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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Abstract Thesis Prep I (Fall 2009) - Prospectus Thesis Prep II (Fall 2009) - Site Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Site Thesis Prep II (Fall 2009) - Program Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Program Thesis Prep II (Fall 2009) - Precedents Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Precedents Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Site animation Studies Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Design Phase 1 Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Design Phase 2 Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Design Phase 3 Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Final Design Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) - Conclusion Bibliography

1 2-3 4-13 14-24 25-34 35-37 38-42 43-48 49-51 52-59 60-62 63-73 74-80 81-92 93-118 119-121 122-123

1


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) Abstract

Thesis Studio - Abstract

2


The artist community is integral to the culture and vibrancy of the city of Boston. Many times the process of production is disconnected from the final display of art. Many

people experience art by viewing the final product with little or no understanding to the process associated with creating these pieces of work. process through architectural form.

Creating transparency between production and display provides the viewer with a multifaceted view of art. This thesis will explore how architecture

can connect the production and display of art to the city of

This thesis will look at revealing this

Boston.

The building will specifically house facilities capable of manufacturing and displaying large-scale sculptures. The main portion of the building consists of exhibit/production

spaces that provide large, expansive space capable of manufacturing large scale art. lounges, cafe, bookstore, lavatories, egress and freight elevators. day.

Flanking these spaces are three main cores that house the artists’ studios, administration offices,

Primarily artist and sculptors who will be working on producing sculptures will occupy the building during the

The architecture acts as a destination for the city in the evening as the building transforms from production mode to display mode. The production areas will transform into exhibit

spaces for the sculptures, allowing visitors to pass freely from space to another.

A structure capable of housing production and display facilities allows the public and the surrounding community to experience the process from start to finish. This thesis will explore the idea of projecting the process of art on the city of

Boston and the community of South Boston.

The site is located in South Boston, near the Artist for Humanity Building and adjacent to a new artist residence. The connection to the historic industrial past of South

Boston and the prevalent artist community in South Boston was important in choosing the site. The “Artist Initiative Act” stated on The Boston Redevelopment Authorities website provided the necessary information regarding the growing artist community in the city of and the art that is produced.

Boston. The artist community in South Boston creates a dynamic relationship between the city

Merging the production process of large scale sculptures with a theatrical aesthetic creates a unique architecture in South Boston. Designing a building

capable of merging these ideas and exposing the processes of manufacturing became the focus of my thesis exploration.

Designing a structure capable of transforming itself to meet the needs of the sculptors and the public creates a dynamic theatrical expression in South Boston and in the City of

Boston.

Thesis Studio - Abstract

3


Thesis Prep I (Fall 2009) Prospectus

Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

4


Overview Statement

This thesis will explore the notion of mutual interactivity between inhabitants’ and the built environment. Through the use of emerging technologies, materials and programmatic

relationships, this thesis will discuss how multi-purpose spaces can adapt to the inhabitants’ needs throughout various time spans. The interaction between inhabitant and building creates a constantly changing dialogue that allows for spaces to be experienced differently depending on use. that is in constant flux that caters to the inhabitants’ needs.

The manipulation and control of light, spaces, noise and views creates a building

The idea of an artist design studio came from the notion of engagement, interaction and adaptability. Many artist design

studio require spaces that need to respond to the occupants’ needs throughout various times of the day. arraignments depending on use.

The variety of studio spaces, galleries and exhibition spaces require different

The constant transfer of ideas, people and objects within an artist design studio creates a need for interaction between building and occupant.

The visual and physical connection to the surrounding context aids in creating a dynamic relationship between human and building. The public engagement to the built environment

is an important aspect that creates spaces that are more than just static objects in the landscape. The site for this thesis is located in South Boston, just South of the Boston Convention

Center. The location of the site is on the corner of the South Boston Bypass and West Second Street. This area is located at a transition point between residential neighborhoods and commercial and industrial parks. The site creates a link between living environments and working environments and plays an active role in engaging the two zones. Just across the

South

Boston Bypass is the Artist for Humanity Building, which educates inner city children in the various disciplines of art. Directly across the street from the proposed site is an abandoned building that is being renovated into residential units, with twenty-one specifically designed as artist studios. This thesis will look at ways to interact and engage with the immediate context as well as at a much larger urban scale.

Throughout the thesis process, the idea of interactivity between the built environment and humans will be explored. With the integration of emerging technologies, materials

and programmatic relationships, this thesis will explore how buildings are capable of responding to occupants’ needs through various time spans.

Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

5


Research Problem

This thesis will examine the idea of multi-purpose buildings and address ways to provide interaction and adaptability depending on occupants’ needs. The capacity for these

spaces to transform and change throughout various time spans allows for an experiential relationship between human and building. smart technologies, materials and programmatic relationships.

This thesis will explore new interactive media, emerging

How can architects and designers use emerging technologies to enrich the relationship between multi-purpose spaces and

inhabitants throughout various time spans?

Objectives •

To incorporate emerging digital technologies and materials to allow building and occupant to interact with each other.

•

To create spaces that are capable of adapting to the occupants needs throughout the course of the day.

Definitions Interactive Architecture - Emerging architectural technologies that allow an occupant to actively engage and participate with the built environment. Multi-Purpose Space - Spaces that allow for a variety of activities to take place, for example, by re-arranging partitions or furniture. An example of this would be a school gym, which allows the occupant to modify the space during the course of the day for sporting events, dances or presentations.

Mixed-Use Building - Buildings that combine different programs, such as commercial plus residential. The way that these programmatic elements are designed together is important in creating a consistent piece of architecture.

Mutual Interaction - The way inhabitants interact with the built environment as well as the way the built environment responds to the inhabitant.

Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

6


Research Essay An emerging trend in design, architecture and art is the notion of mutual interactivity between occupant and building. This relationship creates a new and intriguing dialogue between buildings and how humans occupy them.

Humans and buildings have interacted throughout history,

but technological advances over the past twenty years, has increased connectivity between people, ideas and places.

The emergence of smart

materials and new media technologies create ways for the built environment to change and interact directly with the user. motion, sound or touch, buildings themselves are becoming much more interactive.

Through the use of

The way that occupants interact with the built environment

has started to influence the way architects and designers think about space, not only on a building scale, but also at a larger urban scale.

The idea of multi-purpose spaces has also caused designers and architects to rethink the way programmatic elements are organized in

order to respond to a wide range of activities.

This understanding of programmatic relationships allows for the building and inhabitant to adapt

to various needs throughout the day.

Interactivity in Architecture Historical Precedents

Throughout history, there has been some notion of human interactivity with buildings. An early example of this is the window. This

currently common element developed over time to allow for the control of light and comfort in a space.

The window in its early stages was

basically an opening in the wall, which allowed the occupant to regulate the amount of fresh air into a space as well as natural light.

The

Romans were the first to incorporate glass in windows, which helped regulate the temperature of the space. The development of the operable window is one of the most primitive examples of interactive technologies.

Another

1 - Robert Kronenburg, Spirit of the Machine:

example of building interactivity is the portable dwelling, such as the

conceived specifically for the climate, materials available and human necessity. depending on needs.

The

Asian Yurt. This

type of portable structure was

yurt is a portable structure that could be easily moved

“The form of such buildings is closely related to the requirements of the users because the people who inhabit them have a

direct link with those who build them…”1

Thus the inhabitants were able to manipulate and interact with the structure depending on their needs.

“In either case the building consummately fulfills the needs of its user.”2 Forms of primitive interactivity involve either moving the building, or the elements within it. Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

Technology as an Inspiration in Architectural Design

(Great

Britain:

Wiley-Academy,

2001), 93 2 - Robert Kronenburg, Spirit of the Machine: Technology as an Inspiration in Architectural Design

(Great

Britain:

Wiley-Academy,

2001), 93 7


Early Development Interactive architecture began to emerge in the early 1960s, with the invention of computers, cybernetics and the study of systems. In 1969, Andrew Rabeneck proposed “the use of cybernetic technologies to produce an adaptive architecture that would increase the useful life span of a building through adaptation.”3

Designers, cybernetitions and architects began experimenting with various types of computational

systems, human controlled interactions and building interactive techniques. in the development of interactive systems.

“…influenced

Cedric Price, John Frazer and Gordon Pask became very influential

an architecture of process that was indeterminate, flexible and responsive to the

changing needs of users and their times.”

4

Throughout the course of history, the social, economic and political spheres have constantly been reworked and reshaped. With the

development of new technologies, these spheres are once again changing.

The advancements of computers and technology through the 1980’s,

allows architects and designers began to look at architectural space and interactive mediums as interrelated. unprecedented connection between humans and infrastructure.

The digital age allows for an

This connectivity influences design and function of the built world. “The driving

force behind the renewed interest in adaptable architecture is the technological influenced and changing patterns of human interaction with the built environment.

Today’s intensification of social and urban change, coupled with concern for issues of sustainability, amplifies the demand for

interactive architectural solutions.”5

Advancements Today Developments in interactive architecture have seen an explosion over the past twenty years. A number of architects and designers are developing various ways of creating interactive spaces. homes.

Some of these methods include installation art, interactive building facades, and smart

Interactive architecture affects the social and cultural realm of a specific demographic, the methods in which humans engage with the

built environment, as well as taking on various programmatic forms.

By studying how these three elements relate to each other, architects and

designers can look at the way these interactions influence society and the urban realm.

Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

Architecture

(New

York:

Princeton

Architectural Press, 2009), 15 4 - Michael Fox and Miles Kemp, Interactive Architecture

(New

York:

Princeton

Architectural Press, 2009), 15

The social and cultural aspects about a site have strong implications in designing interactive architecture. Working with the specific

needs of the community, designers are capable of developing systems that support these desires.

3 - Michael Fox and Miles Kemp, Interactive

Lucy Bullivant looks to formulate ideas that

5 - Michael Fox and Miles Kemp, Interactive Architecture

(New

York:

Princeton

Architectural Press, 2009), 18 8


can connect technology, building and inhabitant in a way that forces architects and designers to rethink the idea of space and form. In this way,

Bullivant addresses methods in which architecture can influence the social realm at a variety of scales. Bullivant looks at two projects that influence the community but in different methods.

One is entitled “Light Sounds,” which redefines the streetscape in London for shoppers and

pedestrians by constantly changing colors and sounds as pedestrians pass through the space.

The other project is entitled “Litmus,” which in

Figure 1.2 – Light Sounds, Source: D-squared

contrast addresses the fast paced traffic of the highway by changing colors and text depending on local traffic, electricity usage, tides and light levels.

These ideas bring a new understanding to social and cultural interactions. “The power of many of the responsive environments…

is precisely that they are not purely reactive or entirely predetermined.

Both they and their users learn from experience and redefine their

sense of place.”6

Through the ever-changing social and cultural realm, as well as interactivity with the built environment, there is a need to design

buildings that respond to societies shifting lifestyles.

Changing

lifestyle patterns affect the way people go to school, shop and work.

A

considerable number of people now are able to work from their home office, effectively minimizing the amount of interaction with the community.

This idea of social and cultural connection is ever changing. Architects and designers are looking at ways of creating flexible and adaptable buildings that help to define the social and cultural realms.

“People who are cut off from the workplace environment need to discover new

sources for achieving personal satisfaction and for making meaningful social contacts.

Such opportunities for remote social interactions are

therefore not only necessary for pragmatic reasons but also serve an important humanistic role in our social fabric.”7

Interactive

architecture can also directly engage the public.

Buildings

are more than just static elements in the landscape, but

rather a piece of the urban fabric that must adapt and interact at the human scale.

The engagement and participation of the public creates a

kinetic piece of architecture.

Howeler Yoon Architecture is a firm that strongly believes designers and architects not only create buildings

for the inhabitants, but that the occupants actively engage the built environment.

Figure 1.3 – Infra Green, Source: Howeler Yoon Architecture

For the hotel and spa design, they create a system of thermal

envelopes, which develops spatial arrangements dealing with public versus private spaces and wet and dry zones.

The wrapping system not only

creates a progression between volumes, but responds to the movement of human activity.

6 - Lucy Bullivant, Responsive Environments:

In the proposal for the Rose Kennedy Greenway called “Infra Green,” Howeler Yoon designed a series of rotating tri-panel ground

Architecture,

planes that are covered in asphalt, hardscape or turf.

The ground can literally change depending the activity taking place at the time. Their

design proposal brings together architecture, infrastructure, technology, landscape and the culture to engage and interact with the public.

In the project “White Noise, White Light,” Howeler Yoon explores how the user can participate in defining public space. A field of 400 Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

Art

and

Design

(South

Kensington, London: V & A Publications, 2006), 17 7 - Michael Fox and Miles Kemp, Interactive Architecture

(New

York:

Princeton

Architectural Press, 2009), 141 9


fiber optic poles emits light and sound that increases in intensity as the participants approach them. awareness to the presence of other participants. city.

The flickering lights help create a spatial

The noise from the instillation helps to cancel out the surrounding background noise of the

Howeler Yoon wanted to create an installation that provided an inviting, playful experience for the visitors. The field of lights transforms

playful activity into space, light and sound.

By understanding the relationship between inhabitant, the public and the urban fabric, designers and architects are able to create

Figure 1.4 – White Noise White Light, Source:

spaces that engage the user.

Howeler Yoon Architecture

This is important in urban settings as the line between the public and inhabitant in blurred. Looking not only at the

physical elements of a building such as walls, floors and windows, but also at new mobile technologies in today’s society, helps create a dialogue between the physical and digital world.

With the correlation between the physical and digital realms, there must also be collaboration between

disciplines: architects, designers, artists, software engineers, scientists and inhabitants must all work together.

“Rather than being wholly

computer generated, like virtual reality projects, responsive environments are a bridge between the physical and the virtual.”8

The application of interactive architecture can also take various programmatic forms. Programmatic elements are explained as working

environments, living environments, public environments and entertainment environments. in terms of interactivity.

These various programmatic types have different needs

transforms from transparent to translucent

Adaptable spaces are constantly changing depending on the users specific needs.

Interactive architecture shows great promise in the work place. Many workplaces have high activity at the beginning and end of the workday, while during the middle of the day, many people are out of the building at meetings or visiting clients.

Conference rooms are typically

only used for a short percentage of the day and usually have very limited flexibility in whether four or sixteen people use them. application of interactive architecture help rethink these issues? building.

Lighting,

Figure 1.5 – Smart Glass-Glass that with the touch of a switch, Source: Smart Glass International

How can the

privacy, cooling and acoustics are all elements that affect any

Adaptable spaces have the ability to help control and manipulate these forces.

A project by Vincent James that addresses issues dealing with inhabitants’ needs is the Dayton House. The connection between interior and exterior spaces are used in adapting the house to the various needs of the user as well as seasonal changes.

Various operating mechanisms

combine with the layered wall system to make it responsive to specific functional needs of the house and the art collection.9

This is nice example

Interactive architecture can also influence entertainment and public environments. These program types affect a broad range of The application of interactive media to the public realm, in the form of

facades, sculptures and fountains, has created a greater connection between pedestrians, inhabitants and building.

Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

James Associate Architects 8 - Lucy Bullivant, Responsive Environments:

of how spaces can adapt and transform depending on the needs of the user on a much smaller scale.

buildings such as municipal, commercial, institutional and residential.

Figure 1.8 – Dayton House, Source: Vincent

Museums, for example, have

Architecture,

Art

and

Design

(South

Kensington, London: V & A Publications, 2006), 9 9 - Vincent James and Associate Architects - www.vjaa.com 10


started to embrace the notion of interactivity as a way of educating their audience by displaying and presenting the artifacts.

“Interactivity

combined with spatial adaptability can serve well the temporal nature of changing displays and the ways in which visitors interact with them.”10

Interactive Architecture focuses on how people use and connect to the buildings they live in, work in or play in.

Mixed Use Buildings Historical Precedents

There has been a need for towns and cities to have mixed-use buildings. Mixed-use buildings allow for communities to exchange ideas,

as well as permit interaction amongst citizens.

Looking at the history of multi-use buildings, how they have changed today and their relationship

to the urban context, architects and designers can address issues such as how pedestrians engage the space, social interactions and buildings physical connection to the existing context.11

The

need for buildings to merge varying programmatic elements into one coherent piece of

architecture is important for the overall function of a space.

“…to examine what is there and to see how we can achieve a better environment

through the integration of the multi-use building in the urban fabric.”12

The use and construction of mixed-use buildings have been around for centuries. The Roman Baths and the Greek Agora are both

examples of early mixed-use structures.

They

employ a network of social, political and economical interactions.

present in medieval cities as they allowed the citizen and their job to be in close proximity.

Mixed-use

buildings were

As cities expanded, there began to be an increase in

Interactive Architecture (New York: Princeton

multiple houses or apartments built on top of one another with the ground floor open for shops and stores.

Throughout the 19th century, architects started questioning this idea of mixed-use structure within the urban context. Buildings

should not be viewed as a fixed program but be allowed to be adaptable and generous.

10 - Michael Fox and Miles Kemp,

“The question is not to build flexible buildings but to

Architectural Press, 2009), 103 11 - Eberhard H. Zeidler, Multi-Use Architecture in the Urban Context (New York:

establish environments in which buildings appropriate to their function may occur, and to encourage an interaction between these buildings and

Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985)

their environments.”13

12 - Eberhard H. Zeidler, Multi-Use

The

A mixed-use building program is still present in many types of apartment buildings today.

idea of mixed-use buildings has been constantly changing and manipulated in cities for centuries.

With

technology and the notion of interactive architecture, architects and designers are able to redefine multi-use spaces.

the advancement of

Architecture in the Urban Context (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985), 9 13 - Eberhard H. Zeidler, Multi-Use Architecture in the Urban Context (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985), 17

Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

11


Multi Purpose Programs Modern Interpretations

The way in which inhabitants occupy multi-purpose spaces affect how these spaces are designed. There are many buildings today that

are only occupied during the workday from around 8a.m.-6p.m., effectively only using the building for half the day, and allowing the building little room for flexibility. the entire day.

Architects and designers have started designing buildings that allow for a variety of activities to take place throughout

These spaces are occupied differently depending on the time of day due to use groups, solar orientation and programmatic needs.

How can multi-purpose spaces adapt and interact with the occupant throughout the course of the day to create a discourse between occupant and building?

The answer does not only lie in the realm of technological interactive systems, but also in the way architects and designers deal

with light, materials and environment responses.

An example of a built form that utilizes both mixed-use program and multi-purpose spaces is the Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA) in

Figure 1.6 – Institute of Contemporary Art, Source: Diller and Scofidio

Boston. The ICA houses a gift shop, a café, an auditorium, offices, and an exhibition space; this is an example of a mixed-use building. The

exhibition space is seen more as a multi-purpose space that can be rearranged depending on the event or activity taken place.

The combination of

multi-purpose and mixed-use has a direct correlation to the way occupants interact with the building.

Another

example of a multi-purpose building that focuses on the way programmatic elements relate to each other is the

Hostler Student Center

located in

Beirut, Lebanon

by

Vincent James Associates Architects. The

swimming, basketball, volleyball, as well as an auditorium, amphitheater and café. a continuous field of habitable space and a variety of microclimates.14

Charles

student center consists of facilities for

The building form redistributes air, activity and shade to form

The climate of Beirut allows for the inhabitants to occupy the lower levels

during the day, which provides shade, and the open-air rooftops at night.

This vertical relationship allows for a more three dimensional system

Figure 1.7 – Charles Hostler Student Center, Source: Vincent James Associate Architects

of circulation, gathering spaces and program.

14 - Vincent James and Associate Architects - www.vjaa.com Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

12


Conclusion

Though interactive architecture and multi-purpose buildings have in a sense been around for centuries, the advancement of technology

allows for new ways to rethink the relationship between occupant and the built environment.

Criteria for Evaluation • Was the integration of interactive media a fully comprehensive study, or did it feel as if it was applied to the building? • Is there a clear understanding of process that is concise and consistent that helps reinforce the main themes? • Does the architecture successfully interact with the public and the inhabitant?

Ideas for Future Results

This thesis is one that is sited in an urban context, Boston. A major question that one would pose would be, can this type of mutually

interactive architecture be incorporated into a rural context?

The idea of buildings interacting with its occupants throughout the course of

the day may not be as beneficial in an area with little constant activity. be integrated into other countries urban context?

Another question that may be asked is whether this type of building can

Cairo? Tokyo? London? Many countries are ahead of the United States in technological

advancements and this form of interactive media may already be a common design element in future construction.

These are possible question

that I pose as a fifth year architecture student, that I also feel should be addressed throughout the architecture community.

Thesis Prep I - Prospectus

13


Thesis Prep II (Fall 2009) Site

Thesis Prep II - Site

14


Artist for Humanity Building

Proposed Residential Building

Site

Thesis Prep II - Site

15


South Boston

The site for this thesis is located in South Boston on the corner of West 2nd Street and B Street. The northern side of the site is facing the st on

By

pa s

s

South Boston Bypass and railroad h

Bo

lines. Two smaller roads that lead

So

ut

into the surrounding residential neighborhoods corn the southern

Site

edge. The site is situated on a

W

es

transition zone between larger scale industrial and commercial

t

1s

t

St

re

et

buildings and smaller scale houses and apartments.

W

es

t

2n

d

St

re

3r

d

St

et

re

re et

t

et

St

es

B

W

Bo

lt on

St

re

Thesis Prep II - Site

et

16


South Boston

This notion of a transition zone between various building typologies is an

important site feature that relates back to the overall theme of interactivity between the human and building. This area of transformation has the capability of connecting the public, the occupant and the built environment. The connection to the urban fabric not only engages the public, but can also help revitalize the community.

Another important site consideration is the transition from small neighborhood

scale streets to larger city scale highways. This transition is usually consistent with the idea of moving from the neighborhood scale to the larger commercial scale. Allowing the building to respond to external forces may dictate programmatic choices. Sound levels, light pollution and access are all essential characteristics of site selection. The variation in highway velocity versus street movement may also help determine interior relationships.

Artist for Humanity Building

Financial District

RCN Building

Figure Ground: Transition Zone Thesis Prep II - Site

17


Building Typologies - Commercial

Thesis Prep II - Site

18


Building Typologies - Residential

Thesis Prep II - Site

19


Building Typologies - Mixed-Use

Thesis Prep II - Site

20


Building Typologies - Industrial

Thesis Prep II - Site

21


Proposed Residential Building

Artist for Humanity Building

On the southern side of the site is an abandoned building that is currently being renovated to contain 75 residential units. 54 of the units are basic residential units, while 21 are designed to be artist studios. The close proximity

Site

to residential units will create a new interaction between living and working. There will become a direct link between the Artist for Humanity Building, the

Proposed Residential Building

proposed residential building and my own thesis proposal that will aid in revitalizing the site.

Site Relationships

Proposed residential building adjacent to site. Thesis Prep II - Site

22


Artist for Humanity The sites’ close proximity to the existing Artist for Humanity building located just across the South Boston Bypass creates a direct link to youth artists within the community. The Artist for Humanity building’s site location was chosen as a way to empower the urban youth and bring identity to a developing neighborhood in South Boston. The goal of Artist for Humanity is to bridge the gap between economical, racial and social barriers as a means to bring together underprivileged children in the community through the field of art. The building houses studios for young teens in the disciplines of screenprinting, photography, sculpture, painting, and urban media. The lower level, containing the gallery space, performs as a place to display work that may also be rented out for larger gatherings.

Large Gallery/Exhibition Space

Mechanical

Painting

Sculpture

Woodworking

Silk Screen

Photo

Office

Woodworking Studio Courtyard

Main Gallery

Longitudinal Section Thesis Prep II - Site

Interior/Exterior Space

Varying Room Heights

Images: Courtesy of AIA COTE Top Ten Green Projects 2007 23


Artist for Humanity

The large overhead door allows for the gallery space to spill outdoors, creating a link between community, street and building.

View from West 2nd Street

Main Gallery

Courtyard

Images: Courtesy of AIA COTE Top Ten Green Projects 2007 Gallery space open to exterior courtyard. Thesis Prep II - Site

Ground floor plan: Relationship to exterior courtyard 24


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) Site

Thesis Studio - Site

25


Existing Building Material Study

Aluminum P

aneling

Copper

Paneling

k

Bric

Thesis Studio - Site

26


Residential vs. Industrial Typologies

Thesis Studio - Site

27


Site Views

Thesis Studio - Site

28


Existing Railroad Track Analysis

Thesis Studio - Site

29


Artist Space Initiative Artists help make boston a more livable city - a city of people and neighborhoods, a center of cultural life, and a vital economic center. They function as small businesses by providing jobs and services for Boston residents. Since the late 1960s, artists have helped transform marginal neighborhoods into dynamic communities. Frequently, festivals, galleries, small performance spaces and small retail spring up in these same areas though the work of resident artists, generating a vibrant street life that acts as a deterrent to crime, dramatically enhancing the quality of neighborhoods for both the people who live there and people who visit. According to the Boston Zoning Code, artists in live/work units are the only occupational group permitted to live in industrially zoned ares of the city. For commercial and non-profit developers with an interest in developing space for artists, the BRA recently developed design guidelines to articulate minimum requirements to meet artists’ needs (i.e., live/work units must be at least 1,000 square feet.)

Images: Courtesy of Boston Redevelopment Authority Thesis Studio - Site

30


1900 - American Railway Express Building Present - Fort Point Arts Community Past- 1900 Wool Warehouse 1902 - New England Confectionary Company Factory Fort Point Place Present - Midway Studios Past - 1897 Factory Buildings Gillette Site Artists for Humanity

The Signal Building Artist Residence

Boston Center for the Arts The Distillery

Wilkes Passage Lofts

Shawmut Crane and Rigging

ArtBlock Artist Community Artist and Industrial Facilities around South Boston Thesis Studio - Site

Industrial Facilities

Artist Facilities

Industrial transformed into Artist 31


Press Release Boston Targets $84 Million For Transportation Improvements

City submits application for federal stimulus grant for Port of Boston project; Project includes 4 sites that would immediately create 620 construction jobs.

Track Improvements for the South Boston Marine Industrial Park Rail Road - $14 Million The Track 61 Project was initiated to restore freight rail lines at the BMIP and to extend the freight track to service additional areas of the BIMP. The BIMP is the only port to freight rail connection remaining in Boston. These improvements would provide the BIMP and region with a unique advantage in the market place as a result of the air, ship/barge, rail and highway connections that would be available to businesses. The project includes the rehabilitation of 2,860 linear feet of railroad track, the construction of 5,910 linear feet of new track, and associated roadway improvements and drainage modifications.

Images: Courtesy of Boston Redevelopment Authority Thesis Studio - Site

32


Track 61 Improvements NTS

Existing Track 61 to South Boston

Track 61

Site

Thesis Studio - Site

Old Colony Mainline Dorchester Branch, Worcester Line, and Northeast Corridor

Figure 6 Economic Evaluation Track 61 Access

Images: Courtesy of Boston Redevelopment Authority 33


The Signal Building - Proposed Residential Building

Ground Floor Plan

2nd Floor Plan

1st Floor Plan

3rd Floor Plan

Thesis Studio - Site

Images: Courtesy of www.154westsecond.com 34


Thesis Prep II (Fall 2009) Program

Thesis Prep II - Program

35


Interactive architecture along with multi-purpose spaces can take a wide range of forms. These conceptual ideas can influence anything from office buildings, residential

complexes, commercial buildings to institutional uses. The idea of program in this thesis is one that has the ability to interact and adapt with its inhabitants, not only through occupants needs but also through various time spans. Looking at the program in this manner allows there to be a stronger connection between the occupant, the public and building. The interaction between these various elements must influence the way spaces and rooms are designed to respond with each other. The idea of an artist design studio has a strong correlation to these underlying themes.

Art design studios are very active and kinetic environments. The constant transfer of ideas, materials and people throughout the studio requires a space that can adapt

depending on the various needs. Artists and designers must be able to interact with their surroundings to best suit their demands. The three major elements of an artist design studio (the studios, galleries and group rooms) are in constant flux depending on the requirements for that time period.

There are a variety of studio types that may be present in this type of building. Painting, drawing, sculpture, glass making, ceramics and textiles are all possible disciplines

within art. Each discipline has similar and unique characteristics associated with them. This can lead to ways in which these spaces can change or overlap one another. The gallery space is an important aspect of any art studio. These spaces allow artist to display their works as well as engage the public. Various galleries may have different requirements depending on size, allowable light or sound levels. These variables support the idea of interactivity between artist and flexible space. Having the ability to respond to these elements gives the occupants a greater level of interaction with the built environment. Many spaces within an artist design studio call for small or large gatherings spaces, whether for meetings, or for large public art displays. Many times these spaces are only used for those specific needs, but with the idea of building interactivity, these spaces have the ability to respond to the building as well as the inhabitants’ needs. •

Artist Studios

- Drawings

4000 s.f.

- Painting

3000 s.f

Community Spaces

1000-3000 s.f

- Sculpture

3000 s.f

Offices

150-300 s.f/each

- Glass Making

5000 s.f

Café

1500 s.f

Crit Rooms

Exhibition Spaces

- Small (Flexible)

500-1000 s.f/each

- Small Groups

500-1500 s.f/each

- Large (Flexible)

1000-3000 s.f/each

- Large Groups

1500-4000 s.f/each

- Public/Lobby

500-6000 s.f

Thesis Prep II - Program

Services

Total: 2000 - 3000 s.f 36


Programmatic Diagram

Thesis Prep II - Program

37


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) Program

Thesis Studio - Program

38


Initial Programmatic Relationship Study 1 Artist for Humanity

Large Painting Light: North SIze: Large Extra: Access to outdoors and paintable walls

Gallery Light: Diffused SIze: Large - Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors

Gallery

Light: North SIze: Medium Extra:

Light: Diffused SIze: Small Extra: Controlled Lighting

Media/Computer Art

Cafe

Light: Indirect SIze: Medium Extra: Room for Prosessors

Light: Natural SIze: Small Extra: Access to Outdoors, Kitchen

Small Painting

Lecture Hall/Auditorium Light: Diffuse SIze: Large Extra: Access to outdoors

Presentation Room Light: No Light SIze: Small Extra: Controlled Lighting

Gallery

Pottery/Ceramics

Sculpture

Light: Diffused SIze: Large - Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors

Light: Natural SIze: Large - Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors, Equipment

Gallery Offices Light: Natural SIze: Very Small Extra:

Light: Diffused SIze: Small Extra: Controlled Lighting, Access to outdoors

Light: Natural SIze: Medium Extra: Equipment

Wood Working Light: Natural SIze: Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors, Machinery

Proposed Artist Residence

Thesis Studio - Program

39


Initial Programmatic Relationship Study 2 Artist for Humanity Large Painting

Pottery/Ceramics

Light: North SIze: Large Extra: Access to outdoors and paintable walls

Small Painting

Offices Gallery

Light: Natural SIze: Very Small Extra:

Light: Diffused SIze: Large - Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors

Light: North SIze: Medium Extra:

Presentation Room

Gallery

Offices

Light: Diffused SIze: Small Extra: Controlled Lighting, Access to outdoors

Light: Natural SIze: Very Small Extra:

Light: Natural SIze: Medium Extra: Equipment

Light: No Light SIze: Small Extra: Controlled Lighting

Lecture Hall/Auditorium Light: Diffuse SIze: Large Extra: Access to outdoors

Cafe

Media/Computer Art

Light: Natural SIze: Small Extra: Access to Outdoors, Kitchen

Light: Indirect SIze: Medium Extra: Room for Prosessors

Gallery Light: Diffused SIze: Large - Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors

Gallery

Sculpture

Wood Working Light: Natural SIze: Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors, Machinery

Light: Natural SIze: Large - Very Large Extra: Access to outdoors, Equipment

Light: Diffused SIze: Small Extra: Controlled Lighting

Proposed Artist Residence

Thesis Studio - Program

40


Program Massing Studies

Thesis Studio - Program

41


Final Program List Sculpture Facilities • Assembly/Display Areas (2) • Sculpture Mock-up area (1) • Material Storage Offices/Studios • Artist Studios (3) • Administration Suites (4) • Conference Room (1) Public Amenities • Lobby • Reception • Bookstore • Cafe • Lounge (2) Support Spaces • Lavatories • Storage • Mechanical/Electrical • Freight Elevators Thesis Studio - Program

42


Thesis Prep II (Fall 2009) Precedents

Thesis Prep II - Precedents

43


Charles Hostler Student Center

Architect: Vincent James Associate Architects

The Charles Hostler Student Center in Beirut by Vincent James Associates Architects is an important example of how programmatic elements can respond to occupants’ needs throughout the course of the day. The student center consists of facilities for swimming, basketball, volleyball, as well as an auditorium, amphitheater and cafÊ. The building form redistributes air, activity and shade to form a continuous field of habitable space and a variety of microclimates.

Images: Courtesy of www.architectureweek.com Thesis Prep II - Precedents

Site Plan: Relationship of buildings to open spaces. Site lines directing views towards water. 44


Charles Hostler Student Center Architect: Vincent James Associate Architects The climate of Beirut allows for the inhabitants to occupy the lower levels during the day, which provides shade, and the open-air rooftops at night. This vertical relationship allows for a more three dimensional system of circulation, gathering spaces and program. The use of materials, light and transparency creates an interaction between the user and the building.

Connection of interior and exterior spaces.

Vertical circulation exposed to exterior spaces. Thesis Prep II - Precedents

Images: Courtesy of www.vjaa.com 45


School of Art and Art History at Iowa University Architect: Steven Holl

This building is important as it has a similar program to my own thesis. The building program includes studios for sculpture, painting, print making, offices galleries and a library. The building was designed to be adaptive and flexible in order to accommodate many activities dealing with teaching and practice. Flexible spaces connect the studio to the outdoors, creating a link between interior and exterior spaces. The relationship to the exterior and the way the users move through the space create an interaction to building and environment.

Relationship of building to existing natural surroundings. Thesis Prep II - Precedents

Images: Courtesy of www.stevenholl.com 46


School of Art and Art History at Iowa University Architect: Steven Holl The main passages throughout the building are meant to create meeting places as well as reveal the work in progress. The use of materials and the control of light create an overlap for experiential relationships.

Natural Light

Images: Courtesy of www.stevenholl.com Thesis Prep II - Precedents

Interior staircase

Workspace

Storage

Interior staircase 47


Loop Chairs Architect: Howeler Yoon Architecture The loops chairs are made out of a single band of polypropylene plastic. Howeler and Yoon studied the fabrication process, materiality and form to develop a chair that could be used in a variety of ways. The chair can accommodate a single occupant or multiple occupants, encouraging the user to renegotiate the boundaries of a typical chair. The chair is capable of slightly deflecting from the weight and subtle contours of a human body. Loop chairs not only cause the users to interact with it and each other, but is constantly transforming due to the users presence.

Images: Courtesy of www.hyarchitecture.com Thesis Prep II - Precedents

48


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) Precedents

Thesis Studio - Precedents

49


Instillation

F

a

c

a

d

e

K i n e t i c

S

i

t

e

Interactive Party Wall

RV - Room Bump Out

• N Architects

Target Breezeway • Electroland

S h a d i n g Nordic Embassies • Berger+Parkkinen

V

i

e

w

Kiefer Technic Showroom “Dynamic Facade” • Giselbrecht + Partner ZT GmbH

s Lavin-Bernick Center

• Vincent James Associate

Moving House • dRMM

S p a t i a l

Fabios Restaurant

• BEHF Architekten

Milwaukee Art Museum • Santiago Calatrava

Charles Hostler Student Center • Vincent James Associates

S e n s o r y Interactive Fan Wall • Daan Roosegaarde Thesis Studio - Precedents

The Blur Building

• Diller and Scofidio 50


G a l l e r i e s

Natural

S

t

u

d

i

o

s

D

i

r

t

y

C

l

e

a

n

Light

Diffused Light

Transformable S u r f a c e s

I n d u s t r i a l A e s t h e t i c

S u r f a c e s

Thesis Studio - Precedents

51


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010)

Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

52


Preliminary Facade Sketches

Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

53


Concept Sketches

Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

54


Site Lines - Sketches and Model

Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

Site Forces - Sketches and Model

55


Sketches diagraming Connection between Artist for Humanity Building and new Residential Building.

Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

56


Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

57


Conceptual Sections - Sketches and Models

Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

58


Program Study Model -

Studying Layering, Transparency and Spatial Relationships

Thesis Studio - Preliminary Conceptual Sketches

Site Shadow Study Model -

Analyzing shadow movement across the site at various times of the day.

59


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010)

Site Animation Studies

Thesis Studio - Site Animation Studies

60


Semi-Truck Turning Radius

Thesis Studio - Site Animation Studies

61


Transformable Room Study

Walking Movement Study

Semi-Truck Turning Movement Study

Thesis Studio - Site Animation Studies

62


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010)

Design Phase 1

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

63


Conceptual Image -

Demonstrating idea of projecting art into the city.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

64


Conceptual Image -

Demonstrating idea of projecting art onto the Boston Skyline

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

65


Conceptual Facade Study -

Interactive facade tracking movement of site forces (i.e. Pedestrians, Traffic, Solar conditions).

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

66


Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

67


Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

68


Conceptual Sketches -

Studying various programmatic relationships and adjacencies.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

69


Preliminary Building Plan -

Exterior skins consists of a series of canvas panels that allow artist to paint on and then display on the facade of the building towards Boston and the neighborhood of South Boston.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

70


Preliminary Building Sections -

Showing artists studios in relationship to central exhibition space.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

Artist Studios

Central Exhibition Space

Connection Zone

Artist Studios

Central Exhibition Space

Connection Zone 71


Preliminary Building Facade Design 1 -

Showing canvas Panels that can be positioned and rotated in a variety of ways to display artists’ art to the public.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

72


Preliminary Building Facade Design 2 -

Showing portions of the building that can protrude in or out of the building dependent on the need for light, views or space. These spaces allow for the art to be exposed to the public throughout the day.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 1

73


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010)

Design Phase 2

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 2

74


Preliminary Building Plan 1 -

Further development from Design Phase 1. Attempts to resolve programmatic relationships with the integration of egress, freight elevators and gallery spaces. Transformation from the initial program of multiple kinds of artist studios, to specifically large-scale, industrial sculptures.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 2

75


Preliminary Building Plan 1a -

Further development of building plan 1. A closer, more in depth analysis at multiple scales, in relation to site density and sculpture size.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 2

76


Building Section Diagrams -

Studies showing possible programmatic transformations depending on occupants’ needs throughout the course of the day.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 2

77


Preliminary Building Section

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 2

78


Preliminary Building Plan 2 -

Further Development on Preliminary Building plan 1a, focusing on creating spaces that can transform in size, allowing various size sculptures to be manufactured.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 2

79


Conceptual Building Massing -

Studying how various scale sculptures can be displayed on the exterior of the building.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 2

80


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010)

Design Phase 3

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

81


Conceptual Sketches -

Looking at building form and ways to maintain views from the Proposed Residential Building. By locating the stairs, offices and services within three cores, allows the in between spaces to become open and transparent, maintaining views towards the skyline of Boston.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

82


Conceptual Building Sections

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

83


Preliminary Building Plan -

Located specific zones where galleries could be sited dependant on views, scale and usage.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

84


Concept Program Diagrams -

Diagrams focus on possible arrangement of major programs within the building. The overlaps became transitional zones between various types of program, helping to reinforce the form of the primary building cores.

Public

Gallery

Public

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

Studio

Gallery

Studio

Public

Public

Gallery

Gallery

Studio

Studio

85


1st Iteration - 2nd Floor Plan

C

B

Fabrication/Artist Studios

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

A

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

Fabrication/Artist Studios

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

A

C

B

0’

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

16’

32’

2nd Floor Plan

86


1st Iteration - 3rd Floor Plan

Fabrication/Artist Studios

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes” Fabrication/Artist Studios

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

0’

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

16’

32’

3rd Floor Plan

87


1st Iteration - 4th Floor Plan

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

Assembly/Gallery “Nodes”

Fabrication/Artist Studios

Fabrication/Artist Studios

0’

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

16’

32’

4th Floor Plan

88


1st Iteration - Building Sections

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

Cross Section A-A

0’

16’

32’

0’

16’

32’

Longitudinal Section B-B

0’

16’

32’

Longitudinal Section C-C

89


1st Iteration - Exhibit/Production Zones Study

This diagram studies the way that the various exhibit/production zones located throughout the building are connected to one another. While these spaces are being utilize for the manufacturing of sculptures, they can be closed off; once an exhibit is in progress, the spaces can once again become connected via transformable stair cases.

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

90


1st Iteration - Exhibit/Production Zones

Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

91


1st Iteration - Transformable Stair Analysis

2nd Floor

3rd Floor

4th Floor Thesis Studio - Design Phase 3

92


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) Final Design

Thesis Studio - Final Design

93


Thesis Studio - Final Design

94


Design Sketches

Thesis Studio - Final Design

95


Concept Section

Theater Concept Section

f

l

o u

s

e

ConTrol Thesis Studio - Final Design

r

s

o

u

s

T a g e

s

C

n g

l y l o f T

p

l

o b b y

f

l y l o f T

e

g r

p

T a g e

p o

n i

r e e n

u

o o m

m

Co

n T r o l

r

b

T

a C k s T a g e

Co

n T r o l

96


Concept Building Model

Thesis Studio - Final Design

97


Theatrical Precedents

Thesis Studio - Final Design

Industrial Precedents

Large-Scale Industrial Sculptures Precedents

Richard Serra Design Process

98


Final Design - Ground Floor Plan

Thesis Studio - Final Design

99


Final Design - 2nd Floor Plan

Thesis Studio - Final Design

100


Final Design - 3rd Floor Plan

Thesis Studio - Final Design

101


Final Design - 4th Floor Plan

Final Design - 5th Floor Plan

Thesis Studio - Final Design

102


Final Design - Building Sections

Thesis Studio - Final Design

103


Final Design - Building Sections

Thesis Studio - Final Design

104


View from the Corner of West 2nd Street and B Street

View from the South Boston Bypass

Thesis Studio - Final Design

105


X-Bracing

Floor Slabs

Assembly Cub Floor Slabs

Moveable Walkways and Monumentall Stairs

Support Program

Truss System

Interior Wood Paneling

Structural Glass Fins

Exterior Metal Fabric

Assembly Cube Exterior Glazing

Thesis Studio - Final Design

Physical model detailing exterior metal fabric and structural x-bracing system. 106


Material Selection

Scaffolding Connectors

Thesis Studio - Final Design

Metal Fabric

Translucent Scrim

Plywood Paneling

107


Scaffolding Analysis

Monumental Stair Assembly Thesis Studio - Final Design

Construction Scaffolding Assembly

Truss Assembly

Movable Walkway Assembly 108


Roof Assembly Development -

The roof system consists of trusses, structural glass fins, exterior glazing and two gantry cranes. This portion of the building is meant to represent a typical fly-loft present in theater buildings.

Thesis Studio - Final Design

109


Exhibit/Production Cube Sketches -

This portion of the building is where the manufacturing and production of sculptures takes place during the day by artists, fabricators and steel workers. During the evening, the space is transformed into an exhibit space, allowing visitors to experience the construction of sculptures at many stages of production. This zone consists of a series of moveable walkways that allow the workers to construct the sculptures, as well as act as circulation through the building for the public during exhibits.

Thesis Studio - Final Design

110


Exhibit/Production Cube - Arranged for a media art projection scenario.

Thesis Studio - Final Design

111


Exhibit/Production Cube - Arranged for a installation artist scenario.

Thesis Studio - Final Design

112


Empty Space

Production Phase

Monday May 3rd, 2010

Wednesday May 19th, 2010

Coordination Phase

Final Production Phase

Tuesday May 4th, 2010

Wednesday May 26th, 2010

Assembly Wednesday May 5th, 2010 Thesis Studio - Final Design

Disassembly Wednesday June 2nd, 2010 113


Final Display Friday June 4th, 2010 Thesis Studio - Final Design

114


Final Model

Thesis Studio - Final Design

115


Final Model

Thesis Studio - Final Design

116


Final Model

Thesis Studio - Final Design

117


Graduation Exhibit Poster

Theatrical Art: Re-Defining Process

Thesis Studio - Final Design

118


Thesis Studio (Spring 2010) Conclusion

Thesis Studio - Conclusion

119


Conclusion After completing the spring 2010 semester and developing this thesis, I was able to look back at my initial Thesis prep I and II documents and re-visit goals that I had set up for myself.

Although my initial ideas of creating an “interactive architecture” changed slightly over the course of designing a building, some of my initial research and interests stayed with

me throughout the semester.

These preliminary goals were:

Objectives

To incorporate emerging digital technologies and materials to allow building and occupant to interact with each other.

To create spaces that are capable of adapting to the occupants needs throughout the course of the day.

Criteria for Evaluation

• Was the integration of interactive media a fully comprehensive study, or did it feel as if it was applied to the building?

• Is there a clear understanding of process that is concise and consistent that helps reinforce the main themes?

• Does the architecture successfully interact with the public and the inhabitant?

Through constant and thorough developments and iterations throughout the semester, the integration of interactive media did not supplement the direction my design was

heading. of

I was okay with these changes, as my overall design ideas were progressing with each review. I became very interested in creating a space that engaged the public and the skyline

Boston at multiple scales. Allowing the building to act as a machine for displaying and producing art in a theatrical, artistic way became the focus of my thesis.

An important criticism that I received at my final review had a lot to do with how my building interacts with the city of Boston at a more urban level. My building could have been able to distribute sculptures on trains and boats throughout the city, creating another level of interaction between what my building produces and the city of lot of time during the semester resolving issues regarding site and urban conditions.

Boston. I did not spend a

As my design became important in the distribution of sculptures throughout the city, as well as the

country, thinking more about possible implications on the urban level would have further strengthened my argument.

Another aspect that I could have looked into in more depth is the idea that the building does not need to be specific to sculpture production, but manufacturing in general. The building can then become a place of manufacturing for the city that disperses its products throughout the community, but can then become a facility where artist come from around the city and construct their pieces of work.

By not limiting the program to specifically sculpture production, I am capable of creating a most sustainable building in the community.

As I have concluded my thesis proposal, I feel strongly about the progress and developments made from my Initial Thesis Prospectus. I have created a space that interacts with the occupants, pedestrians and site at a variety of scales.

Creating a space that was capable of producing large sculptures and exposing the process of manufacturing, in a theatrical

aesthetic, became the focus of my thesis, which emerged from my early thesis research.

Thesis Studio - Conclusion

120


Thesis Studio -Conclusion

121


Bibliography

122


• Bullivant, Lucy. 4D Social: Interactive Design Environments 77, no. 4 (July/August 2007) • Bullivant, Lucy. Responsive Environments: Architecture, Art and Design. South Kensington, London: V & A Publications, 2006. • Fox, Michael, and Miles Kemp. Interactive Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009 • Kronenburg, Robert. Spirit of the Machine: Technology as an Inspiration in Architectural Design. Great Britain: Wiley-Academy, 2001 • Yoon, Meejin J., and Eric Howeler. Expanded Practice: Howeler Yoon Architecture/My Studio. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009. • Zeidler, Eberhard H. Multi-Use Architecture in the Urban Context. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985

Bibliography

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Thesis Project Book  

Theatrical Art: Re-Defiing Process Wentworth Thesis Project

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