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Sustainable Continuous

DOD

LEED

Cost-effective

Net-Zero

Endurable

Title-24

Solar Knight

Coรถperative

Attainable

Feasible

Global

Continual

GBC

Profitable

Renewable

Affordable

Solar Knight Renewable Nighttime Energy Viable

Green smh

Obtainable

Long-term

NREL Viable Unceasing


Solar Knight

A Thesis Presented to the Undergraduate Faculty of The NewSchool of Architecture +Design

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture

By Steven Hansen June 2014 San Diego, CA

I


Š June 2014 Steven Hansen All Rights Reserved


Approved by:

Undergraduate Chair: Leonard Zegarski Date

Studio Instructor: Robin Brisebois Date

Peer Review / Reader

Troy Phillips

Date

III


Dedications To my parents Knud and Carolyn Hansen, for all of you love and support over the last six years. Without you I would not be anywhere close to where I am today. You two have inspired me to be great and provided me with the knowledge and passion a kid could ever need. So thank you for all of the advice on life, Architecture, and everything else.

I would also like to dedicate this thesis to Doug Roix and Richard Licata. Both of them believed in me even when I did not believe in myself. They are responsible for setting me on this path and have provided me many skills and experiences along the way. I will do my best and carry your knowledge everywhere I go. Mr. Roix and Licata my friend, teacher, and mentor thank you.

My family and friends. Thank you for all of your support, Inspiration, advice, jokes, laugher, and life experiences along the way. All of you have helped sculpt me into who I am today.

Thank you, Steven Hansen BA


Table of Contents Chapter 1

What is Sustainable?

Problem Statement

1

Critical Position

2

Thesis Statement

3

Chapter 2

Why Sustainable?

Rational for study

Scope of the study

Chapter 3

6 12

The Sustainable Leap

Fuel Cells

14

Case Studies

20

Chapter 4

Sustainable Design

The Design

22

Construction Documents

26

Passive Building Analysis

48

Renderings

52

Bibliography

60 V


What is Sustainable?

CH1

Global warming has become an urgent

total building energy consumption is embodied

topic over the last several decades. During this

with in the structure. The other 90% of energy in

time many things have been done to reduce

a standard building is used for daily operations.

carbon emissions. Two of the main focuses of

(Faludi, Michael, George, 2012) According to

carbon reduction have been in transportation

Jim Giles, the United States has the ability to

and electrical generation. In the United States

produce over 95% of all electrical needs by

today, electrical generation is the main cause

2030, from renewable resources. (Giles, 2013) If

of carbon emissions. (EPA, 2014) Worldwide

this is truly possible why are we not pushing in

building accounts for about 40% of total energy

this direction?

consumption (this includes embodied and operational energy). (Environmental Leader, 2009) Over a fifty year life cycle about 10% of the


This graph represents the sources of carbon dioxide pollution in the United States. The Residential and Commercial sector represents the amount of pollution from the embodied energy. Electricity, represents everyday use of lights, computers, phones, HVAC, Ex...

Other Residential & Commercial

9% Industry

6%

38

%

14%

Electricity

32% Transportation

Figure 1

1


Many have been misinformed on what

sustainable is‌ recycling, electric cars, solar panels, energy star? No, these things are not sustainable. They have helped a great deal in the push towards a sustainable future; however, by the true definition these products are not sustainable.

Merriam-Webster defines sustainable

as - of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged.


Picture by: Austin Oakley

3


Now I understand we may never

up the amount of energy used over the year

fully reach a truly sustainable society. This

is zero. Based on this logic however it clearly

does not mean we cannot or should not do

states part of the year will use energy from an

everything possible in an attempt to get there.

outside source. Currently this outside source is

It is not the consumers fault though, rather the

most likely a coal burning power plant.

large governing bodies such as Leadership

in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED),

energy consumption on a daily basis this

the Department of Energy (DOE), the Living

phenomenon would still occur because the

Building Challenge, Title 24, and many more

majority of residential power consumption

who are incorrectly informing people of what

happens

sustainability actually is. To the best of my

According to Delucchi, and Jacobson’s (2013)

knowledge these organizations have not even

research

defined the word. One of the most commonly

alternative energy methods could supply nearly

used miss-understandings of sustainable is Net

one-hundred percent of power needs in the

Zero.

United States at a much lower cost than tradition

Even if Net Zero looked at a building‘s

after

five

multiple

o’clock.

scholars

(Giles,

have

2013)

claimed

Today’s definition of Net Zero - is over

methods. Wind and sun energy however is not

the course of one year, the building will consume

reliable twenty-four hours a day and typically

less than or equal to the amount resources

produces less during peak hours. This is a

produced. (Crawley, 2009) For example, if a

problem because these systems cannot be

building produces eighty kilo watts of electricity

reliable on their own. A secondary system

during the summer but only uses fifty kilo watts,

would be needed to store power, because

there is a surplus of thirty kilo watts. In the winter,

the alternative sources produces a surplus

this same building only produces twenty kilo

of electricity when not needed and then lacks

watts of electricity, however; it is still using fifty

production when used. (Nagoya, Komami, &

kilo watts to maintain operations. When added

Ogimoto, 2013)


As the United States population grows

the demand for residential homes will increase. With the number of homes on the rise more power will be needed. Many power plants today are close to their maximum carrying capacity.

Building energy consumption

Once a power plant reaches maximum capacity

Generated energy surplus

another one will have to be built increasing pollution. Through the use of old passive

Not enough energy

cooling and heating technique and new active technologies, the increasing power demand can be reversed with an end goal to shut down power plants altogether.

80 60 40 20 0

ER

M SU

M

IN

W

L

TA

R

TE

AR

TO

YE

5


Why Stainability?

Current power plants are typically

CH2

produce a constant amount of energy unlike

placed away from areas in need of the energy.

clean energy methods such as solar and wind.

In order for the power plant to transmit this

energy costly power lines and transformers

depicting the energy breakdown of the United

are needed. During the transferring process

States. The graph shows that as of today we

energy is lost. (White, 2012) Transmission power

nearly produce the amount of alternative energy

loss is not even the worst part of conventional

needed to power our country; nonetheless, with

power plants. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, and

such a large loss in converting the energy we

nuclear power plants only operate at about

are nowhere close.

34% efficiency (EIA). The other 66% of energy is exhausted into the atmosphere as heat. Power plants however, are reliable on their own to

On the next page you will find a graph


San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant

San Diego’s main power plant is located 57 miles from downtown.

San Diego

7


Coal 40.6%

Natural Gas 24.9%

Petroleum .6% Other Gases .2%

Nuclear Power 20.7%

Renewable Energy 12.4%

Other .5%


Energy Production / Use Breakdown Figure 2

Conversion Losses 62.5%

Plant Use 2% T & D Losses 2.6%

Residential 12%

Commercial 11.6%

Industrial 8.6%

Transportation .05%

Direct Use 1.2%

9


Texas supplies about five percent of its

developed.

energy demands from the wind. On February 26,

2008 a rare weather pattern caused the wind to

solution for power storage today; but, they are

stop blowing. Within a short period of time wind

extremely expensive, bad for the environment

production dropped about 1,400 megawatts

to produce, and have a short life expectancy.

(ERCOT, 2008) of power generation forcing the

(NREL, 2002) Hydrogen can be used as a power

Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) to

source and is the most common element in the

deny power to local factories. If the rare weather

universe; however, on earth it is usually found

pattern only happened early in the day things

attached to oxygen in the form of water. (Rigden,

would have been fine; yet, the wind stopped

2002)

when demand was at its highest.

Photovoltaic (PV) panels have become

extremely popular over the last several years and are expected to be used even more in the years to come. PV panels work by converting ultraviolet radiation light supplied by the sun, into energy usable by today’s electronics. Since ultraviolet radiation is needed for PV panels to work, they typically produce maximum energy during the day around noon. (Delucchi, & Jacobson, 2013) This is a problem because the majority of power consumption happens after five o’clock. (Giles 2013) The energy can be stored; however, As of today no popular system which will not harm the environment has been

Lead-acid batteries are the common


11


Project Scope

This thesis focuses on the use of Fuel

Cell technology in order to sustainably power American homes at night. Since alternative home power is the focus, Solar Knight uses the

Solar

Decathlon

competition

as

base

guidelines for the design. The Solar Decathlon is based on ten competitions. Architecture, Market Appeal, Engineering, Communication, Affordability, Comfort Zone, Appliances, Home Life, Commuting, and Energy Balance. In addition to the competitions the homes must be less than 1,000 square feet and portable.


13


The Sustainable Leap

Alternative energy systems are being

CH3

most promises for residential homes.

held back because they are “wrong time

A fuel cell is an electrochemical

energy” producers. (Giles, 2013) We have the

conversation

means and technology to store energy for when

continuous feed of a fuel, ultimately hydrogen,

the alternative systems are unable to generate

to produce electricity and, by products, heat

power. Today’s popular power storage systems

and water. (Adamson, 2007) Fuel cells work

however cannot be used on a large scale

in a similar manner as batteries. Both fuel

because of the cost and materials required to

cells and batteries use anodes, cathodes and

make them. Since power plants are extremely

electrolytes; yet, fuel cells with a constant fuel

waist full, alternative systems unreliable all day,

supply can continue producing electricity long

and batteries use precious materials, I have

after a battery has used its reactive materials.

looked into fuel cells. Sir William Robert Grove

(White, 2012) Fuel cells can use many types of

invented the first fuel cell in 1842. (Benson, 2009)

fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, natural gas or

Many types of fuel cells have been invented

even fossil fuel. For my system I will be using

since the first in 1842. Hydrogen powered Solid

hydrogen (produces zero carbon emotions)

Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and Polymer Electron

even though the other fuels operate at a cleaner

Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) have shown the

level than any other fuel power system.

device

that

relies

upon

a


I stated in chapter two that hydrogen

more explosive and harder to harness. Fuel

was the most common element in the universe;

cells on the other hand are a chemical reaction

however most likely in the form of water attached

and do not have any moving parts to generate

with an oxygen molecule.

There are four

energy making them more efficient. SOFC have

ways to split water into hydrogen and oxygen,

reached an efficiency greater than 80% and

electrochemical, thermochemical, biological,

PEMFC greater than 77%. (Adamson, 2007)

and photochemical. (Singh, & Chatterjee, 2013)

The most efficient way to separate hydrogen

which is made up with an anode and cathode

from oxygen is using an electrochemical

on each end and an electrolyte in the middle.

reaction through a method called electrolysis

When a current is drawn, hydrogen is pumped

(PHMC, 2013).

Electrolysis works by running

into the fuel cell on the anode side and oxygen

power through water. When water is electrified

into the cathode side. The hydrogen and oxygen

hydrogen attaches to the negatively charged

molecules then pass through the anode and

cathode and oxygen attaches to the positively

cathode; however, the electron attached to the

charged

2005).

hydrogen cannot. This forces the electron to

According to a studied by the U.S. Department

travel around the anode to the other side (Al-

of Energy (DOE) electrolysis is 67-74% efficient

Baghdadi, & Al-Janabi, 2005). While traveling,

(DOE, 2012).

the electron is sent on a detour through an

The excess power generated by PV

electrical circuit powering electronics along the

panels (or any alternative power source) during

way. When the electron finally makes it way to

the day can be converted into hydrogen for

the other side and reattaches to the hydrogen

later use. There are two easy ways to convert

it forms a bond with the oxygen forming water.

hydrogen into energy. The first and most

In Al-Baghdadi, and Al-Janabi, research they

common way is ignition. Hydrogen in this

depict this process on the cathode side with a

aspect is much like gasoline; nevertheless,

simple equation ½O2 + 2H+ + 2e− = H2O.

anode

(Pile,

&

Doughty,

Fuel cells use a three layer system

15


The water is produced as steam

where cooling is also needed.

because fuel cells run extremely hot. PEMFCs

are

units

same piping system the home can be cooled.

generally operating under 90°c. SOFC’s are

In many areas around the United States radiant

high-temperature units operating over 800°c.

cooling does not work because of the amount

(Adamson, 2007) Some systems are able to

of humidity in the air. The arid southwest

reuse the steam generated because it takes

however has very low amounts of humidity

steam to operate (Rubenstone, & Joyce, 2013).

preventing condensation. (DOE, 2012) While

Other fuel cells systems are able to capture and

fuel cells do not apply cooling they do provide

recycle the heat generated. (Wenatchi Group,

an abundant amount of heat. Through the use

2010) The captured heat can be used to cool

of an absorption chiller the extra heat can be

and warm a space or heat water.

converted into cold with no added power. By

By utilizing the hot water generated by

using a fuel cell in addition to an absorption

SOFCs, instead of a water heater an average

chiller another 6% (EIA, 2013) can be deducted

house hold can reduce its energy consumption

from the average Americans total electrical

by about 18%. (EIA, 2013) The amount of

consumption for a year.

hot water used in a residence can increase

significantly if used for heating as well. Radiant

41.5%, (heating) and 6% (cooling) are added up

floor systems are much more desirable than

it totals out to be 64.5% of power savings. On

forced air units because they provide an even

the next page you find a diagram depicting how

destitution of heat. In addition to comfort, by

this fully integrated system will function within a

switching to a radiant system the average

home.

considered

low

temperature

homeowner can reduce their energy bill by 41.5% (EIA, 2013) if all heating was provided by a fuel cell. My project is based in San Diego and

By running cold water through the

If all of the savings 18%, (hot water)


Residential Power Breakdown

Air Conditioning

6%

Water Heating

18%

Space Heating

41%

35%

Appliances, Electronics, Lighting

Figure 3

17


Integrated Fuel Cell System

O O O O

O O

O O

O

O

O

H

H

H H

H H

Hydrogen

Oxygen

H H

Energy Export

Distilled Water

Electrolysis

Closed Loop


O

O

H O

H H H

H

O H

H

O

O O

H

O

H

H

H

Heat Export

H

H

H

H

O

H

O

H

O

H

H

H H

Radiant Heating

O

H O

H

H H H

H

Heat Export

Absorption Chiller

O O

H

Energy Export

Fuel Cell H

Radiant Cooling

Hot Water Use

Gray Water Recycling

19


“One small step for man one giant leap for mankind.” Neil Armstrong

Every manned space mission since the

produced will be sent directly to the fresh water

first on July 16, 1969 has been equipped with a

tanks or used to heat parts of the ship. Once

fuel cell. Today’s space ships are equipped with

the heat is extracted the water will then head

three fuel cell power plants. Each of the three fuel

to the fresh water tanks. Once a space ship has

cells are 40 x 15 x 14 inches in length, width, and

taken off there is no margin for air. More than

height. This is crucial because it saves a lot of

one-hundred people have traveled to space and

space while providing water, heat, and electricity

each one of them have trusteed a fuel cell.

to the astronauts. The fuel cells are capable of providing seven kilowatts of continuous power for a total of twenty-one kilowatts. If needed the fuel cells are capable of providing a maximum of thirty-six kilowatts for fifteen minutes. Water


21


Sustainable Design

Solar Knight is a 960sf two bedroom,

CH4

back deck.

one bath home. It has been designed with an

Windows have been strategically place

emphasis on living condition and passive and

with in the house based on the climate. Natural

active systems. The house is split into two main

breezes can flow through the home preventing

modules and a small wedge. Module A consists

stagnate air. Since San Diego requires more

of the living spaces, while Module B contains

cooling than heating most of the windows

the sleeping quarters.

face south preventing solar heat gain but still

Through the abundant use of natural

allowing natural light. For the parts of the year

light and blurred lines between indoor / outdoor

when active system are needed Solar Knight

space, Solar Knight, provides excellent living

has eighteen solar panels on the roof allowing

spaces. A Nana Wall is located off of the living

one to use the active systems without an

room, opening up onto the front deck. When

enormous energy bill waiting at the end of the

open the two spaces are joined as one. Clear

month. In order to further increase comfort a

story windows are placed in the living room

radiant floor heating / cooling system has been

and kitchen allowing for natural ventilation and

used instead of forced air. The radiant system

north light. For quieter more closed off spaces

keeps the temperature at a steady level instead

one can always spend time in the bedrooms.

of fluctuating up and down. Studies have shown

The first bed room contains a large window seat

people who use radiant systems do not heat or

where one can read or ponder about their day.

cool the space as much, which allows for more

Bedroom two has access to the garden and

energy savings.


18 Kyocera 325 Watt Solar Panels Absorption Chiller Fiber Cement Roof Shingles 6x6 Roof Framing Shading Trellis Module A Module C IPE Ship-lap Siding Pella Windows

Module B Nana Wall San Diego Pivot Door

5 Burner BBQ Bosch Dishwasher Bosch Built-in Microwave Kenmore French Door Refrigerator Bosch Built-in Oven Front Load Washer / Dryer Combo Electrolysis Machine Resource Furniture Swing Blue Gen Fuel Cell Hot Water Heater

Ceiling Fan 1/2” Pex Tubing 1 1/8” Warmboard S Foundation Jack

23


The next Solar Decathlon will be held

in Irvine, California. Since the home would be made in San Diego it will need to be shipped to Irvine and constructed within one week. California state law allows for a maximum shipping dimension of 80’x16’x17’.

15’ 6”

12’ 6”

29’ 6”


33’

16’

13’

25


Site Plan 1" = 10'-0"


29' - 6"

9' - 3" 9' - 0"

1/4:12

DOWN SPOUT

1' - 6"

11' - 3"

MODULE C 105 SF

14' - 0"

MODULE B 390 SF

1/4:12

1/4:12

DOWN SPOUT

1/2:12

3:12

MODULE A 390 SF 885 TOTAL SF

SOLAR PANELS

27


Floor Plan 1" = 10'-0"


4' - 0"

2' - 3"

5' - 4 1/ 2"

5' - 10

1/2"

1' - 6"

MEC.

H/W

BED CLO.

1' - 7"

1' - 11"

2' - 8"

1' - 9"

3' - 1 7/16"

TRELLIS

7' - 6"

9' - 7"

2' - 6"

6' - 0"

4' - 11"

5' - 8"

BATH 15' - 0"

15' - 6"

3' - 10"

11' - 4"

5' - 4"

BED

4' - 2"

36" PONY WALL

3' - 2 1/ 2"

W/D

DOWN @ 1/12 MAX

12' - 0"

3' - 6 1/ 2"

CLO.

DECK

30' Max

29' - 6"

1' - 9"

4' - 0"

3' - 7"

SOFC

6' - 3"

3' - 6"

PLANTER

2' - 0"

6' - 0"

REF.

DW

14' - 0"

KIT

2' - 0"

PAN.

LIVING

5' - 6"

14' - 0"

DECK

4' - 0"

1' - 0"

13' - 1 1/2"

17' - 8 1/2"

1' - 2"

7' - 10"

30' - 10"

29


NorthEast 1" = 10'-0"

South 1" = 10'-0"


MAX HT. 13' - 0" PL-5 12' - 6" PL-3 10' - 6"

IPE SIDING HDR-1 7' - 0"

F.F. 0' - 0" FIN GRD. -2' - 6"

MAX HT. 13' - 0"

SOLAR PANELS

PL-4 11' - 11"

PL-2 8' - 6"

IPE SIDING

4' - 1 7/8"

HDR-1 7' - 0"

F.F. 0' - 0" FIN GRD. -2' - 6"

31


East 1" = 10'-0"

West 1" = 10'-0"


MAX HT. 13' - 0"

SOLAR PANELS

PL-5 12' - 6" PL-3 10' - 6"

IPE SIDING HDR-1 7' - 0"

IPE SIDING 3' - 0"

IPE SIDING

F.F. 0' - 0" FIN GRD. -2' - 6"

MAX HT. 13' - 0"

SOLAR PANELS

PL-5 12' - 6" PL-3 10' - 6"

IPE SIDING IPE SIDING

F.F. 0' - 0" FIN GRD. -2' - 6"

33


North 1" = 10'-0"


MAX HT. 13' - 0" PL-4 11' - 11"

HDR-2 11' - 0"

HDR-1 7' - 0"

F.F. 0' - 0" FIN GRD. -2' - 6"

35


Parapet / Roof Garden 1/2" = 1'-0"


NATIVE PLANTS ENGENDERED SOIL DRAINAGE AND FILTER MAT ROOFING MEMBRANE RHEPANOL HG 1.8mm POLYISOCYANURATE (ISO) INSULATION 2X6 JOIST @ 16" O/C 1/2" GYP. BOARD

2X6 WALL 2 16" O/C FIXED NUT PLATE R-19 INSULATION 1/2" GYP. BOARD

PAVING SLAB GRAVEL BED

COPING RHEPANOL HG FLASHING STRIP DOUBLE TOP PLATE SEE DETAIL "WALL/FLOOR" ON THIS PAGE FOR SIDING INFORMATION FLASHING 2X10 LEDGER BOARD TAPERED 2X6 JOIST @ 16" O/C WATER SWELLING RUBBER SEAL POLYISOCYANURATE (ISO) INSULATION 5/8" ROOF SHEETING 15LB FELT PAPER PEEL-AND-STICK MODIFIED BITUMEN

2X6 JOIST @ 24" O/C HARD WOOD CEILING OWT ORNAMENTAL WOOD TIES 1/2" BOLT 2X6 LEDGER BOARD MODULAR SEPARATION POINT

37


Access Panel 1 1/2" = 1'-0"


MODULAR SEPARATION POINT 1/2" GYP BOARD 2X6 WALL @ 16" O/C R-19 INSULATION 2X6 BOTTOM PLATE BASE BOARD 1/2" HARD WOOD FLOOR 1 1/8" TONGUE AND GROVE WARMBOARD-S

2X6 JOIST @ 16" O/C FIXED NUT PLATE

REMOVABLE PANEL TO ACCESS BOLT

1/2" BOLT 2X6 LEDGER BOARD DOUBLE 2X6 RIM JOIST

39


Freeze Block 1" = 1'-0"


FIBER CEMENT ROOF SHINGLES 15LB FELT PAPER 5/8" ROOF SHEETING POLYISOCYANURATE (ISO) INSULATION MAX 16"

PRE-DRILL FIRST

2X4 ROOF JOIST @ 16" O/C WOOD PANEL CEILING 6X6 ROOF BEAM DOUBLE TOP PLATE 2X6 WALL @ 16" O/C 1/2" GYP. WALL BOARD

DRIP EDGE 2x6 FASCIA BOARD BIRDS MOUTH CUT IN 6X6 SEE DETAIL "WALL/FLOOR" ON THIS PAGE FOR SIDING INFORMATION

41


Threshold 1 1/2" = 1'-0"


MODULAR SPLIT POINT

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

SHIM AS NEEDED TO FIT FLUSH WITH TOP OF INTERIOR FLOOR NANA WALL LOW PROFILE SADDLE SILL

1/8" MINIMUM GAP FOR WATER DRAINAGE

2X6 JOIST @ 16" O/C

JOIST HANGER

0' - 0 1/2"

2X6 DECK

HARD WOOD FLOORING 1 1/8" TONGUE AND GROVE WARMBOARD-S R-19 INSULATION

DOUBLE 2X6 RIM JOIST

4X6 BEAM

1/2" PLYWOOD 2X4 BLOCK @ 16" O/C OPEN CAVITY FOR WATER DRAINAGE

2X6 JOIST

FLASHING

43


Trellis Atachment 1" = 1'-0"


PRE-DRILL FIRST

SEE DETAIL "WALL/FLOOR" ON THIS PAGE FOR SIDING INFORMATION

MODULAR SPLIT POINT

2X2 TRELLIS LATTICE 1/2" GYP. BOARD

2X6 WALL @ 16" O/C R-19 INSULATION 1/2" BOLT 2X6 TO BE REMOVED WITH TRELLIS FOR TRASPORTATION 2X6 LEDGER TO REMAIN ATTACHED PRE-DRILL FIRST

FIXED NUT PLATE 6X12 BEAM

TRIM

TRIM

NANA WALL

45


Wall/Floor Detail 1 1/2" = 1'-0"


R-19 INSULATION 2X6 WALL @ 16" O/C IPE RAIN SCREEN SIDING

1/2"GYP. WALL BOARD

DECKWISE SIDING FASTENERS

BASE BOARD HARD WOOD FLOORING 1 1/8" TONGUE AND GROVE WARMBOARD-S R-19 INSULATION 2X6 FLOOR JOIST @ 16" O/C

#8 2" SCREW 1" X 3" FURRING STRIP TYVEK WEATHER RESISTANT BARRIER 3/8" SHEAR WALL

2X6 BOTTOM PLATE

DOUBLE 2X6 RIM JOIST 1/2" PLYWOOD

47


Winter Solstice

Winter / Spring Equinox

Summer Solstice

Solar Analysis 8:00 am 10:00 am 12:00 pm


2:00 pm

4:00 pm

6:00 pm

49


Wind Speed (ft/s)

15

12

9

6

3

0


51


53


55


57


59


Citations

Bibliography

Adamson, Kerry-Ann. Stationary Fuel Cells: An Overview. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2007. Print. Al-Baghdadi, M., & Al-Janabi, H. (2005). Optimization Study of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Performance. Turkish Journal Of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, 29(4), 235-240.

Benson, A. K. (2009). Great Lives From History. Pasadena, Calif: Salem Press.

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