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unsp r a w l redesigning the suburban strip mall

s t e p h a n i e c o o p e r | 2 012 - 2 013 | s t a n n a r d s t u d i o


I would like to thank my professors, friends, classmates, studiomates, and most importantly my family, for helping me grow into the student and person I am today.


Copyright Š 2012 by Stephanie N. Cooper All rights reserved.


unsp r a w l redesigning the suburban strip mall

s t e p h a n i e c o o p e r | 2 012 - 2 013 | s t a n n a r d s t u d i o


1 2

chal lenge

3

environment

problem

9

progress

15

proposal

19

context site images

22

history

28

demographics

30

adjacent spaces

32

site sensory

38

transportation

40

building codes

42

program

46

4 5

climate data

50

design strategies

54

air & water

56

flora & fauna

58

carbon calculation

60

explorat ion precedent studies

64

vellum furniture

78

process coming soon

80

table of co


6

design

7

coming soon

82

conclusion conclusion

85

bibliography

86

image credits

88

appendix

90

CD

91

ntents


1 4

challenge


5


6

Slums m a y w e ll b e breeding g roun d s o f c ri me, b ut mi d d l e c l a s s suburb s a re i n c u b a t o r s o f apathy an d d el i r i u m . - C yri l C onnol l y


1 7


ru ra l - 16%

s u b u rb an - 50%

u rb an - 34 %

8


population of around 282 million people in 2000, that means that 141 million American’s reside in the suburbs, and the population continues to grow.2 Why is this a problem? Due to their disconnected and sprawling nature, suburbs hinder a centralized sense of community, foster reliance on the automobile, and represent model of living that is not sustainable in a fragile world. In fact, if every person on the planet were to live like the average American, we would need 6.5 to 7 earths

pro ble m

As of 2000, over half of the United States lives in suburban areas. With a U.S.

in order to provide the resources, waste management, and energy to support the world’s population.3 Current suburban patterns of development, both residential and commercial, are not sustainable for a greater population or long-term groth. An alternative must be introduced in order to provide a livable future. There are several consequences of living in a suburban environment, both on a smaller personal scale, and a larger global scale. On a small scale, living in an environment where housing densities are low, residents must travel long distances to work, school, and even to purchase the goods they need. In fact, Americans spend more than 100 hours commuting to work each year, causing traffic, pollution, and road rage.4 On a global scale, the suburban lifestyle is destroying the environment by consuming large amounts of land and energy per capita. The earth is already straining to support the exploding human population. It is imperitive that we begin to do our part, to learn how to live with less, essentially

1

re-imagining and densifying America’s suburbs. 9


Traditionally, commercial suburban landscapes are dominated by an iconic figure, the strip mall. Why? In a strip mall, “all the shops face a parking lot and there is no common space inside the building, thus increasing rentable space and allowing customers to move directly from their cars to the store of their choice, which fits the habits of of people with little time and a particular product in mind.�5 To a developer or property owner, this model apears to be ideal because maximizing rentable space increases the potential profit made from the land they own. To the consumer, this also apears to be an ideal model since it allows for the least amount of shopping time in order to purchase the goods they desire. However, there are several drawback to this percieved efficiency. For example, the strip mall is too dispersed and hostile to the pedestrian, there is an abrupt transition among the discontinuous worlds inside the various shops, and there are no mediating spaces besides the almost characterless street itself.5

10


1 11


“Increased land area, coupled with population declines of many central cities, resulted in an overall decline in metropolitan density between 1950 and 2000.� - U.S. Census Bureau

12


1 13


14


change, and have begun to take action. In 2007, a study focusing on the adaptation of mixed-use and higher density buildings in suburban cities was conducted for the South Bay Cities Council, a cluster of suburban cities in Los Angeles County. The study came to several conclusions, such as improving alternative transportation use by concentrating many activities instead just creating additional housing density, and revamping exisiting high-traffic corridors into boulevard-type streets.6 The study

pro gre ss

Fortunately, there are suburban municipalities that have realized that something must

also provided several strategies for increasing suburban density, such as focusing on the mix of businesses and services as well as finding and strengthening the center aspect of mixed-use districts wherever possible. These ideas could be a launching point for suburban cities nationwide. But there is still much more to be done.

1 15


16


“More than 50% of the population of the United States [is] living in urbanized areas outside of central cities – in other words, in suburbs.” - Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs, by Ellen Duham-Jones

1 17


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the strip mall, must be re-defined in a more modern, communal, and sustainable context. Instead of large expanses of land that serve a single purpose, such as parking lots found in many suburban areas, one must seek desnsity and integration of everday activities within structures. Mixed-use buildings provide both of these attributes. Incorporating retail, office space and community spaces together provide a suitable and more healthy alternative to cookie-cutter strip malls and

pro posa l

To combat the American addiction to suburban sprawl, the icon of suburbia,

big box stores. Choosing a location near major public transportation lines is also crucial, in order to facilitate alternative modes of transportation, and decrease the suburban reliance on the automobile. And finally, showcasing the importance of green spaces can encourage the public to incorporate more sustainable practices in the designs they desire. This project aims to be an example of densification and re-imagination of the cornerstone of suburban retail, the strip mall. Some objectives of this densification include: a greater sense of community, a more sustainable development alternative, decreasing reliance on the automobile, providing more diverse employment opportunities within suburban areas, and educating the public about sustainable practices. It will include an appropriate assortment of programs in order to persude interaction between the users. It will provide a new model for suburban streetscapes by fulfilling all methods of transportation, especially alternatives to

1

the automobile such as cycling, walking, and public transportation. 19


l o s an g e l e s c o u n t y, c a

2

context

ga rd ena , c a


neighborhood

si t e

21


22


2 3 1 4 w est ro se cra n s a v enu e ga rdena , c a

2 N

0 ft

50

100

23


view of neighboring strip mal l view of car lot for lease on site

24


view from t he center of t he site

si t e

view of grassy area on t he sout h side

2 25


26


view from intersect ion view over looking site from across street

si t e site area

2 27


h isto ry

1850-1900

Tongva Indians (also known as Gabriello Indians) first settled in the area now known as Gardena.

16,000 acres of this land was then bought by Union Army Major General William Starke Rosecrans in 1869, and termed “Rosecrans Rancho.”

In 1784, a Spanish soldier named Juan Jose Dominguez was granted a 43,000 acre plot, including the area of today’s Gardena,for his military achievements8

In early settlement stages, Gardena became known for its fields of berries, and was nicknamed “Berryland.”8 historic storage facility, 1906

illustration of tongva lifesyle

berry farm, 1908

tongva dewelling 28

pre 1 8 5 0


1900-1 9 7 0

1970-t o da y

The berry industry began to suffer after WWI, so Gardena turned to other enterprises.

After the fall of the berry industry, other manufacturers took an interest in Gardena, most notably Nissin Foods.

The City of Gardena incorporated in 1930.8

Today, Gardena is known as “the Freeway City,” due to the 4 major freeways that border all sides.

was

officially

is

“the

City

of

city hall, 1980

aerial view of downtown, 1968

The city’s motto Opportunity”8

city hall, present day

city hall, 1964

2 29


a ge d i s t rib ut ion

r a ci a l d i st r i but i o n

0-19 yrs

40-59 yrs

white

asian or pac. island

20-39 yrs

60-79 yrs

african american

hispanic

80+ yrs

sa lar y d istrib ut ion

30

$1$14,999

$35,000$64,999

$15,000$34,000

$65,000+

other

co m m ut e m e t ho d

driving alone carpooling

public transit


less than 9th grade high schoolno diploma high school graduate

some college associates degree

bachelors degree masters or higher

occup a t ion

manufacturing retail trade

professional/ management education/ healthcare

arts/food/ entertainment transport/ warehousing

de m o gra p h ic s

l evel of ed uc a t io n

2

other 31


ad j a ce n t sp a c e s

green sp a ces

1

1. thornburg park 2. bodger park 3. rowley park

w at e rway s

1. dominguez channel

2

32


3

s i te

2

1 N

0 ft

750

1500

33


ad j a ce n t sp a c e s

com munity servi ce s 1. la county fire department 2. gardena transportation department 3. arc south bay social services 4. u.s. post office 5. las flores convalescent hospital 6. masao w. satow library 7. gardena recycling center

education 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

junipero serra high school maria regina catholic school chapman elementary school learning time pre-school angelique college of nursing kum ran church pre-school

6 7 4 5

34

6


1

2

2 4

3

5 s i te

6

2

1 3 N

0 ft

750

1500

35


ad j a ce n t sp a c e s

res t aurants

1. pho ever restaraunt 2. little ceasars | subway | tokyo grill 3. la metapaneca 4. wingstop 5. vicky’s bar & restaraunt 6. tumby’s pizza 7. pizza hut | panda king 8. g’s taco spot|calabar finger-licks 9. straw hat pizza | mar’s carribean cuisine 10. pho tam restaraunt 11. a taste of jamacia | queen of thai 12. pazzo pizzeria | pancho’s taco 13. eatalian cafe | korean BBQ

at t r ac tions

1. gardena cinema 2. starz cocktail bar

9 8

7

10

5

36

11 12

religious

3. berachah baptist fellowship 4. iglesia presbiteriana bethesda 5. st. john evangelical lutheran church 6. kum ran united methodist church 7. liberty tabernacle ministries

4

6 13 1


3

2 2

6

5

1 s i te

4 3

2

7

N

0 ft

800

400

37


site sensory

38


site sensory 2 39


tra n sp orta t io n

2

main streets bus routes freeways LA metro green line airports 1. hawthorne municipal 2. los angeles international (LAX)

40

405


105

M 1

site 110

2 N

0 ft

800

400

91

41


42 N

0 ft

800

400


si t e zo ni n g

zoning rest r i ct i ons :

a maximum of 2.5 stories, not to exceed 35 feet while 100 feet from a residential zone, and not to exceed 45 feet if distance from a residential zone is greater than 100 feet.9

existing FAR :

a dd ress: z one: si z e:

2314 west rosecrans avenue, gardena, ca general commercial (mixed use zoning nearby) 122,000sf

0.5 9

cons t r u c t i o n l i mi t s :

California’s codes allow for a type 3 building constructed from treated wood up to five stories, typically sitting atop a garage or concrete slab.10

high density residential

high density commercial

single family housing

low density commercial

industrial

alley parkway

bu ild in g cod e

h e i ght

oc c upanc y A s s emb l y: B us i n e s s : M ercan t i l e:

auditoriums, theaters, stadiums offices, laboratories, higher education facilities stores for the display and sale of merchandise 11

2 43


f i re fire re s i s t a n c e r at i ng re q u i re m e n t s ( h r s ) : construction type

type 3 A

B

building element structural frame

1

bearing walls exterior

2

2

interior

1

1/HT

nonbearing walls

varies

varies

floor construction

1

0

roof construction

1

0

limitation of size may be exceeded if the building is equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system fire walls are required to have a fire-resistance rating sufficient to prevent the spread of fire from one part of the building to another they must extend in a continuous manner from the foundation to a parapet above the roof of the building, or to a non-combustable roof

44

all openings in fire walls are restricted to a certain percentage of the wall length and must be protected11

type of co nst r uct i o n typ e 3:

type 3 buildings have noncombustable exterior walls and major interior elements of any material permitted by the code.11 fire retardant treated wood framing shall be permitted within exterior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less.12


a ccessi bi l i t y facilities should be accessible to those confined to a wheelchair and the ambulatory accessible rounts consist of walking surfaces with a maximum slope of 1:20, marked crossings at vehicular roadways, clear floor space at accessible elements, access aisles, ramps, curb ramps, and elevators

e g res s the path or passageway leading to an exit should be as direct as possible, with pathways widening as occupants move closer to the exit all exit stairways must lead to an exit passageway, exit court, or public way

facilities should be identifiable to the blind. use raised lettering, audible warning signals, and textured surfaces to indicate stairs or hazardous openings circulation spaces should be adequate for comfortable movement and public facilities should have fixtures designed for persons with disabilities11

all exits must discharge to a safe place of refuge outside of the building, such as an exit court or public way at ground level exit doors provide access to a means of egress, swinging in the direction of exit travel11

t ravel d ista nce exit access travel distance is 250 feet with fire sprinkler protection, and 200 feet without13

2 45


program

46


program 2 47


3

environme


nt

49


february

relative humidity

march april may june

wet-bulb temperature (deg F)

july august september

window shading

october november december

dry-bulb temperature (deg F)

50

high thermal mass night ushed

passive heating

high thermal mass

comfort zone

wind protection of outdoor spaces

humidity ratio

cl im a te da ta

january

natural ventilation cooling

humidity ratio

ps ychrometric ch a r t


su n pa t h d i a gr a m N 10°

330

30

20° 30° 40°

300

5 june may & july

50°

7

60°

6

6

70° 5

7

80° 4 3

W

apr & aug

8 2

1

12

11

10

9

mar & sept feb & oct jan & nov dec

240

120

150

210

3

S 51


w i nd ros es (m/s) dec e mb er

ma rc h

5%

3%

10%

6% 15%

9% 20%

12%

5.4 +

3.3 - 5.4

1.8 - 3.3

0.5 - 1.8

5.4 +

3.3 - 5.4

1.8 - 3.3

0.5 - 1.8

1.8 - 3.3

0.5 - 1.8

5.4 +

5.4 +

june

septemb er

3.3 - 5.4

3.3 - 5.4

1.8 - 3.3

1.8 - 3.3

0.5 - 1.8

0.5 - 1.8

52

3.3 +

8%

7%

16%

14%

24%

21%

32%

28%

1.8 - 3.3

0.5 - 1.8

5.4 + 5.4 +

3.3 - 5.4


80 70 60 50 40

66 46

66 48

67 49

70 51

71 55

74 59

77

78

78

62

62

61

75 57

70 50

66 46

30 20 10 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr May

Jun

Jul

Average High

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Average Low

temper a t ure

90

32-70 degrees f 70-75 degrees f 75-100 degrees f

4.5 4 3.91

3.5

2

2.22

2.09

1.5 1

1.19

0.5

0.76

0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

0.22 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.16 0.62 May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

rainfall

3.26

h e a t i ng pl o t humidity

3 2.5

3 53


S ma ll we ll- insulat ed sky light s can re d uce d a y time ligh t ing en er gy and cooling lo ads

54

u s e p l a n t m a t e r i a l s , e s p e ci a l l y o n t he west f ace, t o s hade t he st r u ct u re


de sign stra te gi e s

diagrams cour t esy of climat e consult ant sof tware

s unny wind-pro t ect ed outdoor s p a ce s ca n ext en d living areas in cool we a t h er c o ndit io ns

a l ow pi t c hed ro o f wi t h wi de over hang s wo r ks wel l i n t e m pe r at e cl i mat es

3 55


a ir & wa te r

ai r qual ity over a l l a i r q u a l i t y :

1.1/10

ca r b o n m o n o x i d e :

1.1/10

ozone:

7.0/10

p m 10:

2.7/10

p m 2. 5:

1.2/10

sulfur dioxide:

4.7/10

n i t ro g e n d i o x i d e :

1.3/10

all numbers measured as 0 being barely breathable air, and 10 being outstanding quality. by this measure, Gardena has very poor air quality.

natural waterway man-made waterway watershed boundaries 56

wa tershed da t a


site

3 N

0 ft

6000

12000

57


flo ra desert lavender (hyptis emoryi)

deergrass (muhlenbergia rigens) california brittlebrush (encelia californica)

fairy duster (calliandra eriophylla)

california fuschia (epilobium canum)

58

coast live oak (quercus agrifolia)


fa u n a

house sparrow (passer domesticus)

pacific gopher snake (pituophis catenifer)

west coast lady (vanessa annabella)

virginia opossum (didelphis viginiana)

western toad (anaxyrus boreas)

california ground squirrel (otospermophilus beecheyi)

3 59


t o t a l s q u a re f eet:

100,000

s t o r i e s a b o v e g r a de:

2

s t o r i e s b e l o w g r a de:

0

s y s t e m t ype: e c o re gi on: ex i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n t y p e: i ns t al l e d v e g e t a t i o n t y p e:

wood mediterranean california previously developed shrubland

l an d s c a p e d i s t u r b e d ( sf):

75,000

l an d s c a p e i n s t a l l e d (sf):

30,000

ap p rox i mat e ne t embodie d CO 2 f o r t hi s pro j ect i s

2,297 metric tons 60


g ro s s f l o o r space type a re a ( s f ) O t h er

10,000

Of f ice

55,000

Re t ail

35,000

t o t a l g ro s s f l o o r a re a

100,000

pre di ct e d e n e rg y u s e

en e rg y p e r f o r m a n c e r a t i n g e n e rg y re d u c t i o n ( % )

sou rc e e n e rg y u s e i n t e n s i t y (kBtu/sf/yr) s i t e e n e rg y u s e i n t e n s i t y (kBtu/sf/yr)

target

median building

100

50

75

0

41

164

14

58

total ann u a l s o u rc e e n e rg y ( k B t u ) 4,094,686

16,378,744

total a n n u a l s i t e e n e rg y ( k B t u ) 1,440,564

5,762,255

$ 42,664

$ 170,656

119

477

75%

0%

tot a l a n n u a l e n e rg y c o s t ( $ )

predict e d e m i s s i o n s

C O 2 - e q e missions (metric tons/year) C O 2 - eq em issio ns reduc t ion (%)

c a rb o n ca lcu la t i on

pre di ct e d f a c ilit y c h a ra c te ri s ti c s

3 61


4

62

exploratio


n

63


p rec e d e n t stu dy

l ibra ry + rest a u ra n t + mu l t ifunc t i o n a l space arch i t e c t :

l o ca t i o n :

dendermonde, belgium

p roj e ct y e a r :

2003-2010

p roj e ct a re a :

6,300 sqm (68,000 sqf)

budget:

8.5 million euro

p ro g r a m :

multifunctional space, library, and restaurant with rooftop parking and adjacent green space

co n c e p t :

64

BOB361 architects

the site is located between the green bank of the dender river and the main road of dendermonde. BOB361architects wished to connect these two elements, and activate the roof, on which they placed the parking structure. the design is intended to encourange more pedestrian traffic and to stimulate social activity by providing new hangout spaces and easy access to the river.


4 65


66


a rc hi tec t:

l oc a t i on:

knowles blunk architecture fayetteville, ak

p ro j ec t yea r:

2003-2010

p ro j ec t a rea :

52,000 sf

LE E D :

silver

p rog ra m:

large parking facility, bookstore, retail space

c onc ept:

pre ce d e n t stu dy

garla n d a v e n u e c e n te r

the project was designed for the university of arkansas to provide a more aesthetically pleasing alternative to the traditional parking lot, while also linking the parking and retail spaces. a central courtyard is created when the three different programs are placed on site, creating an area for social gathering and interaction.

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p rec e d e n t stu dy

[ OVER]fi l l arch i t e c t :

l o ca t i o n : p roj e ct y e a r :

architekton tempe, arizona 2010

co mp et i t i o n : Scottsdale

Museum of Contemporary Art “Flip a Strip� Competition

p ro g r a m :

retail, office condos, apartments, athletic facilities, public storage facility, hydroponic roof garden

co n c e p t :

this project aims to reinvent the suburban strip mall into a more sustainable and delightful experience, while still appealing to developers and existing codes. analysis showed that additional retail space is often unnecessary, so retail space was limited and mixed with other programs that would provide additonal value to the community. all the programs are arranged around a central courtyard to promote mixing of activities.


4


70


a rc hi tec t:

l oc a t i on: p ro j ec t yea r:

studio marco piva caritĂ di villorba-treviso, italy 2011

p rog ra m: hotel, auditorium for cultural events, wellness center, restaurant, commercial spaces, business spaces, multiple residential typologies c onc ept:

le terraze was designed to demonstrate how an existing building or structure can be revived into a completely new and useful program. by infilling an existing structural system, studio marco piva was able to incorporate several different uses into different floors. the first floor contains the retail, meeting, and office spaces, giving them easy pedestrian access and store frontage. the second floor is occupied by the 4 star hotel, and the residential housing lies on the floor above to provide adequate privacy to its residents. basement parking is shared between all the users of the building, and an inner plaza, adjacent green space, and 4th floor hanging roof garden both embrace nature and bring inhabitants together.

pre ce d e n t stu dy

le te rra z e

4 71


p rec e d e n t stu dy 72

glass loft s arch i t e c t :

location:

front studio architects pittsburgh, pennsylvania

p roj e ct y e a r :

2010

p roj e ct a re a :

39,000 sf

client: cont r a c t o r :

friendship development asc. sota construction services

p ro g r a m :

multifunctional space, library, and restaurant with rooftop parking and adjacent green space

co n c e p t :

the glass lofts

were designed with the core concept of “incompleteness.� front studio architects intentionally left portions unfinished, especially in the common areas, to give users more flexibility to change the building over time. this juxtaposition between the predictable and unpredictable allow inhabitants to complete the space in the ways appropriate to them.


4 73


74


a rc hi tec t:

virai arquitectos

l oc a t i on:

muskiz, vizcaya, spain

c l i ent:

municipality of muskiz

p ro j ec t a rea : budg et:

3,500 sqm (37,700 sqf) 2.5 million euro

p rog ra m:

auditorium, youth space, offices, retail, bars, public plaza and gallery

c onc ept:

the city of muskiz is dominated by a large, ugly refinery to the north of the site. because of this, the building is very closed on the north face, which also helps shelter from aggressive northern winds and rainstorms that occur. in contrast, the south face is very open, providing nice daylighting into the buildings rooms and an enjoyable public plaza.

pre ce d e n t stu dy

auditorium & multifunctional building

4 75


p rec e d e n t stu dy 76

plat oon k unst h a l l e arch i t e c t :

location: p roj e ct y e a r : footprint: p re f a b : cont r a c t o r :

graft architects + baik jiwon seoul, south korea 2008-2009 4,150 sf ace special container hyojung construction & development

p ro g r a m :

exhibitions, event hall, bar & restaurant, artist studios, library lounge, office studios, workshop room

co n c e p t :

This project was not intended to be used for entertainment purposes alone. Its programs and general design principles are intended to create a place where creative subcultures such as street art, fashion, programming, and club culture can gather. It is made of 28 iso cargo containers that can be disassembled and rebuilt elsewhere, representing a movement towards flexible architecture, much like the flexible subcultures it houses.


4 77


ve l lu m fu r n itu re

ga t hered glo w “Gathered Glow” showcases the power of density and the juxtaposition of functions. Alone, the small pieces are weak, but together, they are strong enough to support the weight of a human. Multiple use is also a core concept of this project, and accordingly, “Gathered Glow” is both a light fixture and a seat, two different functions working in harmony. Over 6000 clear drinking straws form the seat of the chair, bonded together with simple hot glue. A monolithic pine base houses the LED lighting, which gives the straw seat a warm, colorful glow. “Gathered Glow” was constructed in several steps. First, a mold of an existing chair was made in order to form the contoured seat. The drinking straws were then trimmed to the appropriate length, and hand glued individually. The underside of the straws was then ironed to both strengthen and flatten the bottom of the seat. The simple pine base is held together with wood glue. Supporting the bulk of the clustered straws is a perforated piece of pine, allowing the lighting to shine up through the drinking straws to create a glow. If needed, the lights are removeable and interchangeable, giving the piece more flexibility.

proc ess

78


4 79


5

80

process


coming soon 81


6

82

design


coming soon

83


7

c onclusion

84


coming soon

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bib l iogra p h y

Endnotes: 1. Hobbes, Frank, and Nicole Stoops. Demographic Trends in the 20th Century. Rep. no. CENSR-4. U.S. Census Bureau, Sept. 2002. 2. “Census 2000 Population Statistics.” U.S. Population Living in Urban vs. Rural Areas. fhwa.dot.gov 3. “Ecological Footprint.” Center for Sustainable Economy. myfootprint.org 4. Buckner, Stephen, and Joanna Gonzalez. “Americans Spend More Than 100 Hours Commuting to Work Each Year, Census Bureau Reports.” Census.gov. 30 Mar. 2005. 5. Kolb, David. Sprawling Places. Athens: University of Georgia, 2008. Print. 6. “South Bay Cities Mixed-Use Guidebook.” Rep. South Bay Cities Council & Solimar Research Group, July 2007. 7. ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2008-2010 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates Gardena California. Rep. no. DP05. U.S. Census Bureau & American Community Surveys 8. Gardena Heritage Committee. Gardena. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub., 2006. Print. 9. “Zoning Information.” Community Development Department. City of Gardena, n.d. Web. <http://www. ci.gardena.ca.us/departments/CommunityDevelopment/zoninginformation.html>. 10. Caulfield, John. “Going Up: Wood-Framed Construction Gaining Ground for Taller Mid-Rises.” Builder. N.p., 06 Apr. 2009. Web. <http://www.builderonline.com/construction-trends/going-up.aspx>. 11. Ching, Francis D.K. Building Construction Illustrated. Fourth ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Print. 12. “Chapter 6 - Types of Construction.” International Code Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2012. <http:// publicecodes.cyberregs.com/st/ca/st/b200v07/st_ca_st_b200v07_6_sec002.htm>. Demographics: S0802- MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK BY SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS, 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, <http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview. xhtml?pid=ACS_10_5YR_S0802&prodType=table> DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 2010 Demographic Profile Data , <http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview. xhtml?pid=DEC_10_DP_DPDP1&prodType=table> Climate Data: “Average Weather for Gardena, CA.” Weather.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://www.weather.com/ weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/90247>. Dillinger, Dan. “Average Relative Humidity(%).” National Climatic Data Center, 20 Apr. 2008. Web. <http://www. ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/online/ccd/avgrh.html>. Alter, Dinsmore, and Clarence Cleminshaw. “The Sun’s Daily Path Across the Sky.” Griffith Observatory, n.d. Web. <http://www.griffithobs.org/skyfiles/skysunspath.html>. West, Sara. Wind Rose Data. Chart. National Resources Conservation Service, 30 Apr. 2003. Web. <http://www. wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/ftpref/downloads/climate/windrose/california/los_angeles/>. The Regents of the University of California. Climate Consultant. Computer software. Vers. 5.4. N.p., n.d. Web. “A CO2 Calculator for Your Whole Building Project.” Build Carbon Neutral. N.p., 11 Oct. 2007. Web. “Target Finder : Energy Star.” Energystar.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. Cochran, Sylvia. “Guide to Native Plants in Los Angeles, California.” Yahoo! Contributor Network. N.p., 7 Apr. 2010. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://voices.yahoo.com/guide-native-plants-los-angeles-california5784594.html?cat=32>. “Common Native Wildlife of Southern California.” Backyard Nature. California Green Solutions, n.d. Web. <http:// www.backyardnature.com/cgi-bin/gt/tpl.h,content=354>. “My WATERS Mapper.” Mapping Services. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 9 May 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://map24.epa.gov/mwm/mwm.html?fromUrl=18070104>. “Gardena Air Quality.” Homefacts.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Dec. 2012. <http://www.homefacts.com/airquality/ California/Los-Angeles-County/Gardena.html>.

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Precedent Studies: “Library + Restaurant + Multifunctional Space / BOB361 Architects” 10 Oct 2010. ArchDaily. Accessed 05 Nov 2012. <http://www.archdaily.com/81114> “Selected Projects - Garland Avenue Center.” Knowles Blunck Architecture, n.d. Web. <http://knowlesblunckarchitecture.com/wordpress/?page_id=81>. Lopez , Oscar. “[OVER]fill / Architekton” 03 Sep 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 05 Nov 2012. <http://www.archdaily. com/160868> “Le Terrazze / Studio Marco Piva” 10 Nov 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 13 Nov 2012. <http://www.archdaily. com/182693> “Glass Lofts / Front Studio Architects” 11 Jan 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 15 Nov 2012. <http://www.archdaily. com/102902> “Auditorium And Multifunctional Building / Virai Arquitectos” 26 Dec 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 17 Nov 2012. <http://www.archdaily.com/193258> “Platoon Kunsthalle / Platoon + Graft Architects” 02 Jul 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed 03 Dec 2012. <http://www. archdaily.com/27386>

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im a g e cre d its

Cover Image: Berry, Addison. Parking Lot. 2009. Photograph. Houston. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ add1sun/3466383400/>. Section 1 Images: Bennett, Patrick. Los Angeles Freeway Traffic. 2007. Photograph. National Geographic Society, Los Angeles. Web. Watanabe, Chika. Strip Mall. 2008. Photograph. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ chikawatanabe/2272313457/>. Benedict, Tom. Parking Lot and Pool. 2010. Photograph. Kailua-Kona, HI. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ tbenedict/5235552195/>. Shankbone, David. Suburbia. 2008. Photograph. Colorado Springs. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Suburbia_by_David_Shankbone.jpg>. Walmart Corporation. LED Parking Lot Lights at Walmart Puerto Rico. 2010. Photograph. Puerto Rico. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/walmartcorporate/5259733450/>. Nowakowski, Krzysztof. Rural Poland. 2010. Photograph. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/23459024@ N08/4998570578/>. Farnsworth, Stephen. New York City at Night. 2008. Photograph. New York City. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com /photos/smfarnsworth/3798203373/>. Aders, Zachary. Favela Vernacular in the Urban Frontier. N.d. Photograph. Web. Benedict, Jared C. Walmart Exterior. N.d. Photograph. Laredo, TX. Wikimedia Commons. Web. Vlastula. Cedar Point Parking Lot. 2005. Photograph. Sandusky, OH. Wikimedia Commons. Web. Boon, Tony. Power Lines. 2004. Photograph. Suffolk, England. Wikimedia Commons. Web. Kanouse, Kent. Strip Mall. 2005. Photograph. Sherman Oaks, CA. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/ kkanouse/5845861126/>. Paris Bike Sharing. N.d. Photograph. Paris. Fort Worth Injury Lawyer Blog. Web. La Citta Vita. Mixed-Use, Public Space. 2010. Photograph. Malmo, Sweden. Flickr. Web. Wall, Melissa. Community Garden Work Day. 2011. Photograph. Glendale, CA. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/ photos/melissawall/6157167278/>. SchuminWeb. South San Jose (crop). 2006. Photograph. San Jose. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/File:South_San_Jose_%28crop%29.jpg>. La Citta Vita. Mixed-Use, Bike Friendly. 2010. Photograph. Malmo, Sweden. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/ photos/49539505@N04/4765002383>. Section 2 Images: Kiy. N.d. Photograph. Los Angeles County Arboretum & Bontanic Garden. Www.arboretum.org. Web. <http://www. arboretum.org/images/uploads/kiy.JPG>. Tongva Illustration. N.d. Photograph. Gabrielino Tongva Nation. Web. <http://www.gabrielino-tongva.com/>. Strawberry Workers. N.d. Photograph. Gardena. Charlston, SC: Gardena Heritage Committe, 2006. N. pag. Print. Express Movers. N.d. Photograph. Gardena. Charlston, SC: Gardena Heritage Committe, 2006. N. pag. Print. Down Town Gardena Area Looking Southwest. 1968. Photograph. County of Los Angeles Public Library. Web. <http://www.colapublib.org/scgi-bin/colapl/history/showpic.cgi?c=gardena&p=main&file=3.jpg>. Gardena City Hall. 1964. Photograph. County of Los Angeles Public Library. Web. <http://www.colapublib.org/scgi- bin/colapl/history/showpic.cgi?c=gardena&p=main&file=17.jpg>. Gardena City Hall. 1980. Photograph. County of Los Angeles Public Library. Web. <http://www.colapublib.org/scgi- bin/colapl/history/showpic.cgi?c=gardena&p=main&file=24.jpg>. Gonzalez, Anthony. Walkway of Flags. 2011. Photograph. Gardena, CA. Americancityandcountry.com. Web. Historical Topographic Map. 1994. Photograph. Gardena, CA. Usgs.gov. Web. <http://topomaps.usgs.gov/>. Ching, Francis D.K. Types of Construction Diagram. N.d. Photograph. Building Construction Illustrated. Fourth ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. 2.06. Print. Wei, Tobi. Exit Sign, 2. 2009. Photograph. New York City. Flickr. Web. Attercop311. I Like Handicap Signs a Lot. 2008. Photograph. Remus, MI. Flickr. Web.

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Section 3 Images: Geumsey, Ron. Purple Flower---Explored!!!! 2010. Photograph. Ghetty Images. Flickr. Web. <http://www.flickr.com/ photos/granpoparazzi/5115608609/>. CubaGallery, Andrew. Green Leaves. 2011. Photograph. Auckland, New Zealand. Flickr. Web. Bilton, Matt. River Cam Ripples. 2011. Photograph. Cambridge. Flickr. Web. Acceber, Avrenim. Orange Crush. 2006. Photograph. Ann Arbor. Flickr. Web. Hirota, Satoru. Skylight Over Stairs. 2012. Photograph. Smallhousebliss.com. Web. Wonderlane. Redwest Campus, Microsoft Building Red West D, View from Red West A, Trees, Clouds, Redmond, Washington, USA. 2010. Photograph. Redmond, WA. Flickr. Web. Therma-Tru. Fiber Classic. 2012. Photograph. Buildipedia.com. Web. O’Donovan, Michael. North Hill: 284 West Gonzales Street. N.d. Photograph. Pensacola, FL. Filmnorthflorida.com. Web. Shebs, Stan. Zauschneria Flowers. 2003. Photograph. Wikimedia Commons, Desert Demonstration Garden, Las Vegas. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Zauschneria_flowers-500px.jpg>. Melburnian. Calliandra Eriophylla. 2007. Photograph. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Calliandra_eriophylla.jpg>. Shebs, Stan. Hyptis Emoryi. 2005. Photograph. Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument, Palm Desert, CA. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hyptis_emoryi.jpg>. Shebs, Stan. Muhlenbergia Rigens. 2005. Photograph. Springs Preserve Garden, Las Vegas, NV. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/Muhlenbergia_rigens_form.jpg>. Clark, Curtis. Encelia Californica Head. 2006. Photograph. CSU Pomona, Pomona, CA. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Encelia_californica_head_2003-04-10.jpg>. Davis, John. Lone Tree on a Summer’s Hillside. 2008. Photograph. Walnut Creek, CA. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lone_tree_on_a_summer_hillside.jpg>. Cochran, Sylvia. “Guide to Native Plants in Los Angeles, California.” Yahoo! Contributor Network. N.p., 7 Apr. 2010. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://voices.yahoo.com/guide-native-plants-los-angeles-california-5784594. html?cat=32>. Bouton, Bill. English: A Pacific Gopher Snake. 2011. Photograph. Carrizo Plain National Monument, San Luis Obispo, CA. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/ Pituophis_catenifer_catenifer_%28Carrizo_Plain%29.jpg>. Howcheng. CA Ground Squirrel on Rock. 2009. Photograph. Thousand Oaks, CA. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http:// upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/CA_Ground_Squirrel_on_rock.jpg>. Lofink, David. Passer Domesticus -California, USA-8. 2010. Photograph. California. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Passer_domesticus_-California,_USA-8.jpg>. Vernon, Alan. West Coast Lady, Vanessa Annabella. 2011. Photograph. Yuma, AZ. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:West_Coast_Lady,_Vanessa_annabella.jpg>. Drcyrus. Didelphis Virginiana Westerncanada20072. 2007. Photograph. Lower Western Canada. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a8/Didelphis_virginiana_westerncanada20072.jpg> Siegmund, Walter. Anaxyrus Boreas (Bufo Boreas). 2009. Photograph. Perry Creek Research Natural Area. Wikimedia Commons. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bufo_boreas_5629.JPG>. Precedent Images: Nullens, Andre. Library + Restaurant + Multifunctional Space / BOB361 Architects. 2010. Photograph. Dendermonde, Belgium. Archdaily.com. Web. Hursley, Timothy. Garland Ave Center. N.d. Photograph. Fayetteville, AK. Http://knowlesblunckarchitecture.com. Web. Architeckton. [OVER]fill / Architekton. 2011. Photograph. Archdaily.com. Web. Studio Marco Piva. Le Terrazze. 2011. Photograph. Carità Di Villorba-Treviso, Italy. Archdaily.com. Web. Massery, Ed. Glass Lofts. 2010. Photograph. Pittsburgh. Archdaily.com. Web. De Guzman, Miguel. Auditorium And Multifunctional Building / Virai Arquitectos. 2011. Photograph. Muskiz, Vizcaya, Spain. Archdaily.com. Web. Platoon. Platoon Kunsthalle. 2009. Photograph. Seoul, South Korea. Archdaily.com. Web.

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Unsprawl: Cal Poly Architecture 5th Year Thesis Book by Stephanie Cooper (in progress)  

Unfinished, ongoing draft of an Architecture Thesis book by Stephanie Cooper, a 5th year Cal Poly San Luis Obispo student.

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