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STEPPING STONE

GRAMMAR

BIRGITTA DALIN JEREMY HANSON KERSTIN TUTHILL

IN ENGLISH

STEPPING STONE Grammar in English är en bok i serien STEPPING STONE. Här samlas den grammatik som finns i de tre elevböckerna Stepping Stone 1, 2 och 3. STEPPING STONE Grammar in English ger dig de grammatiska kunskaper du behöver för att klara dina studier i engelska från nybörjarnivå till gymnasiets första kurs. Grammatiska regler förklaras på engelska och exempelmeningar visar hur reglerna används i praktiken.

STEPPING STONE

GRAMMAR

BIRGITTA DALIN JEREMY HANSON KERSTIN TUTHILL

IN ENGLISH


Contents

§ 1 Units of measurement.................. 4

Nouns § 2 Plural form with -s....................... 5 § 3 Irregular plural forms.................... 6 § 4 Nouns that are always singular in English........................ 6 § 5 Nouns that are always plural in English........................... 7 The genitive form § 6 Apostrophe genitive...................... 8 § 7 The of-genitive............................. 9 Articles § 8 The indefinite article (a/an)........ 10 § 9 The definite article (the)............. 11 Pronouns § 10 Personal pronouns...................... 11 § 11 There is/there are – there was/there were................... 12 § 12 Possessive pronouns.................... 13 § 13 Reflexive pronouns..................... 14 § 14 Relative pronouns....................... 15 § 15 Interrogative pronouns............... 16 § 16 Demonstrative pronouns............ 17 § 17 Some, any................................... 17 § 18 No one, nobody, nothing, no, none .................................... 18 § 19 Everyone, everybody .................. 19 § 20 Quantifying pronouns................ 19 Verbs § 21 The present simple...................... 20 § 22 The past simple........................... 22 § 23 The present perfect simple.......... 24 § 24 The past perfect simple............... 25 § 25 The future.................................. 25 § 26 The principal parts of irregular verbs......................... 27

§ 27 Do/does/did/don’t/ doesn’t/didn’t.............................. 29 § 28 Do/does/did as a replacement verb.................. 31 § 29 Question tags ............................ 31 § 30 Modal verbs................................ 32 § 31 The passive................................. 35 § 32 Be + the -ing form (present and past continuous)..... 37 § 33 Verb + verb + -ing....................... 38 § 34 Verb + -ing after a preposition....................... 39 § 35 Expressions followed by the -ing form of the verb............ 39 § 36 Word order................................. 39 Adjectives § 37 The comparison of adjectives with -er and -est......................... 40 § 38 Comparison with more and the most.............................. 41 § 39 Irregular comparison.................. 41 § 40 One/ones.................................... 42 Adverbs § 41 Adverb or adjective..................... 42 § 42 Adverbs formed from adjectives... 43 § 43 Verbs followed by adjectives....... 43 § 44 Where do I put the adverbial in a sentence?.............................. 44 Prepositions § 45 Prepositions that express time..... 44 § 46 Prepositions that express place.... 46 § 47 Examples of prepositions used in different expressions....... 47

§ 48 The English sounds..................... 50 § 49 The English alphabet.................. 50

Index ................................................... 51 3


§ 1 Units of measurement Temperature Nowadays they usually use Centigrade (Celsius/C) in Great Britain, but in the USA they usually use Fahrenheit (F), where 0 °C = 32 °F and 100 °C = 212 °F. Use the following formula to convert degrees in Fahrenheit to Centigrade: 9 Degrees in Fahrenheit (F) = degrees in Centigrade (C) x + 32 5 As an example, to convert ordinary body temperature, we must calculate like this: 333 37 ° C x 9 = 333 , = 66.6, 66.6 + 32 = 98.6 °F 5 Expressions people use to talk about the temperature of the weather in Fahrenheit: It’s in the nineties. (very hot) It’s in the eighties. (hot) It’s in the seventies. (very warm)

It’s in the sixties. It’s in the fifties.

(warm) (mild)

Length 2.5 centimetres 12 inches 1/3 yard 30.5 centimetres 36 inches 3 feet 91.4 centimetres 1,760 yards 1,609 metres NOTE! A Swedish mile does not exist internationally, so you have to say that this is 10 kilometres or 6.21 English miles. 1 inch 1 foot 1 yard 1 mile

Money Great Britain: £1 = one pound sterling = 100 p = a hundred pence The USA: $1 = one dollar = 100 c = a hundred cents a penny = 1 cent a nickel = 5 cents a dime = 10 cents

a quarter = 25 cents

British system US system Volume 1 pint 5.7 decilitres 4.7 decilitres 1.1 litres 0.9 litres 1 quart (= 2 pints) 4.5 litres 3.8 litres 1 gallon (= 4 quarts) NOTE that they use the decimal (.) in Britain and the USA.

Weight 1 ounce = 28.4 grams 1 stone = 6.4 kilos

1 pound = 16 ounces = 0.45 kilos

Area 1 acre = 4,840 square yards = 0.4 hectares = 4,047 square metres 4

Units of measurement


Nouns Nouns are words to describe living things (child, boy, dog, mother), things (sofa, kitchen), feelings (happiness, love, anger), names (Paul, Sweden, November) etc. A noun can either be singular (one) or plural (two or more).

§ 2 Plural form with -s A. You often make a noun plural by adding -s. one girl – two girls [lz] one boy – two boys [bɔz]

one car – two cars [kɑz]

B. Singular nouns that end with -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh have -es in the plural form. bus – buses [bsz] boss – bosses [bɒsz] box – boxes [bɒksz]

buzz – buzzes [bzz] beach – beaches [bitʃz] brush – brushes [brʃz]

C. Some nouns that end with -o have -es in the plural form. potato – potatoes [pətetəυz] tomato – tomatoes [təmɑtəυz]

hero – heroes [hərəυz] echo – echoes [ekəυz]

Most other nouns that end with -o only have -s in the plural form, e.g. piano-pianos, video-videos, radio-radios, kilo-kilos, photo-photos. D. Nouns that end with a consonant + y have -ies in the plural form. family – families [fmliz] baby – babies [bebiz] factory – factories [fktriz]

university – universities [junvsətiz] balcony – balconies [blkəniz]

BUT! After a noun that ends with a vowel, you only add -s: boy-boys, toy-toys,

day-days, journey-journeys.

E. Some nouns that end with -f and -fe have -ves in the plural form. calf – calves [kɑvz] half – halves [hɑvz] life – lives [lavz] loaf – loaves [ləυvz] shelf – shelves [ʃelvz]

knife – knives [navz] leaf – leaves [livz] thief – thieves [θivz] wife – wives [wavz] wolf – wolves [wυlvz]

BUT! Look at these nouns:

roof – roofs, safe – safes (irregular plural forms) hoof – hoofs/hooves, scarf – scarfs/scarves (both irregular and regular plural forms)

Nouns

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§ 3 Irregular plural forms A. Some nouns form the plural in other ways than by adding -s. man [mn] – men [men] woman [wυmən] – women [wmn] child [tʃald] – children [tʃldrən] foot [fυt] – feet [fit] tooth [tuθ] – teeth [tiθ] person [psn] – people [pipl] One man and two women were injured in the car accident. We met two very friendly Englishmen when we were in Paris. We have only one child but my brother has masses of children. There was only one person in the shop but there were three people waiting outside. B. Some nouns have the same form in both the singular and the plural. aircraft – aircraft [eəkrɑft] sheep – sheep [ʃip] fish – fish [fʃ] Chinese – Chinese [tʃaniz] Japanese – Japanese [dpəniz] Portuguese – Portuguese [pɔtʃuiz] There’s a sheep eating the grass in our garden. You will find millions of sheep in Australia. Bill has a goldfish in his fish tank. Did you hear that Tom caught ten fish yesterday?

§ 4 Nouns that are always singular in English There are both countable and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns (that you can count) have both a singular and a plural form: Can you give me the book, please? Molly reads a lot of books. This is a book that I can really recommend. Uncountable nouns (that you cannot count) are always singular: There is often a lot of heavy traffic on Fridays. What terrible traffic they have in London!

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Nouns


A. Nouns that are uncountable are always in the singular form and without a/an. Examples are weather, luck, traffic, hair. What terrible weather we’re having today! Learning a foreign language is always hard work. Mary has such beautiful hair. B. Uncountable nouns that are always in the singular form in English: advice, business, cash, furniture, homework, information, knowledge, money, news, progress, pollution NOTE! With these words, the verb is always in the singular and the pronouns that you use are this, that, it. You cannot use a/an or numerals (one, two, three…) with these words – use some/any instead. You cannot use many in front of them either – use much instead

Where is my money? I think I put it on the table. I bought some new furniture last week. How much cash do you need to buy that new dress? His knowledge of Spanish isn’t so good. I need some advice on how this machine works. That information is absolutely useless! John made less progress with his work than I had expected. We haven’t got much homework to prepare for tomorrow. However, it is still possible to express uncountable nouns in the singular – using expressions like these: a word/piece of advice a piece of furniture an item of news/a news item a slice of bread John gave me a word of advice. It was very useful. This is a valuable piece of furniture. It is very expensive.

§ 5 Nouns that are always plural in English A. Here are some examples of nouns which are always plural (with no changes to the spelling): binoculars, people, police, pyjamas, scissors, stairs, steps Can you help me look for my binoculars? I can’t find them. There were many/lots of people at the party. If you ask me, few/hardly any people are racists. Several police were injured during the riots. Where are my pyjamas? Are they on my bed? These scissors are very sharp.

Nouns

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