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To infinity  and  beyond!  






Table of  Contents    


How the  universe  started  and  how  it  will  end............................3    


The extra-­‐terrestrial  wordsearch?....................................................5  


Habitable zones  .........6  


The Meteorite  Experiment  ...................................................................7  


Life on  other  planets:  Could  it  all  be  possible?............................8  


A Scientific  debate  on  life  on  other  planets.................................9  


How do  Scientists  think.....................................................................10  


Astrobiologists in  practice........................11  


Fun Facts  to  keep  you  going............................................................12  


Complete the  Maze..............................................................................14  


Life on  other  planets  vs.  religion  ..................................................15  


Watch what  scientists  have  to  say................................................16  


What does  the  world  think?.............................................................17  


A Scientist’s  opinion..........................................................................18  





Life on  Other  Planets:       For  decades  there  had  always   been  the  ongoing  question  of  whether   or  not  there  was  life  on  other  planets.   Scientists  and  NASA  have  been   exploring  our  great  universe  and   coming  up  with  many  theories  that  may   help  explain  all  the  peculiar  aspects  of   our  universe.    

How the universe started and how it will end! There are  countless  theories  on  how  our  universe  was  created  and  

how life  came  to  existence.  The  most  popular  one  however  is  the  Big  Bang   theory.  But  what  is  the  Big  bang  theory?    

The Big  bang  theory  was  first  suggested  by  Georges  Lemaitre  and  

states that  about  10  billion  to  20  billion  years  ago,  a  massive  explosion   allowed  all  the  universe's  known  matter  and  energy,  including  space  as   well  as  time  to  leap  from  an  unknown  form  of  energy.  After  that  blast,  the   universe  started  to  expand  at  an  immeasurable  speed  and  is  still   expanding.    Cosmic  objects  were  then  formed  such  as  stars.       Quick  Info  Burst:   But  what  defines  what  is   life?   -­‐  Respiration  (ability  to   create  energy)  

But what  does  this  have  to  do  with  life  you  might  ask?  It  is  a  widely  

believed theory  that  life  started  in  our  universe  as  a  cause  of  supernovae   of  stars  where  as  the  star  dies  the  massive  explosion  causes  it  to  give  off   all  the  elements  in  the  periodic  table,  including  carbon,  which  is  the   backbone  of  life.    

-­‐ Cellular  (composed  of   cell(s))  

-­‐ Reproduction  

expand continuously  on  accelerated  pace  until  making  everything  of  

-­‐ Growth   -­‐  Responds  to  changes  in   the  Environment  

Theories about  the  end  of  the  universe  are  many  the  most  famous  

one is,  “The  Big  Rip  Theory”  This  theory  suggests  that  the  universe  will  

galaxies, stars,  planets,  and  any  existing  matter  ripped  and  torn.  Another   one  is,  “The  Big  Crunch  Theory”  This  theory  suggests  that  the  universe  will   stop  expanding  and  begin  to  reverse  its  moving  and  contract  and  collapse  


on itself  and  make  a  huge  explosion  like  the  big  bang  one.  This  theory  is   considered  the  reverse  of  the  big  bang  theory.    


Astrobiology: MEET  THE   ASTRO-­‐ BIOLOGIST!  

Astrobiology is  a  

scientific field  that  is   concerned  with  the  study  of   the  origins  of  life  as  well  as   the  future  of  extra-­‐ terrestrial  life  their  goals  is   to  search  for  habitable   planets  in  our  solar  system,   in  hopes  of  finding  new  life.  

The Drake Equation: Since our  universe  is  so  large  and  infinite  the  job  of   scientists  and  Astrobiologists  of  finding  life  beyond  our  earth   (exobiology)  is  incredibly  difficult.  In  order  to  make  an   approximate  estimation  of  civilizations  beyond  earth  an   equation  was  established  for  that  purpose,  which  is  the  Drake   Equation.  

The purpose  of  the  equation  is  to  calculate  the   approximate  number  of  extraterrestrial  civilization  in  our  solar   system  (the  Milky  Way).  The  way  the  equation  is  calculated  is   quite  complicated  but  we  can  simplify  it  by  the  following:     R=  Average  rate  of  star  formation   fp=  The  fraction  with  planets     ne=  The  no.  of  planets  than  can  potentially  have  life   fl=The  fraction  of  planets  that  can  actually  develop  life   fi=  The  fraction  of  planets  that  can  develop  intelligent  life   fc=The  fraction  that  develop  technology  that  can  release     signals  into  space   L=  The  length  in  which  they  release  detectable  signals      

Are We Alone on the Universe? Some statistics that may freak you out! 1. There are  hundreds  of  billions   of  galaxies  in  our  universe   2. 150  spied  planets  in  the   neighborhood  near  the  sun   (which  means  its  warm  enough   for  life  to  flourish  on  these   planets)   3. SETI  (search  for  extra-­‐ terrestrial  life)  researchers   searched  710  star  systems  at   28  million  channels   simultaneously  across  an   1800-­‐megahertz  range!  (That’s   big)   4. There  are  a  hundred  million   stars  out  there   The  universe  is  too  big  for  us  to  be   alone!  

To  find  more  about  the  search  of  life   on  other  planets  and  other   civilisations?  Click  here.    



Food for  Thought!   We    all  know  that  water  is   the  source  of  life.  Liquid   tends  to  flow  downwards   due  to  gravity  on  Earth,   however,  since  space  has   zero  gravity  liquids  form   spheres!  HOW  COOL!  


Habitable Zones

What is  a   Habitable  Zone?  

A Habitable  zone  is   the  area  around  a   certain  star  where   the  planets  can   maintain  water  in   liquid  form  on  it  

What makes Earth so

Habitable Zones and Stars


The search  for  life  is  largely  limited  to  the  search  for   water.  Therefore,  we  should  search  with  a  region  around  

There are  eight  planets  in  

a star  where  a  planet  with  sufficient  atmospheric  

our solar  system,  yet  only  one  of  

pressure under  a  certain  temperature  which  can  

them has  the  ability  to  sustain  life,  

maintain liquid  water  on  its  surface.    

our planet  Earth.  Is  it  the  Earth’s  

Location of  the  star's  habitable  zone  depends  on:   -­‐

size? Is  it  its  distance  from  the  sun?  

Star luminosity:  it  increases  with  time  therefore,  

What makes  Earth  so  special?  It  is,  

the outer  and  inner  bounders  of  the  habitable  

in fact,  water  that  makes  life  

zone move  outward.  Four  billion  years  ago  the  

possible on  our  planet.  

sun luminosity  was  about  75  percent  intense  as   today.  Therefore,  the  most  promising  region   where  we  can  find  Earth-­‐like  life  would  be  in  the     continuously  habitable  where  liquid  water  is  


Star mass:  smaller  stars  survive  longer  than  

present from  the  early  star's  life  up  to  now.  For  

high mass  stars  that  have  a  life  time  of  only  

the sun,  this  area  is  about  0.9  to  1.3  astronomical  

millions of  years  which  is  too  short  to  support  


advanced life  that  takes  billion  of  years  to   develop.  


Do It  Yourself!   What  you  will  need:   Large  piece  of  white  paper  or  plastic     Magnet     Magnifying  glass  or  a  microscope  (Preferably  a  microscope)     Procedure:     • Choose  a  clear  sunny  day     • Leave  the  sheet  of  paper  or  plastic  outside  in  an  area  not  covered  by  trees.     • Place  the  pan  on  a  hard  surface  (Like  the  ground).     • Leave  in  place  for  4  hours  or  more.  (Collect  before  it  rains.)     • Carefully  collect  the  sheet  by  lifting  the  edges  so  any  material  collected  rolls  into  the   center.     • Carefully  tap  the  sheet  to  shift  all  material  to  the  center.     • Hold  the  magnet  against  the  bottom  of  the  sheet  and  gently  tilt  the  sheet  so  the  material,   which  is  not  attracted  to  the  magnet,  rolls  off.     • Take  the  remaining  material  and  place  it  under  your  magnifying  glass  or  microscope.     • Examine  your  material,  looking  for  dark  round  particles  with  pitted  surfaces.     • You  have  found  micrometeorites!     What  does  this  mean?  Each  day  countless  tons  of  particles  are  deposited  on  our  planet,  many  of   them  actually  originated  at  about  the  same  time  that  our  solar  system  is  thought  to  have  been   created  (about  4.5  billion  years  ago!).  So  maybe  that  particles  you’ve  collected  may  even  have   evidence  of  extra-­‐terrestrial  life!     • • •


So far  Kepler  NASA  satellite  discovered  48   planets  within  the  habitable  zone  of  their   stars.  To  find  out  more  about  this  click  here.  


Before our  planet  Earth  was  roaming  with  

human beings,  it  was  made  of  very  

LIFE ON MARS: Could it all be possible? The  search  of  life  on  other  planets  has  been  going    on  for  decades,  so  can  there  be  a  chance  that     we  are  finally  reaching  our  goal?  

primitive elements  that  evolved  to  LUCA   (last  universal  common  ancestor).   Evolution  continued  until  multi-­‐cellular   organisms  were  appearing  and  so  on.  So   this  may  as  well  mean  that  billions  of   years  from  now,  Mars  may  end  up  with  

Fifty years  ago  no  one  would  have  ever   predicted  that  there  might  have  been  a  discovery   of  evidence  of  life  on  other  planets,  which  is  why   it  was  a  huge  story  when  scientists  from  NASA   announced  that  they  had  finally  found   “compelling  evidence”  of  life  in  a  fossilized  form   on  Mars.   It  all  began  with  a  meteorite  that  was  originally       from  Mars  and  that  had  potentially  biogenic  chemical  of  

human-­‐like creatures  living  on  it.    

To this  day  NASA  scientists  have  

captured 34  Marsian  meteorites,  which  is   why  they  have  established  some  criteria  to   help  establish  whether  past  life  indeed   exists  in  these  geological  samples:   1.  Is  the  geologic  sample  fitting  with  past   life?  

fossilized bacteria  that  were  about  3.8  billion  years  old!  

2. Is  it  compatible  in  terms  of  age  with  

As much  as  this  discovery  shook  the  scientific  

possible life?  

community, people  were  not  as  excited  as  one  would  

3. Sample  should  have  enough  evidence  to  

expect. NASA  Administrator  Dan  Goldin  stated  that,  “I  

show cellular  morphology  and  colonies  

want everyone  to  understand,  we  are  not  talking  about  

4. Is  there  any  verification  of  biomaterials?  

little green  men.”  

5. Is  there  any  

In reality,  this  however,  was  a  great    

evidence of  stable  

cosmic find  as  it  confirms  many    

isotope patterns?  

theories that  support  the  existence    

6. Is  the  sample  of  

(or prior  existence)  to  life  on  other   planets.  


Click here   to  learn   more  

indigenous features?    


The possibility  of  an  existence  of  life  on  other   planets  beyond  our  Earth  has,  like  most   controversial  subjects  stirred  a  scientific   debate  that  argues  for  and  against  the  idea  of   extra-­‐terrestrial  life.  So  who  is  right  and  who   is  wrong?  Well  the  answer  is  different  for   every  individual  due  to  his  or  her  preferences   and  beliefs.    

Yes and  No   Debate.  People’s   and  scientist’s   Opinions  

Yes: “Thousands  of  reports  of  UFO  sightings  come   in  yearly,  hundreds  of  thousands  over  the  last   twenty  years  or  so.  Can  it  really  be  that  none   of  these  are  genuine?  A  quick  search  online   produces  thousands  of  hits:  not  of  only  of   pictures  or  videos,  but  also  of  detailed   accounts  that  simply  cannot  be  scientifically   explained.”      

No: “No,  we  cannot  know  what  is  beyond  that   edge,  and  so  cannot  tell  if  anything  is  out   there.  But  any  philosopher  and  scientist   would  tell  you  that  just  because  you  cannot   answer  a  question  in  the  negative,  does  not   mean  we  are  resigned  to  the  fact  that  the   answer  is  positive.”  

No: “We  really  do  only  have  a  weak  idea  about  the   constants  in  Drake's  equation.   E.g.  the  constant  for  the  fraction  of  planets   ecologically  able  to  sustain  life  that  actually   evolves  life  is  at  best  a  wild  guess.”  

Yes: “Yes  I  can  believe  that  there  is  life  on  mars   simply  because  with  today's  technology  it  is  a   lot  easier  to  dig  deeper  into  whether  or  not   life  had  once  exited  or  does  exist.  After   studies  from  satellite  photos  and  mars  are   out,  I  am  led  to  believe  that  life  did  once  exist   because  they  found  out  that  there  are  signs  of   water  once  running  through  the  planet.”  


How Do  Scientists  Think?  


With the  rise  of  the  amount  of  knowledge  that  is  being  obtained  everyday  there  has  been  an  

undeniable  increase  in  the  amount  of  false  information  and  theories  that  are  not  backed  up  by  any   evidence   out  there.  That  is  why  one  should  always  make  sure  of  their  sources  from  where  they  get     their  information  in  order  to  guarantee  an  accurate  gain  of  information.   That  is  why  it  is  especially  important  to  understand  how  a  real  scientist  comes  to  obtain  their   information  (in  other  words  how  do  scientists  think).     Let  us  define  the  following  terms:   -­‐

-­‐ -­‐

Good science:    good  science  is  science  that  is  obtained   by  following  the  scientific  method,  which  means  that  it   is  backed  up  by  evidence  and  can  be  testable  (not   necessarily  in  a  lab).   Bas  science:  is  science  that  is  not  based  on  evidence   and  that  obtained  by  not  following  the  scientific   method  and  has  no  validity.   Pseudoscience:  a  claim  or  belief  that  seems  to  be   science  but  does  not  follow  the  scientific  method  or  can   be  falsified  or  tested.  

It can  be  easily  seen  that  a  real  scientist  would  only  follow   and  obtain  good  science.       EVEN  EINSTEIN  CAN  GET  IT  WRONG!   When  developing  his  theory  of  general  relativity,  he  assumed     the  universe  was  static  but  according  to  his  equations  this  cannot  be   right.  Instead  of  predicting  that  the  universe  was  changing,  he   modified  his  equations  to  introduce  a  cosmological  constant  to   support  his  theory.  When  physicist  Edwin  Hubble  discovered  that   the  universe  was  not  static  but  was  expanding,  Einstein  called  his   cosmological  constant  "the  greatest  mistake  of  my  life"     10  

Astrobiology in



Astrobiologists work  in  practice!  In  

order for  them  to  collect  reliable  

data about  life  on  other  planets  and  

for them  to  reach  scientific  

conclusions, they  have  to  follow  a  

certain methodology.  

Now let  us  see  how  

1)   When  Astrobiologists  come   across  meteorites,  they  don’t  just   collect  them  and  put  them  all   together.  First  they  need  to  classify   them.  Meteorites  come  in  three   different  large  families:  stone,  iron   and  stony  iron.  They  then  need  to   classify  each  meteorite  according  to   their  properties  in  each  of  these   families!  



After collecting  the  meteorites  they   will  then  return  to  their  labs,  one  of  the   famous  labs  is  called,  “Cascadia  Meteorite   Laboratory”.  This  is  where  they  analyze  it.   Firstly  they  make  sure  that  the  meteor   does  not  get  contaminated  (by  their  fingers   or  by  organic  compounds).  Then  they  wash   it  lightly  with  water  and  out  it  in  a  solvent.   Finally  they  cut  it  open  using  saw  blades.  


3)   After  they  cut  it  open  the  real   analysis  begins  as  they  can  now   analyze  the  samples  under  their   microscopes  and  know  more   information  about  it,  like  its  age,   origin  and  chemical  composition.  

4)   Finally  they  then  record  all   their  findings  and  observations  to   be  peer  reviewed  and  they  might   even  get  published  if  everything   seems  to  be  in  order!  


Fun Facts to keep you going!

Did you  know  that   there  are  thousands   of  yearly  reports  of   “Alien”  sightings      

-­‐ Voyager  2  is  the   only  spacecraft  to   have  visited   Neptune,  in  1989   -­‐  The  largest  volcano   in  our  solar  system  is   actually  located  on   Mars  and  is  called   “Olympus  Mons”  

Jupiter is  so  big  that   all  other  planets   can  fit  inside  it  and   it  has  the  most                                             violent  storms   known  to  our  solar   system    

Pluto is  no  longer   considered  a  planet   instead  it  is  a  dwarf   planet  or  planetoid  

In 1854,  William   Whewell,  who   popularized  the   word  scientist,   theorized  that  Mars   had  seas,  land  and   possibly  life  forms.  


Jupiter's moon Europa may


Did you know?

May have water!

Saturn's moon   Titan  has  plenty   of  evidence  of   organic  (life)   chemicals  in  its   atmosphere!  

In 2004,   astronomers   discovered  a  star   made  of  diamond!    

The Drake   equations   calculated  the   approximation  of   the  civilizations   that  could  exist  in   our  galaxy.  The   figure  was  in    

Astronomer Fred  Hoyle   believes  the   basic  life   chemicals   came  from   space,   specifically   from  stars.


The first regular pulses received from space were considered signals from aliens. Scientists called them Little Green Men!


Complete the Maze!


You’re goal  is  to  start  and  pass  over  all  the  planets  then  to  finally   reach  your  destination!  To  make  it  more  challenging  you  should   time  yourself!   Finished  in  30s1min=PERFECT   1min2min=GOOD   2min+=Hey  at  least  you’ve  arrived       14  

Life on other planets

Religion V.S

Ever since  1543,   centuries  before  today,   there  has  been  the  non-­‐ ending  ongoing  conflict   between  science  and   religion.     -­‐   Nicolaus  Copernicus   theorized  that  the  sun  was   the  center  of  the  universe,   that  the  earth  rotated  on  an   axis,  and  that  the  earth   circled  the  sun  once  a  year.  

-­‐ Religion  said  that  the  sun   moved  around  the   stationary  earth.  The  bible   stated  that  the  earth  does   not  spin  or  move:  “The   world  is  firmly  established;   it  cannot  be  moved.”  [Psalm   93:1,  Psalm  96:10,  1   Chronicles  16:30].  However   Galileo  believed  that  it   should  have  not  been   understood  in  a  literal   sense  


Galileo proved  him  right   when  he  used  a  new   invented  telescope  to  look   at  the  stars  and  moon.  He   saw  four  moons  circling   Jupiter,  proof  of  a  miniature   planetary  system.  


The Son  of  God  came  to   earth;  therefore  earth  must   be  the  center  of  the   universe  to  demote  the   centrality  of  Christ.  


No religion  actually   contradicts  that  life  may   exist  on  other  planets  since   God  doesn’t  say  that  he  only   created  life  on  planet  earth,   in  the  bible  its  mentioned   that  there  are  intelligent  life   besides  humans  


Evidence of  life  on  other   planets  are  being  found   every  day  with  primitive   cellular  fossils  of  organisms   were  found  in  meteorites  as   well  as  many  planets  with   liquid  water  on  them  that   shows  that  life  may  indeed   exist  or  might  exist  in  the   future  on  other  planets  


Many scientists  are  in  fact  religious  believers.  Science     does  not  have  to  contradict  religion  because  not   everything  is  explained  scientifically.  At  certain  times   science  may  even  back  up  religion.  



Watch what do Scientists have to say?

  Evolution  of  life  on  other   planets   Rhawn  Joseph,  Ph.D   “The  seeds  of  life,  actual   living  creatures  and  their   DNA,  flow  throughout  the   cosmos  and  have  taken  root   on  innumerable  worlds   much  older  than  our  own.”      


Life on  Mars:  NASA.  Evidence   of  Past  Life  on  the  Red  Planet     Rhawn  Joseph,  Ph.D.   “This  video  details  the  scientific   evidence  proving  that  microbial   life  lived  on  Mars  from  4  billion   to  at  least  1  million  years  ago”          

The search  for  life  in  outer   space   John  Zarrella   “CNN's  John  Zarrella  reports  on   a  growing  body  of  evidence  that   there  is  life  beyond  Earth.”  


What the World Thinks?


ongoing debate  about  extra-­‐terrestrial  life.   An  extra-­‐terrestrial  survey  was  conducted   with  quite  interesting  results  amongst  

Find out  what  other  think  about  the  

people of  ages  15+!  

In an  online  survey  in  which  people  of   age  group  15  and  over  participated,   67.8%  of  voters  believed  that  there   could  be  life  on  planets  other  than   Earth,  while  32.2%  thought  it  would  be   impossible.  

                                                                                                                                                                       The  people  have  spoken!                                                                                                                                  This  was  a  close  one  with  33%  choosing     Oxygen,  whereas  28.4%    voted  for  Earth’s  size  and  location.    Although  they  are  all  important              38.6%  are  correct.  It  is  water     that  makes  Earth  a  lucky  planet,     enabling  life  to  form.  

                                               Guess  what?   55.8%  of  voters  consider  it  possible  that     you  can  walk  on  Mars  within  the  next   quarter  decade.  It  is  understandable     due  to  the  skyrocketing  technological   advancement.  But  then  again,  walking     on  Mars?!  What  do  you  think?     17  

A Scientist’s Opinion


This is  an  intervie  with  Dr.  Edmund  Douglass  who  is  an  assistant   professor  at  AUC  and  who  also  has  a  PhD  in  Astronomy    


Starting off the interview, do you believe in life on other planets?

Well, that is a tough question because the universe is huge, the galaxies has hundreds of millions of stars, which have planets around them and the universe has been around for 13.5 billion years and that is a long time for elements to be formed and distributed everywhere and there is also much time for life to evolve on other planets, despite all that I do not know because the main question is not, "Do I believe there might be life on other planets?" but the question is "how difficult is it for life to start?" -

When do you believe that humans could walk on mars?

I do not know, it depends on the priorities; NASA's work is mainly observational astronomy. It is working on sending human space crafts, but the problem with sending someone to mars is not getting them there, but bringing them back because of the cost of shipping the fuel to get there; moreover the way we got to the moon was because putting a lot of money and talent into the space program, it was a matter of national identity and military purposes because of a space race between America and Russia and I think that the next space race would be between America and China and the space destination would be Mars. -

Are you aware of the drake equation?

Well, drake equation is a way to handle on how many civilizations, are in the galaxy currently, series of parameters or variables which give the total number of civilizations in the galaxy when these variables are multiplied together. N= R*. Fp. Ne. Fl. Fi. Fe. L R* is a rate of star formation in our galaxy. Fp is the fraction of stars which have planets. Ne is the fraction of stars with planets which have something capable of supporting life. Fl the fraction of planets like earth which actually have life on them. Fi is the fraction of those, which have life on them, that developed intelligent life. Fe is the fraction of those planets with intelligent life on them which developed modern technological civilization. L: how long do those civilizations survive? So although we do not know the last three parameters for sure we can make a rough estimation as to how many civilizations are in the universe.  



What distinguishes Astrobiologists and scientists who are trying to find extraterrestrial life from amateurs who look for green aliens and UFOs?

Well there are Astrobiologists and SETI, which is the search for extra-terrestrial   intelligence and comprised of many astronomers and physicists and of course the UFO  people. It is all about the process and assumptions that are made, so as far as Astrobiologists go, they use their understanding of how life and biochemistry works on   earth to search for life elsewhere. We know all life here is carbon based and we know that   we need water for life here and so they are first going to start looking for that sort of  evidence. Why carbon? The ratio of silicon to carbon on earth is 10:1 and both of them have the same number of possible bonds but carbon is the backbone of life. That is another   reason to be looking for carbon in outer space. So there are these lines of evidence and   methodical process that Astrobiologists use, same thing for the SETI listeners, who try to  listen from sunlight stars so that if they do host planets these planets could possibly have life and they don’t look at the big stars because they have a lot of ultraviolet radiation and   very short lifetimes and also to decide which radio frequency to listen at requires scientific   assumptions. With UFOlogists there is never any evidence. Light in the sky that can be  “interpreted” as UFOs could more often then not be atmospheric disturbances or military flights.    

Click to   download   and  watch   full   interview!  



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Magazine about life on other planets

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