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pulse

The Magazine of The Sport Medicine Council of Alberta

Winter 2006

Special Issue:

Sport Science


pulse Winter 2006 Vol. 19 No. 1

SMCA Board of Directors President

. . . . . . Dr. Gordon Bell, Ph.D.

Table of Contents Latest News from the SMCA............................................................Page 3

Featured Articles: Female Athlete Issues: The Varsity Athlete at the University of Alberta Written By: V. Harber & J. Matthews-White

Past -President . . Koralee Samaroden, BPE, PFLC

Pages 4 & 5

. . Dwayne Laing, BPE, CAT (c) Treasurer . . . . . . .Darren Turchansky, CA Secretary . . . . . . .Jennifer Hanon

How Do You Spin It? An Examination of the Biomechanical Factors that Produce Spin on a Volleyball in the Skill of Spiking.

ASSM Rep . . . . . . .Position Currently Vacant

Written By: J. Pierre Baudin, P. Gervais & T. Wu

Vice-President

SPC Rep . . . . . . . . .Gabrielle Cave, BSc., P.T., MCPA AATA Rep . . . . . . .Dwayne Laing, BPE, CAT (c) SSAA Rep

. . . . . .Dr. Gordon Bell, Ph.D.

SNS Rep . . . . . . . .Jane Dawson-Edwards, R.D. Member at Large .Ray Kardas

SMCA Employees . . . . . Ryan Petersen, BPE Account Manager . . . . . . Janice Peters, BCom Executive Director

Breath In, Breath Out...The Effect of Off-Season Training Programming for Edmonton Rowers: A Comparison of Inspiratory to Expiratory Breathing Muscle Training on Pulmonary Measures and Rowing Performance. Written By: G. Bell, D. Syrotuik, A. & R. Jones Pages 8 & 9 A Method for Increasing Cardiac Output in Highly Trained Athletes. Written By: D.J. Smith & M. A. McGillivray

Director of Programs Services & Fundraising

Pages 6 & 7

. Michael Pugh, BPE

Page 10

Special Projects Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jennifer Johnson, BPE Pulse Magazine Published by: Sport Medicine Council of Alberta 11759 - Groat Road Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5M 3K6 Phone: (780) 415 - 0812 Fax (780) 422 - 3093 Website: www.sportmedab.ca Email: smca@sportmedab.ca

Modeling Maximal Instep Kick in Soccer Written By: G. Shan Page 11 How Will Moye Make You Move? Biomechanical Analysis of Moye Starting Blocks. Written By: P. Gervais & J. S. Leblanc Pages 12 & 13

Contents copyright 2005 by SMCA. Articles may not be reprinted without permission. The opinions are those of the respective authors are not necessarily those of the SMCA. ISSN: 1181-9812 Publication agreement no. 40038086 Subscriptions: 1 year $14.99 plus GST Send subscription request and changes via email to: smca@sportmedab.ca We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of Alberta Community Development and the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks and Wildlilfe Foundation, towards our editorial costs.

Perfectionism, Perceptions of Physical Self, Skating Self-Efficacy & Imagery Use in Competitive Synchronized Skaters. Written By: J. G. H. Dunn, C. C. Loitz, W. M. Rogers & C. Hall Pages 14 & 15

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Latest News From The SMCA ~The SMCA Online Shopping Page is currently being reconstructed to make printing and faxing your medical supply order a thing of the past. Most notably, our new online shopping system will feature a summary order page, listing only the items you have selected to purchase, and our shopping page is now capable of being submitted electronically via email. We hope to have the new online shopping page in place by mid- November, but keep checking our website at http://www.sportmedab.ca for the latest updates. ~ As a non-profit organization, the SMCA relies on government funding and lotteries to help us run our programs and services. On February 14 & 15 at the Baccarat Casino in downtown Edmonton, the SMCA will be hosting our biannual Casino Fundraiser. Currently, we are in need of volunteers to help us work the casino. If anyone is interested in working any shifts, the SMCA would be greatly appreciative. Please contact our office via phone or email for a list of available shifts.

The Sport Medicine Council of Alberta would like to thank the:

And its Sport Science Researchers for contributing their Articles to this issue of the Pulse Magazine.

~ The SMCA Sport Medicine Page has been featured in the Edmonton Sports Scene Magazine for the months of September, October and November now. Topics we have discussed so far include soccer injuries and concussions, pre- and post-exercise nutrition and how to treat, prevent and rehabilitate athletic injuries. The Sport Medicine Council of Alberta would like to thank Charlotte Varem-Sanders and Lisa Linner for submitting their article on pre- and postexercise nutrition and encourage other sport medicine professionals to publish their sport medicine findings on the Sport Medicine Page. Pick up your copy of the Edmonton Sports Scene Magazine today at any of their locations, listed on their website at http://www.sportscene.ca/edmonton. To publish your article in the Sport Medicine Page, please contact Jennifer at the SMCA office. ~ The official end to the SMCA Membership Renewal/Application Period was September 30, but if you haven’t renewed your SMCA membership yet, please contact our office. We have restructured our categories to extend free SMCA memberships to members of our six provider groups. All others will either fall into our Subscriber or Corporate membership categories. ~ The SMCA is very excited about our ongoing partnership with Willis Insurance and we continue to encourage our members to take advantage of their no-obligation quote for home and auto insurance. Every three months, the SMCA will be mailing our members a Wilis Insurance Package for your review. You never know...Willis may be able to save you money on your insurance premiums. For more information, please see their advertisement on the back cover. ~ The SMCA is currently working on a grant proposal to acquire funding to purchase new resources for our Sport Medicine Resource Library. The resource library boasts a complimentary borrowing policy and houses a variety of materials on topics such as sport nutrition, athletic training, injury prevention and rehabilitation, drug education and sport medicine research. For a listing of the materials in our resource library, visit our website at http://www.sportmedab.ca/library.html. If you would like to see any resources in the library that currently are not, please contact our office or send us an email.

The Sport Medicine Council of Alberta Would Like to Thank our Partners for their Ongoing Support:

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Female Athlete Issues: The Varsity Athlete at the University of Alberta

4 SMCA Pulse Winter 2006


Female Athlete Issues... From page 4 Written By:

V. Harber and J. Matthews-White Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Introduction Women's health in the area of sports medicine has changed dramatically. Thirty years ago, physicians and therapists had little experience in treating female athletes and other active women. It is known that rates of certain musculoskeletal injuries and medical problems resulting from and/or impacting athletic activity are greater in female athletes compared to their male counterparts (Mees, 2003). Researchers, physicians and therapists are beginning to understand the origins of these differences as well as the gender-specific implications of these injuries and conditions. Most recently, a collaboration of professional associations developed a consensus statement regarding select musculoskeletal and medical issues of interest to team physicians who are responsible for the medical care of female athletes (American College of Sports Medicine Consensus Statement, 2003). Areas identified include anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, stress fractures, osteoporosis and osteopenia, disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and pregnancy and contraception. With exception of ACL injuries, the other targeted areas are conditions that, if occurring together, are known as the Female Athlete Triad. Each condition alone is cause for concern but when combined can be extremely dangerous to the health of the athlete. Presently, there is no database or on going injury reporting system available to analyze sports injuries or medical issues of female athletes at the University of Alberta. Establishing a database to collect this kind of information is essential for monitoring varsity musculoskeletal and medical issues for female athletes across all sports. Understanding the magnitude and nature of these conditions will permit effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Objective The purpose of this study is to document the clinical sports medicine issues and related risk factors of female varsity athletes at the University of Alberta. From these data, a sports medical profile will be developed for the entire varsity group. In addition, this inventory will help create sport-specific profiles.

Design Retrospective design.

Setting University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Subjects A total of 131 rostered athletes (mean age=22 yr, range=17-29) from 7 sports (basketball, field hockey, ice hockey, rugby, soccer, cross-country running, volleyball) volunteered to participate in this study.

Intervention/Main Outcome Measures The study protocol was approved by the Faculty's Research Ethics Board. Participation in this study required completion of the "University of Alberta Female Varsity Athlete Medical Form" and consent for its use in research. All varsity athletes are required to complete a standardized medical form prior to participating in their specific sport. This questionnaire asks about the athlete's health status and injury experience within the last year. Key risk factors such as early age at onset of training, late age of menarche, reduced number of menses/year, treatment of anemia, calcium supplement use, weight reduction diets, eating disorders and stress fractures are addressed. This information often helps identify athletes at risk for sport-related injury or conditions that impair performance. Participants from 7 different women's varsity sport teams provided consent for use of this information in the proposed study. Answers were

coded and individual data from each question were entered into a spreadsheet program and analyzed descriptively.

Main Results The majority of athletes began training for sport between the ages of 10-15 years of age (62%). Another 30% of athletes began training at a younger age (4-9 yr). The average age of menarche was 12.9+1.3 yr with the majority (86%) of athletes having their first menstrual cycle between the ages of 10-15 yr. Four (4) athletes were 16-17 yr at menarche. From the athlete group, 3 reported 0 menses/yr (amenorrhea) and 2 reported 3-4 menses/yr (oligomenorrhea). Approximately 12% of the athletes (16/131) have been treated for anemia while another 8% (11/131) take calcium supplements. Diets to reduce body weight have been employed by 16% (21/131). Most athletes (80%, 105/131) are satisfied with their current body weight and there were no reported cases of eating disorders. Stress fractures were reported by 8% (11/131) of the athlete group of which 9 of the 11 reports were for a lower body fracture (ie spine, tibia, metatarsal).

Conclusions Our data suggest that most athletes are free of established risk factors associated with the Female Athlete Triad. Approximately 10% showed the presence of several risk factors and may need some additional assistance or attention. The profile of our database shows that 30% of athletes have started training at an early age, while lower numbers of menstrual irregularities, anemia, weight reduction diets and stress fractures were reported. No eating disorders were reported by any athlete. Self-report measures are known to lack accuracy, particularly when dealing with potentially sensitive and personal issues. Opportunities to educate the athlete and improve self-awareness about these issues may contribute to improved health status and reduction of risk factors.

Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation ( ASRPWF.)

For More Information, Contact: Dr. Vicki Harber Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation E424 Van Vliet Center University of Alberta Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9.

Commentary Female athletes experience specific injuries and medical conditions in excess of their male counterparts and, as a result, activity and performance may be impaired (Mees, 2003; Consensus Statement, 2003). The University of Alberta does not keep a database or ongoing reporting system that is dedicated to sports injury analysis or medical issues. Interruptions to an athlete's training can best be avoided with effective prevention programs. In the event of such a disruption, rapid return to sport can be supported by successful rehabilitation treatments. Creating and maintaining optimal sport performance requires an ongoing reporting system. Approximately 10% of the athlete group investigated in this study demonstrated the presence of several risk factors. Educational programs aimed at awareness and prevention may help reduce the risk of individual athletes and teams experiencing poor performance.

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p i n S It? u o Y Do

Examination of the Biomechanical

Ho

w

An

Factors that Produce Spin on a Volleyball in the Skill of Spiking Written By:

J. Pierre Baudin, P. Gervais & T. Wu Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Introduction

Objective

Spiking is the most important attacking skill in the sport of volleyball and its effectiveness is in large part determined by the amount of topspin it has after leaving the attacker's hand. A spinning volleyball has the advantage of being able to be hit with greater velocity, higher above the net, and at flatter angles over the net than balls with little or no spin and still land in the court on the opposite side. This is possible because of the lift forces produced on the spinning ball as a result of the Magnus Effect and Bernoulli's principle. The importance of this spin is demonstrated by the emphasis that is placed on it in the volleyball instructional literature (Howard, 1996, Baudin, 1994, Scates, 1993, Prsala, 1982). For spin to be produced on the volleyball a torque must be applied by some external force not acting through the axis of rotation found at its center of mass. The technique that produces this in a volleyball spike seems to be agreed upon in the instructional literature. It is described as being produced by the heel or palm of the hand contacting first and then the fingers wrapping over top. Prsala (1982) concludes, "It is only during the wrapping action that the force applied to the ball becomes eccentric to give the ball a spin". While there is agreement in the instructional literature there is no actual research data to support these claims. Alexander and Seaborn (1980) describe the hand contact only as "wrist flexion" while Maxwell (1982) states "The hand is further accelerated by angular acceleration at the wrist creating a 'snapping' action." Clearly, the actual mechanical factors creating the spin of the volleyball during the spiking action are not known.

It was the purpose of this study to determine the biomechanical factors that produce the spin on a volleyball during a spiking action. It was hypothesized that spin is produced by the eccentric application of forces to the ball by the pads of the fingers striking the ball before the heel or palm of the hand contacts the ball.

Design Quasi-experimental design.

Setting University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Subjects Participants for the study were 7 men and 11 women, members of university volleyball teams with many years of training and experience.

Intervention/Main Outcome Measures First, reflective markers were placed on the forearm, wrist, distal end of the 5th metatarsal, and the finger tip of the middle finger of each subject. They then warmed up by doing 25 repetitions of a standing spike against a wall. Finally, they performed 5 standing spikes, each of a volleyball that they themselves tossed into the air and hit into a net.

Article Continued on Next Page...

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How Do You Spin It? From page 6 High-speed video of the subjects was collected using standard two-dimensional videography methods using a high-speed digital video camera operating at 500 Hz. The camera was positioned to allow a close sagittal view of the forearm and hand of each subject and the ball as it was struck. The video record of each of the 90 spikes was analyzed with the APASTM motion analysis system. A 4 point, three-segment model was used to represent the arm and hand and 2 points visible on the ball were used to calculate angular kinematics on the ball. Spatial data smoothed with a second-order Butterworth digital filter was then used in the kinematic analysis of hand segments and the ball.

Main Results The study reveals that two different hand contacts produce spin on the volleyball by a spiker's hand. The first technique, agrees with the literature, showing that the spin is produced by the palm of the hand first contacting the middle of the ball followed by a wrapping action of the fingers over top creating the torque. This study found that the entire palm of the hand contacts first and then the fingers wrap over top of the ball. As a result, the "wrapping action", although present, is quite limited especially with some trials where palm and finger contact was almost simultaneous. A second technique, not previously reported, was also seen in which the fingers of the hand contact first at a point high on the ball to create torque. This was then followed by the palm of the hand striking the middle of the ball. Of the 90 trials analyzed, 47 were found to have palm first contact and 43 had finger first contact. Interestingly of the 18 subjects, only 3 exhibited the same hand strike pattern for all of their trials, with two subjects using the finger first technique and one using the palm first method. The remainder of the subjects used both techniques during the course of the 5 trials.

Conclusions

two different techniques of hand contact to produce spin in a spiked volleyball. One method, that has been previously discussed, has the palm of the hand contacting the ball first and then the fingers wrapping over top to produce torque and thus spin on the ball. The second technique revealed for the first time in this study is that of a finger first contact higher up on the ball that produced an eccentric force on the ball and therefore the torque required to produce spin. This then leads to the question, "Which produces more spin on the ball?" The palm first contact technique produced a mean ball angular velocity of 39.02 rad/s that was not significantly different from the finger first technique that produced a mean ball angular velocity of 41.42 rad/s. This seems to indicate that the techniques are equal in producing spin on the volleyball during spiking.

Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation (ASRPWF.)

For more information, Contact: Dr. J. Pierre Baudin Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation P319 Van Vliet Center University of Alberta Edmonton, AB T6G 2H9

Commentary This first study of hand contact of the ball when spiking found that there were two techniques that are equally effective at producing spin on the volleyball however; more studies should be done to confirm this. All of the subjects were originally taught to use the wrapping action and it is possible that if taught the finger first method they may be more effective at producing spin. Volleyball coaches need to be informed of fingers-first contact technique and methods should be developed to effectively teach it to volleyball players.

The results of this study indicate that experienced volleyball players use

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Breath In, Breath Out... The Effect of Off-Season Training Programming for Edmonton Rowers: A Comparison of Inspiratory to Expiratory Breathing Muscle Training on Pulmonary Measures and Rowing Performance.

Written By:

G. Bell, D. Syrotuik, A. & R. Jones Faculty of Physical Education & Pulmonary Medicine University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Introduction

Design

Resistance to breathing at the mouth can be controlled by devices that resist airflow during inspiration and/or expiration. These chest muscle trainers can be effective in improving various aspects of forceful breathing (Sheel et al. Sports Med. 32: 567-581, 2002), reduce fatigue (Bell et al. CJAP, 28, S32) and possibly aid performance in certain sporting events. With respect to the sport of rowing, Volianitis et al. (Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 33: 803-809, 2001) has shown that inspiratory (only) chest muscle training can produce significant increases in inspiratory mouth pressure, less inspiratory muscle fatigue and improved rowing performance in lightweight oarswomen. Our previous research (Bell et al. CJAP, 28, S32) found an improved inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressure with combined inspiratory/expiratory chest muscle training and no effect on rowing performance.

Quasi-experimental design.

Objective

Each subject completed a maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2max), mRM strength test, a 2000 m rowing performance test, and maximal expiratory and inspiratory mouth pressure tests (PEmax, PImax). After initial testing, all subjects were matched on 2000 m performance time by gender and randomly assigned to either an inspiratory (INS) or expiratory (EXP) chest muscle training group.

The purpose of this study was to compare inspiratory only to expiratory only chest muscle training adaptations in conjunction with off-season concurrent strength and endurance training in rowers. It was hypothesized that the adaptations to maximal inspiratory pressure measured at the mouth will be greatest with inspiratory chest muscle training and vice versa with little effect on performance.

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Setting University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Subjects The subjects (n = 13 male and 16 females) were a combination of on-water and indoor-only rowers from the local rowing community. Attrition rate was 5 subjects. This study was approved by a University Research Ethics Board.

Intervention/Main Outcome Measures

Article Continued on Next Page...


Breath In, Breath Out... From page 8 Inspiration and expiration force was controlled at the mouth using PowerLung速 training devices. Training began at 3 sets of 10 maximal breathing repetitions, 1x/day and increased to 2x/day, 6 d/wk. The level of resistance to inspiration and expiration was also progressively increased. In addition to the chest muscle training, a concurrent endurance and strength training was followed, 6 days a week for 10 weeks: 3 days of continuous and interval aerobic endurance training on Concept II rowing machines and 3 alternate days of strength training consisting of 10 exercises (4 lower and 6 upper body). All testing was repeated after the 10-week program.

Main Results There were similar increases in VO2max, bench and leg press mRM strength levels, as well as similar significant decreases in 2000 m rowing time after training for both genders. Men had a significant greater resting PEmax and PImax pressure compared to

women. PImax at rest was significantly increased to the same extent after inspiratory and expiratory chest muscle training but PEmax was only significantly improved with expiratory muscle training.

Conclusions Our results suggest that 10 weeks of chest muscle training using devices designed to provide variable resistance to inspiration and expiration combined with a concurrent strength and endurance training program was effective in enhancing resting maximal inspiratory and expiratory breathing pressure depending on the type of chest muscle training used. Our findings showed that expiratory chest muscle training significantly increased PImax (~14%) and PEmax (~12%) but inspiratory chest muscle training was only effective at enhancing PImax (~26%, p<0.05) and not PEmax (~8%, n.s.). Our conclusion is that expiratory chest muscle

training showed the greatest overall improvement in both inspiratory and expiratory resting maximal mouth pressures.

Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation (ASRPWF.)

For more information, Contact: Dr. Gordon Bell Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation E424 Van Vliet Center University of Alberta Edmonton, AB T6G 2H9

Commentary Rowing in a 2000 m competition is performed at an intensity that requires forceful breathing that is coordinated with the rowing stroke. Thus, both the inspiratory and expiratory breathing components of rowing are stressed during the high ventilation rates required for rowers to perform.

Previously, we showed that a program that combined both inspiratory and expiratory chest muscle training was able to improve forceful breathing but did not improve 2000 m simulated rowing performance beyond that which occurs with a regular off-season program consisting of strength and endurance training. This study was performed to determine whether inspiratory only or expiratory only chest muscle training was more effective. The present findings suggest that the expiratory chest muscle training was able to improve both inspiratory and expiratory forceful breathing whereas inspiratory chest muscle training was only able to improve inspiratory breathing force and was unable to significantly improve expiratory muscle training. Once again, our findings suggest that chest muscle training improvements do not seem to transfer to simulated 2000m rowing performance changes.

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trace amounts of acetylene gas while inspired and expired air was continuously monitored by a mass spectrometer. Stroke Volume was calculated form the Fick equation where VO2 = SV x HR x a-vO2 difference.

20 km Time Trial SS performed a 20 km time trial on roller on their own bicycle with a PowerTap wheel substituted for their own rear wheel and their front forks mounted on a stand for stability.

Main Results

Written By:

D.J. Smith & M. A. McGillivray HPL, Faculty of Kinesiology University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada

To compare the effects of two training protocols, high intensity training (HIT) and low intensity training (LIT) on changes in maximal stroke volume (SVmax), plasma volume (PV), VO2 max, and endurance performance variables.

Design Exploratory parallel cohort.

Setting Human Performance Laboratory, U. of C., AB.

Participants Twelve trained male cyclists (25 + 6yrs; 74.6 + 3.8 kg; 61.7 + 3.6 ml路kg-1 min-1) volunteered to participate in 10 weeks of testing and training.

Figure 1: Changes in maximal heart rate and maximal stroke volume by group across the four test blocks. Values represent means (n = 6 in each group). LIT SV HIT SV

10 8 6

SS performed a standard incremental test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Expired air was collected and analyzed using a metabolic measurement cart (Parvo-Med True Max). PAPO was determined as the last power output completed for 1 minute during the incremental test.

Cardiac Output SS performed open-circuit acetylene breathing at selected intervals during the incremental treadmill tests. This technique involved breathing

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6 4

2

2

0

0

-2

-2

-4

-4

-6

-6

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-8

Methodology

VO2 Max Determination

8

4

1

There were four test weeks separated by high volume training (HVT) (4 days - 3 hrs per day), high or low intensity training (2 weeks), and finally a taper (2weeks). During each test week, the cyclists performed: 1) a progressive cycle test to measure VO2 max, cardiac output (Q), maximum heart rate (HRmax), and peak aerobic power output (PAPO); 2) a lactate minimum test; 3) a 20 km time trial (TT); 4) progressive exercise echocardiography test to PAPO; and 5) an endurance ride at 110% lactate minimum power output (LMPO). In addition, hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured. Cardiovascular measures were determined by open-circuit acetylene breathing. After the initial HVT block, the group was randomly assigned to HIT (n = 6) or LIT (n = 6). All subjects (SS) completed the same total volume of work 6 days per week, the HIT group completed 8 x 2.5 min at PAPO with rest to 65% HRmax twice per week, the rest of the training for both groups was done at aerobic threshold intensity.

10

LIT HR HIT HR

Change in HRmax (beats/min)

Objective

Change in SVmax (ml/beat)

A Method for Increasing Cardiac Output in Highly Trained Athletes

VO2 max did not change in either group over the 4 test periods. SVmax increased for all subjects fol lowing the HVT and subsequently decreased when HIT and LIT were implemented (p = 0.002). HRmax followed the inverse pattern (p = 0.001) (see Figure 1) and cardiac output only mildly increased following the volume training (p = 0.03). Hematocrit decreased following HVT and then increased during HIT and LIT (p = 0.001). PAPO increased from 425 W after HVT to 460 W post-taper for the HIT group, whereas, the LIT group did not change PAPO until the effect of the taper (405 W to 425 W). Time trial performance increased linearly for both groups (p < 0.001), peaking during the fourth test interval.

2

3

4

Test Interval

Discussion/Conclusion TT performance increased in both groups without any corresponding change in VO2 max. SV increased with HVT and decreased thereafter with both HIT and LIT. Hematocrit and HRmax followed the inverse pattern to SV. The taper produced superior PAPO and TT performance in both the HIT and LIT groups. The data clearly shows that HIT did not maintain the initial increase in PV and SV. Although Laursen et al., (2002) and this study have both demonstrated improved endurance performance as a result of HIT, this study has shown that these changes cannot be attributed to cardiovascular adaptations.

References 1. Laursen P. et al. (2002). Med Sci Sports Exerc , 34: 1801-1807

Source of Funding Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation (ASRPWF.)

For more information, Contact: Dr. D.J Smith 2500 University Drive NW Faculty of Kinesiology University of Calgary Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4


Modeling Maximal Instep Kick in Soccer

Written By:

Dr. G. Shan Department of Kinesiology University of Lethbridge Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada

Introduction

Intervention/Main Outcome Measures

Soccer is the most popular sport in the world with hundreds of millions of participants (Ekstrand, 1994). Because of its popularity, a considerable amount of studies has been conducted to understand the skills involved, especially the kick (David et al. 2000). Yet, due to test constraints, difficulty in multi-signal exploration and the complexity of total body control, a full view of an optimal kick remains uncharted. Hence, the purpose of this study was to reveal the holistic view by the link between muscle activities and joints control through full-body biomechanical modelling.

From motion capture, we can obtain anatomical positions that allow the modeling of the skeletal structure, which enables the calculation of joints' flexion/extension, abd-/adduction and rotation as well as joints' moment. In addition, muscles can be attached to the skeletal frame using anatomical knowledge. Thus, muscle lengthening can be determined in connection with skeletal movement. From these, when correlated with EMG signals, muscular work patterns (eccentric etc) can be determined.

Objective The project targeted three goals: 1. Establish a 15-segmental full body model to reveal the 3D characteristics of kick 2. Utilize the model to synchronize leg muscle EMGs with 3D kinematics to explore the joint coordination and control patterns 3. Explore possible new parameters for a quantitative evaluation.

Main Results Results show: 1) effective upper-body movement to be a key factor in creating better initial conditions for a more explosive muscle contraction during kicking. It permits a more powerful quasi whip-like movement of the kicking leg; 2) the timely change of distance between the kick-side hip and the non-kick-side shoulder provides a quantitative means of measuring kick quality.

Source of Funding:

Setting

Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation (ASRPWF.)

The measurements were conducted in PE240 (Biomechanics Lab), University of Lethbridge.

For more information, Contact:

Subjects Twenty novice subjects (21.5 y+ 2.2) were recruited from an introductory Kinesiology class at the University of Lethbridge and an equal number of elite soccer players (20.4 y+ 3.5) volunteered from the varsity soccer team. Half of the participators were females.

Dr. Gongbing Shan Dept of Kinesiology, UofL 4401 University Dr, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4 e-mail: g.shan@uleth.ca

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How Will Moye... Introduction In track and field athletics, all athletes competing in races of 400m or less must, by rule, use starting blocks. Since the commencement of the modern Olympic Games in 1896, there has been little overall change in the starting technique of elite sprinters (Mach, 1985, T & F Quart Rev, 85(2):11-14). Early sprinters used to dig holes in the track in which to place their feet when starting. With the innovation of synthetic track surfaces, starting blocks were invented to replace the start holes. While there have been some modifications over the years, the overall design of the standard starting block has not changed much, nor has the technique of starting. Numerous studies have been carried out on the biomechanics of starting from blocks in attempts to identify the optimal start parameters (e.g., Henry, 1952, Res Quart, 23(3):301-318; Turner & Henson, 1985, T & F Quart Rev, 85(2):29-32; Schot & Knutzen, 1992, Res Quart Ex Sp, 63(2): 137-147), including some recent research examining new configurations for starting blocks (i.e., Parry et al., 2003, NSA, 18(1): 13-22). In recent years, a different type of starting block has gained some support in the coaching community (McFarlane, 1993, Mod Ath & Coach, 31(2):13-15), but it has received little or no attention in the research literature. The Moye block uses a large steep back pedal and a small low front pedal. The athlete places the full foot on the back pedal but only the heel of the foot goes on the front pedal with the forefoot resting on the track. The athlete is supposed to assume a taller hip stance than in

traditional blocks, and the block pedals are placed closer to the start line. Those who have argued for the use of the Moye technique state that it results in faster start times and requires less muscular effort than standard start techniques (McFarlane, 1993). To date, no published research has investigated the Moye starting technique.

Objective The purpose of this research project was to examine the biomechanics of a sprint start from Moye blocks as compared to standard starting blocks.

Design Quasi-experimental design.

Setting University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Subjects The subjects (n = 5) were members of the University of Alberta varsity track and field team (2 female, 3 male) who volunteered to take part. All had extensive experience with standard starting blocks but minimal or no experience using Moye starting blocks.

Article Continued on Next Page...

Make You Move? Biomechanical Analysis of Moye Starting Blocks

Written By:

P. Gervais & J. S. Leblanc Faculty of Physical Education & Recreation University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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How Will Moye Make You Move... From page 12 Intervention/Main Outcome Measures Each subject completed one day of practice and two days of testing. During the practice session, athletes were instructed on the use of the Moye block and received practise on them. On each of the two testing days, subjects performed two sets of five starts, one set from each type of block. The order in which the types of blocks were tested was randomised by subject on the first day, and the order was then reversed on the second day to reduce any order effect in the testing protocol. Each sprint start was 25m in distance, and subjects were given a minimum of 3 minutes between trials and five minutes between sets of trials. The distances of the block pedals from the start line were standardised based on a measure of foot length: two and three foot lengths for the standard blocks; and one and two and a half foot lengths for the Moye blocks. The start commands consisted of an automated voice ("on your marks" and "set") and a simulated gun sound; these were generated by a ReacTime unit (Lynx Systems Developers, USA) attached to the starting blocks. Reaction times (RT) to the millisecond were recorded from the ReacTime units. A Laveg-Sport laser (JENOPTIK, Germany) was used to record linear displacement of the body; the laser was targeted on the low-back of the subject and recorded position to the nearest millimetre at 50 Hz. Subjects were also filmed in the sagittal plane by two JVC highspeed digital video cameras (120 Hz) with over-lapping fields of view. The APAS system was used to carry out a 2D kinematic analysis. A total of 94 trials were analysed from the ReacTime and laser data. Performance measures included: RT; split times to 5m, 10m, 15m, 20m and 25m; and, instantaneous velocity at 5m, 10m, 15m, 20m and 25m. Average values were calculated for each subject from each type of block. These values were then assessed by paired t-tests (alpha = 0.05) to detect differences in group means between the standard and Moye starting blocks. Subsequently, trials were selected from one male and one female subject to examine the total-body centre of mass (CM) location in the "set" position and the length of the first and second step from the blocks.

For more information, Contact: Dr. Pierre Gervais Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation E424 Van Vliet Center University of Alberta Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9.

Commentary This study represent a preliminary assessment of the biomechanics of the Moye starting blocks, and further analysis will be necessary to more clearly identify differences as compared to traditional starting blocks - this will include the use of non-sprint trained subjects to remove the effects of previous training on the standard blocks.

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Main Results Reaction times were 190 ms (41) from the standard blocks and 153 ms (31) from the Moye blocks, which was a significantly (p<0.022) faster average RT. The split times to reach 5m (1.02s vs. 1.05s, p<0.003), 10m (1.74s vs. 1.77s, p<0.005), 15m (2.49s vs. 2.52s, p<0.033), and 20m (2.99s vs. 3.02s, p<0.046) were found to be significantly faster for the starts from the standard blocks, but not at 25m (3.47s vs. 3.50s, p<0.062). However, there were no significant differences in instantaneous running velocity at any of the interval distances (p-values from 0.101-0.919). The location of the CM in the "set" position was determined from video for two of the subjects. While the height of the CM did not seem to be different between the standard and Moye blocks, the Moye put the CM horizontally closer to the start line by 5-10cm. The length of the first step was longer from the Moye block by 25-35cm, but the length of the second step was approximately the same, so any advantage in step length seemed to be restricted to the first step.

Conclusions The faster RT recorded on the Moye block starts did not seem to translate into faster sprint times to any of the interval distances. It may be that the faster RT were caused by some artefact of the interaction of the Moye block and the ReacTime units. In fact, only 3 out of 94 recorded trials were deemed to be false starts by the ReacTime units (and subsequently not included in calculations of average RT), and all three of these were during trials on the Moye blocks. It may be that something in the block configuration makes it result in faster recorded RT - this may have implications for athletes using the Moye block in competition since major competitions typically make use of false start detection equipment, like the ReacTime units used in this study. Further research will be required to clarify this point.

Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation (ASRPWF.)

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Perfectionism, Perceptions of Physical Self, Skating Self-Efficacy & Imagery Use in Competitive Synchronized Skaters Written By:

J. G. H. Dunn, C. C. Loitz, W. M. Rogers & C. Hall Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Introduction To date there have only been a few studies in the sport and exercise psychology literature that have examined the personality trait of perfectionism and its relationship to cognition, affect, and behaviour among athletes. Nevertheless, these few studies have consistently shown that perfectionism is an important personality construct to examine because it has been related to anger (Dunn et al, in press), burnout (Gould et al., 1997), self-esteem (Gotwals et al., 2003), anxiety (Hall et al., 1998), and motivational orientations (Dunn et al., 2002) in a variety of competitive sport settings. The defining feature of a perfectionist is the individual's tendency to set exactingly high personal standards. Although athletes may set high personal standards, with respect to their performances (whether in training or competition), these standards may also extend to other aspects of their lives including physical appearance. Aesthetic sports (such as figure skating and gymnastics) put a great deal of emphasis not only upon physical performance, but also on physical appearance. Thus, in these aesthetic-based sports, a premium is placed upon a lean and attractive appearance. Previous research by Dunham (2002) that was conducted with figure skaters in Canada revealed that athletes with a maladaptive or unhealthy profile of perfectionism tended to have negative attitudes towards their bodies, whereas athletes who demonstrated a more adaptive or healthy profile of perfectionism tended to have more positive attitudes towards their bodies. Given that negative attitudes towards one's body have been linked with eating disorders, it is important to understand the factors that may lead to such negative body image tendencies. By studying the relationship between perfectionist orientations and self-efficacy (i.e., the self-belief that one can successfully

complete a specific task), physical self-perceptions, and imagery use, we attempted to further our understanding of factors that may influence how athletes in aesthetic sports come to view themselves (in terms of ability) and their bodies.

Objectives Perfectionism is a multidimensional construct. Consequently, the specific purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between the various dimensions of perfectionism and (1) physical selfperceptions, (2) self-efficacy, and (3) skating-related imagery in competitive synchronized skaters. It is our hope that the results will point to potentially constructive and destructive correlates of perfectionism among synchronized skaters and ultimately help improve performance in competition and training for aesthetic-sport athletes.

Design Correlational.

Setting Skate Canada Synchronized Skating Competition in Camrose, Alberta.

Participants One hundred and eight female synchronized skaters from Western Canada (M age = 23.3 years; SD = 8.9) participated in the study.

Measures/Instruments Participants completed questionnaires to measure demographic characteristics, perfectionist orientations, physical self-concept, skating self-efficacy, and imagery use. The specific instruments were (1) a skating version of the Sport-Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Sport-MPS; Dunn et al., 2002), (2) the Adult Body Satisfaction Scale (ABSS) (Reboussin et al., 2000), (3) a sport modified version of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (Rodgers & Sullivan, 2000) and (4) a sport-modified version of the Exer-cise Imagery Questionnaire (Hausenblas et al., 1999).

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Synchronized Skaters Contâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d... From page 14 Main Results We performed bivariate correlation analyses to examine the relationships between (a) perfectionism and physical satisfaction, (b) perfectionism and skating self-efficacy, and (c) perfectionism and skating imagery use. Bivariate correlations (r) revealed that concern over mistakes (COM) was the only Sport-MPS subscale that was related to satisfaction with physical appearance (r = -.26). In other words, as athletes' levels of COM increased, they tended to become less satisfied with their physical appearance. Bivariate correlations (r) revealed that COM (r = -.44), perceived parental pressure (PPP) (r = -.23), and perceived coach pressure (PCP) (r = -.25) were negatively correlated with task self-efficacy. The direction of these correlations indicates that increases in COM, PPP and PCP are associated with lowered task self-efficacy (i.e., lowered belief in one's ability to successfully complete the skating task). All three of these Sport-MPS subscales are generally deemed to reflect maladaptive or unhealthy aspects of perfectionism (Dunn et al., 2002). Bivariate correlations (r) revealed that skaters' personal standards (PS) were positively correlated to skating technique imagery (r = .20). In other words, as skaters' personal standards increase, so does their likelihood of using imagery as a mental skill to improve skating technique. All of the aforementioned correlations were significant at p < .05 or lower.

Conclusions Overall, the results indicate that skaters who are concerned about making mistakes tend to be less satisfied with their physical appearance. Perfectionism theory suggests that people high in COM tend to view

mistakes as being unacceptable, so it appears that high COM athletes are more critical about flaws in their physical appearance. Skaters with higher maladaptive perfectionist tendencies (high COM, high PPP and high PCP) also tended to possess lower task self-efficacy, indicating that they tended to have less confidence in their ability to skate the program. We speculate that combining the effects of lowered self-efficacy and lowered satisfaction with one's appearance may result in dysfunctional behaviours among aesthetic sport athletes (e.g., disordered eating or obsessive exercising/practicing to obtain the skater's ideal performance level or appearance). The personal standards (PS) dimension of perfectionism has been shown to have adaptive qualities in previous perfectionism research. This was partly confirmed in this study given that athletes with higher PS scores tended to employ skating-technique imagery as a potentially adaptive strategy to improve performance.

Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the Alberta Sport, Recreation, Parks & Wildlife Foundation (ASRPWF.)

For more information, Contact: Dr. John Dunn Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation E-424 Van Vliet Center University of Alberta Edmonton, AB T6G 2H9

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