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World Scenario Pre-World War II The First World War was a game changer for the Earth’s atlas. While the main powers of the Globe, namely Germany, Hungary, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire were defeated, the victorious names included France, Italy, Belgium, Romania and Greece. These countries had also managed to conquer new territory while the losing states lost some of their regions. Besides the complete destruction and devastation that resulted out of the war, the causalities and the carnal losses caused many European states to become nationalists. Germany meanwhile also had strong nationalism because of the losses that they had faced in the Treaty of Versailles. From the treaty, Germany had lost 13% territory from its own land meanwhile also losing the colonies that it had established in other countries. In addition to that, at the same time, the Russian Civil War was also underway, which had resulted in the formation of the Soviet Union. The Germans were also going through the German Revolution during 1918 and a new government called the Weimar Republic had formed. Facist movement by Benito Mussolini had power in Italy who aimed at making Italy the new superpower of the world. He wanted to start a new Roman Empire in that age. The new formed government was totalitarian and nationalist and had a class collaborationist aim, which had finished democracy and suppressed the liberal forces. The Weimar Republic soon came down as the German Nazi Party gained power as a result of the Great Depression of 1929. Adolf Hitler rose and was appointed as the Chancellor of Germany. The Kuomintang party from China had started a unification movement aiming to remove the regional warlords from power but the plan soon backfired to turn into a civil war among its own allies. The Japanese empire saw this as their best chance to eventually rule Asia. Hence, they launched an invasion on China. Meanwhile, China was not strong enough to fight the war itself, and hence sought help of the League of Nations.


Adolf Hitler, in Germany, soon began a massive rearmament campaign; the Holocaust. While, France gave Italy a freehand in Ethiopia, which Italy had long wanted to colonially control. Hoping to conquer Germany the French, Italians, and the British formed an alliance called the Stresa Front, while in June 1935, Britain had also made an individual Naval agreement with Germany, which also eased the restrictions posed earlier on Germany. The Russians were concerned that the Germans would soon attack to conquer the Eastern Europe and hence they soon wrote a pact to the French. The pact was to be approved by the League of Nations. The United States then passed an act of Neutrality, while Ethiopia was invaded by Italy and Germany was the only nation to support the attack. Because of this, Italy immediately dropped its objection against Germany’s plans to attack Austria. When a civil war started in Poland in 1939, Hitler and Mussolini waged a war against the Polish and the Spanish republic, which were supported by the Soviet Russia. Germany attacked Poland on 1st September on false pretext that Poland had attacked German territory.



Scenario of the World Before World War II