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ECHO 6 Main Issues

ECHO

Main Issues

ECHO 6 Main Issues Echo är en läromedelsserie i engelska för gymnasiet och vuxenutbildningen. Echo 6 är avsedd för de högskoleförberedande programmen. Echo 6 är tätt knuten till Gy 2011 och har fokus på genrekunskap, skönlitteratur och globala frågor. Main Issues ger dig fakta, Short Stories ger dig fiktion.

Komponenter i Echo 6 Main Issues av Kevin Frato: Elevbok med teman och texter i 11 olika genrer, träning av förmågor och färdigheter enligt kunskapsmålen i Gy 2011. Även resursavsnitt för text och tal samt grammatikdel. (27-42731-0)

Short Stories av Alastair Henry och Åke Persson: Elevbok med 10 noveller, samt äldre prosatexter, poesi och pjäser. Språk- och analysträning enligt Gy 2011. Texterna har en naturlig koppling till motsvarande tema i Main Issues. (27-42735-8)

Interaktiv lärarhandledning Plus: Båda elevböckerna Main Issues och Short Stories i en samlad digital version med integrerat lärarstöd, bedömningshjälp, ljudfiler och hörövningar. (27-42738-9)

Läs mer om Echo på www.nok.se/echo

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Ljud och facit via kod inuti boken

Main Issues

ECHO

Interaktiv bok Plus: Digital elevbok med ljudfiler, hörövningar, fördjupad språkträning, facit och extramaterial. (Main Issues 27-42732-7, Short Stories 27-42736-5)

KEVIN FRATO

ISBN 978-91-27-42731-0

9 789127 427310

Omslag Main Issues6.indd 1

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Contents Quality of Life 5 friend belong you, espiritu 6 Activity Section 14

A World of Fairy Tales 21 Phantastes Press 22 Activity Section 30

Troubled Youth 37 youths sleeping rough in england Today 38 liberals, family Values and youth homelessness 42 Activity Section 44

Drug Politics 51 The future of the War on drugs 52 Activity Section 58

The Widening Circle of English 65 The southwark to delhi Column 66 Activity Section 72

War and Armed Conflict 79 Goodbye michael 80 Activity Section 86

Us and Them 93 To my old master 94 The south Vindicated … 96 a brief history of modern slavery 98 Is uKIP a realistic alternative? 99 Activity Section 100

The Attraction of Violence 107 Potential school shooters 108 Activity Section 114

Gender Issues 121 Jaymee’s extended break blog 122 Activity Section 130

Morals and Power 137 loved and hated? 138 Activity Section 146

Getting There 153 an application 154 Activity Section 162 RESOURCES 169 GRAMMAR 199 ConTenTs

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QUALITY OF LIFE

CORE CONTENT Main Issues: life choices, happiness, friendship Reading Skills: Personal letter (republic of Vanuatu) Listening Skills: discussion Writing Skills: Personal letter Speaking Skills: discussion forum

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Friend Belong You, Espiritu Predict the Content:

• What type of text does this appear to be? • What does the title lead you to expect? • What do the images and subheadings tell you?

Dear Friend Bebe,

e today, A new group tumbled off the plan ses and pale as coconut flesh, clutching pur glasses. fanny packs and hiding behind sun they “It’s an absolute tropical paradise!” . She squealed. Retired folks, says Maura ws is, as always, still cleaning bungalo e to down at the beach, but I often hav gs. help get her out of bed in the mornin ets on Scrubbing-scrubbing-scrubbing toil visiher hands and knees. Sometimes the a tip. tors leave a few crinkly dollars as there are Maura complains, but she knows toilets. five other women waiting to scrub But Bebe, life is good. The forest still cocodrops guavas and breadfruits and bib letnuts into our arms, and we grow ses to tuce, carrots, bananas and hibiscu h the sell in Ipikel. I also help Maura wit throw bungalows. The cargo these visitors and fruit out! Shrink-wrapped sandwiches s from salad from the airline, newspaper ncisco, Sydney and Singapore and San Fra for a t-shirt that says ‘Porpoise Bay is

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lovers’, a mildewed guide to Americ an Samoa, a portable fan with a broken battery hatch, a wristwatch with a scra tched face. Some things we use, some thin gs we sell, some things we throw away aga in. And I started working as a babysit ter. There’s a young couple named Kat ie and Jeff, I welcomed them to the island and asked if they came from America, and she clapped her hands and said, “What an absolutely darling pronunciation, ha-lo, and wel-kam tu dee eye-land, and AyMary-Kah! No, we’re Kiwis, dear, New Zealanders.” They say they are doctors, which gave me the shivers. You know why. Today they paid me to play with thei r son. 100 Vatu. It’s only bus fare, but at least it’s money. And listen, here’s a funny story: the boy tossed his plastic frui tsalad tub in the mangroves. Then a hermit with no shell darted out and too k it! Now if you go down to the cove you can see a crab wearing plastic. Maura says hello, Bebe, she asks why haven’t you written yet? She says do you have any news yet? The drawing her little Sparrow made is faded and curling at the edges from the heat. I have been wri ting to you in my best school English, did you notice?

Yours, Espiritu

QualITy of lIfe

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My Friend Bebe,

night: “… shed my skin… Maura was talking in her sleep last to New Zealand, find him!” like a crab… young again… swim e? I sometimes dream Bebe, you will be back soon, we hop re’s nothing here for women of leaving this place, like you. The dren, and tending a but cleaning bungalows, raising chil that women in America husband’s pigs and garden. I hear e, even babies in America can marry ten men at the same tim drive their own cars. 500 Vatu every day to Now Jacob’s parents are giving me dinner in Ipikel—not a watch their son. That’s enough for lot, but I like the boy. the coral reef… banyanSo this is Jeff and Katie: snorkeling ing… bareback horse-ridtree climbing… glass-bottom-kayak wood carving… mountaining… taking a lesson in traditional site… And right now they’re bike riding out to an old cannibal over Ash Plain and Yasur in a helicopter flying-flying-flying Volcano and on to Lake Siwi. shoving his feet into socks This is me and Jacob: his parents screen and planting a sun-hat and shoes, slathering him with sun gy and saying, “Rememon him, clamping parasols to his bug giving him a plastic bottle ber to keep him out of the sun!”, over his shirt and which I of custard-slop that he burps up all take off his hat and change wipe up… and then they sigh, and his nose again, rub-rub-rub. his clothes, and rub sun-lotion on wave bye-bye, bye-bye. Then they kiss-kiss-kiss him, and the shoes and socks, and walk And then we ditch the buggy and dogs sniffing for crabs at the barefoot along the beach. Pigs and peer at us. edge of the woods, they stop and cheeks round like a pig’s, Then, falling asleep in my lap. His grabbing my thumb and him snuffling and making noises and butterfly wings, his body sucking. His eyelids fluttering like

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en he wakes up, I count jerking like when a dog sleeps. Wh ’s made-up language. on his fingers in Tumorumo, Sparrow Sparrow. Please, have Bebe? He reminds me so much of ch we are depending on you any news? Remember how mu Maura, but, our friend, you. You travelled all that way for . she is still waiting to hear from you

Yours, Espiritu

Dear Friend Bebe,

Maura is lying in bed wi th a blanket, shivering despite the heat. So I cleaned all he r bungalows today—sw eep ing under beds, scrubbing sm elly toilets, pulling swea ty sh eets off and fitting clean starch ed ones on. It was the lea st I could do to help. Then? Jacob. The boy is turning into an islan der, Bebe, almost as dark as me, getting a tan despite all the rubbingrubbing. His hair is tan gled and he’s learning Tumorumo. I made a bamboo bow and arrows, and we pr etend we’re defending the island fro m blackbirders. Sometimes his parents’ faces… they look so sad , like they are running from something. From their home? From their son? I saw in Katie ’s journal the words, “… working on our marriage now… ” This evening Jeff and Ka tie showered and put on church-clothes and ask ed me where in the villag e was best to eat dinner. Then Ka tie said, “My earrings? M y pearl— has anyone––?”And Jef f said, “You probably los t them when we switched plane s in New Caledonia.” She searched a while, the n gave up. They gave Jacob a hug and me another 200 Va tu. So Jacob and I went ho me to eat.

QualITy of lIfe

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They stayed away late, so Jacob fell asleep in my bed, crying and sucking his thumb. Don ’t they understand that being alone is the worst punishm ent, not even murderers or crazy people should be mad e to be alone? I breathed on him and said my most powerful words in Tumorumo to make sure they can ’t take him away. Maura told me something. She said she heard Jacob had a twin sister. That is great new s, I said, where is she? And Maura said, “In the ground.” I wonder if Jacob remembers her.

Espiritu

e, still My Best Friend Beb oking, but I’m singing and co

better, earMaura is much I found Katie’s ay d o T . er h r ungalows fo she said. cleaning the b looked there!” I t u B “ . ed b rings under her ,” Jeff said. u found them yo ad gl e b st “Ju heard in me a story they Then they told how last it, of course): ew n k y ad re from New Ipikel (I al , and a doctor ck si ry ve t go boy but she year an island her hospital… to im h h it w e hom Zealand flew him back. never brought story too.” ve heard that I’ , es Y “ , id sa I was Sparrow?” e boy’s name rrying “They said th ering, and wo iv sh as w I en nd th “Yes” I said. A , too. and about you leep in my about Maura, d Jacob fell as an , n ai ag te la ut can do? They stayed o can do or no g: in k in th e ak w to help. bed. I stayed aw do. I know ho to at h w w o And now I kn

Love, Espiritu 10

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Dear Bebe My Friend,

They were packing this mo rning. Rolling seashells and stems of coral up in soc ks, slipping hibiscus blossoms into books. I knew it was their magic, to bring the isla nd home with them. I held my breath so they couldn’t take me. Katie folded up her computer, which looks like a sea shell that lights up, and Jef f took pictures of the bungalow, to take it home, too. I played with Jacob. I took him down to the harbour with me. Then I too k him onto the Loggerhead with me, which sai ls at noon. Now we are in a broom closet counting in Tumorumo together. It’s only fair, Bebe. I’ll give him to Maura—a boy for a boy. It’s only fair. I’m doing it for you two, my best friends.

Espiritu

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Dear Friend Bebe,

Here is what happened: Someone saw me and Jacob walking to the harbour, and told Katie and Jeff. Somehow they found out about the rest, too: about Sparrow, about Maura… even about you, Bebe (who offered to fly to New Zealand and search for Sparrow, why haven’t you returned?). Katie and Jeff sent a motorboat vroom-vroom-vroom out to the Loggerhead. Then they told Maura they would go the police. Maura cried and said they couldn’t take me away as well, she would have no one left. They said no, not about Espiritu, they would only talk to the police about Sparrow. They said, the owner of the bungalows gave us the

name of that doctor from New Zealand, and we looked on our computer and found where she lives. We will call the police, they will find your son, they said. Then they said, seeing as I was so attached to Jacob? They needed someone to tend to him back home while they were at work. For a year, just until he was old enough for day-care. I had to decide quick. Bebe, their magic was stronger than mine, and Jacob’s fingers on my thumb were, too. Maura cried-cried-cried. I did too. But now I’m in Auckland, shaking like a hibiscus flower in a hurricane. This place they call a city… buildings tall as clouds, rising up like Yasur Volcano, and buses and bicycles rushing everywhere. The police say they are getting closer to finding Sparrow… they’re searching, using all their magic, and I have been taping up paper notices about him.

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And Katie and Jeff have also used their magic. They found you working as a hospital clea ner. Why, Bebe? After lunch Jacob and I are going to take a bus to the hospital and deliver this letter to you . And then together we will write to Maura, together tell her the news. We still have each other, I hope?

Friend belong you, Espiritu

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ACTIVITY SECTION

Speak about it Short discussion Look back through the text and jot down your ideas before discussing. 1 Who are the main characters described in the letters? make a mindmap and briefly describe their relationships with each other. 2 The two younger children are central to the story. Who is sparrow? Why does espiritu hide Jacob? 3 find two things espiritu mentions that she does not like about living on the island, and two things she does like. do you think her life will be better in auckland? explain.

Strategic word work – On Vanuatu Discuss and define the following terms. Translate if necessary. 1 a new group tumbled off the plane today clutching purses and fanny packs. 2 The cargo these visitors throw out! 3 she is, as always, still cleaning bungalows down at the beach. 4 The forest still drops guavas and breadfruits into our arms. 5 They say they are doctors, which gave me the shivers. 6 … the boy tossed his plastic fruit-salad tub in the mangroves. 7 … Jacob’s parents are giving me 500 Vatu every day to watch their son. 8 so this is Jeff and Katie: banyan-tree climbing, glass-bottom– kayaking … 9 … his parents slathering him with sunscreen and planting a sun-hat on him … 10 … clamping parasols to his buggy and saying, “remember to keep him out of the sun!” 11 The boy is turning into an islander. 12 … we pretend we’re defending the island from blackbirders. 13 you probably lost them when we switched planes … 14 They were slipping hibiscus blossoms into books. 15 They needed someone to tend to him back home while they were at work. Look up 5–10 interesting words or phrases in the text and use them in new sentences.

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ACTIVITY SECTION

Write about it Linguistics – Pidgin English and creole languages Throughout the Pacific, people speak grammatically simplified versions of english blended with local languages. These varieties of english, known as pidgins, are useful because they are easily learned and help people of different linguistic backgrounds communicate in trade situations (usually one of them is a native english-speaker). each pidgin language contains roughly 400–1,000 nouns, 40–50 verbs (only the present tense is used), a total of about 100 adjectives, pronouns and adverbs, plus 40–50 local words. The official language on Vanuatu is bislama, a creole of english. a creole is a language that has developed from a Pidgin, and has become a mother tongue.

1 What do you think these Pidgin expressions mean? discuss: halo welkam I wanchee you makee 2 research two of the following simplified languages.  Nubi  Sabir  Haitian  Russenorsk  Bajan  Spanglish Where are/were they spoken? are they a pidgin, a creole, or another type of language?

Quick-writing Choose one of the topics and write a brief reflection. Share your work. 

Comment on espiritu’s tone as she describes the tourists at the start of her letters. What does she think of them? Evaluate, and rank, the following in terms of importance for your quality of life: health money love family environment Compare your list with a partner’s.

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ACTIVITY SECTION

FACTS & FIGURES Another angle on the main issue

Living a happy life A common assumption is that wealth increases happiness, and that people in developed countries are happier than people in less developed countries. But surveys in Britain and the U.S. show that, despite significant gains in disposable income and living standards, people are no happier now than during the 1950s. In 1943, psychologist Abraham Maslow presented a hierarchy of human needs. He said that we do not feel certain needs until certain other needs have been met. Once we have food and housing, we will start to feel the need for safety, love and eventually for creative outlets in order to be happy. sTeP 5 Self-actualization (creativity, fulfilling potential etc.) sTeP 4 Esteem (self-worth and respect among peers) sTeP 3 Love/belonging (friendships and family) sTeP 2 Safety (stability and no fear of bodily harm) sTeP 1 Physiological needs (food, water, sleep, shelter etc.)

Human needs according to Maslow.

In recent years this model has been revised to suggest that the last step of the hierarchy is not about realizing yourself and your own intellectual potential, but is in fact to have children. Researchers suggest that our biological need to reproduce might be strong enough to prevent us from being completely happy if we do not have a child. However, this theory has been criticized by many.

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ACTIVITY SECTION

On Vanuatu Vanuatu, located in melanesia east of australia and west of fiji, gained its independence from britain and france, its colonial co-rulers, in 1980. Population: 257,000 Capital city: Port Vila, on the island of efate (population 30,000) Number of islands: 80, of which 13 are more important. Government: democracy Religion: mostly Christian Education: education on Vanuatu is not compulsory. In 2004, only 74% of children completed their primary education. Literacy rate: 53% Standard of living: 80% of the population lives in villages with little or no access to health care. most villages raise and grow their own food through small-scale farming. HPI (Happy Planet Index): based on its survey results, Vanuatu was at the top of the 2006 happy Planet Index, which is an index of human well-being and environmental impact. Official languages: english, french and bislama (pidgin english). Other languages: more than 120 distinct local languages. Ethnic groups: 94% ni-Vanuatu (indigenous islanders), 4% european, and 2% other Pacific Islanders, Vietnamese, Chinese, and australians. Blackbirding: blackbirding in melanesia began in 1863 and continued for decades. It involved tricking or kidnapping islanders into labor on other islands—most never returned home. on the Vanuatu island of Tanna, which measures 25 by 50 kilometers, the population fell from 15,000 in 1872 to 6,000 in 1926, mostly through blackbirding, disease and murder. Cargo cults: during World War II the us navy set up a base on Vanuatu, which sparked a cargo cult. Cargo cults are hybrid religions in which isolated peoples who suddenly come into contact with the outside world believe technology is magic.

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ACTIVITY SECTION

Think about it Answer the questions using examples from the main text and Facts & Figures & (p. 16–17) to support your opinions.

Read closely Think about what is written between the lines.

&

1 What do you find out about espiritu’s economic situation? Is she poor, or relatively well-off? 2 What do maura, espiritu and bebe do for each other, out of friendship? 3 Where would you place espiritu and Katie on the needs/happiness hierarchy? What steps have they fulfilled? Where would they place themselves?

Read critically Think about the writer’s purpose and point of view.

& &

1 list topics that re-occur in espiritu’s letters. Why do you think they are important to her? 2 maslow does not mention money in his hierarchy of needs. do you think it should be included? Why or why not? 3 We are given certain facts about Vanuatu. how does this information change our understanding of espiritu’s letters?

An extract Read and re-read this quote from Friend Belong You, Espiritu (p. 9).

Then? Jacob. The boy is turning into an islander, Bebe, almost as dark as me, getting a tan despite all the rubbing-rubbing. His hair is tangled and he’s learning Tumorumo […] Sometimes his parents’ faces… they look so sad, like they are running from something. From their home? From their son? I saw in Katie’s journal the words, “… working on our marriage now…” 1 What is the difference between an ‘islander’ and Katie and Jeff, as espiritu sees it? 2 do you think espiritu feels sorry for Katie? What do you think about Katie and Jeff’s problems, compared with espiritu’s?

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ACTIVITY SECTION

Final writing task Discuss: espiritu seems quite cheerful about life in her letters to bebe. This, despite her own and maura’s problems. how is she able to look positively on life? do you think your attitude to life changes as you get older? how? PERSONAL LETTER

Write a letter to yourself to read when you are 70.   

describe your life at the moment, and how you feel about it. describe how you imagine ageing might change you. discuss what you hope to have achieved when you are 70. how can you increase the quality of your life?

 Personal letters: see p. 190  Editing and responding: see p. 195 Final speaking task Discuss: What effects might tourism have on isolated societies? Think about espiritu’s letters, and about Vanuatu itself. What are the dangers and benefits of tourism? DISCUSSION FORUM

you are participating in a project-planning meeting at a big hotel investment company. The aim is to discuss the construction of your next luxury resort. 1 each group should choose and research one of the following islands: Orkney Islands Lord Howe Island

Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

Galápagos Islands Easter Island

2 Present ‘your’ island to the other participants, showing pictures and teaching them about the following:   

population, culture, community and infrastructure nature and wildlife ‘unique selling points’ (the particular attraction of this island)

3 discuss the interests of the locals vs. the investment company. What would change if a big hotel was built there? 4 In your group, rank the plans from least to most suitable.

 Discussion forums: see p. 179  Editing and responding: see p. 195

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ACTIVITY SECTION

MORE TO EXPLORE Grammar Irregular plural nouns uncountable nouns nouns that can be either countable or uncountable special plural cases Listening comprehension a discussion on dream holidays Literature Echo 6 Short Stories: “Crusader rabbit” by Jess mowry Of Mice and Men by John steinbeck White Teeth by Zadie smith Jellicoe Road by melina marchetta Film Little Miss Sunshine Blue Jasmine The Pursuit of Happiness

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ECHO 6 Main Issues

ECHO

Main Issues

ECHO 6 Main Issues Echo är en läromedelsserie i engelska för gymnasiet och vuxenutbildningen. Echo 6 är avsedd för de högskoleförberedande programmen. Echo 6 är tätt knuten till Gy 2011 och har fokus på genrekunskap, skönlitteratur och globala frågor. Main Issues ger dig fakta, Short Stories ger dig fiktion.

Komponenter i Echo 6 Main Issues av Kevin Frato: Elevbok med teman och texter i 11 olika genrer, träning av förmågor och färdigheter enligt kunskapsmålen i Gy 2011. Även resursavsnitt för text och tal samt grammatikdel. (27-42731-0)

Short Stories av Alastair Henry och Åke Persson: Elevbok med 10 noveller, samt äldre prosatexter, poesi och pjäser. Språk- och analysträning enligt Gy 2011. Texterna har en naturlig koppling till motsvarande tema i Main Issues. (27-42735-8)

Interaktiv lärarhandledning Plus: Båda elevböckerna Main Issues och Short Stories i en samlad digital version med integrerat lärarstöd, bedömningshjälp, ljudfiler och hörövningar. (27-42738-9)

Läs mer om Echo på www.nok.se/echo

6

Ljud och facit via kod inuti boken

Main Issues

ECHO

Interaktiv bok Plus: Digital elevbok med ljudfiler, hörövningar, fördjupad språkträning, facit och extramaterial. (Main Issues 27-42732-7, Short Stories 27-42736-5)

KEVIN FRATO

ISBN 978-91-27-42731-0

9 789127 427310

Omslag Main Issues6.indd 1

2014-04-25 11:45

9789127427310  
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