seem slightly bulkier that its competiters product a paper GSM rating is a great guide to how thick or stiff the paper will be and feel but you must always ask for paper samples if you are unsure, card or board as it is commonly called in the industry is some times measured in microns a micron is 1000th of a millimetre:


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Inks In Print:

Trapping:

Aqueous Coating:

in prepress, the compensation for misregister of successive colors or images. Trapping and trapping techniques ensure that there are no unsightly gaps or overlaps of successively-printed colors or images. Trapping in this sense is referred to by many different terms, ranging from spreads and chokes, fatties and skinnies, lap register, and making grips. In conventional (i.e., non-digital) lithography, trapping is accomplished using photographic techniques called spreadsand chokes, also known as fatties and skinnies, respectively. A spread is a photographic overexposure of an image to make it larger than it is on the original. Thus, when it is overprinted onto another image, it will “spread” into the other image by a predetermined amount, eliminating gaps between the two. Spreads are more commonly used on foreground images or objects; backgrounds are often modified by chokes, which is a photographic enlargement of the background color or object, which “chokes” the subsequently overprinted color or image with an overlap of a set amount.

An aqueous coating is a fast-drying, waterbased, protective coating which is applied in-line on press to attain a selection of finishes more economical price than varnish. This clear coating provides a high gloss surface which protects the surface from dirt, smudges, fingerprints and scratch. Aqueous coating improves postcards durability as they go through mail or inserted in pockets. It is also applied on brochures, catalog covers, flyers and other visual ads. Top of Form Aqueous coatings are applied to printed sheet right after the inks. Directly after the coating is applied, the sheets are sent through a heated air system that quickly dries the coating. The printed sheets can progress to the finishing department in a matter of minutes, as opposed to traditional varnishes which may need hours or even days to dry. This type of coatings provide amazing rub and scuff resistance. They give protection that far exceeds standard varnishes. It protects the product from harmful elements from the shipment through to end use. They are available in gloss and matte finishes.


Inks. Stock Categories:

High gloss:

Heat set:

Metalic inks:

A variety of printing ink produced with an additional quantity of varnish that allows the ink to dry with a highly glossy finish, typically by oxidation and polymerization. High gloss inks achieve their best results when used on paper (typically coated paper) that allows a high degree of ink holdout, or does not allow rapid penetration of the inkvehicle into the paper surface. Rapid drainage of the fluid vehicle hampers oxidation and reduces printed gloss. The application of heat to expedite ink drying also works to reduce printed gloss. High-gloss inks are manufactured for use in both letterpress and offset lithographic printing processes.

A quick-drying type of ink that dries by evaporation of its solvent in a hightemperature drying oven followed by cooling to set the ink. Heatset inks comprise the pigment, a solvent, a litho varnish, and a wax compound modifier. In heatset drying, the printed web is passed through a hightemperature dryer which evaporates the solvent. A chilling procedure then cools the ink down to about 75:90ºF. Chemical reactions and absorption also set the ink. Heatset inks are used in letterpress and offset lithography, typically in web presses, and have the advantage of quick drying, which reduces the risk of excessive ink spread and absorption. The process, however, can cause problems incoated paper which, if of insufficient porosity, can blister

Fine metal flakes that are mixed with a varnish and used as a pigment in some types of printing inks to impart silver, gold, or other types of metallic luster to the printed image. Metallic powders used in inks are produced in different grades and with varying degrees of fineness, depending on the desired enduse characteristics. Despite such names as Silver or Gold, less precious metals are typically used. “Silver” is actually made from aluminum, and “Gold” is made from brass, copper or other metals, depending on the shade desired (from Pale Gold to Rich Gold). Specially-made vehicles are needed to carry these pigments to ensure proper binding to the substrate and to impart the desired level of brightness. Metallic powder-based inks, especially bronze powders used in “gold” inks, need to be mixed just prior to using, as they tarnish rapidly. The vehicle is designed to dry rapidly, so as to prevent a minimum of post-impression tarnishing. (See Pigment.) Often, metallic powders are added to the substrate following the printing of a highly-tacky, non-drying ink, a process called bronze dusting.

Soy based:

during heatset drying. this is a recent development in vegetable oil-based printing inks obtaining its oilbased vehicle from soybean oil. The use of vegetable oil-based vehicles has improved the printing characteristics of many inks, and soy ink has achieved excellent results when used in newsink, and helps eliminate smudging. Other types of vegetable oils used include rapeseed and linseed oils. this could be used effectivley within a project that has ethics around being ecofriendly.


Pro cess. Lithography:

How does Lithographic printing work? How does this work you may be wondering. Well the process is simple and it is based on the elementary principle that oil and water do not mix. There are a few steps in converting your image/text into a printed page so let us discuss the plates first. In lithography the plates have a roughened texture and are coated with a photosensitive (light sensitive) emulsion. This emulsion is a suspension of two chemicals that cannot be mixed together, a common household example of an emulsion is butter or margarine. Plates are made one of two ways: Exposure from light source with film on top of the plate, or using a machine that exposes the plate, using lasers directly from the computer. Either way creates a photographic negative of the desired image, releases the emulsion, and transfers a positive image to the emulsion. The emulsion is then chemically treated to remove the unexposed portions of the emulsion. This final step is similar to developing film at a photo lab.

When the printing plate is made, the printing image is rendered grease receptive and hydrophobic, or water repelling. The nonprinting areas are rendered hydrophilic, or water attracting, and ink repelling. On the press the plate is mounted on the plate cylinder which as it rotates, comes into contact first with the rollers wet by a dampening solution or water, which adheres to the rough, or negative portions of the image. Then the plate comes in contact with the roller coated with ink, which adheres to the smooth, or positive portions of the image. If this image were directly transferred to paper, it would create a positive image, but the paper would be moistened. Instead, a cylinder covered with a rubber surface, called a blanket, is rolled over the plate. The blanket squeezes away the water, and picks up the ink. The cylinder is then rolled over the paper, transferring the ink. Because the image is first transferred to the blanket cylinder, we call this process “offset lithography” because the image is offset to the drum before being applied to the paper.

The Advantages of Lithographic Printing: One major advantage of the lithography is that the soft rubber surface of the blanket creates a clear impression on a wide variety of paper surfaces and materials. Lithography printing is easily recognized by its smooth print, as well as by the lack on any impression or ring of ink or serrated edges that are characteristic of letterpress or gravure printing. Lithography has equipment for short, medium, and long press runs. Sheet-fed and web presses are both used in lithography. Sheet-fed lithography is used for printing advertising, books, catalogs, greeting cards, posters, packaging, direct mail inserts, coupons, and art reproduction. Many sheet-fed lithography presses can ‘perfect’, print on both sides of the paper, in one pass through the press. Web lithography is used for newspapers, preprinted newspaper inserts, advertising literature, catalogs, books, and magazines.


Water rollers

Ink Rollers

Water

Plate Cylinder

Offset Cylinder

Paper

Impress Cylinder


Pro cess. Gravure:

The Gravure process is a type of intaglio process in which the actual image is etched into the surface of a plate or metal cylinder. The image consists of tiny cells (or wells) engraved into the cylinder; there may be as many as 22,500 ink wells per square inch. When the cylinder is rotated in a fountain of ink, the excess ink in the non-image area is removed by a thin piece of stainless steel called a doctor blade. The size and depth of each ink well determines how much ink will be deposited on the substrate. When paper is passed between the plate cylinder and rubber impression roller, it acts like a blotter and absorbs the remaining ink in the microscopic wells..

In gravure printing there are sheetfed and webfed (rotogravure) presses. Sheetfed gravure is targeted at limited production runs of fine art prints, high quality art, photographic books, advertising leaflets, and higher denomination postage stamps. Rotogravure is targeted at larger runs of 300,000 copies or more and includes weekly or monthly magazines, mail order catalogs, specialized packaging, wallpaper, and some decorative laminates. Both presses require plate-making (or cylinder engraving) and proofing, which is often very expensive. Color corrections and last-minute changes often require cylinder retouching, and this can sometimes be slow and very timeconsuming.

The print quality of photographs using gravure is often superior to other printing processes. Both press configurations are direct printing, so ink-and-water balance is not a variable for controlling image density. The inks are either petroleum-based or water-based, and the use of electrostatic assist allows for better ink transfer on substrates with hard surfaces and poor ink absorption. Gravure gives a true halftone effect where photographs tend to have greater contrast and detail due to heavy ink films and use of finer screen rulings. Because of the cell structure, fine details in typematter and line-work are of critical concern. When using type styles containing serifs, it is advised not to use type sizes smaller than eight point. Overall, gravure is great for long runs (300,000 or more) and capable of maintaining color consistency on a wide range of substrates.


Paper

Impression Roller

Doctor Blade

Gravure Roller

Ink Fountain


Pro cess. Screen print:

Method in which ink is applied directly to the surface to be printed (substrate). The image to be printed is photographically transferred to a very fine fabric (the screen) such that the non-printing areas are blocked off and the fabric serves as a stencil. The ink is wiped across the screen to pass through the unblocked pores and reach the substrate. For each color to be printed a separate screen is prepared and the process is repeated.

Screen printing is a low volume printing method where viscous ink is passed through a screen this was origionally made with silk, that holds a design onto a substrate. Although a relatively slow low volume and very expensive printing method. This method allows the designer to apply images to a range of different substrates. the effect of screen print gives the design texture this gives the design a handmade identity and this allows the viewer to interact with the print much more makes it feel personal.


Design Exposed onto screen. Squeegy is pulled towards the body on a 45 degree angle.

Fabric is tightly stretched over frame. Finished Screen Ink is then pulled across the screen, Printing the areas that has been exposed.

Print is then transfared to Substrate.


Pro cess. Flexography:

This technique is frequently used for printing onto plastics, foils, acetate, brown papers and basically any other materials that are used within packaging, Flexography or Flexographic printing uses a method where printing plates that are made of rubber or plastic are inked with a slightly raised image are rotated onto a cylinder which then transfers the image to the substrate. Flexography uses very fast drying inks, as it is a very high speed print process, this process is capable of printing on s range of absorbent and non absorbent material. commonly used for printing a continuous pattern such as wrapping paper and gift wrap.

Some typical applications for flexography are paper and plastic bags, milk cartons, disposable cups, sweet wrappers. Flexographic printing can also be used, to print envelopes, labels and newspapers.


Impress cylinder

Plate Cylinder

Anilox Cylinder

Fountain roll

Ink Fountain


Pro cess. Pad Printing:

The image that is being printed is etched into a plate this is called the Cliche. the Cliche is commonly made of a pollymer coating on a metal backing of steel. Once this is placed onto the printer, the Cliche is inked by an open inkwell.

Ink in Pad Printing

The Pad

Pad printing inks are just as versatile as the other elements within the pad printing process, they are not only s huge range of colours available but they also come in a range of series which are specific to the type of substrate that is being printed onto. Different materials react differently to some elements in the inks. For example the inks used for printing on certain plastics will not be the same as the inks used for printing on glass or aluminium. There are medical grade inks that can be used for the medical industry and even edable inks that can be printed onto foods.

After the Cliche is inked up, the silicon pad then picks up the image and transfers it to the product. the pads themself are made of a silicon material that can vary on hardness. The properties of the silicon allow the inks to temporarily stick to the pad, How ever they can be fully released from the pad when it comes into contact with the product that is to be printed. The hardness of the pad dictates how the image molds to the product - For example if you where to print an image onto a basketball a harder pad would transfer more of the print into the textured surface. When printing onto a relatively flat surface the pad can be made of a softer material as less downward pressure is needed.


Pad

Pad

Pad

Substrate

Print Applied

Ink


Pro cess. Hexachrome Printing

The Hexachrome system uses six colours instead of the conventional four used in traditional colour print. By supplementing the Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black with Orange and Green it is possible to produce a greater range of colours accurately. The results can be a much more vibrant and high impact print. If you are interested in printing using this system later versions of Quark Express and Coral Draw are Hexachrome enabled. Pantone速 have also produced plugins for use with Adobe InDesign, adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop.

Alternatively, we may be able to convert the design you have supplied to include Hexachrome colours or images. Please note: The conversion work is chargeable. We can supply Hexachrome Colour Swatch Books from Pantone速, Solid Pantone速 or specific House Colours that need to be matched to a Hexachrome equivalents.


Pro cess. Letterpress Printing

This method was originally done with moveable type. It is a form of relief printing – where the parts to be printed, both type and illustrations, are raised up from the base plate. It is commonly used for small printing jobs such as business cards and stationery. Illustrations for letterpress printing are made by a photographic process. Types of letterpress printing machines are:

Platen press The paper is pressed against the printing plate by a flat piece of metal called a platen. The plate is inked by rollers as the platen is opened. Sheet-fed rotary press These have a curved printing surface and can print single sheets at a high speed. Flat sheets are fed between the plate and a pressure roller. Flat-cylinder press The printing plate is flat and paper is passed over it by a rotary pressure roller.

Letterpress printing is not often used now, as it is time-consuming to set up the loose type and make the plates, and there is only a limited range of fonts and styles.


Pivot

Platen

Paper

Block

Frame

Metal Type

Bed


Format & Sizes:

Foramt

[mm]

Foramt

[mm] H&W

Foramt

[mm] H&W

A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10

814 x 1189 594 x841 420 x594 297 x 420 210 x 297 148 x 210 105 x 1498 74 x 105 52 x 74 37 x 52 26 x 37

B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10

1000 x 1414 707 x 1000 500 x 707 353 x 500 250 x 353 176 x 250 125 x 176 88 x 123 62 x 88 44 x 62 31 x 44

C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7/6 C7 C8 C9 C10 DL

917 x 1297 648 x 917 458 x 648 324 x 458 229 x 324 162 x 229 114 x 162 81 x 162 81 x 114 57 x 81 40 x 57 28 x 40 110 x 220


For mat. Standards:

Standard Sizes:

ISO:

Standards within paper sizes provide a convenient and efficient way for designers a printers to communicate product specifications and control costs. this chapter explores this.

The benefits of standardising paper sizes have been recognised for centuries and its practice has a history that is traced all the way back to 14th century Italy, The ISO system is based around a height to width ratio of the square room of 2. this means that each paper size differs from the next or previous by a factor of 2 or 0.5.

Paper and envelope sizes Sizes are standardised to provide a way of selecting a products format that work together effectivley for example an A4 paper and C4 envelope these two work together between their specifications.

The ISO standard provides provides a range of complimentary paper sizes in order to cater for the most frequently used printing needs As shown in the tables above. Normally A sizes are used for printing everything from posters, technical drawings to magazines newspapers, postcard whereas B sizes are normally used for printing Books. And C sizes are used for envelopes that will then hold the A sizes


ANSI Paper Sizes: Foramt

[mm]

ANSI or Letter

Tabloid ANSI C ANSI D ANSI E

215.9 x 279.4 279.4 x 431.8 538.8 x 431.8 538.8 x 863.6 863.6 x 1117.6

ARCH A ARCH B ARCH C ARCH D ARCH E

304.8 x 228.6 457.2 x 304.8 609.6 x 457.2 914.4 x 609.6 1219.2 x 914.4

Foramt

[mm]

Quarto Foolscap Monarch Govenment Letter Legal Tabloid Post Crown Large Post Demy Medium Royal Elephant Double Demy Quad Demy Statement Index Card 01 Index Card 02 Index Card 03 Business card US B Card

203 x 254 203 x 330 184 x 267 203 x 267 215.9 x 279.4 215.9 x 356 279.4 x 431.8 394 x 489 381 x 508 419 x 533 445 x 572 457 x 584 508 x 635 584 x 711 597 x 889 889 x 1143 140 x 216 127 x 76 152 x 102 203 x 125 85.60 x 53.98 89 x 51

Common Book Sizes:

Book Sizes:

[mm] H&W

Book Size:

[mm] H&W

Demy 16mo Demy 18mo Foolscap 8vo Crown 8vo Large Crown 8vo Demy 8vo Medium 8vo Royal 8vo Super royal 8vo imperial 8vo

143 x 111 146 x 95 171 x 108 191 x 127

Foolscap Quatro 4to Crown 4to Demy Royal Imperial Crown Folio Demy Folio Royal Folio Music

216 x 171 254 x 191 286 x 222 381 x 279 381 x 254 445 x 286 508 x 318 365 x 260

203 x 133 213 x 143 241 x 152 254 x 159 250 x 175 279 x 191


For mat. Standards

RA & SRA Series

Book

These two series of paper sizes are also based on the ISO standard and are sizes used by printers that are slightly larger than the A series, this is to provide for grip, trim and bleed - Producing an A1 full bleed poster, the design must be printed on an SRA1 sheet which is bigger to allow for trimming to the final size.

Standard Book Sizes: Books can come in a wide range of standard sizes providing a range of different formats to handle different types of imagery and typographic content. this is shown in the table below - A book format is determined by the size of the original sheet of paper used to form its pages and the number of times this is folded before trimming takes place. Folio editions are formed from signatures folded once, Quarto from signatures folded twice and Octavo Three times.

ANSI Paper Sizes The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defined a regular series of paper sizes based upon the standard 8.5” x 11” “letter” size . This series also includes “ledger” or “tabloid” paper size. The most widely used size is ANSI A also known as “letter”.

As these are based on standard paper size they are related and represent a mathematical portion of a sheet of paper modern book sizes vary massively but often have a relationship to these sizes.

Poster Standard poster sizes: Posters also habe standard paper sizes that help to simplify production, the A series poster system is based around a single sheet of 762mmx508mm set in portrait orientation it is multiples of this that are used to produce the other sizes in the system. Such as the Four sheet this is the most common widespread outdoor format - this is down to its compact size. Other standard multiples in this system are 12 sheet, 48 sheet - this is the standard billboard size that gives you 200ft2 of presentation space in landscape orientation. And 96 sheet. Two other common formats are European (3,048mmx3,048mm) This is a square format that is popular in europe, but with the same vertical dimension as the 48 and 96 sheet billboards. The Golden square, this is typically illuminated at night - this attention grabbing as it is breaking the boundries of rectangular dimensions and through it scale.


Art work. Setting up work

Artwork:

File Format

this chapter introduces the idea of artwork, making sure that all type, photographs and illustrations are correctly detailed for printing: and some of the common pitfalls made in the production of a colour print job.

There are two main image format types: Bitmap images and Vector images. Vector images are are created using a mathematical formula which enables them to not lose quality when pushed to any scale, vectors are commonly used within graphic design in the for of 2d imagery such as logo designs. Bitmap on the other hand are raster based which means that they are created by pixels that have a specific resolution so when scaling the image, image quality is lost.

Document Setup: When starting the digital design process it is a necessity to have a document that us set up in the correct way. this not only ensure that the document saves properly but also avoids any problems when the work is sent to printers. You must ensure that all documents should be set up in the correct sized art board at a print resolution of 300dpi that will be printed and ensure that the correct colour modes are selected for example CMYK or PMS and documents contain all the marks that are needed by the printers for example: Bleed and Slug and printer marks if necessary.


Art work. Setting up work

Format: Sending work to be printed when doing this the printer will always ask for a specific file format that they work with, commonly printers will work will work with a PDF format, PDF’s are created using creative software such as the adobe creative suit, The benefits of sending a file as a pdf is that the Images, Colour models, Fonts are all stored within a document, this means that the document is viewed the same no matter what software is in use on the computer. This means the view of the document is consistent and is as close to the original as possible this uses a high compression. Using PDF format makes sure the printer who is working on the job can open the file.

PSD files can be sent to the printers simply in PSD or just InDesign format, When the work is sent the printers you need to ensure that you send everything with this such as Fonts along with it. This is just incase the computer that the printer has opened the work in may not have the specific fonts downloaded to that specific computer. InDesign tools are provided that ensure that all the files that are needed are linked and are saved into a folder that can simply be sent to the printer.

Colour Specification When a document is sent to print if the colours are picked from the CMYK colour pallet such as colours From PMS, these must be specified within the document and the printer needs to be notified before the file is saved and sent. Another element that needs to be taken into consideration is that pantone colours can be specified within the Adobe Suite by using the colour picker. Pantone colours that are used should be specified within the document, like colours are present with the swatch pallet as there is a possibility of black plates being produced which can this in turn means for a wasted production cost.

If finishing techniques are being applied these must also be specified however Adobe software doesn’t allow for Effects such as spot varnishes, and other effects to be specified, this means a colour is needed to be selected to represent where a varnish should be applied this should also be brought up with the printer.


Art work. Setting up work

Bleed, registration and trim

Printing a four colour job

The responsibility for accurate reproduction is the printers job. the designer contributes to the reduction of errors and mistakes, by being aware of some of the common mistakes that occur and by creating designs that accommodate them.

When printing a simple four colour job the design needs to be printed with bleed this allows the design to be trimmed and not have a boarder of unprinted stock around the edge. this is generally a 3mm bleed however this can vary depending on the job or printing method, it is always a great idea to speak to the printer.

Crop marks are small lines placed at the corners of the document to indicate where the page will be trimmed. They are required because normally, paper can’t be printed to the edges. Slightly larger paper sizes are used then cropped to a standard size. This is where bleed is used. Bleed is the area that overlaps the document’s borders. It gives the printers room for unavoidable errors in the cropping process. If bleed is not used, sometimes a thin white border can be seen on the edges of finished documents.

Registration black Registration black is a black colour that is obtained from 100% coverage of the four process colours Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black using registration colour for text and greyscale graphics instead of black is a common error as is not desirable. as elements are coloured appear on all colour separated films and printing plates rather than just the black film or plate, this means it will print in every colour. Registration black does have its uses, for instance when hand drawn crop marks are used to register printing plates.

Registration Problems One colour printing doesnt present colour registration problems as there is nothing for a printing plate to register with. Registration problems sometimes occour as soon as more that once colour is sent to print.


Type of proof:

Soft or screen proof:

Laser proof:

Pre press proof:

a proof used for layout and colour information control and to check screen structures of a print

A black and white digital print

An analogue or digital proof that gives an approximate of what the finished piece will look like

Advantages

Shows photos, text and position, this is a cheaper alliterative to blue line

Advantages

Advantages

This is intended to eliminate moire, rosette and other effects that are undesireable.

Disadvantages

The production is in expensive, in particular the digital proofs

Disadvantages

Low resoloution and may not reproduce at

Disadvantages

Screening must be performed before a scren proof is printed as printing data contains no screen information.

actual size

Blueline proof:

Scatter proof:

A contact print produced from film, this shows the imposition, photos and text as it will appear when printed together with trim and binding edges

A proof of an individual photo of a group of photos that are not included as part of the page layout

Advantages Rapid as no processing is involved and pages can be folded trimmed and stitched to approximate the finished job

Disadvantages One colour and this does not reflect paper stock or the true colour and the image prints

Advantages This is used for checking colour before the final proof. many photos can be proofed at once to save time and maeterials

Disadvantages Images are not shown in situ in the layout

Press or machine proofs:

Contract proof:

A proof that is produced using the actual plates ink and stock

A colour proof used to create a contract between the printer between the printer and client the final proof before going to press

Realistic impression of the final print it can be produced on actual print stock

Disadvantages This process is costly as you have to set up the press, particullaly if there is another proof is required

Composite integral colour proof: Very high quality proofs - such as match print or chromatin. produced using four sheers one for each colour laminated together in order

Advantages This is a very accurate colour proof that is produced from the coour speration film used to make the printing plates

Disadvantage This production is time consuming and

fade with time

Advantages

Colour is not as accurate as press proof as does not use actual inks

Advantages The representation of the print job is very accurate

No disadvabtages


Art work. Proofing: This section brings together a range of different methods that are used at different stages through the print and production process to ensure an accurate reproduction:


Co

lour.

Colour Models

Colour:

Describing colour:

Colour is now a fixture in the field of visual communication as magazine and editorial designers have taken advantage of four colour printing technology developments, Companies and homes have this capability now due to the emergence of printing technologies

As colour is essentially different wave lengths of light, design and colour proffesionals use different. values of hue, saturation and brightness to describe it. Most importantly for designers there are two main colour models, this is displayed below RGB is used for screen and CMYK for print:

Colour attracts attention of the viewer and perhaps generating an emotional response, colour can also be used by a designer to help organise the elements on a page and lead the eye from one area to another strengthening hierarchy. Printing technologies continue to push the boundaries of colour reproduction, as developments such as six colour hexachromatic printing push the colour gamut to new dimensions


Basic Terminology: A great amount of terminology is used to describe colour and its many functions, this explores those that are used to help designers communicate colour ideas and print.


Co

lour.

Colour Models

Description:

Hue:

Colour Management:

Brightness, Hue and Saturation These terms aid a designer to specify and communicate colour information and help overcome the potentioal vagaries of computer screens and printing presses where a colour is not always what it seems accurate colour description in terms of the Hue, Saturation and brightness helps a designer and printer match the expectations of the client.

hue or colour, re fares to the unique characteristic of a colour that helps us visually distinguish one colour from another, hues or colours are formed by different wavelengths or light.

Colour management is a process that governs how colour is translated from one piece of equipment in the printing process to another. Colour management is needed to make sure accurate and predictable colour reproduction because each device responds to or produces colour differently.

Saturation: Saturation or Chroma re fares the the purity of a colour and saturation levels describe a colours tendency to move towards or away from grey.

Brightness: Or value refers to how light or dark a colour is, changes in the brightness value can be achieved by mixing a colour with black or white:


Saturation: Saturation or Chroma re fares the the purity of a colour and saturation levels describe a colours tendency to move towards or away from grey.

Hue: hue or colour, re fares to the unique characteristic of a colour that helps us visually distinguish one colour from another, hues or colours are formed by different wavelengths or light.

Brightness/Valuew: Or value refers to how light or dark a colour is, changes in the brightness value can be achieved by mixing a colour with black or white:


Co

lour.

Colour Models

Pantone and spot colours Designers can use spot colours to ensure that a particular colour in a design will print this may be necessary if the colour is outside of the range of gamut possibilities of the four colour CMYK printing process, or because there is a pressing need for a specific colour, for example a corporate logo. special colours have greater intensity and are much more vibrant as they print as a solid colour rather than on that is created of half tone.

Experienced and well-rounded designers know the importance of using Spot colors. Spot colors are used to specify a certain color, ink or coating for a design project. Try to tell your favorite local printer that you want the yellow in your design to be printed in metallic gold and watch them laugh at you. Spot colors open a whole new realm of creativity and classy design. Spot colors and separations tell your printer (whether it be offset, screen print or otherwise) that everything that is a particular spot color will be a certain material/ink. The fun comes in when deciding to use a spot UV coat (a glossy area or image that covers only certain parts), metallic ink, white ink (since there is no white in CMYK, this gets tricky) or any special coating.


Spot Colours Spot colors are are most commonly used for color matching. You have probably heard of “PMS” colors before, but maybe you don’t know what it really entails. PMS is the most common color matching system. It stands for Pantone-color Matching System. When a color needs to look the same, no matter what it’s being printed on or who it’s being printed by, use spot colors. Hopefully you have seen the Pantone books around [insert photo]. These are color sample books and you should have a recent set if you are serious about what you do (or at least, the color of what you do). Let’s face it, you’ve sat in your room or at the school lab tweaking each of your colors till they look just the way you want them for that “big project”. But now it’s time to print them because the client your working for just gave you the go ahead. You’re not seriously going to print all of them on your home printer are you? And chances are, you’re not going to have the opportunity to hang over the presspersons shoulder and ask him to add a “bit more” of this color or “lighten” that up…so let’s learn

Another important thing to remember is to use Spot colors to save money on printing. Spot colors are actual inks that are put on the press and laid on the paper. If you’re going to use a blue and black color, why use full color printing, CMYK? Not only can you specify the EXACT blue you want if you specify PMSs, but you can print on a wider range of papers and weights. And often times at a much higher line rate (oh you inkjet people will know this as “dpi” or dots per inch) at a much, much cheaper price. Know those fancy paper swatch books you’ve seen around, or some well-designed pamphlet that really caught your eye, chances are the designer took the time to strategically design it with the final product in mind. By wrapping your head around the use of Spots you can turn heads and find ways that separate your work from the masses

to use spot colors.

Another thing to consider is that some printing processes require “spot” colors. Screen printing on shirts is just one example. There are ways to print directly on garments (called Direct-to-Garment printers that work more like an inkjet printer). Most lithographic, letterpress and flexographic printers require plates as well. In an upcoming article I’ll dip into the world of printing and explain the different processes that are used to create certain effects and print on difficult materials (like chip bags, plastic bags, thick papers, plastic, raised inks…)


Co

lour.

Colour Models

Colour in Print: before sending the design to print, a designer can use a range of methods to ensure that the colours used will appear as intended.

Getting the basics right: when work is sent to print , it is very unlikely that there will be further opportunities to rectify mistakes for this reason, it is vital that checks are carried out on some of the most basic elements.

Preparing colour for print: On completion, the desigher must make sure to carry out a number of pre press checks to make sure clear communication between designer and client and then printer, this is a vital element of the proces. if the client is to end up with the work that they expect,

Printed pages and panels: Printed pages referes the the actual number of pages printed and not the number of sheets printed on, for example a booklet made from four sheets will print on every side and will have 8 printed pages once folded. the key thing is to remember that one sheet printed double sided is equal to 2 printed pages.


Co

lour.

Colour Models: CMYK

CMYK:

CMYK in Print:

CYMK within Graphic Design:

The CMYK colour model is used for print, to gain an understanding of this it is best to look at RGB this is what is used for your computer monitor, this is what all of your designs will be in on screen. These colours can only be viewed with natural or produced light such as the lighting of the screen of your computer monitor not however printed onto a page. This is where CMYK is introduced.

The four colour printing process uses four colour plates Cyan Magenta Yellow and Black, When these colours are combines the colours are printed as tiny dots, these fine dots are so small the image is printed crisply.

As a Graphic Designer you have to accept the fact that viewing your digital work on screen will be in RGB colour model and the final printed digital print will be produced in CMYK. All files should be converted to CMYK before sending the design to the printer, It is important to use swatches when creating your design if perfect colour matching is vital. Swatches provide a designer and a client with printed sample of how the colour will reproduce once printed. Even though the colour on screen will not match the swatch, you will be sure of what the colour will look like. you can also gain a PROOF from the printer on the job which is an example of the printed piece this is provided for the designer before the print run.

When two of the RGB colours are mixed equally it then produces one of the CMYK colour models these are know as subtractive primaries. Green and blue create Cyan, Red and Blue make Magenta and Red and Green makes Yellow. Key black is added to the model as it is impossible to create black from 3 subtractive primaries.


Co

lour.

Colour Models: RGB

RBG Colour in Graphic Design

RGB: There are a lot of models used to measure and describe colour. The RGB colour model is based on the theory that all visable colour can be created using primary additive colours RED, GREEN and Blue. These colours are known as primary additives because when they are combines in equal amounts they produce White.When two or three are combined other colours are produced an example of this is combining Red and green in equal amounts makes yellow. Green and Blue creates Cyan and Red and Blue creates Magenta.

As you change the amount of Red Green and Blue you are presented with new colours. Additionally, when one of these primary additive colour is not presented you get back.

The RGB colour model extremely important to Graphic designers like us because it is used in computer monitors. All design on screen is made up by RGB it uses additive colour to display image and text. This means when designing for screen everything is created using the RGB colour model.

Types of RGB colour Spaces Within the RGB colour model there are two main sRGB and AdobeRGB when working within creative software you are able to choose which colour model to work within.


Cost

ing.

Colour Models: RGB

Costing: Get a quote very early on this is best before you start the job Identical specificationfor 3 print estimatiors to work to Learn roughly what things cost - Unit cost Understand viable minimum quantities Extras/Authours Corrections and Delivery?

Pricing a job: As a designer you must make sure that you gather a range of quotes, from a range of different companies gaining quotes on how much the job will be to print, This then allows you as a designer to then go back to the client with an around about budget for the job. From the side of a designer you will always be designing within a clients budget. However it is down to the designer to be innovative and creative with the production this is why it is so important to gather quotes before designing because this could effect the approach to design you choose.

As a designer you must make sure to collect a minimum of 3 to 5 quotes from 3 to 5 different companies making sure that you ask for the same job specifications at each. By doing this you will make sure that you are receiving the effective and reliable service and to find the cheapest price. Always remember that the more quotes you produce the more likely you are to find the best deal.


Cost

ing.

Colour Models: RGB

Sourcing Quotes:

Unexpected cost & Transport

Sourcing quotes can be very useful in extending your knowledge on how much a standard prints cost for example, finding out what the standard print costs on the standard paper and a standard print rub this ten allows you to give the client an average idea of what is within their budget. Understanding minimal quantities can also be very helpful with quoting and understanding what can and cannot be achieved with in a budget. for example litho printing would not be used for a short run of prints. this means that having an understanding of minimum quantities for specific print techniques is essential.

The transport of a product has a huge effect of the cost and is commonly forgotten about, this is all down to the weight of paper, it is incredibly dense and this means that delivery can be very expensive and a price must be agreed with the printer in the form of contract. This also avoids any charges that where unexpected at the end.


Fin ishes. Techniques:

Laminates and varnishes: Laminates and varnishes are print finishes that are applied to the printed job to add a finishing touch to a surface Laminate types a laminate is a layer of plastic that is used as a coating - it is heat sealed onto the stock to produce a smooth and impervious finish and to provide a protective layer to cover the stock. a varnish is a colourless coating that is applied to a printed piece to protect it from wear or smudging, and to enhance the visual appearance of the design or elements within it such as spot varnish:


Gloss Varnishing:

Matt Varnishing

Silk / Satin Varnishing

A gloss varnish is often used to enhance the appearance of printed photographs in brochures or flyers, as the coating reflects back the light and makes colours appear richer and more vivid. A gloss coating can add impact to your print, especially in sales or promotional material, where optimum presentation of images is paramount.

A matt (or matt – the spellings are interchangeable) varnish gives the printed surface a non-glossy, smooth look. This type of seal is sometimes considered to ‘soften’ the appearance of a printed image. Small text in a leaflet or booklet is easier to read on a surface coated with matt vanish as the coating scatters the light, reducing glare.

Naturally enough, this coating represents the ‘middle ground’ between the two above, being neither as glossy as a true gloss, nor as subtle as a matt.

Machine Sealing

UV Varnishing

All-over UV varnish

A machine seal is a basic, and virtually invisible coating applied to a printed item by the printer. It does not affect the appearance of the job, but as it ‘seals’ the ink under a protective coat, the printer need not wait so long for the job to be dry enough to handle. It is often used when producing fast turnaround printing such asleaflets on matt and satin (silk) papers, as inks dry more slowly on these materials.

Ultra Violet (UV) Varnishing is a process for achieving an even more striking type of coating on your printed material. Requiring the use of special Ultraviolet drying machinery, a UV coating is like a deluxe version of the non-UV varnishes, with the varnish appearing noticeably richer and more luxurious. A UV varnish can be applied as either an allover coating, or as a spot varnish:

Simply put, this is a UV seal applied all over the printed surface. A gloss UV varnish seal is the most common type of all-over UV varnish, (perhaps because this finish really does give a very high gloss effect, more so than with a laminate in many cases) although silk and matt are also available.

Spot UV Varnish

Textured Spot UV Varnish

As the name suggests, a Spot Varnish is applied to chosen spots (areas), of a printed piece. This has the affect of highlighting and drawing attention to that part of the design, but it also provides the additional visual stimulus of having varied textures on a single printed surface. This adds a lot of interest, and can identify the printing as a premium piece of literature in the perception of the reader. One very effective technique is to apply a UV gloss spot varnish on top of matt laminated printing. This achieves maximum contrast between the highly reflective shiny UV coating and the light-absorbing matt laminate, and can, for instance, create a striking first impression on presentation folders or a brochure cover.

In four finishes: Sandpaper, Leather, Crocodile Skin and Raised A textured spot UV varnish allows the creative designer not only to surprise the recipient of the printing with a mix of textures on the same printed surface, but also to reinforce the tactile properties of the product he or she is depicting. For example, a manufacturer of ornamental glassware could use a raised effect gloss UV varnish to give a highly reflective, 3-dimensional portrayal of a featured piece of glass work, or an interior design company could use a combination of leather, sandpaper or crocodile skin varnishes to highlight some of the different textures the company works with.


Fin ishes. Binding;

Deffinition: Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. It usually involves attaching a book cover to the resulting text-block.


Spiral Wire Bind:

Plastic Comb Bind:

Side Stitched Binding

The book is punched with a number of holes along the left margin a coil binding is then screwed through the holes from one end of the book to the other. The binding may be made of either plastic wire or and allow the printed document to lie flat and to double over. Spiral wire coils range from 1/4 of an inch to 2 inch diameter and can bind books of up to 24 inches in length.

This is one of the cheapest options when it comes to binding, however they are usually inserted by hand which can be very costly when created in mass, They are made of light weight plastic that can be used for books up to 3 inches thick. The style allows the pages to lie flat when open, and can be easily add or subtract pages from the book however over time this bind is known for breaking from wear and tear.

The pages are trimmed to the same size and stacked, the staple is then inserted down the side of margin of the book 2 - 3 times this is all dependent on the wight of the stock, the result is a sturdy bind, the downside is the book will not lie flat when opened. This bind is generally much cheaper than most other styles

Uses: Technical Manuals Presentations Notebooks Calendars

Uses: Reports Presentations Formal Documents

Uses: Notepads Tear off Calendars Reports

Saddle Stitch Binding

Case Bound (Section Sewing)

Perfect Binding

This bind consists of pages that are folded and inserted into a folded cover, this is then stapled along the foldline in the centre of the book, This is suitable for both self covered books, In general cases, the maximum number of pages is 96this is all dependent of the weight and bulk of the stock used numbers of pages may vary.

This binding style is typically used for books that consist of more that 80 pages which require a strong, high quality finish. The pages of the book are collated, and then sewn together with thread. the cover is then glued to the spine of the page block. Case bound is generally the most expensive style, so are usually only used for books that must withstand constant use.

This is the most common style used for commercially produced books, this is generally cheaper than case bound, with this method the glue is applied to the left edges of the pages, and the cover is then glued to the page block. Perfect Binding is not recommended for books that are in constant use.

Uses: Magazines Small soft Covered books Brochures

Wire O Binding this style of binding holds the pages together by a double look wire that is inserted through holes on the left edge, it does not spiral through the book rather it creates a wire comb. the pages lay flat when opened and can rotate 360 degrees. Wire O bindings are durable, but no not permit printing along the books spine.

Uses Hardcover Books Reference Books Text Books Novels

Post Binding This style has a cover and back similar to a hardcover book, 2 to 3 screws are used along the left to bind the cover content and spine together. A post binding method can be disassembled and pages can be added or removed at any time.

Uses

Uses

Reference Boks Reports Cook Books Proposals

Photo Albums Thesis Papers Presentations

Uses Paperback Books Large Magazines User Manuals


Fin ishes. Techniques:

Die Stamping Drilling A die cutter is the commonest cutting machine. The die supports the material being cut and has a hole or a recess into which a punch made of cutting blades fits exactly. The punch and die are fitted into a punching machine, or sometimes a converted letterpress machine. The work to be cut is fitted into the machine and the punch lowered down to cut. For creasing, the same technique is used, but with blunt blades that will crease the product. Cutting can also be done with a CNC cutter. Die Cutting can be used to produce different shapes on most papers & boards (including thicker display boards). Also most pockets for folders and apertures are achieved using this process Large areas of dense solid colour can be successfully die-stamped by using a ‘screened’ or ‘sable’ die. Screen die permits solids, fine lines and reversed out areas and is a natural choice for logotypes, crests, symbols and stationery.

Die stamping really works for multi-colour crests, coats of arms, invitation cards, letterheads and business cards where there is fine detail in the design, the raised threedimensional aspects brings your work to life. When die-stamping a design is engraved steel dies and copperplates that are then printed using traditional heavy die-stamping presses.

Emboss with a second die for extra effect Incomparable when used with multicolour crests. Matt die-stamping inks make for rich, vibrant colours. Laser compatible. Die-stamping can be used in combination with a combination of other fine print processes.


Fin ishes. Techniques:

Embossing & De Bossing Embossing is the process of creating a three-dimensional image or design on paper or other material. It is accomplished by creating a die, which is then stamped onto the paper, raising the embossed area above the rest of the sheet. Embossing refers to the process of creating elegant patterns on a paper by using an embossing machine that puts stresses on the paper in order to create a raised or indented affect. The embossing adds a timeless look to prints and when you move your hand over the surface you will be able to feel the fine lines, bumps and patterns on your fingertips. This type of decorative print finish is commonly seen on wedding invitations, business cards, folder covers and other printed products. Both embossing and foil stamping are done after the printing process. When foil stamping is combined with embossing, dramatic effects can be achieved. Although this type of printing is generally more expensive than normal printing, some printing companies provide the service at surprisingly affordable rates.

Embossing is often done a company’s logo, names of publications, on product images, or artistic elements. The embossing can be done with a singlelevel die, raising everything the same degree. Or a multi-level die can be used, creating a variety of raised levels. You can emboss a printed image, which is called registered embossing (meaning the embossing is registered to a certain area). Or you can emboss a non-printed area, called blind embossing. Blind embossing is usually done on the cover of a brochure or catalog or on business cards and stationery. Typically it will be an embossed logo, company name or even a product. Debossing uses the same process, except instead of creating a raised effect, a recessed effect is created. Embossing/Debossing is done after the piece has been printed and requires a separate press run.

Debossing uses the same process, except instead of creating a raised effect, a recessed effect is created. Embossing/Debossing is done after the piece has been printed and requires a separate press run.


Fin ishes. Techniques:

Blind Embossing: an embossed image is formed using male and female moulds. Under extreme pressure, these two mould the paper to their shape, creating a multi-dimensional impression. When embosssed, the Image is raised; when debossed, the image is below the paper surface. Embossing dies come in several different styles, each with its own unique appearance. A flat die creates a three-dimensional image that is raised above the paper surface; since its edges are straight it produces the most accurate reproduction of black and white line art A round die creates a curved image curving out from the paper surface Bevelled embossing gives an image with sloping sides and allows for a deeper impression Sluptured dies create real dimension by forming the paper to several layers

The best embossing style for an given job will depend on the effect the designer wishes to achieve. important considerations in blind embossing projects include the size, boldness and intricay of the design, as well as the bulk of paper stock to be used. In general , bolder type and larger designs can be embossed more deeply, and heavier papers can achieve greater depth and detail.

To achieve the best results when designing for blind embossing: Blind embossing basically flattens the paper in the embossed area so it is always more effective on textured paper stocks or laid sheets where it creates a contrast in the paper surface. Line art and typography for embossing should be proofed at reproduction size, care must be taken in spacing type so that letters have room to form.

Because an embossed image is threedimensional, it may appear slightly smaller than the same image produced by offset or other two-dimensional means. To compensate for this optical illusion, artwork may be prepared slightly bolder or at a slightly larger size. The style of embossing, or the effect to be achieved, should always be clearly specified with the artwork. Providing a side view of the desired image, or a sample of the type of embossing desired is also useful to the die maker. Embossing can be successfully combined with other fine print reproduction techniques such as engraving, lithography and foil stamping.


Fin ishes. Techniques:

Foil Blocking: These finishes can provide the ultimate in decorative appeal. They are not limited to gold and silver foils, but extend to an impressive range of pigmented,holographic and security foils. All of these can be combined with embossed images to produce varying tactile effects – any one of which will enhance the printed message and provide shelf appeal for greetings cards, cartons, magazine covers, brochures etc. A technique where a metallic foil is applied to a specific area of a printed sheet (such as a logo) to create an eye catching shiny effect. The method uses heat and pressure too apply the foil and the result is a much shinier finish than normal Metallic inks. However, it is more expensive as it requires special tools to be made

Traditionally, foil stamping was done mainly in gold and silver, but technological advances and innovative printing technologies has enabled printing companies to incorporative a myriad of colors into their foil stamping services.

For opaque coverage and brilliant colour, foil stamping is unparalleled. With its contrasting surface textures and shimmering highlights, foil stamping can spark excitement in a business communciation and bring a static design to life.

Offering a metallic finish over fine or larger areas, foil blocking creates something special. You can select matt or gloss foils in gold, silver or other colours and, optionally, make the foiled area stand out with blind embossing. Our foil blocking is normally laser compatible and suitable for laminated and coated surfaces as well as uncoated. Its mechanical precision gives you an uncannily accurate portrayal of the subject. An extensive range of colours and finishes are available from pastels to metallics. Highly effective with matt or gloss foils. Enhance the effects with blind embossing. Most foils are laser compatible.

To create a foil blocked image an ultra thin polyester film carrying a foil pigment is fed into a press. There, a die of the desired image is pressed against the paper, trapping the film inbetween. As heat to the die and pressure to the paper are applied, the foil or pigment is released from the film carrier and transferred to the paper, forming a foil image. Foils for stamping are available in a myriad of styles; pearl, opalescent, marbled, wood grained, pastel, full colour, clear, glossy, matte or satin. Foil blocking offers the designer a true metallic finish.


Fin ishes. Techniques:

Cutting and creasing Some printed materials will need to be cut after printing, and, if necessary, creased so that they can be folded. This particularly applies to packaging, but also to pop-up cards and books, and press-out shapes for model making. A die cutter is the commonest cutting machine. The die supports the material being cut and has a hole or a recess into which a punch made of cutting blades fits exactly. The punch and die are fitted into a punching machine, or sometimes a converted letterpress machine. The work to be cut is fitted into the machine and the punch lowered down to cut. For creasing, the same technique is used, but with blunt blades that will crease the product. Cutting can also be done with a CNC cutter. Die Cutting can be used to produce different shapes on most papers & boards (including thicker display boards). Also most pockets for folders and apertures are achieved using this process



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