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1.Phylogenetic Tree 2.Classification of Living Things 3.Animal Phylum Survey 4.Sponge Coloring Sheet 5.Cnidarian Coloring Sheet 6.Clam Dissection Lab 7.Earthworm Coloring 8.Earthworm Lab Report

I. Title: Animal Phylum Survey II. Purpose: To observe representative animals from various animal phyla III. Materials: 24 preserved animal specimens IV. Procedure: Look at each specimen and observe what phylum it is from, whether it is a vertebrate or not, its general characteristics, and any other observations. V. Data: Common Name


Vertebrate or General Characteristics Invertebrate



Invertebrate -Closed Circulatory System -Segmented -Bilateral Symmetry -No Distinct Head -Cephalization -No Skeleton




-Closed Circulatory System -Hard Shell -Bilateral Symmetry -Sensory Organs -Cephalization -Endoskeleton




-Closed Circulatory System -Has Feathers -Bilateral Symmetry -Clawed Feet -Cephalization -Sensory Organs -Endoskeleton



Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Large Eyes -Four Thin Wings -Six Legs -Fused Segments




-Sensory Organs -Fur -Four Legs -Teeth

Water Bug


Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Large Eyes -Pointed Feet -Short, Small Hair



Invertebrate -No Circulatory System -Radial Symmetry -No Cephalization -No Skeleton

-Tentacles -Disc Shaped Body -Semi-Transparent

Sand Dollar

Echinodermata Invertebrate -Water Vascular System -Radial Symmetry

-Closed Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Endoskeleton


-Tube Feet -2 Holes for Water

Sand Dollar (Continued)

-No Cephalization -Endoskeleton Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Bumpy Skin



-Fused Segments -Claws -Eyes


Echinodermata Invertebrate -Water Vascular System -Radial Symmetry -No Cephalization -Endoskeleton

-Tube Feet -Five Legs



Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -No Skeleton

-Shell -Two Eyes on Stalks -Mouth




-Closed Circulatory System -Sensory Organs -Bilateral Symmetry -Skin -Cephalization -Hair -Endoskeleton




-Closed Circulatory System -Sensory Organs -Bilateral Symmetry -Four Legs -Cephalization -Webbed Feet -Endoskeleton



Invertebrate -No Circulatory System -No Symmetry -No Cephalization -No Skeleton

-Porous -Spongy



Invertebrate -No Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -No Cephalization -No Skeleton

-Slightly Transparent -No Segments -Head and Rear Ends Look the Same

Sea Anemone Cnidaria

Invertebrate -No Circulatory System -Radial Symmetry -No Cephalization -No Skeleton

-Lots of Little Tentacles -Mouth

Painted Lady


Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Two Wings -Two Eyes -Six Legs



Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Large Eyes -Six Legs

Portuguese Man-of-War


Invertebrate -No Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry

-Small -Inflated Upper End

Man-of-War (Continued)

-No Cephalization -No Skeleton




Invertebrate -Closed Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -No Cephalization -Endoskeleton

-Small -Slightly Transparent -Lacks Sensory Organs -Notochord



Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Eight Legs -Eight Eyes -Two Fused Segments



Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Fuzzy -Six Wings -Stinger -Two Wings



Invertebrate -Closed Circulatory System -Segmented -Bilateral Symmetry -Two Mouths -No Cephalization -Eye Spots -No Skeleton

Horse Fly


Invertebrate -Open Circulatory System -Bilateral Symmetry -Cephalization -Exoskeleton

-Six Legs -Large Eyes -Two Wings

VI. Analyze and Conclude: Make 3 Venn Diagrams. -The first one compares 2 invertebrates -The second one compares 2 vertebrates -The third one compares 1 invertebrate and 1 invertebrate

CJ Smith and Alex Benavitz Biology Dr.Snyder 2/15/2013

The Clam Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class: Bivalvia Genus: Mya Species: arenaria

Purpose: To examine the clam externally and internally by means of dissection.

Materials: 1. Dissection Tray 2. Clam 3. Scalpel 4. Dissecting Needle 5. Dissecting Probe 6. Scissors 7. Hand Lens 8. Ruler


External: The dissector looked at the clam's hard shell. He sees the hard bumpy horny layer, and the bump at the top of the clam called the horny layer. The way that the umbo points is the posterior end of the clam and the other end is the anterior. The dissector also sees the siphons that stick out the posterior end. The dissector took the scalpel and cut horizontally from one end of the clam to the other. This means that the dissector cut through the adductor muscles also. Then the dissector had to pry the tight jaws of the clam open. This meant that the dissector must break the adductor muscles that are very tough.

Internal: The dissector inserts the scalpel into the narrow crack between the two shells near the siphons and pulls the scalpel all along the narrow opening of the shell and cuts through the adductor muscles which hold the two shells together, closed and tight. The dissector at some points uses a saw- like motion to cut through the thick adductor muscles. The dissector continues to push the scalpel within the crack until he goes all the way around and reaches the siphons again. Then, the dissector uses his hands to pry open the shell. Then the dissector removes the shell from view. The dissector first looks at the now cooked chicken colored adductor muscles that he has just cut through. The dissector identifies the adductor muscle closer to the siphons is the posterior adductor muscle and the one further away is called the anterior adductor muscle. The dissector then notices the white inside layer that he quickly identifies as the pearly layer. The dissector uses the scissors to cut the shell and between the outer horny layer and the inner pearly layer is a shiny, colorful layer the dissector identifies as the prsmatic layer. Inside the clam, the dissector sees the a small, half a surfboard shaped organ that is a white with some pink, has some visible lines running down it, and is about three centimeters long. The

dissector identifies this as part of the siphons. Beneath the inner part of the siphons previously mentioned the dissector notices a three and one half inch long organ that is feather- like in shape, rumpled and has a dark, pink, color. The dissector identifies these as the gills. Beneath the gills the dissector observes a chickpea colored organ the size of two and one- quarter centimeters long known as the visceral mass. On top of the visceral mass the dissector notices an algae green or spinach green organ about three- fourths of a centimeter long known as the digestive glands. The dissector notices a dark pink film running around the clam that was running touched the top shell of the clam before it was removed. The dissector recognizes this as the mantle, the tissue that forms the shell and offers some protection to the inner organs. The dissector sees the adductor muscles, one at each end of the clam, which are a cooked chicken white and also resemble the texture of cooked chicken. Lastly, the dissector observes the muscular foot, which is a small structure that is one and one tenth centimeters tall, is a yellowish, slightly pink, slightly cream, slightly brown color and is shaped like a flat tower. The dissector then removes the visceral mass by taking cutting the surrounding organs connected to the visceral mass until the visceral mass is free. The dissector then removes the visceral mass from the rest of the clam. Then the dissector identifies the palps. The palps are two, small, connected, pinkish white structures on the side of the visceral mass that are about three- fourths of a centimeter long. The dissector then makes a vertical cut, with the scalpel, down the center of the visceral mass. Inside, the dissector sees all of the digestive glands which resemble the appearance of a one centimeter ball of lightly mashed okra. The dissector then notices two small tubes, one- twentieth of a centimeter in diameter. The dissector identifies these as the intestines, one is a dark brown color and the other is more of a whitish, cream color. Then the dissector notices a cream colored substance which is located between the intestines closer to the digestive glands and the digestive glands. The dissector identifies these as the gonads. During the dissection, we did not see the heart or the stomach.

Observations: External:



1. Why are clams called bivalves?

Clams are called bivalves because they have two shells and two large adductor muscles that open and close the two shells.

2. What is the function of the mantle?

The mantle serves the function that it lines the inner shell, makes the shell, and insulates it.

3. Describe the respiration process of a clam.

Clams take in water through their incurrent siphons and go through the gills to breathe. The water goes out of the excurrent siphon.

4. Describe the filter feeding process of a clam.

Filter feeding is when the organism takes in water and extracts food particles and nutrients then excretes excess wastes. When the food is taken in through the siphons, food gets stuck on the gills and goes down the palps to where is digested

5. Identify and describe the roles of the digestive organs in the clam.

A clam has a stomach, palps, digestive glands, and intestine. The stomach helps digest food and the intestine is a clear pinkish color that also helps digest food. The palps are pinkish tubes that carry food to the visceral mass from the gills and digestive glands also help digest food.

6. Describe how clams reproduce.

In marine clams, external fertilization occurs. Since clams have distinct genders, a male clam releases sperm cells into the water. These cells swim until they find an egg cell which they fuse to and for a trochophore. In most freshwater clams, internal fertilization occurs. The sperm cells swim to a female clam, having been shed by the first, and enter the female clam through the incurrent siphon. The gametes fuse to form a zygote that, after having formed a trochophore, are expelled through the excurrent siphon into the water.

7. Describe the larval form of a clam.

All clams have one larval form known as the trochophore. After gametes are fused, the splitting of the cells occurs to form a trochophore. The trochophore is a small, ciliated, and free roaming, relying on the cilia for propulsion. The cilia also help draw food into the larva's mouth. The trochophore has one ring of cilia around it and it also has two small tufts of cilia, one at the top and one at the bottom near the anus. The clam moves out of their larval, trochophore stage when it finally reaches the ocean floor. Then, it begins to grow to become an adult clam.

8. Describe how a clam uses its foot.

The muscular foot has only one purpose which is used all most species of clams. It can be used

to pull the clam into the sand for protection form its enemies. Hemolymph, the circulatory fluid of clams, fills the muscular foot. The inflated foot, filled with hemolymph, keeps the foot anchored down within the sand so the foot does not move. The foot then pulls the rest of the clam down into the sand.

9. Describe the nervous system of the clam.

Compared to other mollusks, clams have a simple nervous system. Clams are not cephalized and lack a distinct head and a distinct brain. The clam is overall controlled by pairs of ganglia found throughout the body. The muscular foot of a clam is controlled by the visceral ganglia. A network of nerves is found within the clam and is controlled but the pleural ganglia. The cerebral ganglia controls the sensory organs. The sensory organs consist of tiny tentacles that can taste the water and know when they are touched. Clams have specialized cells on their dorsal side that can sense light and darkness. Clams also have statocysts that allow for them to sense their orientation in water.

10. Describe your dissection experience.

I felt that this was a good dissection. I have not seen the inside of a clam before in so much detail and I also have a new reason why I do not eat seafood, especially clams. It was a lot of fun to look in and see the different organs and figure out which organ was what and did what, with the occasional asking for help from Dr. Snyder. The dissection has now given me a greater grasp on the anatomy of a clam. For example, I know learned about the visceral mass, what is in it, and how water flows through the clam. Previously, I was unaware about the clam's three layers, and what they looked like, especially the pearly layer. I hope that all dissections will be as informative and enjoyable as this one.

Credits: External Methods: Alex Benavitz and edited by CJ Smith (added a first 4 sentences, written like Alex would) Internal Methods: CJ Smith External Observations: Alex Benavitz Internal Observations: CJ Smith Questions 1- 5: Alex Benavitz and modifed by CJ Smith (only added, did not subtract) Questions 6- 10: CJ Smith

CJ Smith and Alex Benavitz Biology Dr. Snyder 2/28/13

The Earthworm Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Annelida Class: Oligochaeta Genus: Lumbricus Species: terrestris

Purpose: To examine the earthworm internally and externally by means of dissection. Materials: 1. Dissection Tray 2. Earthworm 3. Scalpel 4. Dissecting Needle 5. Dissecting Probe 6. Scissors 7. Hand Lens 8. Ruler 9. Dissecting Pins

Methods: External: At the beginning of our earthworm dissection, the dissectors first gathered our supplies and organized our trays. The dissector then took two pins and pinned down both the anterior and posterior ends down so that they would not curl up. Then the dissector made observations and took notes on the worm. The earthworm was approximately eleven inches long. It had one hundred and forty one growth rings and was a light brown color on the dorsal side. The ventral side was dark brown. One noticeable part is the clitellum. This is the segment on the worm that is long and smooth. The mouth is on the dorsal side and has a small opening or “lip� to take in nutrients. On the posterior end is the anus. The anus is not very noticeable. There is also the cuticle. That is the thin layer over the skin that helps keep the skin moist so it can slither and slide around. Internal: The dissector identifies the dorsal side of the earthworm by identifying the dorsal blood vessel, which is a dark purple line that runs down the dorsal side of the earthworm. Once the dorsal side has been identified, the dissector makes a small slit with the scalpel approximately five centimeters beneath the clitellum on the dorsal side. The dissector then takes the scissors and cuts the skin of the earthworm until he reaches the mouth, following the dorsal blood vessel. The dissector is extremely careful to hold the scissors high enough as to not cut any of the internal organs. The dissector then uses the dissecting probe to cut the septa which are tiny skeleton like structures that help the earthworm retain its shape. Once the septa are cut in one area about two or three centimeters long, the dissector pins the flaps of skin down with the dissecting pins. Once the all the septa have been cut and all the skin had been pinned down in the cut area, the dissector begins to observe the interior anatomy of the earthworm. The dissector, near the mouth of the earthworm identifies two tiny dots, touching each other,

that are paler than the organ beneath it. These are classified by the dissector as the two ganglia that serve as the brain. Beneath the brain, the dissector observes the tube- like organ which is darker than the brain. This organ the dissector identifies as the pharynx. After the pharynx lies a sleeker black tube that continues down the. The dissector then notices five black, sausage- like organs that curve around the esophagus. The dissector notices four small, cream colored, dome- like objects that he identifies as the seminal receptacles that are located to the sides of the aortic arches that are further away. Next, the dissector identifies four larger versions of the seminal receptacles known as the seminal vesicles. Unlike the seminal receptacles, the seminal vesicles are closer to the esophagus than the seminal receptacles are. The dissector then notices that the esophagus runs into a gray- brown organ, that when poked with the dissecting probe was hard to the touch. The dissector identifies this as the crop, where food is stored. After the crop the dissector observes the gizzard, a flesh, brown- yellow organ. The last organ the dissector identifies is the intestine, which extends all the way from the end of the gizzard to the anus of the worm.

Observations: External:


Note: The pins were not drawn for better viewing.

Conclusions: 1. List the characteristics shared by all Annelids. All Annelids are segmented, have true coeloms, bilateral symmetry, and the duplication of some organs. They also all have closed circulatory systems and cephalization. 2. What is the function of the setae? The primary function of setae is to help it move. Movement occurs when the setae anchor themselves to the ground and the front segments contract, with other contractions. Setae also are used in reproduction. They are used to hook the two earthworms together during the exchanging of gametes. 3. Describe the locomotion of the earthworm. The process of locomotion is the process of movement in a worm. The worm anchors its setae into the ground. The front segments contract. Then rear segments contact. Next the front segments segments expand and pull the rear segments so they expand. During the expanding of the front segments, the setae deattach. 4. What is the function of the clitellum? The clittellum is an important part of the earthworm that is used in reproduction. It makes a mucus sack that an egg cell and sperm cells are enclosed in. It also releases sperm to the other earthworm. 5. How many hearts does an earthworm have? Describe its circulatory system. The earthworm has a closed circulatory system. Blood travels down a dorsal blood vessel and travels up the ventral blood vessel. There are five aortic arches that act as hearts by pumping blood. 6. Describe the process of digestion in an earthworm. The food is pushed into the mouth by the prostomium, a shovel- like lower lip that pushes food helps scoop food into the mouth. Then food, after having entered the mouth, goes down the pharynx. After the food goes down the pharynx, it goes down the esophagus. After the esophagus, the food enters the crop, where extra food is stored. After the crop, it passes into the gizzard where the food is

ground up. The food then passes down the intestines. There, the earthworm has more nutrients and water absorbed through the intestine, with the aid of the typhlosole, a fold in the intestines that increases the surface area so that more can be absorbed. The undigested waste products then travel out of the anus.

7.What is the function of the typhlosole? The typhlosole is an enfolding of the intestine of earthworms. The typhlosole has one purpose, that is, to increase surface area along the intestine. The increased surface area allows for more nutrients and more water to be absorbed by the intestine. 8. Describe the nervous system of the earthworm. The earthworm has a simple nervous system. It consists of one larger pair of ganglia at the head end. There is a chain of smaller ganglia connected to the brain that runs down the ventral side of the body. This is called the ventral nerve chord. 9. Distinguish between three different families of Oligochaeta. Enchytraeidae is a family of diverse Oligochaetes. This include some terrestrial earthworms, some marine earthworms, and even some glacier worms. The most famous species is the Grindal Worm (Enchytraeus buchholzi) which is used for fish food. Megascolecidae is a family that has two parapodia per segment and up to eight parapodia per segment as well and live in semi-temparate environments. Glossoscolecidae is a family of earthworms that can grow to be up to two meters long that only live in tropical areas. 10. Summarize you dissection experience. (Alex's Answer) My lab experience was quite interesting this time around because we had already gone through one dissection, so I was comfortable. I had never understood worms before now. I now

have a greater understanding of the earthworm and don’t consider them as disgusting as I

previously did.

(CJ's Answer) My experience was a very good one. I saw all the organs I was hoping to see and I got to see the earthworm's tiny brain, which I had not seen in my previous earthworm dissection. It also was not a very disgusting dissection because there were not any fluids that would run all over the place. I hope that my next dissections will be just as successful as this one.

Credits: External Methods: Alex Benavitz Internal Methods: CJ Smith External Observations: Alex Benavitz Internal Observations: CJ Smith Questions 1-5: Alex Benavitz Questions 6-9:CJ Smith Question 10: Alex Benavitz and CJ Smith

2012- 2013 9th Grade Biology E- Portfolio  

An e- portfolio from a 9th grade student from the Donahue Academy of Ave Maria