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>ISBM BrandScape Workshop< Smeal College, Penn State

R. Oliva


Brands, and the BrandScape Template: Toolkit Ralph Oliva, Executive Director, ISBM Professor of Marketing 814 863 2782 rao8@psu.edu01/14/13 Š 2007 - ISBM- Penn State


Some Important Language/Definitions... 1.





Corporate identity


Brand Equity

Brands and Trademarks... 1. Brand (Our working definition): A relationship with a market based on cumulative customer experiences, tied to trademarks and other identifying elements, which has economic impact for a firm.

2. Trademarks...

2. Trademarks (Corporate Identity): Symbols, Logos, typography, colors, sounds, and other identifiers and marks which indicate the source of goods or services offerings, and trigger the “Brand Response”.

™ ® ©

Common Confusion… Ward, Light, Goldstone, HBR, 7-8-1999

Brands… Relationship with a market, based on cumulative customer experiences, with economic impact for a firm

Trademarks… Distinguishing Name, sign, symbol, design, or some combination of them, which identify the goods or services of a particular seller

3. Corporate Identity… The physical tools, system and process firms use to manage their logos and trademarks Often very challenging globally… “LogoCop” …Protect trademark assets – or lose them. Not popular, takes courage, a critical function…

4. Brand Equity Brand Equity is the total economic impact of your brand in a marketing or sales situation

4. Brand “Equity” Can Mean... Earlier trials of new offerings

Faster Time to Profit

You re the specified alternative: Loyalty, usage, affinity Higher margins; premium prices

Lower Cost of Marketing Profits over life cycle

Greater propensity to buy at same price

Sales Velocity

Lower cost of sales Positive expectations enabling growth Forgiveness/longer “last looks” Advocacy/referral sales

Faster uptake

Competitive Barriers

Marketing Leverage

Greater Channel power/cooperation

Profits through channels

4. Brand Equity…One View:

Positive Brand Experiences/ Impressions – Equity owner

Brand Equity “Reservoir” Net financial impact in every selling situation

Negative Brand Experiences

Other Positive Brand Effects – “Viral”, customer driven, market, etc…

Natural Erosion, Noise, Competitive Effects

Two sorts of challenges… Brand/Equity “Creation” – establishing the entire brand construct in the mind of the prospect(s) Totally new category New alternative in existing category

Brand/Equity “Sustaining”: Keeping the reservoir full

Brand “Elements”: Trademarks, Logos, Sounds, Typefaces, Images, Formats, Characters – Anything which “triggers the brand response”

“Owned by:” the Firm Customer/ Market Segment

Brand: A relationship with a market/segment that has economic impact for the firm “Owned by:” the Customer/Segment

“Brand Equity:”– Economic effects which might include higher prices, faster sales, customer loyalty, lower marketing cost, faster launch of new offerings, channel control, etc. $$$$$$

“Owned by:” the Firm

What Brands Can Do… Brands work on several levels in the mind of the receiver Fast – top of mind reaction – emotional – spontaneous Deeper in the mind – unconscious – always there working Create a relationship/promise/propensity to action as the customer is “triggered” by any sort of experience which creates the “Brand Response”

A way to dissect, analyze and better understand brand effects… “BrandScapes”: Multi-dimensional descriptions of elements of a brand Publicis Definition: A collection of graphic images aligned to the brand Reckitt and Colman (Lysol): Three part description of how brands are stored in the mind…

Brands in the mind of the audience: The “BrandScape”…

1. Brand Footprint •Core values •Personality •Essence

2. Positioning

3. Capsule

4. Brand “Elements”: Trigger the BrandScape Response

BrandScapes: Help in both building and tracking a brand’s progress Will be dependent on the market segment you’ve working in… Desired BrandScape: Architected by the firm to build the desired Customer-Based Brand Equity effects Actual BrandScape: The BrandScape “Granted/Delivered/ Returned” from the customer/segment

Desired BrandScape


Actual BrandScape


Brand Footprint -- 3 parts – 1. Core values

Brand Footprint Deep in subconscious – always working, powerfully emotional – often works without customer knowing it

2. Personality 3. Brand Essence

Positioning Subconscious â&#x20AC;&#x201C; closer to the surface, comes into play at time of purchase, more rational and product specific than Brand Footprint. How this brand Relates to the competition for this purchase.


At the front of the mind – ready to be accessed at time of purchase – It’s good to help consumer develop a capsule, knowing that this will help the customer access the Brand Footprint and Positioning…

4. Brand Elements: The trademarks, visual, audio, and other methods which “Trigger the Brand Response”

Brand elements can be designed or chosen to inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations: Brand Name Logo Symbol

– Character – Packaging – Slogan

Core Values: Three 1-2 word descriptions of the brands inner, driving priorities Personality: Three 1-2 word traits that would describe the brand if it were a person Brand Footprint “Deepest Level”

Brand Essence: The central point of the Brand’s relationship with the consumer

Not every brand develops/has a well-defined footprint

Core Values… Three 1-2 word descriptions of the brands inner, driving priorities: •

Tied to the history/cumulative brand experience

Drives what brand stands for and what it doesn’t – the brands real “promise”

The foundation principles behind the brand

Differentiating: NOT “Motherhood”/Table Stakes/Required to be in business

Brand Personality… Three 1-2 word traits that would describe the brand if it were a person •


Physical/distinguishing attributes

Communications Style

Anything describing “personality”

Can be “blah” or very well defined…










Characteristics Characteristi Characterist Clever, Mysterious cs ics Core Meaning Learned Fun Transformation Enlightened Original Empowerment Core Meaning Core Wisdom Meaning GUARDIAN WARRIOR Mastery Rebellion Characteristi Characteristic Creation cs s Organized Strong Dynamic EXPLORER PATRIARC Mentoring Core Core Meaning Characterist H Meaning Power ics Characterist Protection Victory Independent ics Control Daring Dignified LOVER COMPANION Core Authoritativ Characteristic Characteristic Meaning e s s Challenge Core Passionate Unselfish Self Meaning Glamorous Supportive discovery Order Core Meaning Core Meaning Continuity Dreaming Friendship Characteristics Characteristics Romance Encouragemen Nurturing Beautiful t Down-to-earth Characteristics Mysterious Selfless, Pure Core Meaning Core Meaning Core Meaning Belonging Dangerous Innocence, Abundance pleasure Idealism Irresistible EARTH



Brand Essence… The central point of the Brand’s relationship with the target segment… Phil Kotler (ISBM Members Meeting 2/07) The essence of your brand is not how or what customers feel about your brand…

The essence of your brand is how and what your customers feel about THEMSELVES when they encounter your brand

Brand Positioning (Ries and Trout) Placing a brand in a competitive frame of reference And .. Selecting a (unique) benefit it intends to own relative to competition In the mind of a well understood customer...

Positioning Rules Each Competitive Segment has it’s own built in perceptions (Positive/Negative) All Competing Brands must deliver the “Ante”: Cost of Entry expectations Since all brands deliver this – the brand can’t differentiate on them – they’re necessary, not sufficient – But…They often get in the way…

Fundamentals of Positioning… Target Customers – Describe the segment they’re in with relevant dimensions Frame of Reference: What goal will be served by the target by consuming the brand. What is the category of consideration/key competitor /consumer goal defining the category? Point of Difference: What distinguishes you from other offerings in the competitive set? Reasons to Believe: Compelling evidence that your claim of difference is true…

2. Template for Strong Value Proposition/Positioning • For ____________________(target customer/segment)… • …that need _________________(the problem we solve)… • Our Brand’s ____________________(the offering)… • …provides ____________________(quantified benefit)… • …unlike _______________________(next best alternative). • We do this by ____________________(how do we do it)… • …As demonstrated by ________________(proof points).

Positioning Statement Example: To the tradesman who uses his power tools to make a living and cannot afford downtime on the job (target), DeWalt professional power tools (frame of reference) are more dependable and on the job more than other brands of professional power tools (point of difference) because they are engineered to the brandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s historic high quality standards and are backed by Black and Deckerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s extensive service network and guarantee to repair or replace any tool within 48 hours (reasons to believe).

The Brand Capsule… Customer develops a “quick reference” for a well established brand, because they cannot give us enough share of their conscious mind to store the Footprint and Position there… But…They come into play when faced with buying choices…

• Simple Phrase • One Idea Capsule

• Relevant to Need

4. Brand Elements: The trademarks, visual, audio, and other methods which “Trigger the Brand Response”

A variety of brand elements can be chosen that inherently enhance brand awareness or facilitate the formation of strong, favorable, and unique brand associations: Brand Name Logo Symbol

– Character – Packaging – Slogan

“BrandScape Workshop – Breakouts (60 minutes including break) Your brand as you want it to be (Desired BrandScape): 1.

Brand Footprint*


Brand Positioning*


Brand Capsule*

• Short report-out presentation Word/Powerpoints to

For a Review of the BrandScape See: Handout sheetsâ&#x20AC;Ś

Coke/Pepsi Kodak/Fuji TI

BrandScapesâ&#x20AC;Ś Owned by the customer and market Built by total, cumulative customer experience Managed through the efforts of firms to create a brand response through all of the tools of effective Integrated Market Communications

BrandScape: Key Integrating Tool

1. Brand Footprint a. Core Values: Inner, Driving Priorities b. Personality: Brand as person c. Essence: Relation to customer

2. Positioning • Key, unique differentiation in competitive set

3. Capsule • Single, simple phase summarizing brand “top of mind” for the consumer or customer

4. Brand Elements: “Trigger the “BrandScape “Response”

Family Versus Multiple Brands Multiple (Individual) Branding To Avoid Conflicts in Channels To Avoid Confusion Between Segments Different brand names if different target segments accessed via different channels and or products

Family Versus Multiple Brands Consider a family name (with sub-branding) if targeting the same customers for similar end-use product markets using the same channels (Marriott and Fairfield Inns by Marriott)

Why Create A New Brand? Creating/Opening a New Categoryâ&#x20AC;Ś Entering an Established Category with no Co-optable Brand Equity from another source Or, you want to separate this offering from that source Entering a category where clear differentiation from similar/Identical offerings is clearly needed Others?

The ultimate answer… If you can make more money (short term-long term) by adding a brand, add it… If you won’t make more money over the short or long term by adding a brand, don’t If you can make more money by “sunsetting” a brand, remove it…

Basics of Brand Architecture: The Brand Relationship Spectrum An organizing architecture for today’s complex brand world. Creating Brands is expensive – and takes time. Not every product/service/offering is a brand Often better to build offerings and experiences which add to a single brand, rather than proliferate brands “Ingredient Branding” Leverages the power of multiple brands…

Brand Brand Relationship Relationship Spectrum Spectrum House Houseof of Brands Brands

Endorsed Endorsed Brands Brands

SubSubBrands Brands

Branded Branded House House

Brand Brand Relationship Relationship Spectrum Spectrum House Houseof of Brands Brands

Endorsed Endorsed Brands Brands

SubSubBrands Brands

Branded Branded House House

Independent Brands, Each working in their own right, belonging to a â&#x20AC;&#x153;Remoteâ&#x20AC;? parent firm

House Houseof of Brands Brands

Not Not Connected Connected

Independent Brands held by a remote parent company

Shadow Shadow Endorser Endorser

Nutrasweet (Searle)

Tide (P&G)


Accura (Honda)

Saturn (GM)

Touchstone (Disney)

House of Brands (P&G) Targets Niche Markets Highlights new offerings Avoids incompatibility Allows powerful names tied to benefit Avoids channel conflict Shadow Endorser: â&#x20AC;&#x153;A Known organization is backing this brandâ&#x20AC;?

In a “House of Brands” The key competency itself is often the creation, growth and Management of Brands More B-to-C than B-to-B: Most of the offering value is in the brand, and opposed to the product in use…





Brand Brand Relationship Relationship Spectrum Spectrum House Houseof of Brands Brands

Endorsed Endorsed Brands Brands

SubSubBrands Brands

Strong Brands on their own, strengthened in a customer-relevant way by an association with the parent brand

Branded Branded House House

Endorsed Endorsed Brands Brands

Token/Remote Token/Remote Endorsement Endorsement Grape Nuts from Post Dockers, by Leviâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Universal Pictures, a Sony Company

Linked Linked Name Name Nestea McMuffin MaxPacks

Strong Brands on their own-in their segment, strengthened by the master brand

Strong Strong Endorsement Endorsement Courtyard by Marriott Obsession by Calvin Klein Walkman by Sony

Endorsed Brands Independent Can provide Relevant Support â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Degree of relevant support determines level: Token, Linked Names, Strong Can Build Strength for both brands

Speaks, Fun Teaches Quality Innovative

Parents Teachers Wall Street


Retail Channel



Innovative Solid Aging

Brand Brand Relationship Relationship Spectrum Spectrum House Houseof of Brands Brands

Endorsed Endorsed Brands Brands

SubSubBrands Brands

Separate, Strong Brands â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tied to and synergistic with â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the parent brand

Branded Branded House House

SubSubBrands Brands Co-Drivers Co-Drivers

Separate Brands tied to Master Brand, Subordinate and Synergistic

Master Master Brand Brand as as Driver Driver

Gillette Mach 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; (Powerful Product Brand)

Buick LeSabre

Sony Trinitron

Penn State Smeal (?)

DuPont Stainmaster (Powerful Ingredient Brand)

HP Deskjet

Subbrands Connected directly to the master brand --modify the emotional takeaway or proposition. Substantial potential impact on the master brand Critical: Degree to which they â&#x20AC;&#x153;Co-Driveâ&#x20AC;? the buying process/decision

Brand Brand Relationship Relationship Spectrum Spectrum House Houseof of Brands Brands

Endorsed Endorsed Brands Brands

SubSubBrands Brands

Branded Branded House House

Parent Brand Drives, products under it are named following their benefits or specifications

Branded Branded House House Different Different Identity Identity GE Capital, GE Appliance Nestle Coffee, Morsels Levis â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Europe/US

Parent Brand the driving Branding element

Same Same Identity Identity BMW Healthy Choice Virgin Penn State MBA (?) Smeal (?)

A Branded House… Master Brand is driver across Multiple categories Under that – primarily “Product Descriptors”/ Highly descriptive trademarks. Master brand should be in a position to add to – and be strengthened by – all the firms offerings. BMW





They’re all BMW’s

They’re all numbers

Key Questionsâ&#x20AC;Ś Which brand â&#x20AC;&#x201C;really drives the purchase decision?

House Brand Strong

Product Brand Strong Level of Endorsement

Brand Separation Criteriaâ&#x20AC;Ś Branded House: Synergy in product line Combined visibility and relevance Single brand visibility, concentration of resources

House of Brands: Eclectic product mix Risky product categories Channel conflict potential Business model supports creation of a brand

Brand “Portfolio” Lederer, Hill HBR, 6/2001

Parent Brand – Master Brand




Product Line Brand


Product Brand


Ingredient Brands

Bose, OnStar, NorthStar

Brand Extensions

Cadillac Service

“Ingredient Brands” When your ingredient creates (the/a) unique element of value for the customer down the value chain. When your customer will find a way to call out the ingredient if you don’t When the opportunity exists to create a valuable brand – and a franchise with the customer down the value chain.

Works to create direct Brand Relationship with consumer

Ingredient Ingredient Provider Provider Provides key ingredient of value for the manufacturer

Manufacturer Manufacturer

Consumer looks for this ingredient â&#x20AC;&#x201C; or is willing to pay more

Consumer Consumer

Important Consideration: Relative Brand “Power” – Depth of Equity Generally difficult to accomplish ingredient branding strategy

Relative power of “hosting” brand

Zone of relative balance: Ingredient branding strategy may offer opportunity to create new value/ “Market Assets”

Relative power of “Ingredient” brand

Ingredient branding strategy may not be desirable…

The “Classics” DuPont Stainmaster, Teflon® NutraSweet Dolby Intel Inside TI: “DLP” PPG Glass

As Brand Coachesâ&#x20AC;Ś Help the firm focus and articulate the BrandScape, ask the right questions Refine it â&#x20AC;&#x201C;make it more relevant to the customer (Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning) Determine what needs to be done to deliver and strengthen the Brand Institute measures of Brand Performance

Brandscape Architecture  
Brandscape Architecture  

Brandscape Architecture