Sport Science Edition Fall 2010
Pulse Fall 2010 SMCA Board of Directors
Ray Kardas - President Dwayne Laing - Past President Gabrielle Cave - Vice-President Breda Lau - Secretary Michael Becher - Treasurer Dr. Herbert Janzen - CASM Rep Chris Holt - SPA Rep Maria Novak - AATA Rep Stephane Simard - SSAA Rep Steve Johnson - SNS Rep Kristine Godziuk - Member at Large Koralee Samaroden - Member at Large Michael Wagner - Member at Large
Inside Pulseâ€Ś Sports Science Edition Inside this issue: The Impact of Fitness Level on Self-Report of Concussion Symptoms
Sport Participation and Possibility for Positive Development among Urban Youth in Edmonton? A Pilot Study
Examining the Relationship Between Perfectionist Orientations and Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Male Youth Soccer
Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Evaluation of Fatigue Status in Student Athletes
Is Critical Power Equivalent to Maximal Lactate Steady State? Challenging the Domains of Exercise Intensity
Barb Adamson - Executive Director Janice Peters - Office Manager Nicole Lemke - Technical Director
Temporal Analysis of Coping Efforts During Competitive Suffering
The Effects of a Short-Term Plyometrics Program on the Running Economy and Achilles Tendon Properties of Female Distance Runners
Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Ultra-Endurance Competition in Female Athletes
The Validation of the Triaxial Accelerometer in a Smartphone (Apple iPhone) as a Physical Activity Monitor in Young Adults aged 18 - 25 Years Old
Physiological Characteristics and Time Motion Analysis of Canoe Polo Athletes
Determination of the Optimal Resistance Setting for Upper Body Anaerobic Power Testing of Kayakers and Canoeists
Pulse Magazine Published by: Sport Medicine Council of Alberta 11759 Groat Road Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5M 3K6 Phone: (780) 415-0812 Fax: (780) 422-3093 Website: www.sportmedab.ca Contents copyright 2010 by SMCA. Articles may not be reprinted without permission. The opinions are those of the respective authors and are not necessarily those of the SMCA. ISSN: 1181-9812 Publication agreement no. 40038086
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The Impact of Fitness Level on Self-report of Concussion Symptoms
M. Mrazik, C.L. Lebrun, D. Naidu & J. Matthews-White, Game, A., Department of Educational Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Introduction With recent estimates that concussions account for over 6% of all sport injuries, continued enquiry regarding best practice methods for return-to-play guidelines have evolved (Guskiewicz, et al. 2000). In 2004, a consensus of experts met to establish important practice parameters related to the management of concussion (McCrory et. al. 2005). One of the recommendations for practice was to incorporate the use of data from self-report symptom questionnaires and neurocognitive testing to evaluate an athlete’s symptoms and readiness to return to play on an individual basis. The immediate impact of physical exercise on an individual’s self-report of cognitive symptoms is less understood. To our knowledge, there have been no studies that directly considered how fitness levels may influence an athlete’s report of symptoms prior to and following concussion. Objective The outcomes from the Prague Conference (2004) strongly recommended that athletes require a period of convalescence following a concussion. During this time they are recommended to avoid physical and cognitive exertion. As their symptoms improve, a gradual return to activity is encouraged. Self-reported symptoms guide this progression and the ultimate decision to return an athlete to play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the level of fitness may serve as a moderating variable to an individual’s report of concussion symptoms. Design Quasi-experimental design. Setting University of Alberta, Edmonton. Subjects Prior to the start of competitive seasons, a cohort of 95 college athletes (67 males and 28 females) from 6 sports (football, hockey, rugby, swimming, basketball and tennis) completed the Standardized Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) before, after, and within 24 hours of completing the Leger (beep) test. This study was approved by a University Research Ethics Board.
Intervention/Main Outcome Measures Athletes completed pre-season physical fitness testing as per requirements of the Department of Athletics from the University of Alberta. As part of this process, athletes completed a baseline assessment with the SCAT. Subjects then underwent fitness testing. The last phase of fitness testing involved the Leger “beep” test. This test uses the running velocity at the highest stage reached in a regression formula to predict VO2max and provides an estimate of anaerobic threshold. The final stage number was recorded by trained graduate assistants. At 10 minutes post exertion, subjects completed a second SCAT questionnaire. Students were offered an incentive to return within 24 hours and complete the SCAT one final time.
Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Dr. Martin Mrazik, Department of Educational Psychology, 6-135 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G5. Commentary
Main Results Partial correlations, after controlling for gender, revealed significant correlations between V02 max and baseline symptoms scores (r = -0.24, p <0.05) and V02 max and post-activity symptoms scores (r = -0.21, p <0.05), but not for 24 hour symptom scores and V02 max. A regression analysis revealed that V02 accounted for a significant portion of the variance (Adjusted R2 = 0.20, p <0.05) for baseline symptoms scores. Independent sample t-tests compared total scores between a low fitness group and a high fitness group. Results were statistically significant for the two groups at baseline (p < 0.00) and post-exertion (p < 0.05) for total scores on the PCSS. Conclusions Level of fitness had a significant impact on the report of symptoms with more fit subjects reporting fewer symptoms pre and post exertion. Therefore, fitness has a moderating influence on the subjective experience of concussion symptoms as measured by the SCAT. This supports further research into the complex process of identifying the important variables related to concussions.
Evidence-based guidelines support a comprehensive concussion management program that includes a method for capturing subjective report of symptoms associated with concussion (McCrory et. al, 2005). The SCAT is one of the most popular tools given its relative simplicity, ease of administration, and psychometric properties. In most instances, athletes complete the SCAT prior to the start of competitive seasons to establish a baseline level of functioning. Sport concussion guidelines recommend that an athlete should be asymptomatic with no remarkable findings on a medical exam before they are returned to play. In some instances, athletes may have been restricted from exertional activity for several days to several weeks. During this time, decreased physical fitness is inevitable. To date, there have been no studies that have evaluated the impact on physical fitness and its relationship to physical fitness. Our results suggest there is a significant relationship between the two variables. This has important implications for clinical practice where return to play decisions are being considered. Further research is merited, especially with athletes who have suffered a concussion injury.
Sport Participation and Possibility for Positive Development Among Urban Youth in Edmonton? A Pilot Study Nicholas L. Holt & Bethan C. Kingsley, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Introduction
Data Collection & Analysis
Unsupervised time spent out-of-school is a period when youths are most likely to engage in deviant or ‘risky’ behaviors (Everett et al., 2002). Sport participation can provide children with access to supervised out-of-school programs in safe environments. Sport participation has also been associated with numerous positive developmental outcomes. However, particularly low levels of sport participation have been reported among children from lowincome families (Craig et al., 1999; GordonLarsen et al., 2000). Children from these lowincome families are often among the most ‘atrisk’ youth in society. Therefore, it may be important to provide these children with sporting opportunities. However, there is little evidence examining the role of sport in the lives of children from low-income families. This study was designed to address this gap in the literature.
Data were collected via individual semistructured interviews, during which parents and children were asked about how being provided with sport opportunities influenced their children’s lives. Data were transcribed verbatim by a professional transcribing company and then checked with original audio recordings to ensure accuracy. Data were then subjected to a content analysis procedure which was corroborated by both researchers.
The findings of this study suggest that the social benefits of sport are particularly important to low-income families. However, these families required additional funding and opportunities to ensure their children’s sustained participation to optimize possibilities for positive development through sport. Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Dr. Nick Holt, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, E424 Van Vliet Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9. Tel: 780-4927386; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits and challenges children from lowincome families experienced through being provided with opportunities to participate in youth sport.
Children from low-income families are often atrisk and may spend much of their out-of-school time unsupervised. Sport can be a productive activity to help provide opportunities for these children to experience the benefits of physical activity and other positive developmental outcomes. However, low-income children are unlikely to play organized sport due to the associated financial costs. Thus, our study examined the benefits and challenges children from low-income families experienced through being provided with opportunities to participate in youth sport. We created a partnership with a non-profit organization called KidSport. KidSport provides funding to pay sport registration fees for children from low-income families. Members of 12 families who had received KidSport funding were interviewed. Results showed that participants valued sport. The most positive aspects of the funding they received to play sport were the opportunities they had to make friends with different types of children and adults outside of their family (i.e., coaches). However, even though the families received funding, they still faced financial and logistical barriers that restricted their children’s sustained involvement in sport. As such, parents want opportunities to keep their children in sport for longer, and wanted access to a range of different types of sport and physical activity programs. Therefore, this study shows that while provided funding was a very positive feature in the families’ lives, more funding is required to sustain participation and optimize the positive outcomes associated with sport.
Design Qualitative (interviews). Setting: Edmonton. Recruitment In order to access this ‘hard-to-reach’ group we partnered with a non-profit organization called KidSport (Edmonton). KidSport provides funding to low-income families to pay children’s sport registration fees. Families who had received funding from the organization in the previous 12 months were recruited via a mailout. Participants Members of 12 low-income families (12 parents, M age=41.6 yrs, SD=6.8; 13 children, M age=12.0 yrs, SD=2.6) participated in this study. There were 10 mothers, 2 fathers plus 7 boys, and 6 girls. Participants self-reported the following race/ethnic origins: Caucasian (n=4); Eastern European (n=2), Aboriginal (n=2); Asian (n=2); African (n=1); and Middle Eastern (n=1). This study was approved by a University Research Ethics Board.
Main Findings Analysis revealed four themes (1) Participants valued sport participation. (2) Making friends with ‘different types’ of children and building relationships with other adults (e.g., coaches) were the main developmental benefits associated with sport. (3) Despite the fact families received funding, they still faced financial and logistical barriers that impeded their children’s continued participation in sport. However, these families were prepared to make financial sacrifices in other areas to help facilitate their children’s participation. (4) Parents and children wanted to have more involvement, sustained participation, and opportunities to engage in a variety of different programs to maximize the developmental benefits children could accrue through sport.
Examining the Relationship Between Perfectionist Orientations and Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Male Youth Soccer John G.H. Dunn & Klaudia Sapieja, Faculty of Physical Education & Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
Introduction Although perfectionism is viewed by most contemporary theorists as a multidimensional personality trait (Enns & Cox, 2002), the core characteristic of perfectionism is reflected by an individualâ€™s tendency to set and pursue extremely high standards of personal performance. A growing body of evidence in the extant literature indicates that perfectionism can have both facilitative and debilitative consequences for individuals (see Stoeber & Otto, 2006), which has led researchers to differentiate between two different kinds of perfectionism: namely, adaptive or healthy perfectionism, and maladaptive or unhealthy perfectionism (Hamachek, 1978; Parker, 1997). Adaptive perfectionists are driven by a strong need to succeed, view mistakes as an inevitable (though unwanted) part of the performance process, and derive a real sense of pleasure from their performance efforts. In contrast, maladaptive perfectionists are driven by a powerful need to avoid failure, view mistakes as an unacceptable part of the performance process, and rarely feel satisfied with their performance achievements. Theorists propose that the development of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionist orientations are influenced by the type of parenting climate that individuals are exposed to during childhood. For example, theorists believe that children who are exposed to harsh and overly demanding parenting environments may be at an increased risk of developing maladaptive perfectionist orientations (Blatt, 1995; Hamachek, 1978). Given the influential role that parents play in the youth sport experience (Cote, 1999), it would seem prudent to determine if adaptive and maladaptive perfectionist orientations in youth athletes are related to the parenting styles to which the athletes are exposed.
Parenting styles reflect a set of behaviors, attitudes, and expectations that are consistently exhibited by parents which permeate across many areas of their childrenâ€™s lives (Baumrind, 1991; Darling & Steinberg, 1993). In general, more supportive and child-centered parenting styles (i.e., authoritative parenting) yield positive outcomes for youth in achievement settings whereas more controlling and parent-centered parenting styles (i.e., authoritarian parents) yield negative outcomes for youth in achievement settings (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Although previous research has found that exposure to authoritative parenting is linked to adaptive perfectionism and exposure to authoritarian parenting is linked to maladaptive perfectionism (e.g., Flett, Hewitt, & Singer, 1995), no studies have examined these links in competitive sport settings. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perfectionism and parenting styles in a youth sport setting. Design Correlational and between-group differences. Setting Soccer facilities in the Edmonton area. Participants The sample consisted of 194 male youth soccer players (M age = 13.64 years; SD = 1.51) from 18 club teams in Edmonton.
Measures/Instruments Athletes completed a demographic questionnaire, the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale 2 (Sport-MPS-2: Gotwals & Dunn, 2009), and two versions of the Parenting Style Inventory-2 (PSI-2: Darling & Toyokawa, 1997). One version of the PSI-2 asked athletes about their mothersâ€™ parenting styles and the other version asked athletes about fathersâ€™ parenting styles. Main Results An exploratory factor analysis conducted on PSI-2 responses revealed a single factor that represented positive aspects of parenting: the factor was labeled child-centered parenting (cf. Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Higher scores reflected stronger child-centered parenting.
Conclusions This study revealed that male youth soccer players who were overly concerned about failure and who perceived heightened pressure from parents and coaches to reach high performance standards (i.e., maladaptive perfectionists) tended to view their parents as being less childcentered (i.e., more critical and controlling) than athletes who were less concerned about failure and who perceived less pressure to reach performance standards from coaches and parents (i.e., adaptive perfectionists). Although the design of this study precludes opportunities to make causal inferences, we speculate that youth athletes who are raised in child-centered environments (in which parents are accepting of their children regardless of performance outcomes) will be less likely to develop maladaptive perfectionist orientations in sport than youth athletes who are raised in family environments where parents are overly controlling and where the provision of opportunities for youth to make choices are restricted or denied. Providing adolescent athletes with opportunities to establish and regulate their own performance standards may assist with the development of adaptive perfectionist orientations in sport.
Dimensions of perfectionism that are generally considered to be maladaptive in nature (i.e., concern over mistakes [COM], perceived parental pressure [PPP], perceived coach pressure [PCP], and doubts about actions [DAA]) were negatively correlated with child-centered parenting for both mothers and fathers (all ps < .05). In other words, as maladaptive perfectionist tendencies increased, so too did the athletesâ€™ tendency to perceive parents as being less responsive and less willing to grant Source of funding: autonomy in decision making. The personal standards [PS] subscale of Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA). the Sport-MPS-2 was not significantly correlated with child-centered parenting for mothers or fathers. For more information contact:
Cluster analysis was used to divide athletes into groups on the basis of Dr. John Dunn, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, E-488 their perfectionism scores. Three clusters emerged from the analysis Van Vliet Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9. that were labeled maladaptive perfectionists (i.e., high scores on all Sport-MPS-2 subscales), adaptive perfectionists (i.e., high PS and ORG scores along with low COM, PPP, PCP, and DAA scores), and nonperfectionists (i.e., low scores across all Sport-MPS-2 subscales). A MANOVA was used to examine between-group differences on perceptions of child-centered parenting. Results revealed that maladaptive perfectionists perceived their mothers and fathers as being less childcentered in their parenting approaches than adaptive perfectionists and non-perfectionists (p < .001).
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Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Evaluation of Fatigue Status in Student Athletes M.D. Kennedy, N. L. Holt, M. Mueller Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Introduction Effective training adaptation is achieved by maintaining optimal balance between amount of training stress (i.e., progressive overload) and appropriate recovery from the imposed training stress (Smith, 2003) To achieve this balance, researchers and practitioners must monitor the training program and evaluate the fatigue status of athletes in response to their training programs from multiple perspectives (i.e., physiological and psychological). However, very little research has been previously conducted in this area (Nederhof et al., 2007).
bpm for each month Oct, Nov, Jan and Feb). Perception of form was twofold greater in Nov compared to Oct (0.86 vs. 0.47; p<0.05 respectively) Perception of feeling was significantly greater in Nov compared Oct, Jan and Feb. Perception of fatigue was also rated as best in Nov (normal) compared to Oct (tired), Jan (tired) and Feb (tired). There was a significant relationship between heart rate and overall form in January (p<0.05). There were no significant relationships between perceptions of between heart rate and perceptions of feeling or perceptions of fatigue.
Objective The purpose of this project was to evaluate the fatigue status of student athletes using a multimethod approach that combined both psychological and physiological domains. It was hypothesized that as physiological stress states increased athletes’ perceptions of their psychological recovery would decrease.
Qualitative Results: Focus group transcripts were subjected to a content analysis procedure. Analysis revealed that athletes reported feeling most rested over Christmas and during the taper period when they could get lots of sleep, and felt 'ready to go' when they headed into competition. They felt most fatigued during October (which they called "hell month") and during a January training camp. Fatigue intensified when athletes were stressed about school work (exams and assignments). Although athletes felt well rested if they had sufficient sleep, high training and schoolwork demands interfered with sleep patterns.
Design: Mixed methods design. Setting: University of Alberta, Edmonton. Subjects: 14 male swimmers and 11 female swimmers from a varsity swim team participated in the study. This study was approved by a University Research Ethics Board. Data Collection Quantitative Measures: Once per week during the competitive training period (Oct 1, 2009 to Feb 21, 2010) athletes completed a preworkout resting heart rate monitoring test plus self-report measures to evaluate overall form (fitness), overall feeling (heaviness of muscles) and fatigue status (by checking one of the following: Well rested, Rested, Normal, Tired, Overtired, Sick). Heart rate testing (using the Suunto wireless team pod system) was administered pre-workout at about 4pm and included 5 minutes of lying down and 3 minutes of standing. The combined averages for lying and standing were calculated. Mean scores on all other measures were calculated and were averaged by month. Qualitative Measures: Swimmers participated in focus group interviews in the week following the CIS Championship. They were asked to discuss their perceptions of fatigue and recovery. Focus groups were audiorecorded and the recordings transcribed. Results Quantitative Results: Heart rate was consistent between months (avg heart rate of 68
status of swimmers utilizing a multidisciplinary approach. The results indicated that the group average for heart rate was not sensitive to changes in perceptions of form or feeling, nor indicative of the balance between training stress and recovery. The greatest training volume was completed in October and January and our results indicated that the feeling and fatigue scales were sensitive to these variations in training volume. Furthermore, the qualitative (focus group) data showed that athletes fatigued during months of greatest training volume. They were also fatigued when facing high schoolwork demands. Although athletes reported that if they had sufficient sleep they felt well rested, high training and schoolwork demands interfered with sleep patterns. Overall, these results highlight the importance of monitoring the balance between progressive overload and recovery from physiological and psychological perspectives because multiple factors appear to influence this delicate relationship.
Conclusions These results indicate that physiological fatigue (as measured by heart rate) and perceptions of fatigue (overall form, feeling and fatigue) are not well related. In addition the similar heart rates between months would indicate that heart rate is less sensitive to measuring fatigue than athletes’ own perceptions of how they are feeling. Obtaining sufficient sleep was important for athletes’ subjective feelings of recovery. As indicated by the results, the training completed in November would have had the best balance of training stress and recovery. Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Dr. Michael Kennedy, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, E-488 Van Vliet Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9. Commentary Adaptation to training is a balance of training stress and appropriate recovery. Competitive swimming historically involves high volume (duration x intensity) training, whereby recovery may be compromised due to the frequency and intensity of workouts. This study was undertaken to better understand the fatigue
Is Critical Power Equivalent to Maximal Lactate Steady State? Challenging the Domains of Exercise Intensity D.J. Smith, A. Aylwin, J. Sasso Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Alberta. Canada Introduction
Objective The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that CP is physiologically different from MLSS for exercise prescription purposes. Design Comparative Setting University of Calgary, Calgary Subjects Eight male subjects volunteered for the study. The study was approved by the Calgary Health Research Ethics Board. Intervention/Main Outcome Measures The subjects (VO2 max 46.8 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min) completed an initial 25 W/ 1min incremental test to determine LT1, LT2, VO2max and maximal aerobic power (MAP). These values were utilized in the determination of testing loads for the subsequent tests. Four critical power rides, randomly assigned, were conducted over a 5 day period at intensities of 103%, 100%, 95% and 90% of MAP. Additionally, three 30 minute constant load rides were performed at randomly assigned 101%, 105% and 108% of LT2 in order to determine MLSSzero (zero slope in blood lactate accumulation). Paired Students t-tests were used to examine differences between variables. Main Results The following performance profile was determined: MAP – 322 ± 36 W; CP – 214 ± 31 W; MLSSzero – 189 ± 24 W; LT1 – 122 ± 21 W. MLSS using traditional criteria of < 1 mM over the last 20 min of exercise was 197 ± 24 W. The mean goodness of fit for the CP tests was 0.998. CP was significantly different from MLSSzero (p=0.0006) and MLSS <1mM (p= 0.0027) and the ratio of CP to MLSSzero and MLSS <1mM was 1.10 ± 0.06 and 1.09 ± 0.06 respectively. At intensities above MLSSzero, blood lactate increased at predictable rates.
Training zones equivalent to domains of exercise intensity are used by recreational and elite athletes alike. The domains of intensity are moderate, heavy, severe and extreme. The upper boundary of moderate intensity is lactate threshold 1. Burnley and Jones (2007) have suggested that critical power (CP) and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) are notionally the same and represent the border between heavy and severe exercise in a model of exercise intensity domains whereas others suggest that MLSS should represent the boundary. By defining the boundary between heavy and severe exercise, sports scientists and program designers will be able to prescribe physiologically different training intensities that will reflect more precisely ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and the testing procedure to be used will be more clear.
CP = 1.2185x - 16.664 R2 = 0.8785
MLSS zero (W) Fig 1: Correlation between MLSS zero and CP. Conclusions MLSSzero represents the upper limit of the heavy exercise domain as above this intensity blood lactate increases with time and fatigue will occur. Poole et al., 1988 considered CP and MLSS to be coincident. However, based on Fig 1, for an unfit population when MLSSzero is <110 W, CP and MLSSzero are similar. But improved fitness clearly separates the physiologically determined MLSS zero from the performance variable CP. Furthermore, it is proposed that the boundaries of severe exercise would be MLSS to MAP. Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Dr. D.J. Smith: 2500 University Drive NW, F. of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 Commentary The monitoring of blood lactate concentration during constant load exercise has been used to define three exercise intensity domains, namely moderate, heavy and severe. Moderate exercise includes all power out puts below the lactate threshold 1, and heavy exercise is used to describe power outputs between lactate threshold 1 and maximal lactate steady-state and/or the critical power. The problem with this latter definition is that maximal lactate steady-state is a physiological condition, whereas critical power is a measured parameter. The literature is confusing by suggesting that maximal lactate steady-state and critical power represent the same physiological state. This study has demonstrated that below 110 watts critical power and maximal lactate steady-state are similar but as fitness improves, MLSSzero and the performance variable critical power are dissimilar. This is important since now a standard incremental blood lactate curve can be used to describe the three intensity domains from an exercise prescription point of view. Sport scientists and program design professionals will be able to use a simple test rather than the complexity of critical power testing to prescribe individual training intensities for high performance and moderately fit recreational individuals alike.
Temporal Analysis of Coping Efforts During Competitive Suffering Sharleen D. Hoar & M. Blair Evans Department of Kinesiology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
Introduction Endurance athletes’ continual assessment of goal achievement during competition brings about subsequent emotional responses. Specifically, goal achievement and failure lead to positive and negative emotions, respectively (Daniels et. al. 2009). Furthermore, Baron et. al. (2009) postulated that increases in negative emotional affect will decrease an endurance athlete’s desire to sustain a given intensity and that athletes actively regulate emotions to reach competitive goals. Competitive suffering is a negative affective state related to goal achievement and primarily occurs when an athlete realizes, while competing, that an important goal will not be reached (Bueno, 2000). This realization is brought about via two main perceptions: a) feelings of threat (i.e. cramping, being passed), and b) perceived helplessness to improve the situation. To regulate the impact of competitive suffering, athletes engage in coping; a process of cognitive and behavioral attempts to deal with demands that exceed one’s resources (Lazarus, 1991). Athletes use a wide variety of coping strategies (i.e. positive reappraisal, moderating effort) which are further categorized according to their perceived function. There are three primary functions: emotionfocused (EFC; regulating emotions), problem-focused (PFC; changing the situation) and avoidance coping (AvC; avoid situation) (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). Coping effort selection depends on a variety of individual and contextual factors, as well as the changing temporal demands of the situation.
Objective The purpose of the study was to describe the sequence of coping efforts (viz. functions) utilized by athletes throughout competitive suffering episodes and to identify coping efforts that are related to shorter (more adaptive) and longer (less adaptive) suffering episodes.
slower then actual run-time) were provided, unbeknownced to the participants. The intent of altered feedback was to induce suffering. After the time-trial, participants completed a video-mediated recall interview. Participants reviewed the video of their run, and continually reported their “feelings regarding their ability to reach their goal” on a sliding scale from -5 to +5. The first negative rating represented the onset of the competitive suffering episode. Subsequently, participants’ rated their use of three coping functions on a scale from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much) at 200m intervals; until continuous ratings returned to a positive value, indicating the end of the suffering episode.
Main Results Suffering episodes were split, using change scores, into three phases to assess coping function use across distinct time intervals. Negative change scores were coded as the initiation of suffering, change scores of zero were coded as the peak of suffering, and positive change scores were coded as reintegration. Participants were also split into short (< 5 200m intervals) and long (>/=5 intervals) suffering duration groups via median split. A mixed-design ANOVA assessed problem, emotion, and avoidance focused coping endorsement by each group across the three phases. There were significant main effects for time (F (2, 48) = 3.975, p < .05 partial η2 = .142) and coping function (F(2, 48) = 8.363, p < .01 partial η2 = .258). There was also a significant suffering group X time interaction on coping function (F(4, 96) = 2.569, p < .05 partial η2 = .097). Follow-up independent samples t-tests indicated that the short duration group reported greater use of emotion focused coping during both the initial and peak phases, as well as lower avoidance coping during the initial phase. a.
Design Repeated Measures, Correlational
Setting 200m indoor track, and laboratory, at the University of Lethbridge
Subjects 11 male and 15 female Lethbridge area competitive endurance athletes (road runners, marathoners, triathletes; Mage= 35.8, sd= 12.0)
Intervention/Main Outcome Measures
Prior to running a 5km time trial, participants completed a demographics questionnaire and a goal-time efficacy assessment to determine individual goal times. During the trial, the researchers were positioned, with a whiteboard (for pacing feedback) and a video-camera, beside the lap/finish area of the track. At 1km intervals, participants were provided with the elapsed time, as well as the predicted finishing time if that pace was maintained. After the first 1km interval, altered times (5%
Suffering Group: Short duration Long Duration Figure 1a.- c.. Graphs displaying means, with standard error bars (+/- 1 SE), separated into problem-focused (a.) avoidance (b.) and emotionfocused (c.) coping.
Conclusions Problem-focused and emotion-focused coping were the primary coping functions utilized during competitive suffering episodes overall. Longerduration sufferers selected avoidance efforts at the beginning of suffering episodes to a greater extent. Meanwhile, shorter duration sufferers utilized emotion-focused efforts early-on and at the peak of suffering.
Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF.
For more information contact Dr. Sharleen Hoar, Dpt of Kinesiology, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, AB, Canada, T1K 3M4 Email: email@example.com
Mark your Calendars and get ready to make tracksâ€Ś. Pan Pacific Conference of Medicine and Science in Sport Hawaii January 27 - 29, 2011 Offered by Sport Medicine Australia-Queensland and the Sport Medicine Council of Alberta
The Effects of a Short-Term Plyometrics Program on the Running Economy and Achilles Tendon Properties of Female Distance Runners L. S. de la Cruz, S. S. Dhillon*, D. G. Syrotuik Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada *Department of Radiology & Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Introduction
outside of the research. Running economy measures for the two groups remained It is widely known that distance running permatched after the subject drop-outs. The formance is closely related to measures of final sample (n=12) consisted of six (6) runrunning economy (Noakes, 2001). Both runners in the control group and six (6) runners ning performance and economy have been in the experimental group. This study was shown to improve with plyometric training approved by a University Research Ethics (Turner et al, 2006), without accompanying Board. changes in VO2max and lactate threshold (Paavolainen et al, 1999; Spurrs et al, 2003; Intervention/Main Outcome Measures Saunders et al, 2004). Tendon elastic recoil has been proposed as one potential mecha- After an initial familiarization session, measnism behind this training effect. In particular, urements were conducted before and after the Achilles tendon has been shown to return an eight-week plyometric training program. approximately 35% of the energy it absorbs Each measurement period involved two visits upon foot contact (Alexander, 1987). Meas- to the exercise physiology laboratory: one urement protocols using ultrasound allow a session for running economy and running determination of Achilles tendon elongation performance measures, and one session for (mm) and tendon force (N), as well as their tendon properties via ultrasound. Running relationship, tendon stiffness (Nâˆ™mm-1). It is economy was measured as the steady-state not clear whether plyometrics or plyometric- rate of oxygen consumption on a level treadlike training leads to an increase in stiffness mill at 8.0, 9.7, and 11.3 kilometers per hour. (Spurrs et al, 2003; Burgess et al, 2007; Wu et This submaximal protocol also served as a al, 2009) or a maintenance of stiffness due to standardized warm-up to quantify running a mutual and proportionate increase in ten- performance, measured as the time to comdon force and elongation (Kubo et al, 2007; plete a self-paced 3,000-meter run on a 200meter indoor oval. Achilles tendon properties FourĂŠ et al, 2009). were measured by visualizing medial gastrocnemius tendon movement via ultrasound Objective during a 5-second ramp isometric plantar The purpose of this study is to investigate the flexion contraction to maximum on a Cybex II effects of a short-term plyometrics program isokinetic dynamometer. Over a period of on the running economy, running perforeight weeks, subjects in the control group mance, and Achilles tendon properties of followed the teamâ€™s training program while competitive, university distance runners. It the experimental group replaced the 30was hypothesized that running economy and minute warm-up of jogging and stretching running performance will improve after an with a dynamic warm-up and the following eight-week training period and that these plyometric exercises: pogos, stair-bounds, improvements will be accompanied by inalternate-leg or traditional bounding and drop creased tendon force, tendon elongation and jumps. tendon stiffness. Design Quasi-experimental design with pre and post measures of two randomized groups. Setting University of Alberta, Edmonton. Subjects Seventeen female runners from the University cross-country team/training pool volunteered to participate in this study. The runners were matched by running economy and randomly assigned to a control (n=8) and an experimental group (n=9). Five runners dropped out early in the study for reasons
Source of funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Dr. Dan Syrotuik, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, E401 Van Vliet Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9. Commentary Plyometrics has already been shown to improve distance running performance. Unfortunately, this study suffered from low subject compliance and was not able to replicate the results of previous plyometric training studies. However, all three subjects in the experimental group who completed the supplementary plyometric training program as prescribed exhibited improved run performances similar to previous reports, but no changes in running economy. The question of tendon adaptations to plyometric training is similarly left unanswered. Ultrasound measurements were highly variable due to tester error and to inherent limitations in the measurement methods.
Main Results No significant differences were found in any of the variables between the two groups after eight weeks, mainly due to low subject compliance and excessive variability in ultrasound measurements. Conclusions The results of this study is inconclusive with regard to the effect of supplementary plyometric training on running economy, running performance and Achilles tendon properties of tendon force, tendon elongation and tendon stiffness.
Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Ultra-Endurance Competition in Female Athletes J.L. Copeland and F. Billaut, Department of Kinesiology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada Introduction Ultra-endurance races can range from 50 km road races to multi-day events covering thousands of kilometers over varying terrain. These events are increasing in popularity across North America. Ultra-endurance exercise places extreme stress on the human body. Several studies have documented significant hormone responses, however, the majority focused on young male athletes. Despite increasing numbers of women participating, no studies have documented the effect of age or menopause on the hormonal response to an ultraendurance event in women. In addition to endocrine perturbations, ultra-endurance exercise dramatically affects muscle contractile properties and central drive. Interestingly, it has been suggested that estrogens may have a neuroprotective effect, although there is no evidence that they are capable of reducing the magnitude of central fatigue that typically develops during an ultra-marathon.
Main Results Both DHEAS and cortisol increased significantly post-race (P<.01) and had returned to pre-race levels after 24 hours of recovery. There were no significant group differences or group by time interactions for either adrenal steroid. There was a trend for a decrease in circulating IGF-I 24 hours following the race (P=.05), but no significant difference between groups. There was a substantial increase in estradiol following the race which persisted after 24 hours of recovery (p<.01). Surprisingly, there was no difference in this response between pre- or postmenopausal women (Figure 1).
Objective To examine the effects of competing in an ultra-marathon on circulating hormone levels and neuromuscular function in female athletes, and to determine if the effects are different in pre- vs. post-menopausal women. Setting The “Lost Soul Ultra” (LSU) is held annually in Lethbridge. The LSU is an off-road race with sections of gravel and dirt paths. One full loop of the course (53 km) gains and loses 915 metres of elevation. The 100km event has a time limit of 35 hours, with an average finishing time in 2009 of 21 hours for men and 24 hours for women. Subjects Complete data were obtained from 5 older, postmenopausal women (age: 57.2± 4.3yrs, BMI: 23.2± 2.0, %fat: 25.7±6.1, VO2max: 51.4±3.1 ml∙kg-1 ∙min-1) and 11 younger, premenopausal women (age: 34.8± 8.4yrs, BMI: 22.9± 2.6, %fat: 25.4±5.6, VO2max: 53.8±4.2 ml∙kg-1 ∙min-1). Matched pairs of older and younger participants were determined based on race finish times to control for differences in absolute performance. Ultimately 5 matched pairs (N=10) were examined: 3 pairs completed the 100km event and 2 completed the 50km event. In this group of 10 there was no significant difference in race finish times between the older (19.6±8.8hrs) or younger (18.7± 7.8hrs) women. Main Outcome Measures Blood samples were drawn 24 hours before the race, at the finish line, and 24 hours into recovery. The timing of the pre-race and recovery samples was adjusted to approximate the time of day the participant finished the race in order to minimize the effects of circadian changes in hormone levels. Samples were analysed for dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, estradiol, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI). Isometric torque of the knee extensors of the dominant limb was recorded during 5-s maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) one week before and 24 h after the race. The knee angle was fixed at 60° of flexion. To determine the effects of running on contractile (muscle twitch) and neural (voluntary activation; twitch-interpolated technique) properties of the knee extensors, the quadriceps muscle was magnetically stimulated at rest and during MVCs to evoke twitches.
Figure 1: Circulating estradiol before, after and 24 hours after an ultraendurance race. MVC torque and maximal voluntary activation decreased significantly 24 h after the race (12% and 8%, respectively; P<.05). Interestingly, despite similar finishing times, there was a trend for greater MVC impairment in younger vs. older women (14% vs. 6%, P>.05), associated with greater depression of voluntary activation (10% vs. 5%, P>.05). Although contractile properties were altered 24-h post-race, there was no difference between the groups in peak twitch, or contraction and half-relaxation times. Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Jennifer L. Copeland, Ph.D. University of Lethbridge. (firstname.lastname@example.org) Commentary To our knowledge this is the first study to document the neuromuscular and endocrine responses to ultra-endurance exercise among postmenopausal women. We observed post-race increases in cortisol and DHEAS in both groups of women. Circulating IGF-I tended to decrease following the race which is consistent with the IGF-I response to prolonged stress and energy deficit. The large increase in circulating estradiol levels in postmenopausal women was unexpected. After menopause the primary source of estrogen is the peripheral conversion of DHEA(S). The implications of the increased estrogen are unclear, but estrogen may have a lipolytic, glycogen-sparing effect that could be beneficial during prolonged exercise. It has also been suggested that estrogens can be neuroprotective. However, we did not find any effect of menopausal status on the rate of recovery of MVC torque or neural properties.
The Validation of the Triaxial Accelerometer in a Smartphone (Apple iPhone) as a Physical Activity Monitor in Young Adults aged 18 - 25 years old P. K. Doyle-Baker, M. M. Nolan, Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Alberta Introduction
In North America, transport-related and recreational physical activity (PA) levels have declined during the past fifty years. The link between low levels of PA and the onset of overweight and obesity is well-known, and has led researchers to consider the impact of environmental factors on PA behaviours. Studies of this nature necessitate the collection of high-quality data regarding volumes of PA, activity types, and locations. Physical activity possesses five key parameters: frequency, intensity, duration, activity type, and location. The first three make up PA volume. This is expressed as an energy output (kilocalories (kCal) or metabolic equivalents (METS)) and labeled ‘physical activity energy expenditure’. Smartphones represent a technological innovation over previous mobile telephones, being the first devices to physically integrate a triaxial accelerometer, GPS unit, and numerous other technologies. The innovative application of smartphones to the problem of obtaining highquality, non-laboratory PA data may provide the solution to several important methodological challenges in this field.
The pilot study results show the expected relationship between the rate of oxygen consumption and increasing exercise intensity (treadmill speed), which confirms that the testing protocol is eliciting the expected physiological response (Figure 1). Figure 2 illustrates the differences in the standard deviation of the vertical accelerations for each subject at each speed. The clear difference between walking (2.54.5mph) and jogging/running (5.0-7.0mph) suggests that activity type, and thus, PAEE will be able to be determined from the accelerometer of the Apple iPod/iPhone.
Objective The study objectives were to develop an application for the Apple iPhone, and to validate its triaxial accelerometer as a measure of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) against an acceptable goldstandard, namely indirect calorimetry, as well as compare it to the ActiHeart activity monitor. It is hypothesized that the application for the Apple iPhone will produce PAEE values that agree with the values produced by indirect calorimetry and the ActiHeart device.
Figure 1. Rate of oxygen consumption with increasing treadmill speed (N=8).
Design: Quasi-experimental design -paired.
Setting University of Calgary, Calgary
“Encouraging participation in sport as part of a healthy and active lifestyle from a young age is critical for the future success of sport in Alberta.”
Subjects In the pilot component of the study eight healthy subjects (M=3; F=5) volunteered to participate and completed the initial testing session (Agemean: 26 years (24-30); Heightmean: 172cm (164.2-180.2); Weightmean: 64.6kg (56.8-78.0)). This study was approved by a University Research Ethics Board.
Intervention/Main Outcome Measures The testing involved two visits to the exercise physiology laboratory within two weeks. During each visit, the subject completed a randomized sequence of walking, jogging and/or running at various speeds (2.57.0mph) on a treadmill. The subjects completed the exercise while wearing an iPod Touch, an ActiHeart monitor, and a mouthpiece, which allowed his or her expired gases to be collected and analyzed using a metabolic cart.
Figure 2. Standard deviation in vertical accelerations captured by the Apple iPod during walking and running on a treadmill.
Conclusions These observations indicate that the data collected by the accelerometer inside the Apple iPod/iPhone will be sufficient to develop an application for the device, so that it can be used as PA monitor. Further analysis of the data will reveal whether or not the applications PAEEs agree with either/both of the PAEE values obtained from the ActiHeart device and indirect calorimetry. (We would like to acknowledge the expertise of Dr. J. R. Mitchell’s lab in the Faculty of Medicine at the U. of C., AB.)
Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF.
For more information contact Dr. P. K. Doyle-Baker: 2500 University Drive NW, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4
Commentary The overall decline in children’s and adolescent’s PA levels in Alberta not only negatively impacts the health of individuals, but also results in declining participation rates in sport, as well as attendance at and general support of sporting events. Encouraging participation in sport as part of a healthy and active lifestyle from a young age is critical for the future success of sport in Alberta. The newest generation of cellular telephones, “smartphones”, offer a ground-breaking opportunity to collect the high-quality data necessary to conduct meaningful research into the environmental influencers of PA behaviours.
Physiological Characteristics and Time Motion Analysis of Canoe Polo Athletes Gordon Bell, Scott Forbes and Michael Kennedy Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta
Time motion analysis of sport often involves video taping of actual games and this allows subsequent determination and classification of the movement patterns and the time spent performing these movement patterns by each player by position. This methodology has been used in other research that we have conducted in our lab for synchronized swimming, wheelchair basketball and more recently with women's rugby. In addition, combining video analysis with an examination of the physiological measurements (e.g. heart rate) during a game and the measurement of the fitness characteristics of players establishes a profile that provides further insight to the demands of the sport.
Video analysis of canoe polo games combined with heart rate monitoring of each player during the game and physiological assessments of all players.
The sport of canoe polo has not received much attention in sport science. It is a competitive ball sport played on water in a defined pitch (35 meters in length by 25 meters wide) between two teams of 5 players, each in a kayak. The object of the game is to get the ball into the opponent’s goal that is suspended 2 meters above the water. A competition lasts 20 minutes consisting of two 10 minute halves. To date, there are currently no scientific studies conducted on the sport of canoe polo.
Objective The purposes of this study was to determine the time spent performing the different movements during international canoe polo competitions using time motion analysis; assess the physiological demands of canoe polo athletes with heart rate monitoring; and, evaluate the physiological characteristics (fitness) of canoe polo athletes.
Setting World Canoe Championships, Edmonton, Alberta and the Exercise Physiology Lab, Faculty of PER, University of Alberta
Subjects The volunteers were 8 members of the Canadian Canoe Polo team (mean age, height, body mass and years experience were 25±1 yrs, 182.4±4.2 cm, 81.9±10.9 kg and 6±4 yrs, respectively). Ethics was obtained through a University Research Ethics Board and each player signed a consent form to participate.
Intervention/Main Outcome Measures Three international canoe polo games were filmed using a commercially available mini DV video camera from a raised vantage that allowed coverage of the whole game. Video analysis was performed using Dartfish 5.0 software. Suunto heart rate (HR) monitors were worn by each player during the games and HR was recorded to memory and later downloaded. All participants had a complete physiological assessment performed at the time of the championships.
Main Results Table 1. Characteristics of International Canoe Polo Games Played by the Canadian National Team and Heart Rate Responses. (n = 3 games)
% of Time in 1st Half
% of Time in 2nd Half
Whistle stops % of Time Spent above VT HR % of Time Spent at peak HR
As is the case for most sports, the % of time spent played in offense and defense varies depending on the game and the opponent. Interestingly for the Canadian Team, the majority of their time in offense occurred in the 1st half of the 3 games analyzed. Consequently, they were required to be in the defensive mode for the majority of the 2nd half. Canoe polo is played at a high intensity as noted by the high heart rate responses of the players during the games. The fitness assessment provides further evidence that the game of Canoe Polo requires players to be lean and have a high level of anaerobic and aerobic fitness.
Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF.
Table 2. Physiological Characteristics of the Canadian National Canoe Polo Players (n=8).
Variable % Body Fat
Mean ± SD 9.9 ± 1.7
Upper Body Anaerobic Peak 5s PO (w)
378.7 ± 49.1
Upper Body Anaerobic Peak 5s PO (w/kg-1)
4.6 ± 0.3
Upper Body Anaerobic Mean 30s PO (w)
289.9 ± 31.5
Upper Body Anaerobic Mean 30s PO (w×kg-1)
3.6 ± 0.2
Upper Body Ventilatory Threshold (L×min-1)
2.2 ± 0.3
Upper Body VO2peak (L×min-1)
3.3 ± 0.3
For more information contact: Dr. Gordon Bell, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, E424 Van Vliet Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9
Commentary The International Canoe Federation was first sanctioned in 1989 and the first world championship was held in 1994. Edmonton was host to the world championship in 2008. It was during this event that videotaping, heart rate monitoring and fitness testing was conducted with the Canadian National Team. The video analyses provide players, coaches and sport scientists with a tool that can provide much insight into a competitive game. Furthermore, heart rate monitoring and fitness testing also provide valuable information about the physical demands of the sport and this can assist with better physical preparation for each player. References are available on request.
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Determination of the Optimal Resistance Setting for Upper Body Anaerobic Power Testing of Kayakers and Canoeists Normand Boule, Gordon Bell, Scott Forbes and Michael Kennedy Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Main Results Introduction The Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) is arguably the most widely used test Peak 5s and mean 30 s PO (watts) are presented in the figures below. of anaerobic fitness for cycling or arm crank exercise (Inbar et al., 1996). Fatigue index ranged from 55 to 57%. Selection of the relative load factor that allows for optimize resistance setting and maximal power output (PO) is important and only one publication could be found that has investigated load optimization for an upper body WAnT (Dotan & Bar-Or, 1983). This latter research was not conducted with athletes that have an established high level of upper body anaerobic fitness and was unable to determine an optimal resistance setting for peak 5 second PO. Thus, there is a paucity of research that has investigated the best relative load factor to maximize PO for both peak 5 second and mean 30 second PO during an arm crank WAnT. This has important sport performance applications for assessment of athletes such as kayakers and canoeists that require a high level of upper body anaerobic fitness for optimal performance. Objective The purpose of this study will be to determine the optimal relative load factor for assessing peak 5 and mean 30 second power output in athletes that have a high level of upper body anaerobic fitness. It was hypothesized that these athletes will require a higher relative load factor than that reported for untrained individuals. Design Quasi-experimental, within subjects, randomized condition design. Each subject performed 5 WAnT’s with 5 different resistance settings in a randomized order. Setting: Exercise Physiology Lab, Faculty of PER, University of Alberta Subjects Volunteer paddlers (mean age, height, body mass and years experience were 25±3 yrs, 180.4±4.7 cm, 79.7±9.3kg and 7.4±2.6 yrs, respectively) that were actively training and involved in competitive sport for a minimum of 1 year were recruited. Ethics was attained through the Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation Research Ethics Board Intervention/Main Outcome Measures Peak 5 second and mean 30 s power output as well as a fatigue index was determined during a WAnT on a Monark arm crank ergometer 891E. This ergometer has a basket for adding weights to apply the load. The ergometer was fitted with an electronic photo cell and computer interface that accurately recorded flywheel revolutions to a lap top computer using custom designed software. An orientation session was completed followed by 5 WAnT on different days with randomized resistance settings of 0.065, 0.070, 0.075, 0.080 and 0.085 kg per kg body mass. For each test, a standardized 10 minute warm-up was completed followed by 1 minute of stretching. The test began after 1 minute of submaximal arm cranking followed by a rapid application of the resistance setting at the same time the participant was asked to increase their arm cranking rate to a maximum. As soon as the final load was applied and the participant deemed to be maximally arm cranking, the 30 second test began. Each participant was consistently verbally encouraged and no feedback was provided about elapsed test time. As well, the ergometer display was masked during the test.
Conclusions The resistance setting that elicited the highest peak 5s PO and mean 30 s PO was 0.075 (760±72 w) and 0.070 (491±37 w) kg per kg body mass. These resistance settings are higher than what was found to elicit the highest mean PO for a student population (0.062 kg/kg BM; Dotan & BarOr, 1983). Thus, athletes with upper body training such as the paddlers studied in the present investigation require higher relative load settings during a WAnT than what has been previously reported. Source of Funding: Sport Science Association of Alberta (SSAA) through the ASRPWF. For more information contact: Dr. Gordon Bell, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, E424 Van Vliet Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H9 Commentary Anaerobic fitness of the arms and upper body is important for a variety of sports and especially for wheelchair athletes. However, arm crank anaerobic fitness testing is often underutilized and the optimal resistance setting to validly assess peak and mean power output has not been well established. We found this to be the case in a sample of athletes who train and compete using predominately upper body exercise. Further research needs to be conducted to assess the optimal resistance setting for the WAnT in variety of athletes that rely on upper body anaerobic fitness. References available on request.
This issue is showcasing Alberta's reasarch in sport concussion, sport participation amoung urban youth, perceptions of parenting styles in...
Published on Sep 14, 2010
This issue is showcasing Alberta's reasarch in sport concussion, sport participation amoung urban youth, perceptions of parenting styles in...