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INDIANAPOLIS LATINO NEIGHBORHOOD REVITALIZATION Integrating and Accommodating the Growing Latino Population in the Irvington Neighborhood of Indianapolis, Indiana

SARAH M. MCCOLLEY April 29, 2011


INDIANAPOLIS LATINO NEIGHBORHOOD REVITALIZATION: Integrating and Accommodating the Growing Latino Population in the Irvington Neighborhood of Indianapolis, Indiana Sarah McColley Landscape Architecture 404: Comprehensive Project Department of Landscape Architecture College of Architecture and Planning Ball State University April 2011


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Simon Bussiere for advising me through this project. His enthusiasm and honest critique helped make my design and overall project much better. I want to thank Dr. Chin-Sook Pak for the project inspiration through her Mรกs Latinos honors courses, and for her continued support. I would also like to thank the studio professors for all of their help, and the community leaders with whom I spoke to learn more about Irvington and the Latino influence,. I also want to thank my parents for always supporting me and giving me advice when I need it. Finally, I want to thank Javier Mercedes for being my favorite Latino.

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ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to revitalize a Latino, urban, neighborhood in Irvington, on the east side of Indianapolis, Indiana, using three levels of design. The 350-acre framework plan includes the area along Washington Street with Irvington Street as the western border, Kitley Avenue as the eastern boundary, University Avenue as the southern border, and Lowell Avenue as the northern boundary. The 84.5-acre master plan site extends from Bolton Avenue east to Kitley Avenue, and from University Avenue to half a block north of Washington Street. The 1.54-acre site-scale plan includes the new Central Plaza and adjacent buildings that front Washington Street between Kenmore and Ridgeview Avenues. The project focuses on integrating the Latino population into the neighborhood and using the culture as design inspiration. This is accomplished by creating compact developments using sustainable development principles, providing affordable housing options, providing opportunities for educational and community services, and using characteristics of the Latino culture, such as the use of plazas and the importance of dance, to determine land use designations. The plans embrace the Latino culture and create an interesting place for all current and future residents of Irvington. Many elements of design accommodate Latino culture, but also provide a better quality of life for all residents. Case studies of mixed-use and sustainable developments in Indianapolis and across the United States provide insight on how to create a sustainable development that accommodates the Latino population. Research about Latino culture, urban revitalization methods, and how the topics can be inter-related guides the design principles for the Irvington neighborhood renewal. Latinos transform urban environments, and the plans build upon these transformations as a means to integrate the culture into the neighborhood. Latino culture also places emphasis on family values, social networks, and the use of public open space for large gatherings, and these elements of Latino culture are considered in all levels of design. Because of the adversity Latino immigrants face, the design also includes affordable housing, services, and organizations to facilitate upward mobility.

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION THE PROBLEM STATEMENT HYPOTHESIS PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE REVIEW OF LITERATURE PROJECT REQUIREMENTS Project Goals

1 2 3 5 6-23 24-27 24-25

Client and User

25

Limitations

26

Definitions

27

PROGRAM DESIGN PROCESS Design Process Location/Vicinity Map

28-29 30-87 30-34 35

Site/Setting/Context

36-37

Site Inventory (Existing Conditions)

38-41

Site Analysis (Opportunities and Constraints)

42-43

Case Studies

44-47

Design Concepts

48-49

Final Concept

50-53

Framework Plan

54-57

Master Plan Diagrams

58-61

Master Plan

62-63

Master Plan Phasing

64-65

Master Plan Sections + Perspectives

66-77


Site Plan Diagrams

78-79

Site Plan

80-81

Site Plan Sections, Perspective, + Materials

82-87

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION

88-97

Site Layout Plan

88-89

Detail Layout Plan

90-91

Site Planting Plan

92-93

Planting Schedule and Photos

94-95

Construction Details

96-97

CONCLUSION APPENDICES

98-99 A-1 to A-25

Appendix A:Timeline

A-2

Appendix B: Design Concerns and Considerations

A-3

Appendix C: Site Photos

A-4 to A-15

Appendix D: Conversations with Community Organization Leaders

A-16 to A-17

Appendix E: Brief Irvington History

A-18 to A-19

Appendix F: Historic District Regulations

A-20 to A-21

Appendix G: References

A-22 to A-25


INTRODUCTION “Latin American immigrants and their children, perhaps more than any other element in the population, exult in playgrounds, parks, squares, libraries, and other endangered species of U.S. public space, and thus form one of the most important constituencies for the preservation of our urban commons� (Davis 55). Throughout recent years in the Irvington neighborhood, located on the east side of Indianapolis, Latinos have transformed the once vacant streetscape into an ethnic and colorful destination. Irvington is a Historic District, and the current Irvington Neighborhood Plan and Irvington Streetscape Plan are in progress to revitalize part of the Washington Street / U.S. 40 corridor; however, these plans do not make specific accommodations for the growing Latino population. Accommodation and integration into the community are necessary, as the Latino population is the fastest growing minority in the United States. In general, Latinos use public space as an important part of their culture, and because of the growing population in the Irvington area, it will be necessary to turn vacant and under-utilized land into park and public space to connect to the existing strong park and trail network. Designing compact and sustainable development with designated public space along Washington Street that embraces the Latino population and culture will create a vibrant space for residents and visitors.

This project embraces the Latino culture while creating an interesting place for all current and future residents of Irvington. Many elements of design accommodate Latino immigrants and also provide a better quality of life for all residents, including the extensive use of plazas and park space, compact and sustainable development, and affordable, walkable mixed-use development.

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PROBLEM PROBLEM STATEMENT The purpose of this project is to revitalize a Latino, urban, low-income neighborhood in Irvington, located in Indianapolis, Indiana. This project will determine how Latinos transform the urban fabric and how to accommodate these cultural impacts, how to connect to current programs and organizations, such as La Plaza, in order to provide suitable educational and community services, and how to implement sustainable design solutions in the community. An analysis of these issues will result in the development of community revitalization framework, master, and site-scale plans in that use Latino culture as the design inspiration.

SUB-PROBLEMS • How are low-income and Latino neighborhoods defined, and what are the most important characteristics of Latino culture? • How has the Latino population transformed the urban fabric in the United States, and what are the best ways to address these cultural impacts in the design solution? • How are current organizations, like La Plaza, helping the Indianapolis Latino population, and which education and community services are suitable for the revitalization efforts? • How can sustainable design solutions be implemented into the framework, master, and site plans? • What are common revitalization methods currently implemented in similar places?

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HYPOTHESIS

Successful revitalization of an Indianapolis neighborhood with a growing Latino population requires consideration of the adversity that immigrants experience, the rapid increase in the Latino population, Latino cultural characteristics, and the necessity to provide educational and health services to foster upward mobility. Cultural heritage and sustainable design can be integral elements to create a dynamic and inviting community redevelopment.

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SIGNIFICANCE The Latino population in Indianapolis continues to significantly increase, and although no specific barrio exists, some areas of Indianapolis are home to large percentages of Latinos (Littlepage 2), including the Irvington neighborhood. According to the 2000 Census, the Indianapolis Latino population was 3.9%, but by 2009, the population doubled to 7.8% (Indiana Department of Workforce Development). The elementary school in the site area, Indianapolis Public School 57, George W. Julian Elementary [see Figure 15, page 39], has a 37.5% Latino student population (Indiana Department of Education). Usually, when Latinos immigrate to the United States, they live in low-income urban neighborhoods and experience adversity regarding the search for employment and obtaining educational opportunities (Haymes 33). Latinos move to Indiana because of work and housing opportunities and the idea that Indiana is a good place to raise a family (Littlepage 2). Because the population is quickly becoming the largest minority in America, it is necessary to integrate Latinos into society while maintaining their cultural heritage, and to provide educational services and affordable housing to assist with upward mobility. Many revitalization projects are planned or under construction in Indianapolis, such as Fall Creek Place on the near north side of Indianapolis and the Irvington Neighborhood Plan, demonstrating a goal to improve the Indianapolis area. Incorporating the Latino culture in a redevelopment plan provides a cultural asset to the city by designing for entertainment and educational options addressing Latino culture and connecting to the history and change of the location. The community revitalization plans in the Irvington neighborhood include characteristics of the Latino cultural heritage, embraces existing Latino transformations to the urban fabric, integrates more public open space, and adopts sustainable design practices to improve the Irvington community for residents and visitors. Using characteristics of Latino culture to design plazas, affordable and a variety of housing, park space, urban agriculture, and more commercial space adds interest to the Irvington neighborhood fabric that serves residents and visitors while promoting multiculturalism.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE The growing Latino population across the United States has greatly affected the Latino population in Indianapolis, Indiana, as it becomes a more desirable place to live, work, and raise a family. Because of the increase in the Latino population and hardships that they face, it is necessary to include and integrate the population into our communities using thoughtful and careful community design that celebrates and uses their culture. This review of literature analyzes Latino culture and the reasons for their poverty, how Latinos transform the urban context, what services are necessary in a new immigrant community, how sustainable design tactics can be applied in a new community design, and what revitalization methods are popular throughout the United States in similar locations.

Definition of Latino Neighborhoods and Characteristics of Latino Culture Percentage of Latinos The Latino population is the largest and fastest growing minority in the United States (Davis 2). In 2009 in the United States, Latinos were 15.8% of the country’s population (Indiana Department of Workforce Development). In the 2000 Census, Indianapolis’ Latino population was 3.9%, compared to 3.5% for the state (City of Indianapolis). By 2009, the number doubled to 7.8% of the Indianapolis population (Indiana Department of Workforce Development), and after the 2010 Census counts, the Marion County, where Indianapolis is located, the Latino population reached 10.65% (U.S. Census Bureau). During the 2009-2010 school year, 15.8% of the children in the Indianapolis Public Schools system were Latino. For example, George W. Julian School 57 [see Figure 15, page 39], which teaches kindergarten through sixth grade, had a 37.5% Latino population in the 2009-2010 academic year, and the nearby high school, Thomas Carr Howe Community High School [see Figure 5, page 35], had 10.5% Latino students enrolled (Indiana Department of Education). In addition, some Census tracts show populations of up to 30% Latino residents. In Indianapolis, the majority of immigrants are from Mexico, but Central and South American immigrants make a large population. The Latino population is spread throughout the city, and no “barrio,” which is defined as a neighborhood with more than 50% of Latino inhabitants, exists. Latino immigrants move to Indiana because of the affordable housing, work demand in certain jobs, and the idea that Indiana is a good place to have a family (Littlepage 2). Because of the large increase in the Latino population, changes should be made to integrate them into society and create better neighborhoods with greater opportunity for education, entrepreneurship, and maintaining family values. All levels of design consider and preserve Latino cultural heritage because of the importance Latinos place on their culture. Causes of Latino Poverty Throughout the United States, poverty is the most prevailing and critical social problem for Latinos (Haymes 27). The

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE culture, ties to family members in their home countries, or personal character do not create poverty conditions; the poverty results from lack of access to economic and educational opportunities (Haymes 33). Census estimates state that in Marion County, Latino families are more likely to be below the poverty level, with 17% of the population, as compared to 9% of the entire population (Littlepage 2). Latinos face high unemployment rates, low high school and college graduation rates, low-income levels, and low employment rates in professional careers. In general, Latinos are motivated and willing to work, but some barriers for upward mobility remain, including the youthfulness of the population, illegal immigration status, low education levels before immigrating to the United States, lack of English skills, and discrimination (Haymes 33). Education forms a large barrier for advancement and mobility in the United States for Latinos. Usually, Latino children attend inner city schools, which often do not have the funding or facilities available to teach English, so many students drop out of high school (Davis 117). This is a problem in Indianapolis because as of the 2000 Census, nearly half of Latino males and 42% of Latina females over the age of twenty-five did not have high school diplomas (Littlepage 3). The majority of sources reviewed agreed that education levels, discrimination, job placement, and lack of English skills were the main causes for Latino poverty and for lack of upward mobility. This information illustrates that communities with large Latino populations should provide more services to accommodate the population. Designing and planning for the availability of educational and social services, such as English as a Second Language classes, employment services and classes, and tutoring are necessary elements included in the plans as a means to connect the residents to each other and to the surrounding population [see Plan 3, page 80 for specifics]. Family Organization Latinos are highly family-oriented, making the family one of the most important aspects in their lives and culture. The usual depiction includes traditional family values, behaviors, and large extended family structures. Latinos maintain a strong commitment to their families, provide support, and want to be geographically close to family members. The men are the heads of the household and make most of the decisions (Zambrana 43-45); however, due to immigration status and job availability, the family roles and structure must be flexible (Zambrana 3-5). Men work away from home much of the time, so women take on more family roles when necessary, but raising children is a joint responsibility (Zambrana 9). Usually the family structure is two parents and children, but, recently, single females head more families than in the past (Zambrana 16-17). Latinos form large family networks with frequent visitation, different from non-Hispanic white families, who maintain long distance relationships with technology (Zambrana 7). Latinos love to host large family events with extended relatives in attendance, and fiestas can be spontaneous for an event as simple as a soccer game (Cisneros 21-22). Because of this, housing must be designed to accommodate large numbers of people, which can include access to public transit, flexible floor layout, and parking accommodations (Cisneros 23-24). Housing on lots are oriented

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE in such a way that even if all relatives can not fit inside, they can gather outside in intimate open spaces. Allowing for vehicle parking and public transportation access also dictates how the housing and community spaces or buildings are designed within the master plan. Housing and community centers with outdoor spaces are arranged to accommodate large families, extended families, and family events [see Plan 2, page 62]. Some aspects of Latino family life have been unaffected by assimilation into American culture, including a sense of ethnic identity, family importance, and the Spanish language. Throughout generations, individuals retain a strong sense of national origin, and people have a sense of community and loyalty to Latino issues. Children frequently become bilingual and they generally preserve the Spanish language as an important aspect of the culture (Zambrana 49-57). The family structure is important to the culture, so the framework and master plans make accommodations and ensure that the networks are strengthened and family values can be maintained. Entertainment Although many forms of entertainment are prominent in Latino culture, soccer and dance represent popular social forms of entertainment. Usually, when Latinos move to the United States, they search for jobs, homes, churches, and soccer teams, and they generally use the city parks as playing fields. In Washington, D.C., Latinos use the soccer leagues for entertainment, social networking, and as a way to the create status-validation Latinos may seek because their status in the United States is often lower than in their countries of origin. Soccer leagues provide a safe and family-oriented atmosphere that keeps people healthy and in touch with each other, and some leagues raise money to send to family in their home countries (Arreola 171-182). Sometimes it can be difficult to find a field to use (Arreola 178), so the integration of a soccer field into the master plan is a useful method to encourage more community interaction and embrace Hispanic culture [see Plan 2, page 62 and Figure 63, page 74]. Because Hispanic culture includes many different countries and ethnicities, many forms of dance exist. Salsa is described as a means of expression for Latinos who had been uprooted in many facets of their lives, such as location and language, and the music itself integrates multiple musical styles from the Americas (Borland 467). Some Latinos view dance as a rebellion against the difficulties faced during immigration (Borland 468). Many Salsa dancers, or salseros, oppose complete assimilation into American culture and aim to make Salsa an art form. However, later generations of Latinos also see Salsa as a means to connect with their cultural heritage. Because of the growing Latino population and commercialization of Latino music artists, the popularity of Salsa has also spread to non-Latinos, and many clubs and studios have opened (Borland 469). Salsa style varies according to ethnicity and geographic location, but instructors

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE throughout the country encourage diversity in people who choose to learn (Borland 470-471). Although the dance is led by men, women are seen as important to Salsa and can demonstrate their independence and confidence through arriving to the clubs alone, adding style, and asking men to dance (Borland 475). Adding Salsa studios to the master plan builds community and encourages more interactions between immigrants and other residents. As mentioned in City Comforts, adding dance steps into pavement can add interesting detail and encourage use of plaza space (Sucher 201). However, using aspects of the dance, such as the firm frame, steps, leading and following, and rhythm to inspire plaza design, art form, and other community elements draws more of the Latino culture into the community. Additionally, the main design concept is derived from the importance of dance to the Latino culture, driving the design decisions in all levels of planning [see Diagrams 12-21, pages 50-53]. Social Networks Latino social networks within communities also provide support and protection of emotional and physical health, particularly through difficult times (Zambrana 14). Family and social networks help relatives and friends solve problems with immigration, provide information about employment, and offer shelter to recent immigrants until they find their own homes (Zambrana 5). “Life in Latin American countries is highly connected to the community, whether through important church and school functions, the ability to walk to a nearby market, or through socializing in the neighborhood. Good site selection can encourage strong social connections and foster more social interaction in the United States as well” (Cisneros 136). Health and education services, locations for meetings, and large public gathering spaces provide places for people to meet outside of their homes. Forming business networks by placing stores and offices close together in mixed-use developments and next to residences creates more connections and a larger network extending through much of the neighborhood. This also forms a support for local businesses and grows the economy for Irvington [see Plan 2, page 62].

Latino Urban Transformation Latinos “bring energy and change to run-down cores and inner suburbs of many cities” (Davis 52). This is most apparent where Latinos have the opportunity for home and business ownership because they repaint homes and storefronts and make repairs as needed. Street vending, street corner labor markets, festivals, and bright colors make up many Latino neighborhoods. However, Latino immigrants are often faced with laws, regulations, and discrimination that hinder their attempts to create vibrant communities. Some examples include neighbors complaining about bright paint colors on houses, difficulty gaining work in other stores, and cities banning street vending and corner labor markets (Davis 52-55).

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Plazas and Open Space “Latin American immigrants and their children, perhaps more than any other element in the population, exult in playgrounds, parks, squares, libraries, and other endangered species of U.S. public space, and thus form one of the most important constituencies for the preservation of our urban commons” (Davis 55). Latinos change dying spaces into social spaces with gardens, outdoor restaurants, murals, art, booksellers, and other activities (Davis 55). Although this is more noticeable in cities other than Indianapolis because they have specific Latino neighborhoods, or “barrios,” the Latin flavor has also transformed Irvington and Indianapolis’ streetscapes [see Figures 12 and 13, page 37]. Using existing changes and building upon them creates a more active and colorful community within Irvington and Indianapolis. Plazas can be an important part of a community because they encourage interaction between people and provide cultural importance and activities, but careful planning should ensure that the design fits the context. Although most Hispanic plazas have become tourist attractions, Las Vegas Plaza is a Hispanic urban plaza in Las Vegas, New Mexico, that has retained its use and remains the heart of the community. People have used the plaza since the 1800s, and 918 buildings in the city are on the National Register of Historic Places. People use the plaza daily and the commercial activity is the main use, but annual festivals, community sponsored events, parades, music performances, patriotic commemorations, and an annual Fourth of July celebration take place there (Arreola 43-53). “In Hispanic American communities, the daily lives of people unfold on the public plaza, and the space serves as an integral landscape that reinforces the local culture” (qtd. in Arreola 50). Commercial uses and community events form an atmosphere conducive to daily and frequent use. The Las Vegas plaza is historical, which helps provide more significance and pride for the community, but it is a good example of the importance of plazas to Latino culture. In New York City, small parks and playgrounds function as “plazas” and many Latino neighborhoods use wide sidewalks that have become social spaces with the addition of benches, temporary furniture, and card tables for dominos (Arreola 147). In San Diego, the primarily Mexican population improved the dying spaces that they inherited as their homes, created a cultural center, and fought to create parks (Arreola 105). Barriers, including large freeways and commercial developments, are destructive to their communities; however, the residents opposed development efforts and created a park called “Chicano Park” under a freeway bridge, which became a source of pride for the community. The park includes murals and an Aztec-style kiosk (Arreola 114-115). The ability of this community to successfully fight against a development plan to create their own neighborhood park demonstrates the importance of parks and plazas to the culture, and should be recognized in a revitalization process. The framework [see Plan 1, page 54], master [see Plan 2, page 62], and site [see Plan 3, page 80] plans address the multiple uses of plazas and include plazas as important and vibrant spaces for the community.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Festivals, Art, Business, Streets Across the country, Latinos use the public realm for a variety of socializing events. In the Mission District in San Francisco, Latinos congregate mostly on the plazas near the transit systems, but the streets also become active and vibrant places. Mission Street feels like a market, or “mercado,” with street vendors and pedestrians gathering. The main commercial uses are music stores, groceries, travel agencies, money-transfer locations, bars and clubs, restaurants, a Latino arts center, and stores with products from countries of origin (Arreola 89). The community also has festivals, community art, and annual Cinco de Mayo celebrations. Over 100 murals and many art galleries decorate the streets, and residents, not professionals, give tours of all the murals. The residents put in the effort to preserve their community’s character, but they also fear displacement due to revitalization projects (Arreola 98). In Indianapolis, La Plaza hosts an annual September festival called FIESTA Indianapolis, which has been in existence since 1980 and features food, dancing, and cultural festivities at the American Legion Mall. The event usually attracts approximately 35,000 people (La Plaza-Indy). In 2009, the Indianapolis Museum of Art sponsored a special event called CineLatino, which featured South American films (Indianapolis Museum of Art). Similar to San Francisco, in the Latino community of San Diego, California, the residents aim to create a homeland and unique ethnic space (Arreola 104). Parades, holiday festivals, and cultural events celebrate the Latino culture and the community as a whole (Arreola 105). In New York City, the large population of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans creates a distinct Caribbean influence. Sidewalks are packed with vendors selling churro, tamal and fruit drinks, and feature loud music, conversation, and playing children. The commercial streets have been converted to an “ethnic main street,” and businesses use colors of national flags, religious symbols, and actual national flags to demonstrate their origins. The residents take advantage of the housing situation and proximity to transportation (Arreola 157). Commercial districts appear to be the fundamental aspect of the Latino community, as they become the centers for activity with many people gathering on the streets and plazas. The Puerto Rican population in Cleveland, Ohio, is prominent, and its rich influence is obvious because Spanish is spoken many places and the grocery stores sell Goya products as a main food line. The Latino commercial base, which was started in the 1980s and 1990s, includes nightclubs with Merengue and Salsa dancing, small bars, restaurants with Puerto Rican food, grocery stores, music stores, and specialty shops, many of which are in the core of the community. The community also has a map with Hispanic landscape elements marked (Arreola 195). The residents have changed the landscape with signs in Spanish, advertisements for Goya products, and political signs for Hispanic candidates (Arreola 197). Integrating these types of business into the commercial core of redevelopment creates a vibrant

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE center celebrating Latino culture and heritage that attracts all residents and visitors. Revitalization in Indianapolis neighborhoods should make the retention and improvement of Latino businesses and residents’ lives a priority. Building Transformations In New York City, like many locations, Latinos were “latecomers to an already-built environment” of primarily multiunit housing in the city (Arreola 146). However, they have been able to apply their transformations of the urban space with colors on facades, religious shrines, flags from their countries of origin, and cacti pictures. Similarly, in Cleveland, Ohio, because the Latino immigrants inherited an established and built environment, the residents change “semi-fixed features” with religious shrines, fences, bright-colored paint, and well-kept front yards and flower gardens (Arreola 188). Many Catholic churches are in the community because religion and religious institutions are important to the immigrant residents. Some churches operate from old store buildings, and others use old churches and adapt the buildings to their specific needs (Arreola 198). Organizations and social groups form an important part of the community and support those in need of food or help. In addition, the organizations advocate the preservation of the Puerto Rican culture and educate children about their heritage (Arreola 197). The Latino population’s changes are important considerations during a revitalization process. Many cities in the United States experience the immigration growth, and the new Latino residents transform the urban landscape. Although the Latino group includes many ethnicities, the changes to the urban landscape are similar throughout the country, specifically with commercial uses and plaza and park space. As they transform the dying landscapes into more lively spaces, they start their own revitalization process. Preserving improvements, providing incentives for additional improvements, and working with the citizens of the community can create a more inviting and exciting place for Latino residents. The framework, master, and site-scale plans consider these transformations and build upon them to embrace the culture. Community Design for Latinos Latinos want to share their sense of culture with their new communities, and it is best to do this in a place where fostering a sense of community is easy (Cisneros 89). Latinos enjoy compact communities with play space for children, interconnected sidewalks, walking and biking trails, soccer fields, small parks, plazas, and places to gather large groups. Names of places and architectural detailing that are reminiscent of their heritage also create an increased sense of place. Family-size rental units are necessary because Latino families are larger than most in the United States. Latinos view schools as important civic centers, so a community near a school where opportunities for interaction exist is

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE ideal (Cisneros 24-26). All of these components shape the community and how the Latinos will use it. Irvington is an ideal location for development because of the amenities of a variety of housing, a trail network, proximity to schools, sidewalks, and a park network. Because of the preference for park and open space to hold community or family events, well-designed and integrated open space is in the master plan [see Plan 2, page 62]. Multiple small parks and plazas, and distinct connections to existing larger parks create a cohesive environment that encourages building community and strengthening family [see Diagram 30, page 61].

Programs and Organizations in Indianapolis Helping the Latino Population Educational Programs La Plaza, an organization in Indianapolis that aims to integrate the Latino community into the society of Indianapolis, offers many programs to assist the Latino population. Education programs include Tu Futuro (Your Future), The MotherDaughter/Father-Son Project, and Summer Discovery, and a scholarship fund (La Plaza-Indy). Tu Futuro encourages and supports Latino students to pursue higher education. La Plaza uses bilingual presentations, workshops, individual meetings, and college visits to encourage application to higher education. The program also provides information about the college admission process, scholarships and financial aid, and possible careers. The website offers a scholarship guide in both Spanish and English each school year that explains how to fill out scholarship forms. The MotherDaughter/Father-Son Program targets middle school Latinos so they complete high school, and helps the students gain appreciation for their education, acquire leadership skills, confront negative stereotypes, form supportive relationships, and create future goals. This program also works with the students’ parents so that they can contribute to their children’s education (La Plaza-Indy). The Summer Discovery program, which reaches elementary school children during the summer, has bilingual teachers that work with the children during a six-week summer program (Littlepage 4). Students are involved in reading, math, art, science, physical education, technology, leadership activities, field trips, and community service (La Plaza-Indy). All of these education programs are important to the advancement of the Latino population, and they demonstrate the kind of services necessary within a Latino community to create more upward mobility. Implementing these into the revitalization plan creates a more unified and knowledgeable community, starting with the youth of the area. Because the elementary school in the neighborhood has a large percentage of Latino students, it is important to design for educational and English language services so that neighborhood students can benefit from them. George W. Julian Elementary School 57 and Thomas Carr Howe Community High School, both a part of the Indianapolis Public Schools, are opportunities for these connections and could be learning facilities within walking distance.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Project Stepping Stone is a week-long summer program for Latino high school students that helps them prepare for college and their futures. Interested Latino sophomores, juniors, or seniors in Indiana high schools must apply with an application, essay, transcripts, and letters of recommendation, and the chosen students make visits to Indiana colleges and businesses. The program is sponsored by the National Society of Hispanic MBAs and other sponsors, allowing the program to be free to students (Project Stepping Stone). The Indiana Latino Institute also addresses higher education with educational fairs, internships, scholarships, and workshops. The institute has a program called “Careers for the Future,� which educates families about the requirements for higher education and makes attending college more attainable (Indiana Latino Institute). By increasing the education outreach of the neighborhood, more Latino students could graduate high school and make higher education a goal. Locations for outdoor learning centers and workshops in public spaces, plazas [see Plan 3, page 80], and a community center [see Figure 57, page 68] encourages educational organizations to provide more outreach. Educational aspects in parts of the design, such as scientific learning through park space [see Figure 64, page 75], sustainable design elements, like urban agriculture [see Figure 61, page 75] and storm water management, also address educational needs. Health and Social Services La Plaza provides health and social services, helping at least 5,000 Latinos annually with services, such as immunizations, mental health services, job counseling and placement, legal services, food pantries, holiday assistance programs, translations, and emergency assistance (La Plaza-Indy). Although La Plaza reaches thousands of people each year from one location, this location is approximately a twenty-minute drive northeast of the site. If neighborhood schools provide limited programs, and driving is required, it could be more difficult to reach families on the east side of Indianapolis. It is proposed that a branch of La Plaza is necessary and placed within the master plan [see Plan 2, page 62] to serve a greater population. Another organization, the Indiana Latino Institute, offers programs on smoking cessation, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS awareness (Indiana Latino Institute). Connecting to these generous and helpful organizations and others by providing locations for community events, information sessions, and workshops, strengthens the community and makes more Latino residents aware of opportunities.

Sustainable Design Solutions Sustainable Community Systems Many aspects of design can be changed and improved to create a sustainable neighborhood and sustainable sites within the community. Melrose Commons in the Bronx, New York, presents a good example of a sustainable community

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE because the neighborhood is LEED-certified, uses many sustainable practices, and the residents specifically requested a mixed-use, pedestrian friendly, community that provided access to jobs, entertainment, and education. Resident input and a neighborhood association called Nos Quedamos (We Stay) that worked with Magnusson Architects and Planners played a major role in the redevelopment of the 35-block low-income and increasingly Latino neighborhood. Housing for many income levels, retail, access to public transportation, and other commercial businesses are included in the plan, and the growing Hispanic population influences the identity of the area (Magnusson). The community members suggested less surface parking, more access to mass transit, and lower standards for parking requirements. The community members were concerned about the affordability of housing, the ability to expand existing businesses, providing services to the area, lack of open space, the use of the streets, and the need for a specific density to support development. Nos Quedamos created goals and principles for a new plan which include: no displacement of existing residents or businesses, mixed-income housing for ownership and renting, affordable housing at an urban density, attractive architecture to encourage development, sustainable development practices, an open space system, use of the existing street patterns and movements, and commercial and services space. In addition to attractive buildings that fit the neighborhood’s social context, the residents advised the need for long-term quality, and building orientation that could maximize sunlight and ventilation (Magnusson). Infill of residences and new buildings results in less displacement of people and more variety in scale and building type. The community requested good storm water management and environmental practices, with a series of small ponds functioning as wetlands, recycling and reuse of materials, and landscape elements on the streets (Magnusson). The Latino influence on this urban renewal project, and the need for a sustainable community represents a successful case study of information for future projects. The ideas of extensive community involvement, maintaining the existing culture, and revitalizing a neighborhood with multiple sustainable practices that address storm water management, resource management, and overall community design are applied to the framework, master, and site-scale plans. New Urbanism It is important to maintain New Urbanism and sustainable ideals in community design as the Latino population grows and assimilates. Providing environments similar to their home countries will encourage urban and compact living, instead of exacerbating sprawl (Cisneros). The New Urbanism ideas allow Latinos to attain middle class status, businessownership, and homeownership, but also create sustainable communities with compact design that include services and amenities within walking distance [see Diagram 29, page 61].

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Latinos prefer compact development with large open spaces, which directly follows characteristics of New Urbanism. This type of development allows them to build community, but it also becomes a more sustainable and cost effective design solution (Cisneros 135). Smaller lot sizes, narrower road widths, mixed-use, open space, access to transit, diverse housing types, adaptive reuse, good storm water and resource management, and good building placement are all characteristics of New Urbanism (Cisneros 137), but they are also attributes that Latinos prefer in their communities. Arranging homes closer to the street reduces infrastructure costs and allows for more interaction between residents, especially when homes have front porches (Cisneros 91). Walking is the most sustainable form of transportation, encourages economic activity, and helps local businesses (Birch 101). A standard, comfortable walking distance to amenities is a quarter mile (Cisneros 95), so commercial areas and services should be within this radius. Creating the flexibility for extended family member living quarters also is a necessary component of community design for Latinos that meets the ideals of New Urbanism (Cisneros 103). In the framework and master plans, commercial locations, community services, schools, and churches are within a comfortable walking radius when possible [see Diagram 29, page 61], which reduces the amount of vehicular traffic and parking area, and increases community interaction. It is important to promote a sense of community and the sustainability of the development by incorporating a variety of attractive housing options on small lots, placed close to the street, and integrated with open space. A full-range of housing types allows for increased density and more compact development, but it also creates more options for affordable housing (Cisneros 135). Orienting homes to maximize solar energy and natural ventilation using shade trees are also aspects of New Urbanism (Cisneros 141). Adding cultural embellishments, trellises, vines, and landscaping can enhance the curb appeal of homes and alleys, and can add to the aesthetic value because homes can be closer to the street without front garages. When garages are in the back, residents are able to build community with gardens in the front and in public space created by compact development (Cisneros 142). Sustainable and community building practices that also increase the aesthetics are integral in the community redevelopment. Storm Water Management Storm water can become an amenity to the community when it is managed on-site, integrated into the landscape design, and encourages human interaction. Showing the movement of water through the landscape can be functional and a visual amenity with courtyards or bio-swales in parking lots (Birch 170). Storm water features should be accessible to visitors and residents because they provide “calming views, spaces for restoration, and even opportunities for play and interaction with water� (Sustainable Sites). Using good storm water management controls the water at the source, rather than sending it off-site through expensive and unnecessary infrastructure (Birch 158). Adding natural

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE filtration systems reduces infrastructure costs because impervious surfaces are more costly due to the amount of materials necessary (Cisneros 143). Bio-swales, rain gardens, and demonstrating how the amenities work provide an interactive and educational element, but also reduce runoff from streets, plazas, rooftops, and other impervious surfaces. Reducing impervious surfaces allows the groundwater to recharge (Sustainable Sites). Bio-swales on streets, and rain gardens in yards, courtyards, or open space naturally filter the water and allow it to slowly infiltrate into the soil (Cisneros 143). Retention ponds (Cisneros 144) and vacant land could provide locations for good storm water management practices to reduce runoff and to enhance aesthetics and human use (Birch 239). Because plant material absorbs storm water, adding more plant material, such as trees, green roofs, courtyard landscapes, and green facades, benefits the community and reduces runoff. In addition, collecting and harvesting rain water allows for reuse of water for toilets and irrigation and further reduces runoff (Birch 171). All of these methods can create significant benefits when applied to an entire community and when used in a larger system with many components (Birch 172). Designing an overall system for the Irvington community reduces the amount of runoff, and the storm water treatments create better aesthetics and become gathering places. Because courtyards, plazas, and open space are important to the Latino culture, designing open space with storm water treatment features adds beauty, function, and educational opportunities [see Plan 3, page 80; Figure 74, page 84; Figure 82, page 86]. Urban Agriculture Many Latinos enjoy planting flowers, fruit trees, and gardening, which can be applied to the idea of urban agriculture. “One of the more visible attributes of existing Latino communities is the obvious enjoyment of gardening…[it] reflects a culture that values taking time to work with one’s hands in the earth and nurture living things that add color” (Cisneros 22). One example in Havana, Cuba, is that people used rooftops, patios, and open land to create organic farms and gardens, and now more than half of the vegetables for residents are grown within the city. They hold farmers’ markets and have restored the soils (Birch 261). “Minority urban households suffer from disproportionately high levels of child obesity and poor nutrition- 18 percent of Latino households and 22 percent of non-Hispanic black households in the United States are unable to purchase sufficient food” (Birch 261). Not only is the act of community gardening good for community development and providing more healthy food, but it also can improve storm water and waste management (Birch 262). As in Philadelphia, locally grown snacks can be given to students in schools and provide educational programs (Birch 264). Because of the sustainable characteristic of community gardens, and because of the importance gardening and community networks serve to the Latino population, designing for community gardens in designated open spaces enhances the overall community design [see Figure 61, page 73]. Community gardens provide

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE many benefits to the population, including the encouragement of community interaction, and creating a more sustainable and healthy way of life.

Revitalization Methods Renewal in Indianapolis and the Midwest Because Indianapolis has experienced many revitalization projects recently, an additional revitalization project that involves the growing Latino population could be seen as a continuation of an overall goal, and as a cultural asset to the community. Many cities use Indianapolis as an example for their revitalization projects (Mattson-Teig 61). “The primary objective of major midwestern cities is to create a 24-hour environment with a balance of commercial and entertainment components, as well as a strong residential base” (Mattson-Teig 61). Creating a community that is active during all times of day also enhances the appeal of the neighborhood, and could persuade more people to move to Irvington. Mixing residential and commercial uses will help with the viability of the community. Indianapolis has seen an increase in visitors and residents since the 1990s (Burdick 59). Increased townhouse, apartment, and condominium construction started in 2004, and it was driven by people’s demands to live downtown (Burdick 60). The Massachusetts Avenue project includes a commercial street with stores, pedestrian-friendly sidewalks, and streetscape. This area has historic commercial buildings, cafés, art galleries, wine galleries, offices, and theaters (Burdick 61). Indianapolis has pushed arts and cultural development throughout many of its projects. In addition to the growing Hispanic population that offers cultural diversity to the area, the site’s neighborhood also includes many historic buildings that could be used for new development, and many of the uses in the Massachusetts Avenue project are applied to the framework, master, and site plans. Similar development has started with the Irvington Neighborhood Plan. The Irvington Neighborhood Plan mentions the growing Hispanic population in the neighborhood and states that the businesses and residents should be considered; however, it does not provide specific plans for integrating the Latino population into the neighborhood as a cultural asset (Irvington 14). This presents an opportunity to include the Latino population and to use their culture as design inspiration for the entire community. The plan focuses on encouraging local business and home ownership, the neighborhood schools, preserving historic spaces, creating a well-connected trail network, and providing affordable housing (Irvington). Additionally, the improvements from the Irvington Streetscape Plan from Bolton Avenue to Irvington Street, which include intersection treatments, tree medians, planters, and new

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE light fixtures, will be constructed in July 2011. Further changes from Irvington Street west to Emerson Avenue will be constructed starting in 2012 (Henry), noted in Appendix D. These elements are addressed in the new framework and master plans, and new features are connected to them to create a cohesive and active community. Offering incentives and creating public and private partnerships within the neighborhood area as part of the plans could provide more opportunity for development, direct community involvement, and community growth. Many cities use incentives to attract developers to an area, including tax abatements, financial assistance for necessary pre-development work, and a fast permit process (Burdick 55). Many cities also develop partnerships between public and private businesses, which can provide municipal services (Burdick 56). In Chattanooga, a partnership called the Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise aimed to increase homeownership for low-income residents, rehabilitate houses, and allow more access for rental housing (Burdick 56). The housing has encouraged other development and new attractions in the area (Burdick 57). Affordable Housing and Mixed Use Development Affordable housing is defined as a household spending 30% or less of their annual income on housing, assuming that if they spend more, they can not afford food, health insurance, necessities, and transportation. For single-family dwelling units, affordable housing is defined as spending 30% or less on housing for people making 80% of the median income of the area. For multi-family housing, affordable housing is defined as spending a maximum 30% of income on housing for people making 50% of the median income of the area (Cisneros 130). Based on the data from George W. Julian Elementary School 57, which has a large Latino population, 77% of the students are eligible for free lunches, and 7% for reduced priced lunches (Indiana Department of Education), demonstrating that basic needs, like food for children, are not met, and that designing affordable housing is of assistance. Creating sustainable affordable housing is necessary because of the growing Latino population throughout the United States and in Indianapolis. Homeownership is important to Latino families, but many cannot afford to purchase a home immediately and need time to become comfortable and earn money (Cisneros 5). It is possible to work with non-profit organizations, religious groups, and government agencies to develop affordable housing (Cisneros 129). A combination of design and sustainable practices allows for a reduction in long-term costs for the homeowners and renters. Applying good design principles and sustainable practices to multi-family housing is more cost effective than single-family housing because it allows for more open public space, less resource consumption, and lower costs for land because of higher densities (Cisneros 135).

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE The New Urbanism ideas allow for more affordable housing options because of the overall community design and lower development costs. Site selection, street and lot design, and the construction of homes are important components to address in sustainable design. Housing becomes more affordable in compact developments linked by sidewalks and bike trails because it allows for more pedestrian mobility, which means residents spend less on transportation, and developers save money on infrastructure costs. Nearby amenities and services can encourage community connections and affordability (Cisneros 135). Making smaller lot sizes for single-family homes saves money for home-buyers and renters, but multi-family housing is cheaper to build. Developers can also save money by reducing street widths, extending lower costs to residents (Cisneros 137). Green tactics for home location to maximize the amount of sunlight and natural ventilation for the unit make it more energy efficient and affordable. Using landscape systems for storm water runoff instead of typical infrastructure saves on construction costs, and saves on utility bills for the homeowners (Cisneros 142-144). All of these methods create more sustainable communities because compact development impacts the environment less and saves money for the developers, businesses, and residents. New Urbanism guidelines apply to Latinos’ preferences for communities and dictate the community design to create more affordable housing that addresses cultural heritage for the growing population. An example of affordable housing is in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Some housing developments are mixed-income and mixed-use with residential and commercial locations close to the downtown center. The design follows New Urbanism principles with “human-scale buildings, walk-able neighborhoods, and green construction” (Burdick 58). Residents have four housing types from which to choose: single-family bungalows, two-story townhouses, and apartments aimed at low-income residents with subsidized rent payments (Burdick 58). Offering Latinos and residents a variety of options in affordable housing allows them to reach goals of homeownership and improves the neighborhood. Providing more affordable housing is also viable in Indianapolis, which is demonstrated by Fall Creek Place, a 26-block neighborhood on the near north side of Indianapolis (Palladino 12). The goal of the project is to make a mixed-income and diverse community with many housing choices, recreational opportunities, and commercial uses (Palladino 12). HUD grants require that over 50% of the housing units be designated for those earning 80% or less of the area’s median income, and the city does not want to displace existing residents (Palladino 12). The four million dollar grant requires 265 homes to be built, but over 300 home sites and 46 rehabilitation opportunities were identified (Palladino 12). Other goals are to create viable retail nodes, add neighborhood parks, make gateways to the community, and improve infrastructure (Palladino 12). The city provided subsidies and incentives to accommodate the mixed-income housing requirements, and to gain the private business enterprises. Infrastructure improvements included new streets,

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE sidewalks, alleys, street lights, landscape elements, and curbs (Palladino 13). Design considerations included the balance of affordable homes with quality design, and that low-income and market-rate units could not differ in appearance (Palladino 14). Historic homes are also rehabilitated and included into the streetscape (Palladino 13). This project allows for mixed-income housing for many residents and attempts to limit the displacement of existing residents, which are two important goals for revitalization projects. The implementation of commercial and residential uses and public parks also make more vibrant communities. By making specific guidelines about the appearance of homes, and making them indistinguishable, the community can thrive without social stigmas. Principles from Fall Creek Place are implemented in the Irvington framework and master plan areas to accommodate recent Latino immigrants and current residents. Latino culture includes many characteristics that can be applied to a community redevelopment in the Irvington neighborhood of Indianapolis. Plazas, open space, and the public realm represent the most utilized parts of a Latino population and are considered in the new framework, master, and site-scale plans, but the new plans also consider how the Latino population has already shaped and transformed the existing urban fabric. In addition, educational, health, business, affordable residential, and other entertainment facilities are included to encourage upward mobility of individuals and economic growth. Many of the Latino community characteristics align with New Urbanism and sustainable design methods, which makes using sustainability in the revitalization a natural and consistent process.

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WORKS CITED Arreola, Daniel D. Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2004. Print. Birch, Eugenie L. and Susan M. Wachter. Growing Greener Cities: Urban Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. Print. Borland, Katherine. “Embracing Difference: Salsa Fever in New Jersey.” Journal of American Folklore (Fall 2009): 466-492. Web. 29 October 2010. Burdick, Stephen, Daniel M. Goebel, Jennifer Hanson, David Henderson, Colleen Kawahara, Edward L. Kick, and Jonathan Lepofsky. “Neighborhood Enterprises.” Urban Land. October 2002: 55-67. Print. Cisneros, Henry G. and John Rosales. Casa y Comunidad: Latino Home and Neighborhood Design. Washington, D.C.: BuilderBooks, 2006. Print. City of Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana. Indy.gov, 2008. Web. 22 September 2010. Davis, Mike. Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City. New York, NY:Verso, 2000. Print. Haymes, Maria Vidal del, Keith M. Kilty, and Elizabeth A. Segal. Latino Poverty in the New Century: Inequalities, Challenges, and Barriers. New York: Halworth Press, 2000. Print. Henry, Amandula. Personal Interview. 1 Feb. 2011. Indiana Department of Education. IN.gov, 2010. Web. 12 October 2010. Indiana Department of Workforce Development. Hoosiers by the Numbers, 2010. Web. 12 October 2010. Indiana Latino Institute. Indianalatino.com, 2010. Web. 11 November 2010. Indianapolis Museum of Art. Imamuseum.com, 2009. Web. 11 November 2010.

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WORKS CITED “Irvington Neighborhood Plan.” Indy.gov. City of Indianapolis Economic Development Portal, 2008. Web. 25 September 2010. La Plaza-Indy. La Plaza, 2007. Web.18 September 2010. Littlepage, Laura. “Emerging Issues in Education: Latino Population Boom Impacts Indianapolis.” Indiana University Center for Urban Policy and the Environment. 2006. Web. 12 October 2010. Magnusson Architecture and Planning. Magnusson Architecture and Planning, P.C., 2010. Web. 26 September 2010. Mattson-Teig, Beth. “Midwestern Momentum.” Urban Land. April 2002: 60-63, 82-83. Print. Palladino, Chris. “If revitalization can occur on the near north side of Indianapolis, it can occur anywhere.” Planning. (March 2003): 12-14. Web. 22 September 2010. Project Stepping Stone-A College Preparation Program for Hispanic Youth. Project Stepping Stone, 2010. Web. 12 October 2010. Sucher, David. City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village. Seattle, WA: City Comforts, Inc., 2003. Print. Sustainable Sites Initiative. The Sustainable Sites Initiative, 2010. Web. 25 October 2010. U.S. Census Bureau. “2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File, Table P1.” U.S. Census Bureau. www.census.gov, 2011. Web. 30 March 2011. Zambrana, Ruth E. Understanding Latino Families: Scholarship, Policy, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 1995. Print.

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PROJECT REQUIREMENTS MISSION STATEMENT, GOALS & OBJECTIVES The mission of this project is to analyze how Latino culture can affect urban revitalization methods and how to use these principles and characteristics in framework, master, and site-scale plans for a portion of the Irvington neighborhood in Indianapolis, Indiana. The plans will integrate and use the Latino culture and current transformations to create a vibrant community for residents and visitors. Because of the importance of plazas and open space to the Latino culture, a network of plazas and parks will connect to the existing park and trail networks in Irvington. The community will also encourage upward mobility through the addition of educational, job, and health services. Affordable housing and compact and sustainable design will guide the overall design, as these methods are also important to Latino culture. The following goals and objectives describe the framework, master, and site plans: • Design with sustainable practices for development • Establish locations for urban agriculture • Use compact and mixed-use development • Manage storm water on-site and make storm water systems community amenities • Limit and reduce surface parking • Build upon urban transformations the Latino culture has made • Connect to current retail locations and make a commercial district and network • Use similar colors and art forms, like murals and images of heritage • Use examples from other places to create a dynamic community with many activities • Provide educational, health, and career services to encourage upward mobility • Connect to current programs and organizations, like La Plaza, and suggest a location for branch of La Plaza in the community • Use the schools and other facilities in the neighborhood to house English as a Second Language and other educational programs

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PROJECT REQUIREMENTS • Use characteristics of Latino culture as design inspiration • Provide entertainment options, such as a soccer field and dancing locations • Use elements from Latin dance in design • Design a network of plazas and parks • Strengthen family and social networks by encouraging business networks through commercial, housing, and mixed-use development • Provide affordable housing options to encourage homeownership • Use compact development and sustainable practices to reduce cost • Create multi-family and single-family subsidized housing • Reduce street widths and use alleys

CLIENTS AND USERS • Current and future residents of Irvington • Growing Latino population in Indianapolis • Irvington Development Organization • Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization [Community Development] • La Plaza, Inc. and the Indiana Latino Institute in Indianapolis • Visitors and tourists • Business owners [retail, restaurant, office, etc.] • Developers and construction companies • Irvington Neighborhood Groups [i.e. Irvington Terrace Neighborhood] • Indianapolis Neighborhood Resource Center

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DELIMITATIONS + ASSUMPTIONS DELIMITATIONS • This project will not consider all different ethnicities defined as “Latino.” • This project will not address the issue of illegal immigration. • This project will not include provisions for attaining sufficient funding. • This project will not re-design the entire Irvington Neighborhood area.

ASSUMPTIONS • Zoning variances will be obtained to accommodate affordable housing and mixed-use developments. • Public-Private Partnerships within the community will be formed with tax incentives to increase and encourage development. • Vacant lots or buildings are available for new development or reuse. • Schools and other organizations will provide support for educational programs and English as a Second Language programs.

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DEFINITIONS Affordable Housing: refers to housing that costs no more than 30% of income for those making 80% of the median income for single-family housing, and 50% of the median income for multi-family housing. Barrio: refers to a neighborhood comprised of more than 50% Latino population. Latino/Hispanic: refers to people that trace their heritage to Central or South America or the Caribbean. Low-income neighborhood: refers to a neighborhood where a large percentage of people earn below 80% of the median income, require affordable housing provisions, or free or reduced lunch provisions for their children in school. Mercado: refers to a marketplace in the public realm with vendors and the sale of a variety of goods, usually from Latino countries of origin. Revitalization: refers to the process of redesigning a specific area in order to improve the engagement of residents and visitors, the local economy, area aesthetics, and the environment. Sustainability: refers to the idea that humans and the environment can work as one system and that human development will not negatively impact the environment. Sustainable Design: refers to design methods that integrate human development and the environment to create economical, compact, healthy, and environmentally-sensitive development. Urban: refers to a type of neighborhood within the metropolitan area of a major city and close to the city’s core.

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PROJECT PROGRAM GENERAL PROGRAM: A framework plan that aims to integrate the growing Latino population will cover a 350-acre section of the Irvington neighborhood, three-and-a-half miles east of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. This area is bound by Lowell Avenue to the north, University Avenue to the south, Kitley Avenue to the east, and Irvington Street to the west. The framework plan includes part of the Irvington Historic District, which ends at Arlington Avenue on the east. The area from Arlington Avenue to Kitley Avenue is not part of the Historic District. The framework plan will include guidelines and locations for appropriate infill of residential, commercial, and park areas that fit the current zoning and architectural requirements. In addition, the plan includes design suggestions for commercial areas and Bonna Avenue improvements. The master plan section covers a 84.5-acre area, which currently includes the Irvington Plaza shopping center, and extends from Kitley Avenue west to Bolton Avenue, and half a block to the north and one block to the south. This area will serve as a connection to current revitalization projects and provide an example for future development, fitting the adjacent historical context. This plan will include designs of residential areas, commercial areas, park and plaza space, and sustainable development with storm water management, urban agriculture, and New Urbanism ideas. Additionally, this development integrates elements of Latino culture, helps Latinos gain upward mobility, and serves the existing residents. Finally, a 1.54-acre Central Plaza is the site-scale example to demonstrate site programming, plant choices, engineering tactics, and materials that emphasize the design concept. Framework Plan: 350-acre area of Irvington neighborhood Master Plan: 84.5-acre area, including the existing Irvington Plaza shopping center Site-scale Plan: 1.54-acre plaza and adjacent buildings OVERALL NECESSARY COMPONENTS: • Suggest new additions fitting the historic context • Use Latino cultural characteristics • Provide open space, including plazas, park space, and urban agriculture • Design using compact and mixed-use development • Connect to services, commercial uses, entertainment options • Use current Latino transformations • Implement storm water management tactics • Encourage opportunities to increase social and family networks

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PROJECT PROGRAM STREETSCAPE TREATMENTS: • Include sidewalks on all streets, both sides when possible • Implement bike lanes to connect to Pennsy Trail and trail networks • Include bus stops for the IndyGo buses along Washington Street • Line the streets with trees and wide tree lawns or tree boxes • Design bio-swales to filter storm water runoff • Reduce the number of curb cuts and do not widen right-of-ways • Create opportunities for gathering with appropriate shade and sun COMMERCIAL AREAS: • Encourage local businesses and offices • Allow for educational outreach and networking programs / organizations • Grow upon the Latino influence and transformations • Include mixed-use development with residential, office, and retail uses • Allow for urban agriculture and storm water management tactics RESIDENTIAL AREAS: • Allow for 50% affordable housing units (per HUD restrictions) • Design single- and multi-family housing • Design housing areas to accommodate Latino families • Create alley access for the majority of homes • Design homes to be similar to existing Irvington homes • Allow for interior courtyards, urban agriculture, and storm water management tactics PARKS, OPEN SPACE, PLAZAS: • Design a strong plaza and park network within the framework and master plans • Connect to current parks and the Pennsy Trail • Allow at least 80% of the residential units to overlook green/open space • Include sustainable design elements, like storm water management and compact design • Design flexible areas that can be used for multiple functions

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DESIGN PROCESS: methodology SYNTHESIS: The Irvington neighborhood of Indianapolis presents many opportunities for improvements and developments [see Diagrams 4 and 5, pages 42 and 43]. This neighborhood has a history of tolerance and acceptance of other ethnicities and races (Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission), making it a perfect location for implementing a revitalization plan that integrates and accommodates the growing Latino population without excluding current or future residents [see Appendix E]. Irvington is famous for brick streets, winding and tree-lined streets, parks, and a variety of architectural styles, but it also has many landmarks [see Diagram 3, page 40], historic homes, and a strong mix of uses ranging from residential to commercial to light industrial. As the land use suggests in Diagram 2 on page 39, most of the mixed uses occur along Washington Street, and the majority of single- and two-family homes start one or more blocks north or south of the corridor. In addition, Latino-owned businesses line Washington Street east of Arlington Avenue [see Figures 12 and 13, page 37]. New development can connect to these businesses to create stronger social networks, an important element of Latino culture. Although Irvington is famous for the parks, only one public park exists within the 350-acre framework site and none exist within the 84.5-acre master plan area. The mix of uses and lack of community open space present opportunities for development of new commercial and residential areas and a park network that connects with the existing park system. Many of the streets could be improved or connected to enhance pedestrian circulation and to slow traffic. Washington Street is the most heavily trafficked street and improvements could include medians, storm water management features, and on-street parking [see Figures 45 and 46, page 66]. In addition, Ritter Avenue and Arlington Avenue need similar street improvements [see Figure 52, page 67]. The Historic District starts at Arlington Avenue and continues west throughout the rest of the framework site, so special consideration was needed for changes made in that area.Vacant land and under-utilized spaces exist throughout the site and present opportunities for the first phase of development and improvements. RESEARCH: While researching, primary and secondary resources were used to define low-income and Latino neighborhoods and important characteristics of Latino culture. The primary resources included quantitative data from Census data and demographic information from surrounding schools that define the low-income and Latino neighborhoods. This information was found on the U.S. Census Bureau website, the Indiana Department of Education website, and the Hoosiers by the Numbers, Indiana Department of Workforce Development website. The secondary resources included a report from La Plaza, books, and journal articles. The report by La Plaza provided information on the definition of Latino neighborhoods and why Latinos face poverty. Books about Latino culture, family values, and social networks are available in Bracken Library at Ball State University. One book, entitled, Latino Poverty in the New Century: Inequalities,

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DESIGN PROCESS: methodology Challenges, and Barriers by Maria Vidal Haymes, Keith M. Kilty, and Elizabeth A. Segal, provides more insight about the sources of Latino poverty. Two books entitled Casa y Comunidad, by Henry Cisneros, which I own, and Understanding Latino Families: Scholarship, Policy, and Practice, written by Ruth E. Zambrana, also available in Bracken Library, provided detailed descriptions of Latino family values and social networks. Entertainment characteristics are described in Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places by David Arreola, found in Bracken Library, and in, “Embracing Difference: Salsa Fever in New Jersey,” written by Katherine Borland for the Journal of American Folklore. The understanding of important facets of Latino culture and what defines low-income and Latino neighborhoods helped determine important pieces to include in the designs and how to retain and use the existing Latino culture in the design. Primary and secondary resources were used to determine how the Latino population has changed the urban fabric throughout the country and in Indianapolis. Examples of the transformations throughout the country are identified in Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places, by David Arreola, and Magical Urbanism, by Mike Davis. The books described how different ethnic groups have shaped the urban environment that immigrants have inherited, such as building transformations, the use of plazas and open space, businesses, street use, and festivals. In addition, direct observation of the Irvington location provided insight on how the growing Latino population has affected the area. Many qualitative site visits with careful documentation of businesses, interactions, and façade changes were informative and integral parts of the research. Community design methods that allow Latinos to share their culture were also important, and were found in Casa y Comunidad. The information collected from this research provided a greater understanding of how the Latinos use inherited spaces to demonstrate their culture, and how to retain this in the revitalization plans. Data about existing Indianapolis educational and community services for Latinos were collected using secondary resources. A report by Laura Littlepage for La Plaza and La Plaza’s website provided information about programs and services that La Plaza sponsors. The Project Stepping Stone website described the program for helping Latino high school students reach goals of higher education. The Indiana Latino Institute website described different services throughout the state that the organization sponsors. Interviews with leaders in the community, specifically with Amandula Henry of the Irvington Development Organization [see Appendix D], provided greater insight about the community’s desire to support and integrate the growing Latino population. Collecting qualitative information about sustainable design solutions came from many secondary sources. Information about New Urbanism practices was useful for sustainable design that considers Latinos, and was found in Casa y Comunidad. Additional information for greening cities and urban environments was found in Growing Greener Cities,

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DESIGN PROCESS: methodology edited by Eugenie L. Birch and Susan Wachter, available in the Architecture Library at Ball State University. Affordable housing is an important factor for sustainable and Latino neighborhood design, and methods to make the community affordable were found in Casa y Comunidad. A case study in the Bronx in New York City called Melrose Commons provided great insight into revitalization involving a Latino community and is a sustainable neighborhood, achieving LEED certification [see page 44]. This information was available on Magnusson Architecture and Planning’s website. In addition, storm water management practices and urban agriculture are ways to make a community more sustainable. Casa y Comunidad, Growing Greener Cities, and the Sustainable Sites Initiative’s website provided information on storm water management and urban agriculture and how they may benefit the community and fit the Latino culture. Quantitative information gathered about the Irvington site were also important, such as topography land use, available on the Indianapolis Planning website and through direct observation, to determine the best locations for all of the components. Many elements make up sustainable design, and researching multiple methods and how they apply to the community and Latino culture, provided better design concepts for the framework and master plans. Current revitalization methods used in Indianapolis and across the country were researched using secondary methods. Journal articles and books provided information about different case studies and methods. Two articles in Urban Land, one by Beth Mattson-Teig, and the other by multiple authors, discussed revitalization projects that have occurred in Indianapolis and throughout the Midwest. In addition, information about the site’s current revitalization plan, found on the Indianapolis Planning website provided insight on current changes and accommodating the Latino population. Affordable housing and mixed-use development help revitalization projects and another project in Indianapolis, Fall Creek Place, is a case study of this method. An article entitled, “If revitalization can occur on the near north side of Indianapolis, it can occur anywhere,” written by Chris Palladino, and included in the March 2003 issue of Planning describes the Fall Creek Place neighborhood redevelopment [see page 45]. Much of the information from this subproblem could be applied to the others, but it provided a framework for starting the design and planning processes for revitalizing the Irvington neighborhood and incorporating the growing Latino population. DESIGN METHODOLOGY: Because of the research, the designer started with two concepts for the overall design, derived from the Latino culture. The concepts included the idea that plaza activity and density change at certain times of the day, and the other came from the importance of dance to Latino culture. As stated in multiple sources, plazas and parks are important to Latino culture, used daily, not solely for special events. The plaza concept extrapolated the varying degrees of activity and density into physical elements, such as buildings, amounts of vegetation, and differing degrees of activity encouraged in

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DESIGN PROCESS: methodology certain areas [see Diagram 11, page 49]. The dance concept built upon the importance of dance to Latino culture and used ideas from dance and rhythm to design in all stages, from overarching themes and connections, to materials and paving design. The first concept’s strengths were that it allowed a strong network of plazas and varying zones of activity; however, it would be difficult to show the idea of varying activity and density in all three levels of design. The dance concept was chosen because of the ability to incorporate the rhythm of dance in street layout, addressing the historical street layout, and to bring ideas of dance throughout all levels of design. In addition, ideas, such as a plaza network, and varying zones of activity, from the plaza concept could be implemented [see Diagrams 12 to 21, pages 51 to 53]. On the framework scale, the dance concept was used to specify places to revitalize and to enliven the streets. In addition, the streets and Pennsy Trail were curved to mimic the historic Romantic street layout and to connect streets through the existing Irvington Plaza shopping center. Zones of activity were created with highly active spaces, passive spaces, and medium activity levels. An example from the framework plan of a node and street improvements is shown in Figure 1, below. Streets were curved through vacant lots, and parks and urban agriculture were implemented in the formed spaces [see Diagram 28 on page 60]. The dance concept was demonstrated in the master plan with building layout, materials, colors, and park and pedestrian path networks. Building setbacks were varied, allowing for small plaza spaces, and apartments with courtyards that allow residents to host larger events. The designer formed the general street, park, and pedestrian networks prior to building locations, and an example is shown in Figure 2, below.

Figure 1: Framework plan green space node and altered street layout using vacant land

Figure 2: Master plan example of a pedestrian path connecting the plaza and park, varied building setbacks, and small spaces outside buildings

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DESIGN PROCESS: methodology The designer implemented the dance concept in the site plan by using the curved paving pattern as an organizing element in the plaza. The orange curves were complemented by yellow and red concrete unit pavers for bright colors. Then, the designer programmed spaces for activities specific to businesses in the adjacent buildings, and the middle open area became a flexible space for large community events. Material choices reflect the flow of dance and brightness of color, connecting to the Latino transformations. Murals on the buildings painted by local artists also relate to Latino heritage and Irvington’s history as an arts community. An example of these ideas is shown Figure 3, below.

Figure 3: Site plan example of programmed activities and spaces that accommodate the adjacent building uses

Because of the importance of dance to Latino culture, the designer derived the concept from many facets of dance and created zones of activity in the framework plan with specific locations to act as catalysts for development. The master plan includes building setbacks, park and pedestrian path networks, and land use designations. The site plan uses materials, elements, and spatial organization to demonstrate the conceptual ideas. The community revitalization accommodates the growing Latino population of the area without excluding other users, residents, and visitors. Many of the Latino cultural characteristics present ideas considered beneficial to community development, such as frequent use of plazas and park space, strong family and social networks, compact development, walkable communities, mixed-use development, shared open space, and locally-owned businesses.

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DESIGN PROCESS: vicinity SITE VICINITY

• Part of the Irvington Neighborhood, 3.5 miles east of downtown Indianapolis • Much of the site is within a National Historic District

Irvington Neighborhood

Framework area [350 ac]

Downtown Indianapolis

Master Plan area [84.5 ac] Site Plan area [1.54 ac]

Kitley Avenue

Arlington Avenue

Washington Street Audubon Road

Ritter Avenue

NORTH

Figure 4: State location [top left], Irvington location [top right} , all three plan boundaries within the Irvington neighborhood [above]

Figure 5: Thomas Carr Howe Community High School, west of the site

Figure 6: Irvington Community Charter High School in the former Guardian’s Home on University Avenue

Figure 7: Irving Circle Park and surrounding residential area on Audubon Road

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DESIGN PROCESS: site setting The Irvington neighborhood covers four Census tracts on the east side of Indianapolis. The site does not cover the entire neighborhood, but a portion that has been transformed by the Latino population, and that has commercial, institutional, religious, educational, residential, and recreational uses. The framework plan scale covers 350 acres, and is defined as the Washington Street corridor, expanding to Lowell Avenue to the north and to University Avenue to the south. The other boundaries are Irvington Street, which links to Julian Avenue, on the west, and South Kitley Avenue on the east. Multiple opportunities for infill and rehabilitation exist throughout the site, but particularly along Washington Street. Streetscape improvements are in process for the majority of Washington Street (Henry), and some rehabilitation of buildings and revitalization has occurred. The master plan portion, including Irvington Plaza shopping center, is 84.5 acres. The shopping center location has broad expanses of parking, few open stores, and many vacant buildings; this portion is addressed as a Planned Unit Development [see Plan 2, page 62]. The 1.54-acre site-scale plan is the new Central Plaza within the master plan on Washington Street between Ridgeview and Kenmore Avenues [see Plan 3, page 80].

Pennsy Trail

Kitley Avenue

Washington Street / US 40

Arlington Avenue

Ritter Avenue

Lowell Avenue

y Avenue

Universit

Figure 8: Framework area with major streets Figure 9: Irvington Plaza, showing La Hacienda Restaurant (McColley)

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Figure 10: Irvington Plaza, expansive parking and lack of customers (McColley)

Figure 11: Irvington Plaza, showing the expansive parking (McColley)


DESIGN PROCESS: site setting

Figure 12: Latino businesses along Washington Street [locally-owned grocery store] (McColley)

Figure 13: Latino businesses along Washington Street [travel and tax services, salon and barber shop] (McColley)

Figure 14: Vacant lot on Good Avenue in a single-family residential area (McColley)

Site commercial elements include many stores along Washington Street that are locally-owned retail shops, offices, and restaurants, and east of Arlington Avenue, on Washington Street, the Latino changes on the commercial sector are more evident. Institutional, religious, and educational uses include multiple churches, such as the Irvington Presbyterian Church [see Figure 19, page 40] and the Irvington United Methodist Church, the recently constructed Marion County Public Library at Washington Street and Audubon Road, and schools in the surrounding area. Residential options are varied and include apartments, single-family homes, and duplexes. Multi-family and single-family housing are distributed together throughout the site [see Figure 4-A, page A-5]. Washington Street is a major circulation route, which presents obstacles for pedestrian movement, but sidewalks are on both sides of the street. Recreational uses surround the framework plan site and include linkages to the trails and public parks. The new Pennsy Trail runs through and near the site, and connects to the trail networks throughout Indianapolis. In addition, Ellenberger Park, Christian Park, and Pleasant Run Golf Club, which are all in close proximity to the site, provide open space amenities. However, the residences within the framework and master plan areas do not have a large park or public open space within a comfortable walking distance. The area lacks an abundance of night entertainment as well. The Irvington neighborhood provides many amenities and opportunities for development that could integrate the Latino population. Using the culture as inspiration can open more opportunities for commercial, residential, recreational, and educational uses.

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DESIGN PROCESS: site inventory

Washington Street

Commercial Washington Street: ACTIVITY LEVEL

Residential Washington Street: ACTIVITY LEVEL

Diagram 1: Figure ground of framework area

PUBLIC SPACE AND PRIVATE SPACE

NORTH

• Washington Street activity [see bars above; more white lines indicate more activity] Washington Street / US 40 has most of the commercial uses with locally-owned and national stores Washington Street / US 40 also has some residential uses [mostly multi-family housing] • Vacant and under-utilized land is spread throughout different parts of the site area [residential, commercial, etc] • Streets vary in size, traffic, and use [Washington Street is the most heavily trafficked road] • Spaces around buildings and along streets create a large percentage of open space

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DESIGN PROCESS: site inventory

US 40 Arlington Avenue

Washington Street /

Pennsy Trail

Diagram 2: Land use

Figure 15: George W. Julian Elementary School 57 [IPS] at Washington and Ritter Avenue (McColley)

NORTH

Figure 16: Multi-family housing with interior courtyard on Washington Street (McColley)

Figure 17: Single- and two-family housing on Audubon Road (McColley)

LAND USE

• Mix of land uses throughout the site [commercial; institutional; religious; single-, two-, and multi-family housing] • Substantial amount of vacant land and lots • Commercial along Washington Street and Bonna Avenue / future Pennsy Trail • Little park space within the site context Legend Commercial / Office / Light Industry

Educational / Institutional

Apartments / Condominiums

Religious

Single- or Two-Family Housing

Park Space

Vacant Page | 5 Page | 39


DESIGN PROCESS: site inventory Ellenberger Park

Pleasant Run Golf Club

Penn Pennsy nnsy syy T Trail rail ail

United Methodist Church

Arlington Avenue

Masonic Temple/ Irving Theatre Marion County Public Library Our Lady of Lourdes

School #57

Thomas Carr Howe Academy

Pennsy Trail

Julian House oad Bonna Avenue / Old Railr

Irving Circle

Irvington Community Charter High School

Benton House

Legend Important Historical / Cultural Feature

Diagram 3: Significant places and landmarks

Figure 18: Current revitalization efforts on Washington Street (McColley)

NORTH

Current Revitalization Ph. 1 Pennsy Trail

Figure 19: Irvington Presbyterian Church (McColley)

Figure 20: Latino businesses along Washington Street with a mural painted because of community work (McColley)

SIGNIFICANT PLACES

• Hispanic businesses line parts of Washington Street [see Figure 20] • Streetscape revitalization efforts from Bolton Avenue to Emerson Avenue (west of the site) [see Figure 18] • Historical buildings and churches are in the site context [see Figure 19] Legend Important Historical / Cultural Feature Known Hispanic-owned business Site within Historic District

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Current Revitalization Ph. 1 Pennsy Trail


DESIGN PROCESS: site inventory INVENTORY OBSERVATIONS Infrastructure • Some concrete sidewalks are in bad condition and some old brick streets remain • Narrow streets with on-street parking; cars must drive slowly and coordinate with on-coming traffic • Mature trees, many power lines, curvy streets, small lots, some alleys Atmosphere • Some students walk home from school and residents walk around the neighborhood • Large amounts of vehicular traffic, even on small streets, especially on Washington Street Arlington Avenue [Historic District begins here and continues west] • Two-way street with turn lanes, no on-street parking, and many curb cuts • Mainly residential with wide setbacks, small tree lawns, and sidewalks Washington Street • Mostly one-story commercial buildings close to the street • Four lanes, one turn lane, and on-street parking from Audubon Road west to Layman Avenue • Wide sidewalks [8’ or 15’] and not many street trees, no tree lawn, no barrier from street • Commercial includes: hair studios, restaurants, collectors’ store, novelty shops, clothing store, music store, realtor, florist, antique stores, bakeries, an educational use, and a used bookstore Lowell Avenue and North of Washington Street • Mostly large single-family homes in good condition; no apparent vacancies east of Audubon Road • On-street parking, sidewalks, few driveways, some brick streets [Irvington Street], many power lines Bonna Avenue • Not in good condition, very narrow [about 12’], some brick to Audubon, some asphalt, little sidewalk • Backs of buildings front the street, somewhat disorganized, some homes in bad condition, many fences • Pennsylvania Railroad was north of the street, and it will be Pennsy Trail Ritter Avenue • Residential south of Washington Street / U.S. 40 • Two-way street, parking both sides, sidewalks about 5’ wide Julian Avenue • Parking on one side of the street, two-way street, 4’ sidewalks on one side, narrow setback Audubon Road • Two-way street, parking on both sides, sidewalks on both sides [5.5’], 4’ tree lawn, narrow setbacks

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DESIGN PROCESS: site analysis

Diagram 4: Analysis

Figure 21: Opportunities for street improvements on Bonna Avenue at Audubon Road near a commercial area

NORTH

Figure 22: Audubon Road with multi- and single-family homes.The street can be improved with storm water management and aesthetic additions.

Figure 23: Opportunities for street improvements on Bonna Avenue near Good Avenue in the residential area

ANALYSIS: STREET IMPROVEMENTS, STORM WATER, OPEN SPACE • Street Improvements: • Add storm water management features to major arterial streets with large rights-of-way • Maintain Historic District right-of-way regulations • Implement traffic calming on Washington Street, Arlington Avenue, and Ritter Avenue • Add trees, medians, and bike lanes • Design for bio-swales and rain gardens • Improve Bonna Avenue’s circulation and aesthetics [see Figure 21, above] • Open Space Improvements: • Use vacant space for parks, plazas, urban agriculture • Connect open space with viewsheds, pedestrian paths, and way-finding measures • Utilize storm water management methods in open space areas

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DESIGN PROCESS: site analysis

Audubon Road

et Waassshington Stre

Pennsy Trail Av nue Ave onnnaa Av Bon B

NORTH

Diagram 5: Analysis

Figure 24: Former Indy East Motel [now vacant] could be used for a community use

Figure 25: Some commercial areas along Washington Street and Bonna Avenue can be improved

Figure 26: Irvington Plaza, a fairly vacant shopping center, can be redeveloped for mixed use

DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

• Redevelop Irvington Plaza [see Figure 26] for mixed-use development with residential and commercial • Include sustainable practices, urban agriculture, open space, and good storm water management in redevelopment • Improve many residential and commercial areas [see Figure 25] • Infill single-family and multi-family residential on vacant lots and reuse buildings [see Figure 24] • Avoid the removal of historically significant buildings • Follow the Historic District guidelines for redevelopment • Improve the infrastructure when necessary • Connect new development to public park space, trails, plazas Legend Commercial and Mixed Use Redevelopment Opportunity Multi-Family Residential Redevelopment Opportunity Single- or Two-Family Residential Redevelopment Opportunity Community Use Redevelopment Opportunity Commercial and Mixed Use Improvements Opportunity Multi-Family Residential Improvements Opportunity Single- and Two-Family Residential Improvements Opportunity

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DESIGN PROCESS: case studies MELROSE COMMONS: SOUTH BRONX, NEW YORK CITY, NY • Latino Community Accommodations: • 35-block low-income and increasingly Latino neighborhood was experiencing unwanted renewal plans • Residents and neighborhood association, Nos Quedamos, worked with Magnusson Architects and Planners • Residents requested a mixed-use, pedestrian community with access to jobs, entertainment, education • Growing Hispanic population influenced the identity • Resident Accommodations: • Retail development and housing for multiple income levels • Access to public transportation • Affordable housing and services • Ability to expand existing businesses • No displacement of existing residents and businesses • Sustainable Additions: • LEED-ND certified community • Less surface parking and more access to mass transit • Mixed-income housing for ownership and renting • Use of existing street patterns • Building orientation maximizes sunlight and ventilation Figure 27: Melrose Commons Plan (“Melrose Commons”) • Infill of residences and new buildings • Storm water management practices with wetlands and landscape elements on the streets • Recycling and reuse of materials (Magnusson) • Application to Irvington: • No displacement of residents and providing affordable housing • Storm water management and sustainable design practices with more open space • Use of existing street networks to create stronger connections • Building upon Latino neighborhood transformations to revitalize the neighborhood • Infill of residences and new buildings

Figure 28: La Terraza (Nos Quedamos) Page | 44

Figure 29: Palacio (Nos Quedamos)

Figure 30: El Jardin (Nos Quedamos)


DESIGN PROCESS: case studies FALL CREEK PLACE: INDIANAPOLIS, IN • Affordability: • Mixed-income and diverse community • Many housing choices and recreational opportunities • HUD grants that required 50% of the housing to be designated for those earning 80% or less of median income • Subsidies and incentives to accommodate mixed-income housing requirements from the city • Affordable homes with quality design • Market-rate and affordable units do not differ in appearance • Community Development: • Four million dollar HUD grant required 265 homes (over 300 home sites and 46 rehabilitation opportunities identified) • New streets, sidewalks, alleys, street lights, landscape, curbs • Historic homes rehabilitated • Little displacement of current residents • Commercial and residential uses and public parks (Palladino) • Application to Irvington: • Little displacement of residents • Affordable housing and mixed-income housing • Commercial space and park space • Rehabilitation of historic homes and buildings • Diverse community • Historical context considerations • Phasing development

Figure 31: Fall Creek Place gateway marker and an adjacent home (Fall Creek Place)

Figure 32: Fall Creek Place home character (Fall Creek Place)

Figure 33: Before and after of a historic Fall Creek Place home rehabilitation (Fall Creek Place)

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DESIGN PROCESS: case studies THE MISSION DISTRICT: SAN FRANCISCO, CA • Mission Street Character: • Primary retail corridor • Sidewalk and arcades feel like a mercado [pedestrians mingle with vendors] • Grocery stores, travel agencies, money-transfers, music stores • Mission Cultural Center for Latino arts • Latino Movement: • Historically a working-class neighborhood • Hispanic restaurants and specialty shops built in the 1950’s • Social networks encourage others to move there • Lack of steady employment remains a problem • Service agencies struggle to support new immigrants • Latinos congregate at plazas serving the rapid transit stations • Latino Sense of Place: • Latinos are diverse in countries of origin • Festivals [i.e. Cinco de Mayo has been an event since 1965] • Murals by street artists, not professionals • Carnival festival is a multi-ethnic parade down Mission Street • Community art [approximately 100 public murals] • Cultural centers [Visitor Center, Arts Center, Classes] • Concerns about gentrification (Arreola 84-97) • Application to Irvington: • Irvington is historically a working-class neighborhood • Increase of Latino population in recent years • Providing a retail and service area to serve the population • Offering apartments and dense living • Adding murals to buildings • Using community art

Figure 34:Women’s Center Mural (Mission District)

Figure 35: Fence of a building with a mural (Mission District)

Figure 36 + 37: Murals and dense apartment living [The Colorful Women’s House (37) and Szabla (36)] Page | 46


DESIGN PROCESS: case studies DON VALLEY AND NORTH YORK: TORONTO, CANADA • Characteristic Uses in these Iranian Communities: • Public open spaces used for social functions, celebrations, and ceremonies • Distinctive markets and plazas • Religious meeting places • Presence of culture-specific restaurants • Locations for local art and music • Retail and commercial areas at intersections of main streets • Curved roads with sights and landscape elements • Iranian Cultural Characteristics not in these Communities: • Specific urban design elements in different ethnic neighborhoods • Formal and functional enclosure of spaces • Entrance gates for the neighborhood • Small neighborhoods with daily necessities • Symbolic forms on and in buildings • Rows of trees along the streets • Building main roads along rivers and with the landscape • Unique design of houses, facades, and roads in different ethnic areas • Signs denoting important places or dates • Cultural, recreational, or community centers (Faryadi 15-19)

“There seems to be little evidence of planning policies that make room for and encourage distinctive urban forms that are more reflective of the cultures of ethnic groups concentrated in particular neighbourhoods.” (Faryadi, 19)

• Application to Irvington: • Placing main retail along the busiest streets • Continuing the use of curved streets with landscape elements • Planting rows of trees along the streets • Providing daily necessities within a walkable distance • Including a cultural center for entertainment and culture-specific activities • Increasing the open space for festivals, celebrations, and social functions Figure 38: Entrance to the main bazaar (Faryadi)

Figure 39 + 40: Iranian Businesses and Signs (Faryadi)

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DESIGN PROCESS: concepts CONCEPT 1: IMPORTANCE OF DANCE TO LATINO CULTURE

• Uses the rhythm and specific aspects of dance to create connections and design • Encourages improved development in specific areas • Creates connections to different places throughout the site

Diagram 6: Initial concept development with rhythm theme and abstract paths for connections. Specific locations were identified for improvement and development.

STRENGTHS

• Addresses an important aspect of Latino culture • Enables building upon the current street layout • Provides connections to important nodes • Provides connections to improved areas Diagram 7 [right]: Detailed development of dance concept with specific identified areas to increase activity Diagram 8 [below left]: Building setback variations and connections to important places Diagram 9 [below right]: Movements from dance that could be applied to materials and spatial organization

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WEAKNESSES

• Becomes artificial when spread over a large area • Following paths could be difficult because they do not take existing routes • Becomes too abstract for a framework area


DESIGN PROCESS: concepts CONCEPT 2: PLAZA DENSITY AND ACTIVITY

• Uses the changing levels of interaction and activity in plazas to create zones of activity • Includes density and activity areas that change depending on location • Encourages different types of development, including commercial, residential, and green space • Illustrates the importance of plazas and parks to Latino culture • Creates a connected plaza and park network

Diagram 10: Initial concept development for plaza concept with varied zones of activity. Specific areas were designated for green space, commercial uses, and residential uses.

Diagram 11: Quick sketch diagrams showing variations in density and activity and connections to important locations within the framework site.

STRENGTHS

• Provides a connected plaza and park network • Allows for varying zones of activity and density within the framework and master plan areas • Indicates specific locations for commercial, residential, and park space

WEAKNESSES

• Becomes difficult to extrapolate on a larger site scale to fully illustrate the concept • Connects to important places without consideration of current circulation system • Does not strongly show the importance of plazas and parks to Latino culture

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DESIGN PROCESS: final concept IMPORTANCE OF DANCE TO LATINO CULTURE

• Acts as more than a form of entertainment; it is a state of mind • Becomes a rebellion against the difficulties faced when immigrating to the United States • Connects Latinos with their heritage and opposes complete assimilation into American culture • Demonstrates the importance and independence of women • Many forms of dance because of the different cultures categorized as “Latino” • Many non-Latinos are drawn to the style of dance (Borland)

Washington Street

Pennsy Trail

NORTH

Diagram 12: Concept Diagram

ENERGIZE THE STREETS + DANCE [ACTIVE DEVELOPMENT]

• Focus major street improvements on less pedestrian-friendly streets [Ritter Avenue, Arlington Avenue, Washington Street, Bonna Avenue] • Connect streets through the existing Irvington Plaza, and simulate the historic Romantic street layout • Use development nodes as catalysts for increasing street activity • Increase commercial and mixed-use space in current node areas • Add open space, agriculture, plazas, and single-family infill in vacant lots • Design open space within the mixed-use developments Legend Important Development Node

Master Plan Area

Increased Street Activity

Vacant / Under-utilized space

Open Space / Single-Family Infill

New Street

Street Improvements

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DESIGN PROCESS: final concept SPACES BETWEEN BUILDINGS AND BUILDING PLACEMENT

Diagram 13

• Create interesting spaces between buildings and orient buildings to enhance the dance concept • Use plantings and other elements to create spaces and paths that seem like a dance and provide micro-climate conditions

• Designed pedestrian paths • Comfortable winds are allowed through spaces

Dance

Space Between Buildings

PAVING PATTERNS AND MATERIALS

Diagram 14

• Use varied and colorful paving designs to emphasize the dance theme • Create spaces within plazas used for different functions, marked by material and plane change • Mimic the curved road layout adjacent to traditional grid street patterns • Continue the same colors, themes, and patterns on pedestrian paths

• Varied paving patterns • Individual spaces with different uses and environments • Walls and elements follow patterns Dance

Paving Patterns

STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

Diagram 15

• Add better storm water management practices and show how they work • Use systems as educational and artistic tools and features • Include water features, best management practices, and filtration of water • Show and hide water features in open space and along streets

Dance

Storm water

• Make storm water an element that dances through the site • Show the system and how it works • Use water features and Best Management Practices

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DESIGN PROCESS: final concept STREET LAYOUT

Diagram 16

• Becomes the dance element at the larger, framework scale • Addresses the historic street layout of Irvington with curved residential streets and other straight streets • Allows for a variation in building setbacks and pocket parks to create spaces for pedestrians

• Curved streets seem like a dance • Curved streets address the historic layout • Parks in roundabout and pocket areas Dance

Street layout

MASTER PLAN AREA: ACTIVE DEVELOPMENT

Diagram 17

• Vary building setbacks from the street to create different spaces • Address the intersections with buildings and usable public space • Prevent the encroachment of commercial use on the residential area in the historic district • Make improvements on Washington Street and Arlington Avenue to increase pedestrian use and activity [commercial uses, pedestrian walkways, medians, trees] • Design a system of connected open spaces Legend Important Development Node

Vacant / Under-utilized space

Street Improvements

New Development

Open Space / Agriculture

Intersection Treatments

Master Plan Area

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DESIGN PROCESS: final concept

Slow-Paced (Residential) TANGO Fast-Paced (Commercial) SALSA Slow-Paced (Residential) TANGO -CHA

Semi-Fast-Paced (Comm + Res + Trail) CHA Slow-Paced (Residential) TANGO

Diagram 18: Zones of activity based on use and dance type

Diagram 19: Pennsy Trail curves to address historic street layout

Diagram 20: Curved streets to address the historic street layout, and new streets added to reconnect circulation

Diagram 21: Vacant and under-utilized land and important places to increase street activity

ACTIVE DEVELOPMENT

• Use street layouts and land use to create differing zones of activity [see Diagram 18] Create a calm-paced area with less activity using curved streets [residential infill, pocket parks, community gardens, small plazas] [TANGO] Offer places for more active development, like mixed-use development, on large, straight streets [SALSA] Add light commercial and residential on Bonna Avenue and Pennsy Trail [CHA-CHA] • Reconnect Julian Avenue in vacant lots east of Arlington Avenue and through the Irvington Plaza development to create a curved road and pocket parks inside the curves [see Diagram 20] • Curve Pennsy Trail [cannot change Bonna Avenue right-of-way because of Historic District] and maintain and update Bonna Avenue as a brick street [see Diagram 19]

Legend Important Development Node

Streets

Street Improvements Master Plan Area Vacant / Under-utilized space

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DESIGN PROCESS: framework plan

Audubon Road

Ritter Avenue

Irvington Street

Washington Street/ US 40

See Figure 67, page 77

IMPORTANT FRAMEWORK PLAN ELEMENTS Total area: 350 acres

Plan 1

• Improves streetscapes with landscaped medians and storm water management • Addresses the Pennsy Trail and existing street layout • Includes sustainable elements, like urban agriculture, pocket parks, and re-use of vacant and lots • Designates locations for commercial and residential development and improvement • Adds many acres of park and open space • Provides a community center location

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DESIGN PROCESS: framework plan

Arlington Avenue

Kitley Avenue

Lowell Avenue

Pennsy Trail

Legend Green / Park / Open Space

Development Opportunity to Increase Activity

Commercial / Mixed Use Development

Park Space Opportunity to Increase Activity

Multi-Family Development

Street Improvements

Single-Family Development

New / Re-routed Street Pennsy Trail Proposal

Community Center New Building

0’

300’

600’

900’

1200’

NORTH

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DESIGN PROCESS: framework plan FRAMEWORK PLAN CHARACTER SKETCHES

Figure 41: Reuse vacant buildings to create vibrant community spaces.The addition of vegetation, murals, interesting paving patterns, art, and other interesting features creates places that all visitors and residents can use.

Figure 42: Enhance commercial areas in the framework area with vegetation and storm water management features in the parking lots. Improve facades when needed and create more pedestrian-friendly access points.

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DESIGN PROCESS: framework plan

Figure 43: Add community gardens and parks on vacant lots in residential areas for passive recreation and activity. Community gardens also increase the affordability of the area.

Figure 44: Improve Bonna Avenue by adding brick pavers or removing asphalt [it is partially a brick street] and creating usable spaces next to the Pennsy Trail. Improve sidewalk conditions and add trees.

Page | 5 Page | 57


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES

Diagram 22

• Design a large plaza on Washington Street with buildings that open to it • Infill commercial development close to Washington Street • Add residential [multi- and single-family] in Irvington Plaza PUD by the Pennsy Trail • Keep Marsh and La Hacienda restaurant in Irvington Plaza PUD • Maintain unique sight lines that help with wayfinding • Connect streets for a stronger circulation network • Use good storm water management practices • Include a roundabout park in the center to mimic the old street layout • Offer cosmetic facade treatment opportunities for existing businesses

STREET CONNECTIONS

Diagram 23

• Connect streets north of Washington Street through the Irvington Plaza PUD development • Reconnect Julian Avenue through vacant lots and Irvington Plaza • Maintain small rights-of-way and use trees, sidewalks, and some bike lanes

Page | 58

Park / Open Space Residential Commercial


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Diagram 24

• Wind directions in the winter [from the NW] and summer [from the SW] • Storm water flow and management • Sunlight exposure to buildings and people • Topography

Diagram 25: Wind between buildings and storm water management

SIGHT LINES Diagram 26

• Create connections with sight lines and visibility of the large parks • Ensure the ability to see important buildings and landmarks • Enhance views to and from buildings

Page | 5 Page | 59


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan DANCE IN THE DETAILS

Green Space Plaza Space

Arlington Avenue

Diagram 27: Building setback variations allow for different public spaces

Julian Avenue

Diagram 28: Julian Avenue re-design using vacant land

• Curve Julian Avenue using right-of-way and vacant lots • Use open space pockets for parks and urban agriculture • Connect through Irvington Plaza to the Irvington Community Charter School [not within site boundaries] • Avoid removal of homes and displacement of residents

Page | 60

Vacant lot Single-Family Lot


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan

Diagram 29: Important development nodes within the master plan with walking distance

• 1/4 mile or 5-minute walking distance from each node covers the majority of the plan area • Park, commercial, and community center space

Park / Urban Agriculture Space Commercial / Multi-Family Development Community Center

Arlington Avenue

Washington Street / U.S. 40

Pennsy Trail Diagram 30: Pedestrian path and park network in the master plan

• Provide connected pedestrian paths and parks

Park / Urban Agriculture Space

• Place sidewalks on all roads allow for quick connection to green / open space and Pennsy Trail

Pedestrian Path and Intersection Plaza

Page | 5 Page | 61


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan

Julian Avenue

MASTER PLAN PROGRAM Total area: 84.5 acres

Plan 2

Commercial (Retail and Office) Development Total: 311, 225 SF Irvington Plaza PUD: 271,025 SF Residential Units Total: 213 Units Irvington Plaza PUD: 178 Units 25 Single-Family Units 81 Townhomes 34 Apartments 45 Mixed-use above Commercial Community Center Area: 14,575 SF Parking Spaces Total: 838 New Spaces (2 per 1000 SF Commercial, 1 per Multi-Family Dwelling Unit) Irvington Plaza PUD: 705 new spaces 183 On-street Spaces Usable Open Space Total: 270,550 SF (6.2 acres) Irvington Plaza PUD: 153,875 SF (3.5 acres)

Page | 62

Community Garden (Typ.)

* The current Irvington Plaza location serves as a unified Planned Unit Development [PUD] because of the current parcel size and need to phase development [see pages 64 and 65].This enables parking to be shared between uses.

Catherwood Avenue

See Figure 63, page 74

Webster Avenue

Soccer Field

Arlington Avenue

Bol ton

Ave nu

e

Washington Street / US 40


Kenyon Street

Ridgeview Drive Central Plaza [see Plan 3]

Latino Business

U-Haul See Figure 66, page 76

Park La Hacienda Marsh

See Figure 64, page 75

Park [Figure 59]

Sheridan Avenue

Kitley Avenue

Kenmore Avenue

DESIGN PROCESS: master plan

Julian Avenue

Plaza for Farmers’ Market and Rain Garden Courtyard / Plaza

Pennsy Trail

See Figure 60, page 72

Pedestrian Paths (Typ.) On-Street Parking with Storm water Planters (Typ.)

Legend Green / Park / Open Space Commercial / Mixed Use Development Multi-Family Development Single-Family Development Community Center

0’

100’

200’ 300’ 400’

Mixed Use with Residential Irvington Plaza PUD Area

NORTH Page | 5 Page | 63


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan MASTER PLAN PHASING DEVELOPMENT

SSee Se ee Cent Ce Central ent ntra tra rall Pl P Plaza laza laz azza Si SSite te P Plan lan [[Plan [P laan 3, 3, ppage age 80 age ag 80] 80]

PHASE 1 BOUNDARY

Build onto current parking lot close to Washington Street Start construction of road connections Use leftover parking for temporary spaces Make parks and new business the priority with some residential

Page | 64


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan 2011 - Plan completed 2012 - Plan approved - Super Bowl increases interest in revitalization - La Plaza announces its move to Irvington 2016 - Phase 1 completed - First Annual Dance Festival held in Central Plaza - FIESTA Indianapolis moves to Irvington - Resident interest grows

TIMELINE OF EVENTS

2022 - Phase 2 completed - Final streets and park amenities completed - Original buildings removed 2028

PHASE 2 BOUNDARY

Add development onto current parking lot Remove buildings for future development Complete the roads and parks

- Phase 3 completed - More residents arrive - Strong business network formed - Annual Restaurant Tour starts

PHASE 3 BOUNDARY Construct multi-family courtyard apartments Construct single-family homes

Page | 5 Page | 65


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan STREET SECTIONS

5’ Side walk

5’ Tree Lawn

2- 11’ Driving Lanes

10’ Tree Median & Turn Lane

2- 11’ Driving Lanes

4’ 5’ Side 7’ Parking Bike walk + Bio-swale Lane

80’ Right-of -Way

Figure 45: Street section of Washington Street / US 40 near Irvington Plaza, [Kitley Avenue west to Catherwood Avenue]

5’ Side walk

3’ Tree Lawn

2- 12’ Driving Lanes

10’ Tree Median & Turn Lane

2- 12’ Driving Lanes

2’

4’ Bike Lane

3’ Tree Lawn

5’ Side walk

80’ Right of Way

Figure 46: Street section of Washington Street / US 40 west of Irvington Plaza, [Catherwood Avenue west to Bolton Avenue]

(Dirr)

Page | 66

(Dirr)

(Ginkgo biloba)

(Google Image)

Figure 47 (left): Acer rubrum [red maple] Figure 48 (left center): Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud) Figure 49 (right center): Ginkgo biloba [gingko] Figure 50 (right): Yellow unit pavers for pavement change


DESIGN PROCESS: master plan

5’ Sidewalk

5’ Tree Lawn

2- 11’ Driving Lanes

8’ Parking + Bio5’ Tree swale Lawn

5’ Sidewalk

50’ Right of Way

Figure 51: Street section of new connected streets within Irvington Plaza Planned Unit Development [PUD]

5’ 5’ Side Tree walk Lawn 11’ Drive Lane

8’ Tree Median & Turn Lane

11’ Drive Lane

5’ 5’ Bike 5’ Tree Side Lane Lawn walk

55’ Right of Way

Figure 52: Street section of collector streets similar to Arlington Avenue and Ritter Avenue

Figure 53 (left): Red concrete unit pavers for pavement changes Figure 54 (left center): Asphalt paving for streets Figure 55 (right center): Calamagrostis x acutiflora “Karl Foerster’ [feather reed grass] Figure 56 (right): Clethra alnifolia [summersweet clethra]

(Google Image)

(Asphalt)

(Kemper)

(Kemper)

Page | 5 Page | 67


PERSPECTIVE: community center: Figure 57

Page | 68


Page | 69


PERSPECTIVE: community gardens on vacant lots

Page | 70 Page | 5


PERSPECTIVE: washington street corridor Figure 58: Street improvements create a more pedestrian-friendly environment

Page | 71 Page | 5


DESIGN PROCESS: sections + perspectives

Figure 59: Roundabout Park perspective looking north [see location map, right]

IRVINGTON PLAZA PUD SECTION, N/S Figure 60

Pennsy Trail

Page | 72

Apartment Parking

Courtyard Apartments

0

50 Green Space

100

150

200

Commercial


DESIGN PROCESS: sections + perspectives

Figure 61: Community Gardens on vacant lots that serve grocery stores, farmers’ markets, residents [see location map, below]

61 59

Mixed Use with Residential

Parking

Commercial Facing the Central Plaza and Pedestrian Path

Page | 5 Page | 73


DESIGN PROCESS: sections + perspectives

Figure 62: Washington Street / U.S. 40 Streetscape perspective looking west [see location map, right]

COMMUNITY CENTER SECTION Figure 63 [see location map, right]

Plaza Space with Seating and Art Display

Page | 74

0’

10’

20’

30’

Rehabilitated Former Indy East Motel

40’


DESIGN PROCESS: sections + perspectives LARGE PARK, EAST SIDE OF MASTER PLAN

Section-Elevation of Large Park Commercial

Large Lawn Area

Wall

Storage Building

Apartments

0’

60’

Figure 64: Large park on the east side of the master plan [see location map, below]

20’

40’

80’

62 63

64

Soccer Field

Page | 5 Page | 75


DESIGN PROCESS: sections + perspectives

Figure 65: Townhomes with courtyards overlooking the Pennsy Trail on the south side of the master plan [see location map, right]

IRVINGTON PLAZA PUD E/W Figure 66

Single-Family Residential

Page | 76

Alley and Parking

0’

50’

Marsh [current location]

100’

150’

200’

Commercial Facing the Central Plaza and Pedestrian Path


DESIGN PROCESS: sections + perspectives BONNA AVENUE AND PENNSY TRAIL COMMERCIAL Figure 67

Rehabilitated Commercial

Improved Bonna Avenue with Brick Paving

Pennsy Trail

Improved Commercial Area

Figure 67: Bonna Avenue and Pennsy Trail at Audubon Road; commercial area within residential area [see location map, below]

0

20

40

60

80

“In Hispanic American communities, the daily lives of people unfold on the public plaza, and the space serves as an integral landscape that reinforces the local culture� (qtd. in Arreola 50).

67

65

Commercial

Parking

Commercial/ La Hacienda/ Agriculture

Park

Seating

Page | 5 Page | 77


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan SPATIAL ORGANIZATION Diagram 31

• Large central open space for community events and festivals • Smaller spaces programmed to meet business and building owners’ needs • Pedestrian path sight lines maintained Central Space Programmed Spaces Pedestrian Path Connection

ELEMENT ORGANIZATION Diagram 32

• Orange winding and curved paving • Paving becomes basis for organization of elements within each of the spaces • Paving becomes other elements [seat walls, planters, water feature, etc.]

Page | 78


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan CIRCULATION

Diagram 33

• Paths north / south and east / west connecting to pedestrian paths • Small paths through programmed spaces • Buildings open to the plaza, allowing pedestrian circulation between exterior and interior Circulation between Buildings Internal Circulation Circulation from Outside

CANOPY

Diagram 34

• Large Gingko biloba trees for shade • Sun pocket in central area • Trellis that allows some shade and sun

SIGHT LINES

Diagram 35

• Strong sight lines into plaza from outside • Node and element visibility Sight Lines within Plaza Important Nodes Sight Lines from Outside

Page | 5 Page | 79


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan

Washington Street Bus Stop

Health Services

Travel Agency

Clothing Store

Mural Mound Trellis with Art Outdoor Learning/ Workshop Space

Tutoring Services

Lawn

Community Event Space

Water Feature

Rain Garden

Mound Tables for Crafts

Rain Garden

Restaurant

Dance Performance Area Clothing

Break Area

Mural

Mural Book Store

Cafe

Art Gallery

Dance Studio

Residential Above

Page | 80

20’

40‘

Gym

Residential Above

See Figure 82, page 86 0’

Mural

60’

80’


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan Light Bollard (Figure 77 Page 85) Bench (Figure 78 Page 85) Seat Wall Thin Sheet of Water over Granite Paving (Figure 72 Page 84)

La Plaza

Figure 68: Interactive Water Feature detail sketch

SITE PLAN PROGRAM Total Area: 1.54 acres Plaza: 0.75 acres

Mural

Plan 3

Large, central, open space for community events and festivals Proposed re-location for La Plaza, Inc. in northeast building Murals by community artists on multiple buildings representing the Irvington culture and history Buildings open up to the plaza via large sliding, glass doors

Pedestrian Path

See Figure 74, page 84 Craft Store

Offices

NORTH

Activity Areas Programmed to Meet Building Uses: La Plaza: Outdoor learning space and corridor for career or college fairs and workshops Tutoring Services: Outdoor tables and seating area Restaurant: Outdoor seating, and waiting area CafĂŠ: Outdoor seating Clothing Store: Racks for clothing on sale Book Store: Shelves for books on sale Art Gallery: Outdoor art display Dance Studio: Dance Performance area and seating on mounds / seat walls Offices: Break area Craft Store: Tables for making crafts Rain Garden and Water Feature for storm water management Interactive Water Feature with thin flowing sheet of water, collected from rain water Shade over the majority of the space and a central sun pocket Mounds for extra seating and viewing the water feature Pedestrian paths maintained (north to south and east to west) Plaza paving continues onto the sidewalk and across Washington Street / U.S. 40

Page | 81


Page | 82


PERSPECTIVE: central plaza Figure 69: The Central Plaza used for an evening dancing event

Page | 83


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan MATERIALS

• Bright paving colors • Orange tiled curves with artistic forms by local artists • Consistent light features with bollards and tall lanterns • Seat walls and benches that rise from the paving pattern • Trellis with climbing plants as part of the canopy

Figure 70: Yellow concrete unit paving in a herringbone pattern for the Central Plaza area (Google Image)

Figure 71: Red concrete unit paving in a herringbone pattern for the Central Plaza entrances connecting to the pedestrian paths (Google Image)

WEST TO EAST PLAZA SECTION

Figure 72: Yellow granite for the water feature base.Water, collected from storm water, flows in a thin sheet over the granite. (Yellow Granite)

Figure 73: Ceramic glass paving tiles in artistic forms for the orange curves in the paving pattern (Tile Mosaic)

Figure 74

Site Scale section of Main Plaza: in progress Rain Garden

Page | 84

Trellis

Water Feature with Seat Walls and Light Bollards


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan

Figure 75: Trellis with climbing plants for shade and an overhead plane. Photo of the Fifth Street Bridge in Atlanta, Georgia (Sarah McColley)

Figure 76: Table and chairs for the outdoor seating areas, also repeated in other places in the master plan. (Outdoor Dining)

0’

Grass Mound and Seat Wall

Building with Mural [La Plaza]

Figure 77: Decorative light bollard for the plaza and matching lanterns for overhead lighting (Circolo)

20’

Figure 78: Similar benches in brighter colors that appear to flow from the orange paving curves (Natural Beauty)

40’

60’

80’

Seating and Planting Area

Page | 5 Page | 85


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan TREES AND PLANTS

• Large canopy trees cover the plaza for shade, cooling, and wind deflection • Ornamental trees add space formation and color in the spring and space formation • Planting areas include shrubs, perennials, and groundcover

Figure 79: Cercis canadensis [eastern redbud] used as an ornamental tree (Dirr)

Figure 80: Amelanchier canadensis [serviceberry] used as an ornamental tree (Kemper)

NORTH TO SOUTH PLAZA SECTION

Planting Area

Page | 86

Figure 81: Ginkgo biloba [ginkgo] used for the canopy trees in the Central Plaza (Ginkgo biloba)

Figure 82

Trellis

Building with Mural [La Plaza]

Water Feature with Seat Walls and Light Bollards


DESIGN PROCESS: site scale plan RAIN GARDEN PLANTS

• Majority of plants are native; none are weedy; all are tolerant of wet conditions • Plants help filter and retain storm water

Figure 83: Cephalanthus occidentalis [buttonbush] for the rain gardens (Kemper)

Figure 84: Cornus sericea [redosier dogwood] for the rain gardens and color variation during different seasons (Kemper)

0’

Mound

Rain Garden

Art Display

20’

Figure 85: Calamagrostis x acutiflora ‘Karl Foerster’ [feather reed grass] for the rain garden (Kemper)

40’

60’

Figure 86: Clethra alnifolia [summersweet clethra] (Kemper)

80’

Art Gallery

Page | 5 Page | 87


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation CENTRAL PLAZA LAYOUT PLAN [4] [1]

[3]

Page | 88


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation

NORTH 0’

20’

40’

60’

80’

Plan L-1: Overall Layout Plan. For construction details, see pages 96 and 97

Page | 5 Page | 89


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation CENTRAL PLAZA DETAIL LAYOUT PLAN

Plan L-2: Detailed Layout Plan [For construction details, see pages 96 and 97]

Page | 90


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation

[2]

NORTH 0’

10’

20’

30’

40’

Page | 5 Page | 91


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation CENTRAL PLAZA PLANTING PLAN

Page | 92


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation

NORTH 0’

10’

20’

30’

40’

NORTH 0’

20’

40’

60’

80’

Plan L-4: Enlarged Planting Plan [For schedule and plant photos, see pages 94 and 95]

Plan L-3: Site Planting Plan [For schedule and plant photos, see pages 94 and 95]

Page | 5 Page | 93


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation CENTRAL PLAZA PLANTING SCHEDULE 



 



        

    



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Table 1: Planting Schedule

Figure 87: Cercis canadensis (Dirr)

Page | 94

Figure 88: Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo biloba)

Figure 89: Amelanchier canadensis (Kemper)


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation

Figure 90: Calamagrostis x acutiflora ‘Karl Foerster’ (Kemper)

Figure 93: Magnolia x soulangiana (Dirr)

Figure 91: Forsythia x intermedia (Dirr)

Figure 94: Cephalanthus occidentalis (Kemper)

Figure 96: Juniperus procumbrens ‘Nana’ (Kemper)

Figure 97: Narcisuss ‘Afterall’ (Kemper)

Figure 92: Impatiens walleriana (Kemper)

Figure 95: Narcissus ‘Icelandic Pink’ (Kemper)

Figure 98: Hemerocallis ‘James Marsh’ (Kemper)

Page | 5 Page | 95


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation DECORATIVE LIGHT BOLLARD INSTALLATION [1]

0’

2’

4’

6’

8’

CENTRAL PLAZA RAIN GARDEN [2]

0’

Page | 96

5’

10’

15’

20’


DESIGN PROCESS: construction documentation SEAT WALL / RETAINING WALL [3]

0’

2’

4’

6’

8’

CONCRETE UNIT PAVERS [4]

0’

2’

4’

6’

8’

Page | 5 Page | 97


CONCLUSION This revitalization plan for a portion of the Irvington neighborhood makes accommodations for the area’s growing Latino population. Because the Latino population is the fastest growing minority in the United States, and the immigrants face many issues, it is necessary to facilitate stronger integration into American society. The design uses inspiration from the Latino culture to create enjoyable spaces for current residents, future residents, and visitors. In addition, Irvington is experiencing revitalization projects, and this framework and master plan connects to the current projects as the next phase of renewal. Successful revitalization of a neighborhood with a growing Latino population requires consideration of the adversity immigrants experience, the rapid increase in the Latino population, cultural characteristics, and the necessity to provide educational and health services to foster upward mobility. Cultural heritage and sustainable design are integral elements throughout all three stages of design to create dynamic and inviting community spaces. The research determined how Latino neighborhoods are defined and important cultural characteristics, how Latinos transformed the urban fabric and accommodating the cultural impacts, how to connect to current programs and community services, the implementation of sustainable design solutions, and current revitalization methods used in similar locations. The Latino population in Indianapolis continues to increase, and although no barrio exists, some areas of Indianapolis are home to large percentages of Latinos (Littlepage 2), including the Irvington neighborhood. According to the 2000 Census, the Indianapolis Latino population was 3.9% (Indiana Department of Workforce Development), but by the 2010 Census, the population grew to 10.65% in Indianapolis (U.S. Census Bureau). Additionally, the elementary school within the site, Indianapolis Public School 57, George W. Julian Elementary, has a 37.5% Latino student population (Indiana Department of Education). Latino urban transformations throughout the country include colorful and bright paint colors, murals, Latino-serving businesses, the Spanish language, and the wide use of plazas and parks. In Irvington, the majority of Latino businesses are east of Arlington Avenue near the existing Irvington Plaza shopping center, and the master plan preserves these businesses and suggests facade treatments and streetscape improvements to enhance the aesthetic value. In addition, most of the new designed development is adjacent to these businesses, strengthening social and business networks. In order to connect to current programs helping the Latino population, the master plan includes a location for La Plaza, Inc., outdoor space for career or college fairs and workshops, and health and educational services adjacent to the Central Plaza. Sustainable design solutions throughout all levels of design include compact and mixed-use development, storm water management features, urban agriculture, increased green space, limited parking, and rear access to buildings. Revitalization methods used in the master plan include a phased development plan to increase support and income for future phases, mixed-use development, affordable housing units, and building placement to increase business network opportunities.

Page | 98


CONCLUSION After starting the analysis and design work, the scope of work changed. The original master plan site was the current framework plan area, and the site-scale plan was originally the existing Irvington Plaza shopping center area. The final framework plan, 350 acres, provides design guidelines, connects streets, and suggests specific areas to improve to increase the street activity and aesthetic value of the neighborhood. The new master plan site, 84.5 acres, is a portion of the framework plan that shows, in more detail, the urban design guidelines through building footprints, parking arrangements, square footage of designated land use, streetscape improvements, and an increase in public park and plaza space. The final site plan area became a 1.54-acre area, which is the Central Plaza in the master plan between Ridgeview Avenue and Kenmore Avenue on Washington Street. The plaza uses the dance concept through material choices and programmed activities, and suggestions for building uses were made to increase the activity in the plaza during all seasons and times of day. Throughout the project, the designer increasingly realized the importance of integrating and accommodating new cultural groups into design and revitalization projects. The United States population experiences changes through immigration, and currently the Latino population is the fastest growing minority, making it important to create a sense of place, to design communities with growing Latino populations to be more inviting to future immigrants, and to enhance cultural awareness for current residents and visitors. Design and cultural elements from other ethnic groups can provide educational and appealing amenities for residents and visitors, and can improve the overall neighborhood’s quality of life.

Page | 5 Page | 99


Page | 100


APPENDICES

Page | 5 Page | A-1


APPENDIX A: project timeline    

            

                                                            

          

                             

!!! #$ !!"

!(  

!% !"! !! 

 !! ' ! #      ! !

        "   "    "# !"$  $  "    "     %   ! # !      #           1.09- 1.16 1.15 1.21 Inventory and Making Basemaps

1.23 1.29

1.30 - 2.6 2.5 2.12

Conceptual Design

2.13 2.19

2.20 2.26

2.27 3.5

3.6 3.12

3.13 3.19

3.20 3.26

3.27 4.3

4.4 4.10

4.11 4.17

4.18 4.24

4.25 5.1

5.2 5.7

Design Revisions, Drawing Production, Detail Design,

Schematic Design

Programming, Site Analysis, Conceptual Design, Schematic Design

Spring Break

Prepare Final Powerpoint

Design D Development: eve e Pl a , detailed plan development, Master Plan, efi e design refinement

Final Presentations

Organize Materials and Inform Instructors of Vision

Mid-term Presentations

Prepare Presentation

Final Written Report and Final Board Production

Final Board

Mid-term and d FFinal Written Report

Meetings with Instructors Meetings with Mentors Inventory and Analysis

Page | A-2

                   


APPENDIX B: design concerns and considerations DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS • Irvington is a Historic District, making it essential to consider historical character and significance. • Irvington Plaza is a large commercial development with vacant buildings and large expanses of parking, which could be used for re-development. • Businesses owned by Latinos line Washington Street. • Irvington is currently experiencing revitalization and streetscape improvements, focusing on Washington Street / U.S. 40

DESIGN CONCERNS • Representing the Latino culture and neighborhood residents effectively. • Creating pedestrian paths and connections on Washington Street / U.S. 40. • Incorporating the Latino culture while maintaining and representing the other populations. • Ensuring that no residents are displaced through development.

Page | A-3


APPENDIX C: site photos RESIDENTIAL OPTIONS IN IRVINGTON

• Various options from Single- to Multi-family units • Different types mixed together in various areas of the neighborhood Figure 1-A: Audubon Court Condominiums on the southeast corner of Washington Street and Audubon Road (McColley)

Figure 2-A: Two-family housing on University Avenue in the primarily single-family residential area south of Washington Street (McColley)

Page | A-4


APPENDIX C: site photos

Figure 3-A: Single-family Housing at Ritter Avenue and Julian Avenue south of Washington Street (McColley)

Figure 4-A: Single-family Housing and adjacent Two-family housing on Dewey Avenue (McColley)

Page | 5 Page | A-5


APPENDIX C: site photos VACANT AND UNDER-UTILIZED LAND

• Vacant commercial and residential buildings throughout the framework plan boundaries • Vacant land and large amounts of surface parking Figure 5-A: Vacant commercial building on the northeast corner of Ritter Avenue and Washington Street (McColley)

Figure 6-A: Bonna Avenue in a residential area east of Audubon Road.The sidewalks and street are in bad condition, and the Pennsy Trail is not yet constructed. (McColley)

Page | A-6


APPENDIX C: site photos

Figure 7-A: Irvington Plaza shopping center on the south side of Washington Street near Kitley Avenue. Large amounts of parking and many vacant storefronts exist. (McColley)

Figure 8-A: Vacant lot on Good Avenue in a residential area south of Bonna Avenue (McColley)

Page | 5 Page | A-7


APPENDIX C: site photos COMMERCIAL AREAS AND LATINO INFLUENCE

• Various places throughout the site have commercial areas, like Washington Street and parts of Bonna Avenue • Locally-owned and national chains are mixed together Figure 9-A: Commercial area on Washington Street west of Audubon Road.This area is in the middle of a revitalization project, and landscape treatments will begin in July 2011. (McColley)

Figure 10-A: Neighborhood commercial area and parking at Bonna Avenue and Audubon Road (McColley)

Page | A-8


APPENDIX C: site photos

Figure 11-A: Tienda Morelos is a Latino-owned grocery store on the northwest corner of Ritter Avenue and Washington Street (McColley)

Figure 12-A: La Escollera is a Latinoowned restaurant on the northwest corner of Bolton Avenue and Washington Street (McColley)

Page | 5 Page | A-9


APPENDIX C: site photos SOUTH SIDE OF WASHINGTON STREET

Page | A-10

Washington Street and Kitley Avenue, South Side

Irvington Plaza

Washington Street and Sheridan Avenue

Latino Businesses

Washington Street and Catherwood Avenue

Fairly Vacant Streetscape


APPENDIX C: site photos

Irvington Plaza

Latino Businesses

Commercial Area

Washington Street and Arlington Avenue

Page | 5 Page | A-11


APPENDIX C: site photos SOUTH SIDE OF WASHINGTON STREET

Single- and Two-Family Housing

Vacant Land at Bolton and Washington Street

Commercial Development

Page | A-12

Courtyard Apartments

Apartments

Newly Renovated Apartments at Audubon and Washington


APPENDIX C: site photos

Vacant Indy East Motel

Commercial Development at Bolton Avenue

Two-Family Homes

Commercial Development (Mainly ATT)

Marion County Public Library

Multi-Family Residential and Commercial

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APPENDIX C: site photos SOUTH SIDE OF WASHINGTON STREET

Commercial Development

Commercial Development

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APPENDIX C: site photos

Commercial Development

George W. Julian Elementary School 57

Washington Street and Irvington Street

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APPENDIX D: community organization leaders PHONE CONVERSATION WITH AMANDULA HENRY [FEB. 1, 2011] Irvington Development Organization Corridor Director

Worked with Huitzilin Elizondo from Business Ownership Initiative to speak with businesses and Latino owners Went to talk to Latino business owners: La Hacienda, the shopping strip by Irvington Plaza, Custom Plus Auto • La Hacienda: • Owner was not interested in a façade grant because his cousin paints the building • Multiple La Haciendas in the city, all with different owners, but they agree to have the same name • Left the owner the information about the grants during the visit • Irvington Terrace Neighborhood: • Trees planted along Washington Street with the neighborhood group • Asked businesses to adopt trees [for example, La Hacienda] • Custom Plus Auto: [At Catherwood Avenue and Washington Street] • Bilingual signage • Owner is leasing the building • Second generation Latino, from Los Angeles, California • Very interested in encouraging more business • La Escollera: • Limited English • Owns several small businesses in Indianapolis • Owner was not in the restaurant during visit • Wanted outdoor dining in the past • Obtained an alcohol permit 2-3 years ago • Tienda Morelos: • Managers on location, several stores in the city • A woman [limited English] and her sons [bilingual] manage the stores • Fresh items [meat, spices, fruits, veggies] • Very clean and welcoming • Demonstrations would be nice to have – Amandula • Other Observations: • Challenge to find minority families • Irvington: • “Feels like a place” • “Has organizational development” • “Feels like its own town” • Streetscape Improvements: • Phase 1 construction starts July 2011, Bolton Avenue to Irvington Street Tree medians and planters, decorative lighting, intersection treatments, creating focus on Washington Street • Phase 2 construction starts in 2012, Gateway, Irvington Street to Emerson Avenue

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APPENDIX D: community organization leaders E-MAIL CONVERSATION WITH TAMMY STEVENS [FEB. 1, 2011] Keep Indianapolis Beautiful & Irvington Terrace Neighborhood • Irvington Terrace Neighborhood: • Interest in integrating the Latino population into their efforts Most recently with beautification of Washington Street eastern corridor • Work with community south of Washington Street and west of Irvington Plaza to create a Crime Watch and community clean ups • Creation of Latino mural on Taller Mecanicos with high school students • Want suggestions on how to reach the Latino population

PHONE CONVERSATION WITH ROBERT UHLENHAKE [JAN. 28, 2011] Indianapolis Metropolitan Planning Organization • Provided names of neighborhood organizations: Irvington-Pennsy and Irvington Terrace • Gave meeting dates and times for the neighborhood groups • Discussed tree plantings along Washington Street east of Arlington done by Irvington Terrace • Provided other resources for researching Irvington’s history

PHONE CONVERSATION WITH ANNE-MARIE TAYLOR [JAN. 27, 2011] Indianapolis Neighborhood Resource Center • Said that this project presents an opportunity to work with the Irvington Development Organization for future plans • Provided contact information of other leaders within the city and Irvington area who could help • Stated that a group is currently working to integrate and incorporate the Latino community

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APPENDIX E: brief irvington history GENERAL HISTORY AND IMPORTANT FACTS • Founded in 1870 by abolitionist lawyers, Jacob Julian and Sylvester Johnson • Named for author Washington Irving • Straddles the National Road / US 40 / Washington Street and known for tree-lined streets, parks, historic homes • Designed as an independent, planned suburban town • Annexed by Indianapolis in 1902 • Butler University [1875 to 1928] defined the area as a cultural and arts destination • Added to National Register of Historic Places in 1987 • Demographics: • 11,464 Residents • 5600 Households • 63.5% Owner-occupied households • 9.7% Vacancy rate • $48, 621 is median income • $103, 686 is median home value • 1938 is average year for house construction • Landmarks: • Ellenberger Park (Designed by George Kessler in 1909)

• The Benton House

• Irvington United Methodist Church

• Bona Thompson Memorial Center

• Irving Circle (Statue of Washington Irving)

• Irving Theatre (1913)

• Irvington Presbyterian Church (1928)

• Irvington Masonic Lodge

• Kin Hubbard Memorial

Kile Oak Tree Within the Framework Plan Area

• Our Lady of Lourdes Church and School

(Irvington Development Organization)

DETAILED HISTORY • Historic District is based off the original neighborhood: • 2800 buildings, 1600 land parcels • Southern Border: Northern edge of B&O Railroad

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APPENDIX E: brief irvington history • Northern Border: Pleasant Run Parkway South Drive • Eastern Border: Arlington Avenue • Western Border: Emerson Avenue • The Beginning: • John Ellenberger leased 320 acres in 1853 and bought 180 acres • Ellenberger Park became part of the 180 acres • Jacob Julian and Sylvester Johnson purchased the 320 acres and divided into two-acre lots with George Kessler’s Plans • Guidelines required sidewalks and trees, and certain buildings were not allowed • Two-acre lots were divided in 1872 and more additions were made • Tolerance: • Tolerance of ethnic diversity early in history • African-Americans could own land, when in most areas they could not, and early Census records show African-American residents from the beginning • Irvington Baptist Church (1915) on Good Avenue [Congregation formed in 1887] • Neighborhood was a leader in the Boy and Girl Scouts • Aesthetics: • Romantic Era landscape design • More blocks of brick streets than any other place in the city • Every American architecture style from 1870-1950 • Butler University: • Most Butler buildings are gone, except for Bona Thompson Center • Art: • Home to the only historic art movement in central Indiana Took place in early 1900’s Group of artists met, practiced, exhibited art in Irvington • Many homes and studios of artists still remain • Large history of art, especially in 1920’s and 1930’s (Irvington Historic Preservation Commission)

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APPENDIX F: historic district regulations ZONING

Within the Framework Plan Area

• C-1: Office-Buffer Commercial (S. Audubon Road and Bonna Avenue) • C-2: High-Intensity Office-Apartment-Commercial (High rise residential and office) • C-3: Neighborhood Commercial (Washington Street and Bonna Avenue) • C-4: Community Regional Commercial (Washington Street, shopping centers, major retail) • CS: Special Commercial • D-4: Dwelling District Four (2.6 units/acre) • D-5: Dwelling District Five (4.5 units/acre) • D-6: Dwelling District Six (6-9 units/ acre) • D-P: Planned Unit Development (Assisted living and apartments for elderly) • PK-1 Park District (Irving Circle) • SU-1: Special Use, Religious • SU-9: Guardian’s Home (Now Irvington Community Charter High School) • SU-37: Special Use-Library (Marion County Public Library)

HISTORIC DISTRICT PLANS • Encourage neighborhood-serving businesses • Maintain the zoning on Washington Street • Make the district more pedestrian friendly • In-fill compatible buildings that enhance Irvington’s character • Preserve maintenance of historic structures • In-fill new single-family homes on vacant lots • Preserve brick streets and street patterns • Improve bike and pedestrian amenities • Support art, public transportation, utility burial • Create a tree-lined streetscape • No demolition of buildings for parking • Discourage: Big-box stores, drive-thru restaurants, surface parking, auto-related businesses • SUB-Area A: Washington Street Corridor (1-3 stories) • Encourage neighborhood-based commercial development

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APPENDIX F: historic district regulations • Include all types of residential units • Place retail and pedestrian oriented businesses at the street level • Locate parking behind buildings • Limit commercial uses to Washington Street and along Pennsy Trail • SUB-Area B: Neighborhood Residential • Dominant land use is single- and two-family residential • Maintain residential zoning for all residential parcels • Discourage construction and conversion to commercial, retail, industrial • Encourage new homes on vacant lots • Add residential, light commercial or educational uses in vacant commercial area on Bonna Avenue • SUB-Area C: Pennsy Trail Corridor • Create trail-friendly businesses • Do not allow commercial to encroach into residential areas • Encourage trail access points and related amenities • Land east of Good Avenue, south of Bonna Avenue should be a park, trailhead, recreation, or residential if redeveloped • Washington Street and Thoroughfare Recommendations: • No additions to the right-of ways • Maintain locations of all streets • No widening of streets or right-of-ways • Implement traffic calming measures on Washington Street • Repair alleys in fair to poor condition • Repair sidewalks as needed (some have limestone curbs and name ceramics) • Use salvaged materials and create places for stockpiling • Discourage new curb cuts • Avoid street trees that interfere with traffic or pedestrian movement [that branch less than seven feet above the ground]

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APPENDIX G: references Arreola, Daniel D. Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2004. Print. Birch, Eugenie L. and Susan M. Wachter. Growing Greener Cities: Urban Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. Print. Borland, Katherine. “Embracing Difference: Salsa Fever in New Jersey.” Journal of American Folklore (Fall 2009): 466-492. Web. 29 October 2010. Bosselmann, Peter. Urban Transformation: Understanding City Design and Form. Washington, DC: Island, 2008. Print. Burdick, Stephen, Daniel M. Goebel, Jennifer Hanson, David Henderson, Colleen Kawahara, Edward L. Kick, and Jonathan Lepofsky. “Neighborhood Enterprises.” Urban Land. October 2002: 55-67. Print. Cisneros, Henry G. and John Rosales. Casa y Comunidad: Latino Home and Neighborhood Design. Washington, D.C.: BuilderBooks, 2006. Print. City of Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana. Indy.gov, 2008. Web. 22 September 2010. Dávila, Arlene M. Latinos, Inc.: the Marketing and Making of a People. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 2001. Print. Davis, Mike. Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City. New York, NY:Verso, 2000. Print. Fall Creek Place. Fall Creek Place Neighborhood Association, 2010. Web. 14 March 2011. Faryadi, Shahrzad. “Urban Representation of Multiculturalism a Global City: Toronto’s Iranian Community.” Globalization and Autonomy Online Compendium. Print. Haymes, Maria Vidal del, Keith M. Kilty, and Elizabeth A. Segal. Latino Poverty in the New Century: Inequalities, Challenges, and Barriers. New York: Halworth Press, 2000. Print.

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APPENDIX G: references Henry, Amandula. Personal Interview. 1 Feb. 2011. Indiana Department of Education. IN.gov, 2010. Web. 12 October 2010. Indiana Department of Workforce Development. Hoosiers by the Numbers, 2010. Web. 12 October 2010. Indiana Latino Institute. Indianalatino.com, 2010. Web. 11 November 2010. Indianapolis Museum of Art. Imamuseum.com, 2009. Web. 11 November 2010. Irvington Development Organization. Irvington Development Organization, 2011. Web. 15 Jan. 2010. “Irvington Historic Area Plan.” Indy.gov. Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission Plans, 2006. Web. 15 January 2010. “Irvington Neighborhood Plan.” Indy.gov. City of Indianapolis Economic Development Portal, 2008. Web. 25 September 2010. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York:Vintage, 1992. Print. La Plaza-Indy. La Plaza, 2007. Web.18 September 2010. Littlepage, Laura. “Emerging Issues in Education: Latino Population Boom Impacts Indianapolis.” Indiana University Center for Urban Policy and the Environment. 2006. Web. 12 October 2010. Magnusson Architecture and Planning. Magnusson Architecture and Planning, P.C., 2010. Web. 26 September 2010. Mattson-Teig, Beth. “Midwestern Momentum.” Urban Land. April 2002: 60-63, 82-83. Print. Nos Quedamos. Nos Quedamos Community Development Corporation, n.d. Web. 14 November 2010.

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APPENDIX G: references Palladino, Chris. “If revitalization can occur on the near north side of Indianapolis, it can occur anywhere.” Planning. (March 2003): 12-14. Web. 22 September 2010. Project Stepping Stone-A College Preparation Program for Hispanic Youth. Project Stepping Stone, 2010. Web. 12 October 2010. Rodolfo, Acuna. U.S. Latino Issues. Westport CT: Greenwood, 2003. Print. Stevens, Tammy. Personal Interview. 28 Jan. 2011. Sucher, David. City Comforts: How to Build an Urban Village. Seattle, WA: City Comforts, Inc., 2003. Print. Sustainable Sites Initiative. The Sustainable Sites Initiative, 2010. Web. 25 October 2010. Tanner, Jane. “Affordable Housing: CQ Researcher, Volume 11. Issue 5 (2001): 91-99. Web. Taylor, Anne-Marie. Personal Interview. 27 Jan. 2011. U.S. Census Bureau. “2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File, Table P1.” U.S. Census Bureau. www.census.gov, 2011. Web. 30 March 2011. Uhlenhake, Robert. Personal Interview. 28 Jan. 2011. Wagner, Fritz W., Timothy E. Joder, and Anthony J. Mumphrey. Urban Revitalization: Policies and Programs. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1995. Print. Zambrana, Ruth E. Understanding Latino Families: Scholarship, Policy, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 1995. Print.

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APPENDIX G: references Photos: Asphalt. 2011. Wyckoffschools.org. Web. 26 February 2011. The Colorful “Women’s House” in the Mission District of San Francisco. 2008. Traveljournels.net. Web. 16 March 2011. Dirr, Michael A. Dirr’s Hardy Trees and Shrubs: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Inc., 1997. Print. “Circolo Bollard.” 2010. Boydlighting.com. Web. 26 February 2011. Faryadi, Shahrzad. “Urban Representation of Multiculturalism a Global City: Toronto’s Iranian Community.” Globalization and Autonomy Online Compendium. Print. Ginkgo biloba. 2008. Organic-herbal-remedies.com. Web. 30 March 2011. “Kemper Plant Finder.” www.mobot.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2011. Web. 30 March 2011. “Melrose Commons LEED for Neighborhood Development Pilot.” Architizer.com. Architizer, 2009. Web. 14 March 2011. Mission District, San Francisco. 2011. Extranomical.com. Web. 16 March 2011. Natural Beauty Timber Bench Design. 2010. homegallerydesign.com. Web. 31 March 2011. Nos Quedamos. Nos Quedamos Community Development Corporation, n.d. Web. 14 November 2010. Outdoor Dining Sets. 2011. macys.com. Web. 26 February 2011. Szabla, Chris. Mission Lumosity. 2001. Pbase.com. Web. 16 March 2011. Tile Mosaic. 2011. green.findanyfloor.com. Web. 30 March 2011. Yellow Granite. 2011. Sritulsiexports.com. Web. 30 March 2011.

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Indianapolis Latino Neighborhood Revitalization  

Undergraduate Thesis Project at Ball State University. Proposes the revitalization of a neighborhood in Indianapolis with a growing Latino...

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