The Magazine of the Sport Medicine Council of Alberta
Spring 2009 Vol. 22 No. 1
SMCA Board of Directors President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer CASM SPC Rep AATA Rep SSAA Rep SNS Rep Member at Large Member at Large
Dwayne Laing Ray Kardas Gabrielle Cave Michael Becher Dr. Herbert Janzen Chris Holt Breda Lau Stephane Simard Steve Johnson Koralee Samaroden Kristine Godziuk
table of contents PAGE 3…………………..Latest News from the SMCA PAGE 3…………………………….Upcoming Courses PAGE 6…………..2009 SMCA Scholarship Recipients FEATURED ARTICLES PAGE 4 Toward a Grounded Theory of Competitive Sport Participation and Withdrawal Among Adolescent Females
N.L. Holt & K.A. Tamminen SMCA Employees Executive Director Accounts Manager Technical Director Assistant Special Projects Coordinator
Barb Adamson Janice Peters Nicole Lemke
PAGE 8 An Examination of Personality Factors Associated with SlumpRelated Coping Among Intercollegiate Volleyball Players
John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn, & Vania Gamache Pulse Magazine Published by: Sport Medicine Council of Alberta 11759 Groat Road Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5M 3K6
PAGE 11 Reducing Breast Pain During Exercise with Proper Breast Support
Phone: (780) 415-0812 Fax: (780) 422-3093 Website: www.sportmedab.ca Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
PAGE 13 Contents copyright 2008 by SMCA. Articles may not be reprinted without permission. The opinions are those of the respective authors and are not necessarily those of the SMCA.
The Utility of IGF-I And IGFBP-3 as Markers of Training Status in Elite Swimmers
ISSN: 1181-9812 Publication agreement no. 40038086
J.L. Copeland and T.K. Bischler
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Pulse Magazine Spring 2009
from the SMCA
New SMCA Website Coming Soon! Check out the SMCA’s new and improved website coming in June! Visit sportmedab.ca.
New Executive Director of the SMCA
Upcoming SMCA Courses Sport Nutrition Level 1
May 30, 2009 Location: Calgary Host: Preventous Collaborative Health Call (403) 229-0129 to register 10:00 a.m.—4:00 p.m.
June 20, 2009 Location: Edmonton Host: SMCA 10:00-4:00 p.m.
Barb Adamson: Thank you to everyone for the warm welcome to the SMCA. I am excited to be in the position Athletic First Aid of Executive Director. It has been a very busy May 30, 2009 June 13, 2009 first month at the office. We have some Location: Edmonton Location: Edmonton significant and noteworthy projects that will be Host: SMCA Host: SMCA 8:30 a.m.—4:30 p.m. ready for the fall. Keep your eyes out for them! 8:30 a.m.—4:30 p.m. I extend a big thank you to Janice, Nicole and the Board for their patience and guidance in my Taping & Strapping May 31, 2009 June 14, 2009 first month. I would also like to welcome our Location: Edmonton Location: Edmonton new summer student Desi McEwan to our little Host: SMCA Host: SMCA 8:30 a.m.—4:30 p.m. 8:30 a.m.—4:30 p.m. office. I look forward to hearing from you, please contact me at email@example.com Offer valid until May 15, 2007. To order, please visit or call 780-415-0812. Sport Trainer www.sportmedab.ca or call (780) 415-0812.
New Assistant Special Projects Coordinator of the SMCA Desi McEwan: Desi is completing his undergraduate degree in Psychology at Grant MacEwan and will be pursuing Graduate studies in Sport Psychology in Fall 2010. He is very excited to gain invaluable experience with the SMCA. Feel free to contact Desi at firstname.lastname@example.org
*Combination of Athletic First Aid and Taping & Strapping May 30/31, 2009 June 13/14, 2009 Location: Edmonton Location: Edmonton Host: SMCA Host: SMCA 8:30 a.m.—4:30 p.m. 8:30 a.m.—4:30 p.m.
For more information visit sportmedab.ca or call (780) 415-0812
The Sport Medicine Council of Alberta Would Like to Thank our Partners for their Ongoing Support:
2009 Sport Health Conference The SMCA, the Town of Beaumont, and Leduc County will be hosting the 2009 Sport Health Conference September 19th and 20th at Ecole Secondaire Beaumont Composite High School. Sessions at this year’s conference include Athletic First Aid, Sport Nutrition, and Taping & Strapping courses as well as presentations on sport concussions, nutritional supplements, strength and conditioning, and sport psychology. Turn to page 10 for more details. 3 SMCA Pulse Spring 2009
Pulse Magazine Spring 2009 Toward a Grounded Theory of Competitive Sport Participation and Coping Among Adolescent Females
reduced enjoyment, performance concerns, and disliking the coach (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004, Research in youth sports: Critical issues status. Institute for the Study of Youth Sports, Michigan State University, 2004). Therefore, it is particularly important to learn more about how female athletes cope with sport-related stressors in order to ultimately improve their participation and performance.
N. L. Holt & K. A. Tamminen Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, Objectives University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Our objective was to assess stressors and coping Canada. Introduction Children and adolescents are required to cope with a range of stressors associated with participation in youth sport (e.g., Anshel & Delaney, 2001, Journal of Sport Behavior, 24(4), 329-353.). The inability to cope with stressors may reduce participants’ sport enjoyment and performance, and may ultimately lead to sport withdrawal. Females are an under-represented group in sport. Girls’ participation in sport sharply decreases when they enter high school and this downward trend continues through late adolescence and early adulthood. Several stressors have been associated with sport withdrawal among females, including lack of perceived competence,
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strategies associated with female athletes’ participation in competitive sport with a view to understanding how coping may influence sport participation and withdrawal. Design Qualitative longitudinal (grounded theory). Setting A Public High School in Edmonton. Participants Thirteen female senior high school basketball players (M age = 16 years old) from a successful team volunteered to participate in this investigation. Data were also collected from the two team coaches. This study was approved by a University Research Ethics Board.
Results Reported stressors changed across different phases of the season, and these changes appeared to relate to the team’s changing contextual demands. Coping strategies also changed across phases of the season. Individual summary profiles of each athlete’s coping over the season were created. Ten athletes were generally more reactive, while only three athletes were more proactive in their coping. The three athletes identified with a proactive approach planned their coping and used feedback to evaluate their coping efforts. Planning and evaluation appeared to distinguish between more reactive and more proactive coping.
Commentary By showing some ways in which athletes’ coping changed over the course of the season this study provides some unique implications for the literature. Some athletes evaluated and planned their coping, but there were variations in the timing by which athletes developed these proactive coping tendencies. Some were proactive from the start of the season whereas others were generally reactive. As athletes began to reflect upon and learn from their past coping efforts they became more proactive. The implication is, rather than there being a set of effective or ineffective coping strategies which can be prescribed to athletes to deploy in given situations, practitioners may wish to teach athletes about planning and evaluating their coping. By encouraging athletes to reflect upon their coping efforts, they should begin to understand when and under what circumstances certain strategies are likely to be effective and when they would be ineffective.
Conclusions These findings confirmed the individualized nature of the coping process over time, which supports previous theoretical conceptualizations of coping. Results suggest that coaches and sport psychologists should teach athletes to cope proactively by anticipating potential stressors and planning coping responses. Coaches and sport psychologists should ensure that athletes evaluate their own coping attempts to improve future coping. Improving athletes’ coping skills may have important implications for the quality and extent of their on-going sport involvement. Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Dr. Nicholas Holt, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, Van Vliet Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9.
Data Collection & Analysis Data were collected via individual pre- and postseason interviews. During the season all participants also maintained electronically recorded diaries. Inductive content and longitudinal analyses were conducted to identify stress and coping processes for each athlete.
The SMCA is your source for… Medical Supply & Kit Sales Medical Kit Rentals Athletic Taping Course Sport First Aid Course Sport Nutrition Course Sport Medicine Library
Whether you are involved with a school, a team sport, or manage a recreation centre, having an ATHLETIC FIRST AID KIT on-site and available is essential. The kit is available to:
SMCA Members: $165.50+GST Non-Members: $185.75+GST
For more information, call (780) 415-0812 or send an email to email@example.com To order, visit sportmedab.ca/ shopping.html
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The Sport Medicine Council of Alberta, in conjunction with its provider groups, would like to acknowledge the recipients of our four post-secondary scholarships for the recent academic year.
Chris Fleming Memorial Scholarship (Athletic Therapy) Chris was a Certification Candidate of the Canadian Athletic Therapists Association (CATA). At the time of his sudden death, he was working as the trainer for the Calgary Hitmen of the Western Hockey League. He was a dedicated student of athletic therapy, and a trusted and adored confidante of his athletes. In his memory, this scholarship is awarded to a student who has demonstrated work excellence in the field of athletic therapy while exhibiting Chris' dedication to the study of athletic therapy.
Recipient: Originally from Wainfleet, Ontario, Tori moved to Calgary in 2005. She recently completed her Bachelor of Kinesiology, Major in Athletic Therapy and will graduate in June, 2009 from the University of Calgary. As an Athletic Therapy student, Tori has had the opportunity to work with the U of C Dinos football, volleyball, and field hockey teams. She plans to certify as an Athletic Therapist in November, 2009. Until then, she will continue to work in the field and clinic and is looking forward to enjoying the summer.
Sport Physiotherapy Excellence Award Awarded to a student who has demonstrated excellence in the provision of volunteer or paid physiotherapy services in a sporting environment.
Recipient: Rhonda is attending the University of Alberta, working towards her masters in Physical Therapy. In the short term, she hopes to continue to pursue excellence in her studies, while gaining valuable experience and knowledge from her professors and placement work. Upon graduation, she hopes to work in either a private clinic or a neurological rehabilitation centre. For fun, Rhonda enjoys playing volleyball, travelling, scrapbooking, and photography.
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Pulse Magazine Spring 2009
2008-09 SMCA Post-Secondary Scholarship Recipients
Sport Nutrition Excellence Award Awarded to a student who has demonstrated both academic and professional merit in studying sport nutrition.
Sport Science Excellence Scholarship
In association with the Sport Science Association of Alberta, this scholarship is awarded to a student who has demonstrated excellence in completing a Sport Science degree.
Recipient: Scott is currently a Ph.D. student in the faculty of physical education and recreation under the supervision of Dr. Gordon Bell at the University of Alberta. Scott has enjoyed both sporting and academic success. He is a member of the canoe polo national team and has competed at the previous two world championships for team Canada. Scott has also competed at the national level in sprint canoeing and the CIS level in cross country running. His sporting background and love for general fitness has led him to his current role as a student studying exercise physiology. His research focuses on sport nutrition, fitness assessment, and training adaptations. Scott aspires to complete his Ph.D. and become a sport scientist at a University.
Athletic First Aid Kits are On Sale Save 15% on orders placed before May 31, 2009 Call (780) 415-0812 or order the a kit online at: www.sportmedab.ca/shopping
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2008-09 SMCA Post-Secondary Scholarship Recipients
John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn, & Vania Gamache Faculty of Physical Education & Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Introduction Studies within the past decade have shown that perfectionism in sport is related to competitive anger (Vallance et al., in press), athletic burnout (Gould et al., 1996), self-esteem (Gotwals et al., 2003), competitive anxiety (Hall et al., 1998), motivational orientations (Dunn et al., 2002), and Olympic excellence (Gould et al., 2002). Although no single accepted definition of perfectionism exists, it is typically regarded as a multidimensional construct (Flett & Hewitt, 2002). The core feature of this personality trait is an individual’s relentless pursuit of very high personal performance standards. Perfectionism researchers and theorists in the areas of sport psychology (e.g., Dunn et al., 2002) and general psychology (e.g., Hamachek, 1978; Parker, 1997) propose that there are two types of perfectionist orientations: adaptive or healthy perfectionism and maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism. Theory suggests that adaptive perfectionists experience less distress when they make mistakes because they view mistakes as an inevitable part of the performance process. In contrast, maladaptive perfectionists are expected to experience higher levels of distress when they make mistakes because they view mistakes as an unacceptable part of the performance process. A stressful situation that athletes often encounter is the performance slump (Taylor, 1988). A performance slump can be defined as “an unexplained drop in performance that extends beyond normal cyclic variations” (Eklund et al., 1998, p. 159). Given that performance slumps are often accompanied by frustration, anxiety, and confusion (Taylor, 1988), it is important for athletes to successfully cope with these slumps in order to expedite their return to desired performance levels. Although a few researchers have examined slump-related coping in athletes (e.g., Eklund et al., 1998; Madden et al., 1989), little is known about athletes’ personality factors that may be linked with different coping styles in these situations (Eklund et al.).
Objectives The purpose of this study was is to examine the relationship between perfectionism and slump-related coping among competitive athletes. To date, no researchers have examined this question. We hypothesized that maladaptive perfectionists would be inclined to engage in dysfunctional coping styles (e.g., denial [pretend the problem doesn’t exist] and behavioural disengagement [reduce effort towards solving the problem]) whereas adaptive perfectionists would be inclined to engage in functional or problem-focused coping strategies (e.g., planning and increased effort to solve the problem). Design Correlational. Setting Post-secondary institutions in Alberta (n = 13), Saskatchewan (n = 1) and British Columbia (n = 1). Participants A total of 126 male (M age = 20.11 years) and 137 female (M age = 19.95 years) intercollegiate varsity volleyball players competing in either the Alberta Colleges Athletics Conference (ACAC) or the Canada West conference of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) system participated in the study. The combined sample (N = 263, M age = 20.03 years; SD = 1.66) had 1.67 years of experience playing at the post-secondary varsity level. Measures/Instruments Participants completed (1) a demographic questionnaire, (2) the Sport-Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2 (Sport-MPS-2; Dunn et al., 2002; Gotwals & Dunn, 2006), and (3) a sport-modified version of the COPE scale (M-COPE; Crocker & Graham, 1995). In accordance with previous research (i.e., Eklund et al., 1998), instructions preceding the M-COPE directed athletes to consider how they responded when previously experiencing a performance slump.
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Pulse Magazine Spring 2009
An Examination of Personality Factors Associated with Slump-Related Coping Among Intercollegiate Volleyball Players
between a maladaptive pattern of perfectionism (as reflected by an extreme need for planning and organization, and moderate levels of concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, and perceived coach pressure) and the use of emotion-focused coping strategies (e.g., seeking emotional social support, emotional venting) and avoidance-coping strategies (including denial, wishful thinking, and behavioural disengagement).
Conclusions Results clearly indicated that different perfectionist Canonical correlation (RC) analysis was employed to orientations—adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism— examine the multivariate relationship between correspond to the use of different coping strategies perfectionist orientations and slump-related coping. The during performance slumps. As noted by Crocker and 12 M-COPE subscales were entered as the criterion set, Graham (1995), the use of problem-focused strategies to and the six Sport-MPS-2 subscales were entered as the manage performance challenges would be considered predictor set. adaptive in high performance sport, whereas the use of avoidance- or disengagement-strategies would be much Although three significant canonical functions were less adaptive in this environment. Sport psychologists extracted, the interpretability of the third function was and coaches may benefit from understanding their unclear. Consequently, only the first two functions are athletes’ perfectionist orientations when attempting to described. The first function showed a positive help athletes through a performance slump. relationship (RC1 = .52, p < .001) between adaptive perfectionism (i.e., high personal standards, moderate Source of funding: need for planning and organization, and low doubts Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA). about actions) and the use of problem-focused coping strategies (including the tendency to plan, suppress For more information contact: competing activities, and increase effort towards dealing Dr. John Dunn, Faculty of Physical Education and with the slump). In contrast, the second function Recreation, E-488 Van Vliet Centre, University of showed a positive relationship (RC2 = .49, p < .001) Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9.
SMCA ATHLETIC FIRST AID COURSE ∗ ∗ ∗
Further your knowledge in preventing & treating athletic injuries All participants will receive their Athletic First Aid Certificate, which is current for three years Participants will also be given an Athletic First Aid manual
Upcoming Course Dates:
♦ ♦ ♦
Edmonton: Saturday, May 30/09 or Saturday, June 13/09, 08:30-16:30 $85 (GST incl.) Combine with Sunday’s Taping & Strapping course for a discount rate of $175 (save $25)
Visit sportmedab.ca or call (780) 415-0812 9 SMCA Pulse Spring 2009
Main Results For analytic purposes, male and female data were combined into a single sample. The average reported slump length for the athletes was 33.68 days. Assessments of subscale internal consistency (using Cronbach’s alpha) revealed that all six Sport-MPS-2 subscales and 9 of the 12 M-COPE subscales had good levels of internal consistency (alphas > .70). Three M-COPE subscales had marginal levels of internal consistency (i.e., .66 < alpha < .70). All subscales were therefore included in subsequent analyses.
Sept 19-20, 2009 Presented By: Town of Beaumont Leduc County Sport Medicine Council of Alberta
Package A—Athletic First Aid Sessions include: ∗ Athletic First Aid ∗ Sport Concussion ∗ Supplements and Athletic Performance ∗ Strength & Conditioning ∗ Sport Psychology
Athletic First Aid
Package B—Sport Nutrition Sessions include: ∗ Sport Nutrition Level 1 ∗ Sport Taping & Strapping ∗ Sport Concussion ∗ Supplements and Athletic Performance ∗ Strength & Conditioning ∗ Sport Psychology
Learn and practice taping techniques for most common sports injuries. Participants will also learn when to tape and when not to and the differences between taping and bracing.
Lunch provided all weekend for both packages! Early Bird fee (until July 1): $100 Regular fee: $110
To register, visit www.town.beaumont.ab.ca
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Session on the prevention and treatment of athletic injuries. Receive your Athletic First Aid Certificate, which is current for three years.
Sport Nutrition Level 1 Learn the fundamental concepts of nutrition and how these concepts can be used to improve athletic performance. Receive your Sport Nutrition certificate, which is current for three years.
Taping & Strapping
Sport Concussion This presentation will help you recognize and manage sport concussions. Learn how concussions occur, how to prevent them, common signs/ symptoms, hot to react, and when to return to activity.
Supplements and Athletic Performance: Things you need to know
The goal of this presentation is to help you become informed and critical of the benefits of the many currently available supplements.
Strength & Conditioning Learn from a National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) certified instructor research-based knowledge and its practical application to improve athletic performance and fitness.
Using Sport Psychology to Teach Life Skills Learn ways in which sport participation can be used to teach important life skills and how our sporting experiences can be improved using principles of sport psychology.
Pulse Magazine Spring 2009
2009 Sport Health Conference
Christine Atkins Calgary, Alberta The purpose of this research paper was to determine if breast pain during exercise can be reduced with the use of a proper external breast support system. As the breasts undergo a large amount of displacement during exercise breast pain can be the result (Page & Steele, 1999). According to Page and Steele (1999) the breast does not have strong enough internal support for the movement experienced during exercise, that an external support system is required. This paper included research studies on exercise and the resultant pain, research on the movement of the breasts themselves during exercise and studies on various methods of dealing with that pain. Among all the studies looked at the consensus is that breast pain can be caused by excessive breast movement which can be decreased with the use of adequate breast support. Both Hadi (2000) and Mason et al. (1999) found promising results in regard to the above statement. The two studies showed a relationship between a decrease in breast pain, and wearing a supportive sports bra. These are encouraging studies because many women suffer from breast pain which in turn may discourage them from participating in exercise or living a healthy lifestyle. The prospective study by Hadi (2000), noted that the experienced breast pain was causing a disruption in many women’s daily lives, and could be well managed with the assistance of proper breast support. Hadi (2000) also suggested that physical activity was a cause for non-cyclical mastalgia, and after obtaining the results concluded that, “Good external support by sports brassieres can relieve most of the patient’s symptoms” (p. 407).
One recurring theme in all the research articles and texts was the importance of the proper fit of the sports bra. In a report by Verscheure (n.d.) from the University of Oregon, she gives five quick tips for finding the correct bra. These points include getting professionally measured, fashionable does not always mean supportive, looking for bras that are individually sized, wearing a bra with many fastening clips, and wearing a sports bra with straps made from a nonelastic material (Verscheure, n.d.). Breast pain in women during exercise is a common problem. The female breast and its relationship to exercise is a relatively new research topic, and to fully understand how it can be effectively dealt with, a comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the female breast is required. It was shown through multiple research articles that exercise-induced breast pain can be reduced by ensuring that a properly fit sports bra is worn when participating in physical activity.
Christine recently completed the Athletic Therapy program at Mount Royal College. She will now be entering the final year of her Kinesiology degree from the University of Calgary. She also hopes to receive her Canadian Athletic Therapy Association (CATA) certification in 2010. 11 SMCA Pulse Spring 2009
Reducing Breast Pain During Exercise with Proper Breast Support
J.L. Copeland and T.K. Bischler Department of Kinesiology & Physical Education, University of Lethbridge Introduction Insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) plays an important role in mediating the anabolic effects of growth hormone (GH). IGF-I is also thought to play a direct role in training adaptations such as increased muscular strength and fitness. The majority (~75%) of IGF-I circulates bound to its principle binding protein, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). IGFBP-3 is essential because it prolongs the half-life of IGF-I and acts to regulate its biological actions. It is well established that exercise can influence circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Numerous studies have investigated the effects of acute exercise on IGF-I and IGFBP-3, however, the effects of long-term training remain poorly documented. Studies have also suggested that IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations are related to an individual’s fitness and training status, however, this has not been examined Intervention/Main Outcome Measures over the course of a long-term training period. The study consisted of three testing periods. Initial testing took place in September prior to the onset of Objective intensive training (week 0). The second testing period The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of was eight weeks after the initial testing during a onelong-term swim training on resting levels of IGF-I and week tapering phase prior to competition (week 8). IGFBP-3 in elite swimmers. The last testing period was 16 weeks after initial testing, A second objective was to determine if changes in IGF-I also during a one-week tapering phase (week 16). or IGFBP-3 were associated with changes in fitness or During each testing period participants were required to symptoms of overtraining. attend two sessions on consecutive days at the Exercise Physiology Lab. Prior to each testing period participants Design This study employed a within-subject repeated measures kept a 3-day food record. During the first session, participants completed an overtraining questionnaire design with three testing periods. At each period we developed by the French Society of Sports Medicine measured resting levels of IGFI and IGFBP-3, maximal aerobic power, body composition, nutritional status, and (SFMS) and a resting blood sample was collected. During the second session fitness measurements were obtained, athletic performance. including: anthropometric measures (body mass index and skinfolds), maximal aerobic power (VO2 max), and Subjects maximal blood lactate. In addition, the result of a time 12 swimmers (5 males and 7 females) from the University of Lethbridge swim team volunteered for the trial for each subject in their dominant event was obtained at each testing period. Serum samples were study (20.1 ± 1.7 yrs). On average subjects had been swimming competitively for nine years. Initial VO2 max analyzed for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentration using = 47.6 ± 8.3 ml/kg/min; initial relative fat = 15.9 ± 5.8 %. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, TX, USA). (Mean ± SD).
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Pulse Magazine Spring 2009
The Utility of IGF-I And IGFBP-3 as Markers of Training Status in Elite Swimmers
Conclusions This study cannot confirm the hypothesis that resting levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 will change in response to training. Several factors may have influenced our results including the participants’ initial fitness levels or the intensity of the training program. The small sample size was also a limitation as there was large individual variability in the IGF-I and IGFBP-3 response to training. There was a significant positive correlation between serum IGFBP-3 and scores on the SFMS questionnaire at week 0 which suggests higher IGFBP-3 levels in more fatigued athletes. This relationship did not persist and SFMS scores generally increased following 8 and 16 weeks of training while IGFBP-3 levels remained unchanged. There was no relationship between IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and any other measures of fitness or performance. These results suggest resting levels of IGF-I or IGFBP-3 may not be sensitive markers of training status in young athletes. Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact Troy Bischler, Dept. of Kinesiology, University of Lethbridge, (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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Main Results There were no significant differences in resting serum IGF-I or IGFBP-3 concentrations across testing periods. When the IGF-I data were normalized to baseline values and expressed as percent change, there was a significant difference in results from 0 to 8 weeks (12 ± 16.7% increase in IGF-I) versus 8 to 16 weeks (-5 ± 12% decrease in IGF-I). A significant correlation between IGFBP-3 and scores on the SFMS questionnaire was found at week 0 (Fig 1; r = 0.45, p<0.05), however, this relationship did not persist after 8 or 16 weeks of training.
The Mental Athlete by Kay Porter
This book is a 10-chapter conditioning manual for athletes to: ♦ Assess their inner strengths and weaknesses ♦ Utilize specific mental training skills, such as positive thinking and self-talk, visualization, and improved focus ♦ Learn effective goal setting techniques ♦ Work through mental roadblocks and fatigue ♦ Manage anger, anxiety, fear, external pressures, and injuries ♦ Improve relaxation and psych-up techniques ♦ Develop a competitive edge Included in the book are checklists, short questionnaires, and mental training logs to help athletes better assess their progress. *The Mental Athlete and all of the other books and DVDs in our library are available to borrow for FREE to all SMCA members. Other Titles available:
Contact the SMCA at (780) 415-0812 for more information or to borrow a resource. 14 SMCA Pulse Spring 2009
Pulse Magazine Spring 2009
SMCA Resource Library Feature
TAPING & STRAPPING COURSES This 8-hour course will teach you:
√ √ √ √
Taping techniques for common sports injuries When to tape and when not to Taping versus bracing Twenty taping techniques for all parts of the body
√ √ √
An athletic taping manual Taping and strapping certificate that is current for three years Handouts and all taping supplies
Upcoming Course Dates: ♦ Edmonton: May 31/09 or June 14/09, 08:30-16:30 ♦ $115 (GST incl.)
Visit sportmedab.ca 15 SMCA Pulse Spring 2009