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Housing design Arch. 410/510, fall 2012

Water and waste, examined Abstract:

The knowledge of water management remains vital for the success of any built project. By respecting its importance, this paper begins to examine waste and water management through an evaluation of the present day techniques understood and implemented by architects, builders, engineers and ultimately, the building’s residents. We will propose, as was taught in this course, that these current techniques are not watertight and allow for a proper critique. These critiques will be enhanced by case studies that we believe provide a succinct and thorough understanding of those aforementioned techniques, but also contain basic themes that assist in the design of any housing project. The final section evolves this understanding and looks to the future of waste management, what that implies, and ultimately evaluates its potential for energy production.

Arizona house diagram

Cistern Water Management

Professor Peter Keyes -Alex Dykes Qing Ju Chris Smith Will Zenk

Digesters, a good solution?


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Water and waste examined

Table of Contents

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Introduction of water management

3

Investigating the present waste

7

Case studies

10

Digesters

15

Taking the next steps, what will become of water and waste?

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Water and waste, examined

Water and Waste Management “This town needs an enema!”1 This paper will focus on the different approaches to handle, treat and utilise waste and water in the developed world. To begin, the topic of water distribution is appropriate because of its exponentially increasing importance within our world which is directly affected by climate change and as a result, increasing water scarcity. There are a number of ways to supply water to a project. Among them are Aquifers, ground water, rainwater catchment, and of course tapping a city water main. The first step in determining any water supply system is to know the systems available in your region and select the one most feasible for you project. Below is s summary of the advantages and disadvantages of each water supply source. Municipal water supply advantages and disadvantages • water main • water supply managed my utility company • requires little to know on site filtration • most common supply system in housing projects Private water supply advantages and disadvantages • requires testing and on site filtration • water pumped into storage tanks • rainwater catchment, aquifers, natural source, groundwater • acid rain is a concern • heavily dependent on region (see diagram to the right)

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1) Jack Nicholson as The Joker in Batman (dir. Tim Burton), Guber-Peters Company/PolyGram Entertainment/Warner Brothers, 1989

Grondzik, Walter T. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2010. Print.

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• • • • • •

Upfeed system

Grondzik, Walter T. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2010. Print.

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usually only feasible as primary water source in small scale projects see MEEB page 876 deepwater wells little to no filtration requires large pumps well drilling is expensive

In housing projects there are generally two main types of distribution systems, upfeed systems, and downfeed systems. When designing a water distribution tree, efficiency should be the primary focus as the more efficient the system is, water pressure will be lowered as will cost. Limiting the number of plumb walls and aligning them adjacent to vertical chases are simple ways to increase the efficiency of water distribution and this will also help to simplify drainage and waste management. Upfeed systems utilize hydraulic pressure from a source at the bottom of a building to lift water and distribute it among the building. Upfeed systems are fed from municipal water mains with a pressure varying from 50-70 psi. Static pressure is the pressure at the bottom of a column of water. In an upfeed system this is the force limits the height of the system, because the higher the system gets the greater the static pressure. An upfeed project supplied by a municipal water main is limited to 2-3 stories. Static pressure can be used as a source for an upfeed distribution system with private source that requires a large storage tank such as rainwater catchment. In order to increase pressure in an upfeed system pumps can be added in to create a pumped upfeed system. The pumps are added at the base of the distribution tree. Another way to increase the pressure in the distribution tree is to use a hydropneumatic upfeed system. This system pumps water into hydropneumatic tanks which then pressurize the water using compressed air to maintain the required pressure at the base of a distribution line. 4 December 2012


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Upfeed systems important facts • 40’-60’ height limit • Often utilizes the pressure of city water main • Average pressure of a city water main 50 psi • Most fixtures require 5-15 psi • If psi from source is insufficient pressurized tanks or pumps can be used Downfeed systems pump the water from the source at the base of the building to storage tank at the top. This system is most commonly used in high rise situations or where building heights exceed 60 feet. Common examples of downfeed systems can be seen in old buildings in Portland and Brooklyn where large water tanks sit visible atop buildings. Downfeed systems utilize static pressure to their advantage by dropping water from the tank to create the necessary pressure for fixtures. Often times in high rise projects downfeed systems are set to zones to where they will have storage tanks every 10-15 stories otherwise static pressures can become too great and pipes can burst. In most projects a combination of water distribution methods can be used and will often end up being more economical. For example in a mid rise housing project that requires fairly high floor to floor heights, it may be more economical to use an upfeed system to supply the bottom floors and a downfeed system to supply the top. Calculation methods for this are described with great detail within the link on the right entitled “AREnotes.” Hot water supply systems In the housing industry today the three most commonly used methods are central boiler water heaters, unit distributed water heaters, and tankless water heaters. Residential buildings use the largest amount of hot water, so selecting hot water system is particularly important in that regard. Central boiler heaters are becoming less and less common as small storage tank water heaters become more economical. They are often powered by natural gas or in some older cases, they burned oil.

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Water and waste, examined Allen, Edward, and Joseph Iano. The Architect’s Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design. New York: Wiley, 1995. Print.

Grondzik, Walter T. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. Hoboken, N.J: Wiltey, 2010. Print. page 976, Downfeed systems.

AREnotes. “Ch: 9. Plumbing and Heating Systems.” Mechanical and Electrical. AREforum, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www. areforum.org/up/Mechanical%20and%20Electrical/MEP%20 Ballast%20notes/ARE-Ch9%20Plumbing%20Systems.pdf>. Walker, Andy. “Solar Water Heating.” WBDG. U.S. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wbdg.org/resources/swheating.php>.

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Grondzik, Walter T. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2010. Print, pp 950

Walker, Andy. “Solar Water Heating.” WBDG. U.S. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wbdg.org/resources/ swheating.php>.

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Unit distributed water heaters are a method of hot water supply where each unit in a housing project has a storage tank water heater, be it gas or electrically powered. This ensures that the unit has a large amount of uninterrupted hot water thus eliminating many disadvantages of a central system. Moreover, as was the case with water distribution systems, combinations of the two can be very economical. Tankless water heaters are located directly adjacent to the fixtures by providing on demand hot water. They rapidly heat the water in the line provided hot water stays in the line for 20-30 seconds. Some tankless heaters are now powerful enough that one heater can provide hot water for a 1-2 bedroom unit. Tankless heater are on the rise and offer a lot of flexibility, however they are still much less economical than a storage tank water heater. Solar water heating is also a method that has largely been on the rise in housing because of its energy efficiency and through associated governmental subsidies that make it more affordable. There are many ways in which solar energy can be used to heat water and many if not all, involve a solar collector. In most cases this is a panel with liquid circulating through small pipes. Passive systems rely on gravity to circulate the water through the collector which locates the storage tank above the collector. Active systems use pumps to circulate water through the collector. Direct systems use guide the water that is in circulation through the collector as the hot water supply. Indirect systems are also called closed loop systems and utilize a separate fluid circulated through the collector. It is then used heat the water supply. All solar water heaters use a combination of two or more of these systems (left) is a table illustrating the most commonly used solar hot water heater systems and there attributes (MEEB, 950) Selection of a system is usually dependent on the climactic conditions that surround the project in question. You must also determine the viability of solar water heating in your respective region. See the Whole building Design website for information specific to your region See the link below for great references on selecting the proper Solar water heating solution for your project.

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Waste Management

Sewage facilities are commonly how we deal with waste in the developed world. Sewage is generated by residential, commercial, and industrial facilities and is often transported and collected to municipal treatment plants through pipes and pumping stations. Sewage generally goes through three stages of treatment which attempts to take the combined sewage of 1) waste water, 2) industrial runoff, and 3) excrement etc. and convert it to a safe fluid waste stream (effluent) that can be converted back into the environment or as solid waste matter (sludge) capable only for disposal or reuse. Often storm water and sanitary systems are separated because of unpredictable influx which could potentially overwhelm treatment facilities. However in some cases, it is combined with storm water runoff which require a combined sewer system, often more expensive facilities than solely sanitary sewer systems. Decentralized systems such as septic tanks use anaerobic decomposition processes to break down sewage. They are common in areas with no connection to municipal sewers systems and often attached to rural residential homes. They usually include an inlet pipe, some sort of pump, a large chamber, and a drainage or leach field. They can be combined with biofilters and aerobic systems to further break down the contents. These systems must be properly maintained to keep efficiency, to eliminate overflow and escaping solids. A well maintained system should last approximately 50 years. The problem with these common waste water systems is that these systems mix excreta and large amounts of water and discharge this process into oceans, bays, rivers and groundwater. They also invite toxic substances from commercial and residential sources to be mixed with waste and water. This causes the proliferation of aquatic plant life first, then, as the plant life dies and decays, the removal of oxygen from the water and finally, the destruction of habitat.

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Jenkens, Joseph. “The Humanure Handbook.” Weblife.org: Humanure Handbook: Contents. Weblife, 1999. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.weblife.org/humanure/>.

Kahn, Lloyd. “Excessive Engineering and Regulatory Overkill The Septic System Owner’s Manual (page 1).” Excessive Engineering and Regulatory Overkill - The Septic System Owner’s Manual (page 1). Shelter Online, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www. shelterpub.com/_shelter/ssom_overkill-01.html>.

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Greywater Action. “About Greywater Reuse.” Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://greywateraction.org/content/about-greywaterreuse>.

Walker, Andy. “Solar Water Heating.” WBDG. U.S. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wbdg.org/resources/ swheating.php>.

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The key to fixing this problem is source separation: keeping water and commercial and household toxins separate from excreta. By separating our waste into greywater and blackwater systems, we can begin to better manage our waste and use it to our advantage and begin to eliminate our high demand of water and electricity for waste and waste water disposal. We can also begin to extract nutrients from excreta and reuse them in horticulture and agriculture, limiting or use of fertilizer and increasing our availability of nutrients to plants. Greywater systems are a way to use household waste water more effectively. Greywater (sullage) is leftover from bath, showers, hand sinks (not kitchen), washing machines, etc. If collected separately from blackwater, it can be recycled on site and used immediately on the site. Greywater has a higher level of unreacted organic material readily available for decomposition at a rate much faster than blackwater. This means that it can achieve stability through reactions with soil and can integrate back into the environment much faster. Greywater cannot be stored for long and must be treated within in 1 or 2 days of production. If stored, it will consume all available oxygen and decompose anaerobically, which is not desired. Blackwater has material already processed by the digestive track (human waste), which means its decomposition will take longer. Greywater can be recycled with or without purification techniques. Recycling without purification is often used agriculturally and residentially when potable water is not required. An example of this would be for gardens or flushing toilets. When potable water is required for drinking, washing, showering, etc, the water can be processed through mechanical systems such as sand filtration or UV radiation or through biological systems such as treatment ponds and constructed wetlands. Often systems release greywater into a biologically active layer of soil where soil organisms (bacteria, fungi, earthworms, etc.) decompose and stabilize the liquid. Nutrients are taken up through plants and most pathogens are consumed naturally. It is essential to not put toxic chemicals down the drain such as bleach or cleaners and to use all-natural biodegradable soaps and chemicals.

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Jurisdictions that have adopted the International Plumbing Code allow recycled greywater to be used in flushing toilets as long as that recycled water is only stored a limited amount of time and all solid elements are eliminated. Certain states such as Montana and Wyoming have begun to do this to allow subsurface irrigation and toilet flushing. Greywater is considered to be sewage by some jurisdictions where it is therefore bound by regulatory procedures that make it more difficult to implement, but it is still possible. Blackwater or sewage systems contain human waste. Blackwater has pathogens in it which can be harmful and must decompose before the materials can be released into the environment. Processing blackwater is difficult because of the amount of excess water yet it can easily be eliminated through waste composting systems. Composting toilets and vermicomposting toilets are technoligies which allow for disposal of blackwater. Composting toilets are dry toilets that can treat excrement with little or no water depending on the system. Waste is often mixed with fibrous materials (bulking agents) such as coconut, saw dust, peat moss to support aerobic processing. Thermophilic decomposition oxidizes the waste and breaks it down which eliminates volume and certain pathogens. Key to this microbial action is the controlled moisture levels and adequate oxygen levels. Commercial systems provide various approaches to aeration, drainage. and heating of the compost. Essentially, composting toilets are about creating an adequate environment for proper breakdown of waste by controlling inputs, moisture levels, oxygen levels, and temperature. If properly maintained and controlled, about 10 percent of original inputs will result from the process and can yield humus like soil products which can be used in horticulture or agriculture as allowed by local regulation. Composting toilets can be grouped into two systems. First, self-contained units are where processing is begun where the waste is received. Often these are a little larger than regular toilets. Second, remote units are where waste is

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Envirolet. “Envirolet Composting Toilets.” Envirolet Composting Toilets | “The Premium Choice.” - Ed Begley, Jr. Envirolet Composting Toilets, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.envirolet. com/>.

“Science & Technology.” Composting Toilets and Greywater Systems. Vital Design, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.clivusmultrum.com/science-technology.php>.

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George, Rose. The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters. New York: Metropolitan, 2008. Print.

Roth, J. D. “The Story of Stuff.” Get Rich Slowly. Personal Finance That Makes Sense. Getrichslowly.org, 9 June 2008. Web. 03 Dec. 2012. <http://www.getrichslowly.org/blog/2008/06/09/the-story-ofstuff/>.

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collected via waterless or micro flush systems into a larger tank appropriate for input from multiple toilets. The advantages of composting toilets are the vast amount of water saved, elimination of potentially harmful waste that may reach groundwater or lakes, streams, and oceans and finally the availability of nutrients that can be used and returned back to the earth. Human “waste” – it needn’t be – is full of nutrients. It is a rich, valuable, inexhaustible material, as rich as the world of people who work with it. This part of the essay has been an exploration of a hidden world and one of the world’s biggest unsolved public health crisis. Waste is common to everyone, as necessary as breathing, yet it is not always discussed. The lack of conversation also appears regarding the junk “waste” humans produce, with “99% of the stuff we harvest, mine, process, transport, and consume becomes trash within six months. Only 1% of the materials used to produce consumer goods (including the goods themselves) are still used six months after the date of sale” (Roth). This now leads us to an investigation regarding just that. Urban scale case study

Landfill site of Freshkills park, New York, U.S. City of New York Parks & Recreation

Landfill site of Hiriya park, Tel Aviv, Israel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiriya

There is a long history of urban residents transporting large amount of waste to somewhere outside the city. Therefore, it is not a surprise to find huge landfill areas close to cities all over the world, like the cases described here – New York, Tel Aviv, Beijing. Then, at a certain point the city expands to the formerly “outside” area, or that when people begin to realize the value of the land and the necessity to restore the ecological order, the rehabilitation projects starts. Every case is distinctive in some way, yet they have many ideas in common as all of them can be considered as a long-term recovery of environment from the continuing damage of human waste. For hundreds of years before 1900, the Nanhaizi landfill area was a 49,400 acre wetland with rich plantations and animals around a century ago. From 1900

Landfill site of Nanhaizi park, Beijing, China Ju Qing. Architecture Design and Construction for Ecological Restoration of Urban Landfill, 2011

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to 1970 it suffered from lack of water source and the lakebeds became the site for sand-digging, from which the sand was used for construction inside Beijing city. After 1970, the backfill started, and 16 million cubic meters of construction waste were added as material to create landscape topography. The lakebed is refilled with graywater from nearby urban areas and becomes a buffer for flooding. With this project going on and the environment largely improved, the reviving of surrounding area also gained momentum with everal main developers have bought land around the park with plans of housing estates going on. One of the common technical problems for most of these rehabilitation projects is how to “cover” the existing waste. This layer is very essential for eventually transforming the nature of its content. The diagram of Freshkills park final cover and drainage system illustrates how comprehensive functions are imbeded in this layer – supporting vegetation, separate solid matters, drainage, a separation of liquid matters and gas venting all exist. With the cover layer and all other strategies, the waste is expected to degrade into unharmful substance in several decades. Part of the difficulties of waste management projects like these come from existing conditions, yet equally come from the large quantity of waste people are still generating everyday. To turn the situation, the effort should start at the source – that is how we can refine the utilization of materials and reuse and recycle, to reduce the speed of new landfills being formed.

Water and waste, examined

Shifting condition of Nanhaizi area related to waste Ju Qing. Architecture Design and Construction for Ecological Restoration of Urban Landfill, 2011

Community scale: team play On community scale, the key words are involvement, collaboration and education. When it comes to planning for water and waste management, community has more opportunities to take good use of the site, as well as include every resident into the whole plan and make bigger progress. Locating on Sanjuan Islands, Washington, the Common Ground 4 December 2012

The waste cover layer in Freshkills park City of New York Parks & Recreation http://www.nycgovparks.org/park-features/freshkills-park

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Common Ground Community, Sanjuan Islands, Washington

Community water management system

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community is investigated by Lopez Community Land Trust and designed by Seattle-based architectural firm Mithun. The community has 11 units on the 7-acre property and the residents include teachers, small business owners, a retiree, a self-employed person and a construction worker. This project is targeting net-zero energy usage, which is also contributing to its goal of affordable housing. The average rainfall per year in this area is 26 inches. In response to this water supply, a system of rainfall collectors are used in toilets, washing machines and irrigation. According to Caroline Sneed, an architect of Mithun, the key features of this property include a catchment tank, retention pond and urban agriculture. During site planning, the design team used gentle slopes to move water from the parking area into rain gardens, where the water will be treated and infiltrated. A central swale runs across the open space in the middle of the homes, gathering water and brings it to the storm water pond where it is reused in buildings for irrigation. Through this way the community water collection program is visualized and every home is connected to it. Also, Common Ground has its water and energy meters out in the open so that the resource consumption becomes a community-wide activity. After learning to read the devices, “Many families learned to change personal habits and reduce their consumption...” said Sneed, “..with these strategies, the residents achieve the understanding that they are a team in this and collaboration will benefit every home. Building scale: the machine for sustainable living

Take Care: Net-zero solutions set up an affordable housing community for long-term success. http://greensource.construction.com/features/ bestgreenhouses/2012/07/1208-take-care.asp

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As Le Corbusier addressed it, “the house is a machine for living”. So when the goal of sustainable living is set, this machine is no longer merely a container of everyday activities but a facility to help us adjust, balance or struggle with certain environment in order to make good use of resources as well as limit our impact to the nature, as are reflected by many cases on this scale. The Rincon Mountain Residence, outside Tucson, Arizona, is an area where 4 December 2012


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in a good year only 12 inches of precipitation land. “We get about 50 percent of our moisture during the summer monsoon, so what you really need to do to conserve water is to store it for use in the dry season.” DesignBuild Collaborative founder Paul Weiner, AIA says. Hence, in terms of water management, the target of this “machine” is to balance the moisture among different seasons and mitigate the shortcoming of the natural climate. The property includes a 20,000 gallon masonry waterproofed basement and a 30,000 gallon cistern receiving rainwater. When the groundwater supply will be shut off, this house will rely on the 50,000 gallon reservoir. The specially designed roof system ensures the collection and transport of rainwater. Also, gabion walls and berms help to control monsoon rains and make it move slowly so that it will percolate into the ground and be stored for later use. Greywater systems also provide extra irrigation to landscaping. Rain water harvesting and reuse is a global approach. While the basic idea of collection, store and balance is quite the same everywhere, the specific solution can be distinct in each context, bringing cultural and aesthetic identity into this technical matter. In Mukojima district, Tokyo, a simple and unique rainwater collection and reuse facility called Rojison has been set up by local residents. What is new about Rojison is that instead of being just a tank, it borrows the form of traditional Japanese architecture and keeps coherency with local urban environment. The rainwater jar in Thailand shows the similar idea. The special shape of the huge jar becomes quite cultural, and community sense is improved during the training of residents on how to fabricate and maintain this container that holds vital water for their family during the dry season. By looking at these three studies, the common themes of resource management, recycling and conservation all appear tangible and though-out. Yet still, the most important aspect that begins to speak to the next topic of the future and circulates back to this notion of “a built environment, as a machine through which humans live.” Just as Corbusier glanced towards a poetic and new architecture, it appears the present day utilization of “machined” dwelling has changed. By that, we propose the machine is now a part of explaining how

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Weaning Off Groundwater: A house prepares for water savings. http://greensource.construction.com/features/BestGreenHouses/ January2010/1001Rincon_Mountain_Residence.asp

“Rojison”, a simple and unique rainwater utilisation facility at the community level in Tokyo, Japan http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/urban/urbanenv-2/9.asp

Rainwater jar used in Thailand http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/urban/urbanenv-2/9.asp

Examples of rainwater harvesting and utilization around the world http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/urban/urbanenv-2/9.asp

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the building looks and why it preforms the way it does. So it goes, based off of a series of parametric and calculated algorithms--organized and scripted through the computer, no longer is a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design process iterative, no longer is the process of designing iterative. The process is now the algorithm and code and the final diagram exists as an explanation for the reason why the building looks the way it does, not the process through which it was formed.

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Digesters The basics of Anaerobic Digestion can be described as a microbial bioconversion process that occurs naturally in lakes, bogs, wetlands, landfills, animals. It recycles complex organic molecules (carbon biomass) into single carbon compounds CO2 and CH4 which are called “Biogas” This process is bacterial and can be defined as a mixed symbiotic consortium where all parties are benefactors. • Occurs in absence of air • Occurs over wide range of temperature (20-100°C) • Occurs over a wide range of solids loading • Applicable to most biological materials There are three Basic Temperature Regimes for AD. These are: Psychrophilic: <20°C (68°F), similar to processes found in lagoons and swamps, it is a slow process. Mesophilic: 35°C to 40°C (95°F to 105°F) contains rumens of animals and is a process that is used in industrial and farm digesters because it is faster. Thermophilic: 50°C to 60°C (125°F to 140°F) as it sanitizes pathogen-bearing feedstocks, contains the fastest reaction kinetics which provide the shortest residence time. There is little precedent for these MRFs (Material Recovery Facilities) combined with Anerobic Digesters within the United States. However, in the last 15 years there has been significant improvement in locations such as California where a pilot unit is underway. “High-solids anaerobic digestion could help MRFs meet the state’s goal of diverting 50 percent of municipal solid waste from landfills by 2000, according one specialist. A typical MRF processes about 1,800 tons of waste per day, diverting about 30 percent of that amount, or 500 tons to 600 tons, from landfills, he said. Commercial digesters will enable MRFs to keep about half of their waste out of landfills. In terms of landfill diversion, it could be significant...we’ll process about 300 tons per day, all of it salable.”

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“Science & Technology.” Composting Toilets and Greywater Systems. Vital Design, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.clivusmultrum.com/science-technology.php>.

Leonnard, John. “WRN.” PINNACLE READIES ANAEROBIC DIGESTER -Archive. Waste Recovery News, 27 Apr. 1999. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wasterecyclingnews.com/article/19980427/ NEWS99/304279953/pinnacle-readies-anaerobic-digester>.

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The Benefits of Anaerobic Digestion are simple: energy.

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• Net Energy-Producing Process • Generates High-Quality Renewable Fuel • Produces Surplus Energy as Electricity and Heat • Reduces Reliance on Energy Imports • Contributes to Decentralized, Distributed Power Systems • Proven Source of Electricity, Heat, and Transportation Fuel

Duff, Brian. “Anaerobic Digester Technology - EERE.” Biomass Opportunities & Challenges. EERE/U.S. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/pdfs/ course_biomass_duff_ad.pdf>.

Anaerobic Digestion is emerging as competitive renewable energy technology and this AD process is applicable to wide variety of organic feedstocks. To continue, AD has a proven industrial track record and has substantial environmental and economic benefits. Legislative mandates have helped create industry in Europe where successful systems can be farm-based or centralized with Denmark providing yet again a fitting precedent for this class, with its magnificent centralized AD systems. Below we have decided to compare two different examples.

Working Examples of Anaerobic Digestion Technology: Denmark Davinde Main Operating Data: Animal manure........................ 25 tons/day Alternative biomass................. 3 tons/day Biogas production................... 0,3 mill m³/year Digester capacity.................... 750 m³ Process temperature............... 36,0°C Utilisation of biogas................. Gas fired boiler Average transport distance...... 5,7 km Contractor: Kruger Ltd Year: 1988

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Snertinge Main Operating Data: Animal manure............................ 66 tons/day Alternative biomass..................... 42 tons/day Biogas production....................... 1,6 mill m³/year Digester capacity (3 x 1000 m³).. 3000 m³ Process temperature................... 52,5°C Utilisation of biogas.................... CHP-plant/gas boiler Average transport distance......... 5 km Contractor NIRAS Ltd Year: 1996

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One location that utilizes this process is Hammarby Sjostad, a new development just outside the capital of Sweden, Stockholm. Though the area was intentinoed for the 2010 Winter Olympic Village, the designers and developers of Stockholm saw a potential to instill high environmental goals from the beginning of the project and it was eventually decided to change the old industrial and harbour district around the Hammarby lake (“Hammarby Sjö” in Swedish) into a futuristic and unique residential area. The project was to be special in many aspects and because of that, it has been in the spotlight for international urban geographers and city planners for years. The Hammarby Model represents and sets a precedent for sustainable and infrastructural planning. It was developed by the Stockholm Water Company, Fortum (energy company) and the City of Stockholm Waste Management Administration. While the waste is brilliantly solved, there is an understanding still, that the best solution is not to have a mechanized process hidden from the residents, but rather, every sunday there is a a sustainaiblity meeting in the community room where those in attendance are taught about the princibles and process taking place below their units and around the development. As our group member described this visit ,the idea was quite understood as important by the community: “the communal meetings were brought up by nearly everyone we talked to,” and according to him, the residents took part in this process with little resistance. The following is an exerpt from a student report regarding this process: “It shows sewage processing, energy cycles, refuse and the stations and plants were treatment takes place. The complex model also shows the importance of biogas for citizens: it is used in the kitchens and as fuel for cars and busses as well. This is an environmental friendly solution which reduces emissions. The strong point of the model has been described as “its holistic approach to infrastructure service provision and its integration of otherwise separate systems in order to accomplish the environmental objectives set forth by the local parliament” (Poldermans).

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Fränne, Lars. “Hammarby Sjöstad.” A Unique Environmental Project in Stockholm. GlashusEtt, June 2007. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.hammarbysjostad.se/inenglish/pdf/HS_miljo_bok_ eng_ny.pdf>.

Figure 4: With just the waste portioned highlighted, one notices a third of the stainability strategies regard waste.

Poldermans, Cas. “Hammarbysjöstad Model.” Sustainable Urban Development. Solarpedia, 2006. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <http://www. solaripedia.com/files/720.pdf>.

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Water and waste examined

THE HAMMARBY MODEL Energy

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Hammarby thermal power station

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The core of the environmental and infrastructural planning of Hammarby Sjöstad jointly developed by Stockholm Water Company, Fortum and the City of Stockholm Waste Management Administration can be summarised in an eco-cycle model known as the Hammarby Model. This model shows the interaction between sewage and refuse processing and energy provision, as well as the added benefits to society of modern

4 December 2012


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GlashusEtt, Lugnets Allé 39, 120 66 Stockholm +46 8 522 137 00 www.hammarbysjostad.se

R2 JAN 2007 BUMLING AB

The core of the environmental and infrastructural planning of Hammarby Sjöstad jointly developed by Stockholm Water Company, Fortum and the City of Stockholm Waste Management Administration can be summarised in an eco-cycle model known as the Hammarby Model. This model shows the interaction between sewage and refuse processing and energy provision, as well as the added benefits to society of modern sewage, energy and waste processing systems. The overall goal “twice as good as the norm” required new ideas for energy, water, waste, transport, building design, construction site logistics – all those systems that we normally take for granted in a modern city.

Hammarby Sjöstad, The Best Environmental Solutions In Stockholm. Information folder. GlashusEtt: Stockholm.

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Water and waste examined

The Cit y of Stoc kholm’s environmental goals for wa ste in Hammarby Sjöstad • Energy shall be ex tracted from 99 % by weight of all domestic waste from which energy can be recovered by 2010 . Reuse or recycling shall, however, be prioritised. • The amount of domestic waste generated shall be reduced by at least 1 5 % by weight between 2005 and 2 010. • The amount of domestic bulky waste dis10 % by weight between 2 005 and 2010 . • The amount of hazardous waste gener ated shall be reduced by 50 % by weight

between 2005 and 2 010. • Residents shall be given the oppor tunity to separate their waste at source into the fo llowing fractions: -

Materials with a producer responsibility, within the building

-

Separated food waste and “refuse bags”, within the building

-

Bulky waste, within the building

-

Hazardous waste, in the local area

utilises its component nutrients for plant cul i tivation and also utilises its energy content. • A maximum of 60 % (vehicle km) of waste transports and transportation of rec ycled materials within the area shall involve the use of heavy vehicles, in comparison with the amount transported using conventional waste management transportation. • A maximum of 10 % by weight of the total waste generated during the construction phase shall comprise waste that is dispose d

• By 2010, 80 % of food waste by weight shall be handed in for biological treatment which

Table 2: By setting strict goals, the development has strong intentions. Interesting to see what may come of them.

Fränne, Lars. “Hammarby Sjöstad.” A Unique Environmental Project in Stockholm. GlashusEtt, June 2007. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.hammarbysjostad.se/inenglish/pdf/HS_miljo_bok_ eng_ny.pdf>.

Dykes, Ju, Smith, Zenk

At Hammarby Sjöstad, two types of waste disposal take place: the first is mobile an automated waste disposal system where “waste collected ends up in underground tanks that are emptied by a refuse collection vehicle equipped with a vacuum suction system. There are separated tanks for each: combustible domestic waste and food waste. The refuse collection vehicle stops at docking points where several buildings’ waste tanks are emptied simultaneously, but only one fraction at a time per collection round,” according to Lars Franne. The second is a stationary automated waste disposal system where “all refuse chutes are linked by underground pipes to a central collection station to which they are carried by vacuum suction. The collection station houses a control system that sends the various fractions to the right container. There is a large container for each fraction: combustible domestic waste, food waste and newspapers. The systems reduce transports in the area, which means the air is kept cleaner than when traditional refuse collection techniques are employed. In addition, the work environment for the refuse collection workers is improved when heavy lifting is avoided,” also according to Lars Fränne. When one group member visited, the residents came out, and were so proud of this, they opened up the recycling building to show how it worked just when a little girl passed by, sorted, and threw away a bottle. It is here one can summise, the learning of recycling happens very young. 4 December 2012


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Where waste management is headed.

The Fresh Clouds project is built upon the concept of harvesting the byproducts of human consumption, through an innovative use of today’s technology and materials, into a resource stream.

plan to build a recreation area over the 2,200 acre site was resumed. The buried garbage is slowly digesting into poisonous and volatile methane gas deposits. The LAGI Competition Site, Area 3/4, is currently producing 19,000 cubic feet of methane gas per minute (CFM)* and is estimated to continue producing large amounts of methane through 2050. Currently a large portion of Fresh Kills Methane is piped to a 1988 era National Grid power generator. Even with the current generator burning 5 million cubic feet each day, enough methane to heat 25,000 homes, they cannot handle the methane load**. The resultant methane is burned off locally in on site flues. Although the existing generator and flues dispose of the poisonous methane, current methods of burning convert it into greenhouse gases and air-pollutants such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Fresh Clouds offers a scalable system that not only converts methane, but also cleans and converts the by-product hot exhaust directly into energy at a local level. Creating energy directly at each well will reduce the required amount of infrastructure to ecologically convert methane to energy. Rather than building or maintaining a large network of gas infrastructure to a single distant electrical plant, Fresh Clouds propose installing micro-turbines at each passive well head, to continuously convert methane into electricity. Enough to heat 30,000 homes. *

; Carol Bellizzi; EPA – 1995; DCN 95-654-028-011

**Methane Brings New York $12 Million A Year As Dump Becomes Park; Mike Di Paola – Bloomberg - Aug 24, 201 ***

4 December 2012

; R. Cho; E-magazine – May 1st 2011

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Water and waste examined

Sourced literature

Allen, Edward, and Joseph Iano. The Architect's Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design. New York: Wiley, 1995. Print. AREnotes. "Ch: 9. Plumbing and Heating Systems." Mechanical and Electrical. AREforum, n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2012. <http://www.areforum.org/up/Mechanical%20and%20Elec trical/MEP%20Ballast%20notes/ARECh9%20Plumbing%20Systems.pdf>. Duff, Brian. "Anaerobic Digester Technology - EERE." Biomass Opportunities & Challenges. EERE/U.S. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. <apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/pdfs/course_biomass _duff_ad.pdf>. Envirolet. "Envirolet Composting Toilets." Envirolet Composting Toilets | "The Premium Choice." - Ed Begley, Jr. Envirolet Composting Toilets, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.envirolet.com/>. Fränne, Lars. "Hammarby SjÜstad." A Unique Environmental Project in Stockholm. GlashusEtt, June 2007. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.hammarbysjostad.se/inenglish/pdf/HS_miljo _bok_eng_ny.pdf>.

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Water and waste, examined

George, Rose. The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters. New York: Metropolitan, 2008. Print. Greywater Action. "About Greywater Reuse." Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://greywateraction.org/content/about-greywaterreuse>. Jenkens, Joseph. "The Humanure Handbook." Weblife.org: Humanure Handbook: Contents. Weblife, 1999. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.weblife.org/humanure/>. Kahn, Lloyd. "Excessive Engineering and Regulatory Overkill The Septic System Owner's Manual (page 1)." Excessive Engineering and Regulatory Overkill - The Septic System Owner's Manual (page 1). Shelter Online, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.shelterpub.com/_shelter/ssom_overkill01.html>. Leonnard, John. "WRN." PINNACLE READIES ANAEROBIC DIGESTER -Archive. Waste Recovery News, 27 Apr. 1999. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wasterecyclingnews.com/article/19980427/NE WS99/304279953/pinnacle-readies-anaerobic-digester>. Poldermans, Cas. "Hammarbysjรถstad Model." Sustainable Urban Development. Solarpedia, 2006. Web. 19 Nov. 2012.

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<http://www.solaripedia.com/files/720.pdf>. "Science & Technology." Composting Toilets and Greywater Systems. Vital Design, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.clivusmultrum.com/sciencetechnology.php>. Walker, Andy. "Solar Water Heating." WBDG. N.p., 24 Aug. 2012. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wbdg.org/resources/swheating.php>. Walker, Andy. "Solar Water Heating." WBDG. U.S. Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.wbdg.org/resources/swheating.php>.

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Waste/Water