Quarter 1 1.Air Pressure Labs 2.Heating Earth's Surface 3.Global Winds 4.Measuring Wind 5.Types of Fronts 6.Cloud Cookery 7.Tracking a Hurricane Quarter 2 1.Reading a Weather Map 2.The Doppler Radar 3.Climate Commercial 4.Earth's Interior 5.Modeling Sea- Floor Spreading 6.Finding the Epicenter 7.Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Quarter 3 1.My Volcano 2.Igneous Rock Venn Diagrams 3.Sedimentary Rock Venn Diagrams 4.Metamorphic Rock Venn Diagrams 5.The Rock Cycle 6.Topography of Ave Maria 7.How Can You Flatten the Curved Earth? 8.Topographic Map Directions Quarter 4 1.Rock Shake 2.What is Soil? 3.Comparing Soils 4.Sand Hills 5.The Course of a River 6.Which Layer is the Oldest? 7.Finding Clues to Rock Layers 8.Geologic History Flash Cards 9.Reflection Essay
1.Reading a Weather Map 2.The Doppler Radar 3.Climate Commercial 4.Earth's Interior 5.Modeling Sea Floor Spreading 6.Finding the Epicenter 7.Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes
I. Title: The Doppler Radar II. Data: The Doppler radar is a mostly effective instrument for predicting the weather. It is a complex device formed of three basic parts. The transmitter sends out radio signals that are deflected off of particles in the air. Some of these waves are reflected back to its source. They are picked up by an antenna. The antenna transmits the signals into a computer that meteorologists use to process and generate data. The Doppler radar lets meteorologists easily track large scale storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes, while giving people a warning for these storms ahead of time. It can also detect precipitation. The Doppler radar has some drawbacks. Large objects such as buildings, trees, and mountains can block the radio waves. Sometimes the radar does not pick up light amounts of precipitation. Overall, it is a useful device to meteorologists to help them track and predict weather.
For Climate Commercial, see the email in which I emailed you in the second quarter.
Crust 5 - 70 km thick
Mantle 2,867 km thick
Outer Core 2,266 km thick
Inner Core 1,216 km thick
I. Title: Modeling Sea – Floor Spreading II. Problem: How does sea – floor spreading add materials to the ocean floor? III. Materials: construction paper, 2 sheets of unlined paper, colored pencils, markers, scissors IV. Procedure: 1.Fold your construction paper into 16ths once long ways and four times the short ways. 2.Fold both of the sheets of unlined paper in half long ways and draw lines that match on both sides on the unlined paper and write “Start” on on end of each of the strips of paper. 3.Cut slits in the construction paper ¼, ½, and ¾ of the way through and then unfold the construction paper. 4.Put the ends without the words “Start” through the slit ½ of the way through. With one sheet, put the end with the “Start” through the ¼ slit and the other sheet with the “Start” through the ¾ slit. 5.Pull on both of the ends with the “Start” at the same time. V. Data: See Model VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1.What feature of the ocean floor does the center slit stand for? What prominent feature of the ocean floor is missing? The center slit stands for the mid-ocean ridge and the mountains or volcanoes are missing. 2.What do the side slits stand for? What does the space underneath the paper stand for? The side slits stand for a trench. The space beneath the paper stands for moving sediment. 3.As shown by your model, how does the ocean floor close to the center slit in the differ from the ocean floor near a side slit? It has more sediment near the center slit than a side slit. 4.What do the stripes stand for? Why is it important to that your model have an identical pattern of stripes on both sides? The stripes stand for the magnetic stripes on the ocean floor. They must be even because they are the same in both they are arraigned in the same positions.
I. Finding the Epicenter: II. Problem: How can you locate an earthquake's epicenter? III. Materials: drawing compass, pencil, outline map of the United States IV. Procedure: 1. Copy the table showing the difference between the arrival times of P and S waves. 2. Calculate the distance to the epicenter for all the cities by using the graph on page 58. 3. Draw a circle using the compass around each city according to the distance.' 4. Mark where all the circles intersect. That is the epicenter. V. Data: City
Difference in the Arrival Times between P and S waves
Distance to Epicenter
2 min. 40 sec.
1 min. 50 sec.
1 min. 10 sec.
See Map: VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1. The epicenter is near Kentucky and Tennessee. 2. Chicago is the closest and only about 600 km away. 3. Chicago felt it first and Denver felt it the the last. 4. It is about 3,000 km away. The difference between the arrival times of P and S waves would be about 4 min. 30 sec. 5. The difference gets larger.
I. Title: Mapping Earthquakes and Volcanoes II. Problem: Is there a pattern between the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes? III. Materials: outline world map showing longitude and latitude, 2 different colored pencils IV. Procedure: 1.Use the information in the table below to mark the areas where the earthquakes are one color and where the volcanoes are in another color. 2.Lightly shade the area around each one of the earthquakes in the same color as the mark that shows where the earthquake is and do the same for the volcanoes. V. Data: Earthquakes
VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1.How are earthquakes distributed on the map? Are they scattered evenly or concentrated into zones? The earthquakes seem to be scattered evenly throughout the plate boundaries. 2.How are volcanoes distributed on the map? Are they scattered evenly or concentrated into zones? The, like volcanoes, seem to be scattered evenly throughout the plate boundaries. 3.From your data, what can you infer about the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes? Earthquakes and volcanoes both occur near plate boundaries and seem to be related to each other.
Note: The pictures of the volcano and the sediment are made by CJ Smith.
1.Rock Shake 2.What is Soil? 3.Comparing Soils 4.Sand Hills 5.The Course of a River 6.Which Layer is the Oldest? 7.Finding Clues to Rock Layers 8.Geologic History Flash Cards 9.Reflection Essay
I. Title: Rock Shake II. Problem: How will shaking and acid conditions affect the rate at which limestone weathers III. Materials: 300mL of Water, Balance, 300mL of vinegar, Small pieces of Limestone, 4 Containers IV. Procedure: 1.Label the 4 containers A, B, C, and D. 2.Fill A with water, B with water, C with vinegar, and D with vinegar. 3.Shake containers B and D. 4.Let them sit for 1 day and weigh them later with the balance. V. Data: Container
Total Mass at Start Total Mass Next Day
Change in Mass
Percent Change in Mass
A (Water, no Shaking)
B(Water, with Shaking)
C (Vinegar, no Shaking)
D (Vinegar, with Shaking)
The Change of the Rocks' Mass 30 25 20
A B C D
15 10 5 0 1
VI.Analyze and Conclude: 1.What is the percent change of each of the rocks? A- 12.7%, B- -13.3%, C- -10.7%, D- -14.4% 2.Does your data show a change in mass of the rocks? Yes. 3.Was there a greater change in mass for one piece than another? Yes, C changed by 2.3, A changed by 3, D changed by 3.1, and B changed by 3.2. 4.Were your predictions on the lab correct? Explain. No, I thought that D will erode the most, but B did. 5.If your data showed a greater change in masses, how could that be explained? The limestone absorbed the water, increasing mass. 6.Which do you think was more responsible for the erosion, the vinegar or the shaking? Explain. I think the vinegar was more responsible because it chemically broke it down.
What is Soil? My Soil Recipe: Sediment Roots Decaying Plants and Animals Little White Crystals A Friend's Soil Recipe: Sand Wood Roots Plant Bits Think It Over: How would you define soil? Soil is the combination of decaying organic material and sediment.
I. Title: Comparing Soils II. Problem: What is the difference between bagged soil and local soil? III. Materials: 1 petri dish full of natural soil, 1 petri dish full of bagged soil, water, microscope IV. Procedure: 1.Obtain the specified soils in the petri dishes. 2.Observe the following things: does it have a scent, is it soft or gritty, find the approximate particle size of the smallest and largest particles of each of the soils. 3.Put a small amount of water in each of the petri dishes to observe which soil is denser. 4.Look at each soil underneath a microscope and draw a simple sketch of each. V. Data: Local Soil
Soft or Gritty
Approximate Particle Size
VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1.Did you notice any similarities between the local and bagged soils? Did you notice any differences? I saw no similarities, despite them both being soil, but I observed many differences.
2.What can you infer about the composition of both of the soils from the different size of particles? From their texture? From how each soil reacted with the water? I inferred that the local soil was not as fine as the bagged soil because it had larger particle sizes and because it had a grittier texture. I inferred that the bagged soil was denser than the local soil because it sunk and the local soil floated. 3.Do you think that soils were formed in the same way? Explain your reasoning. No, because they seem so different from each other, in density, texture, particle size, and scent differed so greatly. Also, the bagged soil came from a Miracle- Gro bag, which means that it was made in a factory. 4.Based on what you have learned in the chapter, which soil would be better for growing vegetables in? I think that the bagged soil would because it would hold water better because of its greater density, it's smaller particle size allows more room for the roots to grow and aerate, and it's scent leads me to reason that there is a greater nitrogen amount in the bagged soil, which is good for plant growth.
I. Title: Sand Hills II. Problem: What is the relationship between the height and the width of a sand pile. Hypothesis: I think that the width will increase at a faster rate than the rate of the height. III. Materials: dry sand, cardboard tube, wooden skewer, ruler, white paper, marker IV. Procedure: 1. Put the cardboard tube in the center of the piece of paper. 2. Fill the cardboard tube with 100mL of the sand. 3. Quickly raise the tube straight up so that the sand flows out and so it forms a sand hill. 4.Stick a wooden skewer down the center of the sand hill and mark the height on the skewer with the marker. 5.Measure the distance from the skewer to the edge of the mound. 6.Remove the skewer. 7.Set the cardboard tube on the top of the sand hill without pushing down on it. 8.Repeat steps 2-7 four more times. V. Data: Test
Amount of Sand
VI. Analyze and Conclude: 1.Make a graph showing how the sand hill's height and width changed with each test.
Sand Hills Height and Width
Length of Height or Width
25 20 15
10 5 0 1
2.What does your graph show about the relationship between the sand hill's width and height? The width increased at a faster rate than the height. 3.Does the graph support your hypothesis? Why or why not? It does because I predicted that the width would increase at a faster rate than the height. 4.How would you revise your initial hypothesis? Give reasons to support your answer. I would not change my hypothesis because it was correct. 5.Predict what would happen if you did five more tests. Add another graph to display your hypothesis for this question.
Hypothesis for Next Five Tests 35 Length of Height or Width
30 25 20
15 10 5 0 1
3 Extra Test Number
The Course of a River
The Course Of A River
Note: All these pictures were created by CJ Smith and were not copied off the internet and/or created by another animator or artist.
Key: 1: Delta: Where the river flows into the ocean and it deposits sediment 2: Valley Widening: As the river approaches sea level, it meanders more and develops a wider valley and a broader flood plain 3: Beach: Sand carried downstream by the river spreads along the coast to form beaches 4: Tributary: The smaller stream or river that merges with another larger river and provides the larger river with water and sediment. 5: Meander: Where the river flows across easily eroded sediment and bends from side to side 6: Flood Plain: Where the river widens the valley instead of deepening it 7: Oxbow Lake: A meander that is cut off from the river by deposition or sediment 8: V- Shaped Valley: Near the source, a river flows through a deep, v- shaped valley that gets deeper as the river flows 9: Waterfall and Rapids: They are common where a river flows over hard
Which Layer is the Oldest?
Make a stack of clay with layers and rocks that represent fossils in between them. Think It Over: Which fossil is the youngest and which fossil is the oldest? What are the strengths and weaknesses of relative dating? What are the strengths and weaknesses of absolute dating? The fossil on the bottom is the oldest and the fossil on the top is the youngest. With relative dating, you can compare the ages of rocks and fossils without expensive equipment and the need for radioactive material, but, you cannot know the actual age of the rock and you also cannot compare it with other rocks or fossils a far away. With absolute dating, you can find the definite age of a rock or of a fossil, which can be compared with a rock or fossil a large distance away, but, you also need expensive equipment and radioactive material.
Note: This is actually what the model looked like, I am not being lazy, this is actually what the model looked like, misshapen and disorganized
I. Title:Finding Clues to Rock Layers II. Problem: How can you use fossils and geologic features to interpret the relative ages of rock layers? III. Procedure: Study the images that represent Site 1 and Site 2.
Key = Trilobite Fossil
= Shell Fossil
= Leaf Fossil
= Bird Fossil
= Dinosaur Fossil =Mammal Fossil
= Fish Fossil =Ammonite Fossil IV. Analyze and Conclude: 1.What fossil clues in layers A and B indicate the kind of environment that existed when these rock layers were formed? How did the environment change in layer D? A and B were aquatic environments because of the shells, ammonites, and trilobites. Layer D became terrestrial because if the dinosaur and plant fossils. 2.Which layer is the oldest? How do you know? Layer A is the oldest because A is on the bottom and only A has trilobites, which are not as evolved. 3.Which of the layers was formed more recently? How do you know? Layer G because it has mammals which are more highly evolved and it is on the top. 4.Why do layers C and E both have no fossils? Layers C and E are both extrusions, so they cannot have fossils in them. 5.What kind of fossils are found in layer F? Dinosaur, plant, and bird fossils are found in layer F. 6.What layer in Site 1 might have been formed might have been formed at the same time as layer W in Site 2? Layer B probably was formed around the same time as layer W. 7.What clues show an unconformity gap between Site 1 and Site 2? There is no corresponding layer for the layers A, D, and E in Site 2. 8.Which is older intrusion V or layer Y? How do you know? Layer Y is older because the intrusion is always younger than the layer it passes through. 9.Describe how Site 2 has changed over time. Site 2 was originally aquatic, with fish, ammonites, and shells. After that it became terrestrial and had dinosaurs, birds, and plants. Later, it got mammals and the dinosaurs became extinct.
Geologic History Flash Cards Key: Precambrian Time Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era Precambrian Time -4.6 Billion- 544 mya -Simple Organisms -Sea Pens, Early Bacteria, and Jellyfish Exist -First Mass Extinction at the End of the Time Cambrian -544- 505 mya -Explosion of Life Known as the Cambrian Explosion -Pikaia, Trilobites, Sponges, and Clams Exist Ordovician -505- 438 mya -First Vertebrates Appear -Crinoids, Jawless Fish, Cephalopods, and Brachiopods Exist Silurian -438- 408 mya -First Land Plants -Eurypterids, Psilophytes, Arachnids, and Jawed Fish Exist Devonian -408- 360 mya -First Bony Fish Appear -Sharks, Bony Fish, and Devonian Forests Exist Carboniferous -360- 286 mya -Great Swamps Form -Amphibians, Cockroaches, Dragonflies, and Coal Forests Exist Permian -286- 245 mya -Reptiles dominate the land -Dimetrodons, Dicynodons, and Conifers Exist -Second Mass Extinction Triassic -245- 208 mya
-Age of Reptiles Begins -First Dinosaurs Exist -Coelophysis, Cycads, and Morganucodons Exist Jurassic -208- 144 mya -First Birds Appear -Flying Reptiles Appear -Megazostrodon, Diplodocus, and Archaeopteryx Exist Cretaceous -144- 66 mya -First Flowering Plants Appear -First Snakes Appear -Tyrannosaurus Rex, Creodonts, and Magnolias Exist -Mass Extinction at the End of the Period Tertiary -66- 1.8 mya -First Grasses Appear -Age of Mammals Begins -Uintatheriums, Plesiadapis, and Hyracotherium Exist Quaternary -1.8 mya- present -Extinction of Giant Mammals -Humans and Megatheriums Exist
Reflection Essay I had another great year in science at the Donahue Academy of Ave Maria. This year, we learned about earth science. We went from the atmosphere to continental drift to volcanic and seismic activity to erosion and geologic history. In this essay I will point out to you some of the key points of my school year in science. In the first quarter, we learned about the atmosphere and many different types of weather. Weather is the condition of the earthâ€™s atmosphere at a certain time and place. There are four layers in of the atmosphere, the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere. Energy travels to earth from the sun in electromagnetic waves. The three main types of clouds are cumulus, cirrus, and stratus. The four types of fronts are warm fronts, cold fronts, occluded fronts, and stationary fronts. A storm is a violent disturbance in the atmosphere. Hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms are the three main types of storms. In the second quarter, we learned about predicting the weather and earthâ€™s activities. Meteorologists use maps, charts, computers, and simple observations to predict the weather. The Butterfly Effect states that even a small disturbance in the atmosphere, such as a butterfly flapping its wings, could change the weather. The four layers of the earth are the crust, the mantle, the inner core and the outer core. All the continents were once part of a super continent known as Pangaea and since then have drifted apart. The Atlantic Ocean is increasing in size each year due to sea floor spreading. An earthquake is a tremor that is caused by movement in the earth. The two types of lava are pahoehoe and aa. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are related because the former is often caused by the latter. In the third quarter, we learned about the different types of rock, how they are formed and about topography. Igneous Rocks are formed by cooled lava or magma. Those formed by lava are extrusive and those formed by magma are intrusive. Sedimentary rocks are formed by the compaction of eroded sediment. There are three types of sedimentary rock, clastic, organic and chemical. Metamorphic rocks are formed by heat and pressure. There are two types of metamorphic rock, foliated and nonfoliated. The Mercator, the Conic, ad the Equal-Area projections are the three types of map projections. A topographic map is a map that shows the surface features of an area. In the fourth quarter we learned about soil, erosion, and geologic history. There are two types of weathering, physical and chemical. Soil is loose weathered material on the surface of the earth in which plants can grow. Because of the loss of topsoil, the great dust bowl took place in the 1930's. Landslides, mudflows, slumps, and creeps are the only types of mass movement, which works through gravity. Waterfalls, flood plains, meanders, and oxbow lakes are formed by the agent of erosion, water. There are two types of glaciers; continental glaciers and valley glaciers. Wind can form sand dunes and loess deposits. Petrified fossils, molds, casts, carbon films, trace fossils, and preserved remains are the types of fossils. The relative age of rocks is the age of rocks compared to the other ages of rocks. Absolute age is the definite age of a rock. The eras in geologic time go as follows: Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary. This year, I learned many new things about earth science. I had a good time doing the labs and putting a lot of effort into my portfolio. I had great time in science and I cannot wait to come back to another one.