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Joeri Slots Friday april 20th 2012

Graduation presentation

One square kilometr 100,000 peopl C hengdu, China

e e


Vertical Cities Asia Competition

China’s urbanization rate exceeded 50% by the end of 2011

World Bank

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Competition Brief

one square kilometre to house 100,000 people Every year, for the next five years, a

territory will be the subject of the Competition. This area,

living and working, sets the stage for tremendous research and investigation into urban density, verticality, domesticity, work, food, infrastructure, nature, ecology, structure, and program – their holistic integration and the quest for visionary paradigm will be the challenges of this urban and architectural invention. For this year, the theme is “Fresh

Air” and the site is set in Chengdu,

China. This city is surrounded by high mountain ranges in the west and hills in the east. A

China

subtropical monsoon climate resulted in a mainly

agricultural economy in the past. In the recent years however, IT

and

technology markets have emerged in Chengdu. The city has the ambition

of becoming a flourishing high-tech centre of China.

Australia

The site area that we are dealing with, lies in the outskirts of Chengdu. It

about five square km of which only one square km is allowed to be built. Within this one square km, 100.000 people need is

to be housed while work, recreation and other amenities also have to be provided. The

residential part will comprise 50% of the total

floor space, the other 50% will be based on the outcome of our own research.

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Competition Brief

Chengdu in relation to China

n province

one square kilometre to house 100,000 people Every year, for the next five years, a

territory will be the subject of the Competition. This area,

living and working, sets the stage for tremendous research and investigation into urban density, verticality, domesticity, work, food, infrastructure, nature, ecology, structure, and program – their holistic integration and the quest for visionary paradigm will be the challenges of this urban and architectural invention. For this year, the theme is “Fresh

Shenyang Beijing

Air” and the site is set in Chengdu,

Tianjin

China. This city is surrounded by high mountain ranges in the west and hills in the east. A

Xi’an

subtropical monsoon climate resulted in a mainly

Sichuan

agricultural economy in the past. In the recent years however, IT

Shanghai

and

Wuhan Chengdu

technology markets have emerged in Chengdu. The city has the ambition

Chengdu

Chengdu

Chongqing

of becoming a flourishing high-tech centre of China.

Chinese cities in 2010

The site area that we are dealing with, lies in the outskirts of Chengdu. It

population > 5 mln

is

population > 7 mln

about five square km of which only one square km is allowed to be built. Within this one square km, 100.000 people need

to be housed while work, recreation and other amenities also have to be provided. The

residential part will comprise 50% of the total

floor space, the other 50% will be based on the outcome of our own research.

Shenzhen

1

Hong Kong

Guangzhou*

population > 10 mln * including agglomerations Dongguang and Foshan

Major cities of China Chengdu is the last major city to the West

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Competition Brief context Chengdu in relation to China

one square kilometre to house 100,000 people Every year, for the next five years, a

territory will be the subject of the Competition. This area,

living and working, sets the stage for tremendous research and investigation into urban density, verticality, domesticity, work, food, infrastructure, nature, ecology, structure, and program – their holistic integration and the quest for visionary paradigm will be the challenges of this urban and architectural invention. For this year, the theme is “Fresh

Air” and the site is set in Chengdu,

China. This city is surrounded by high mountain ranges in the west and hills in the east. A

subtropical monsoon climate resulted in a mainly

agricultural economy in the past. In the recent years however, IT

Sichuan

and

technology markets have emerged in Chengdu. The city has the ambition

Chengdu

of becoming a flourishing high-tech centre of China.

Chines

The site area that we are dealing with, lies in the outskirts of Chengdu. It

about five square km of which only one square km is allowed to be built. Within this one square km, 100.000 people need is

* including

to be housed while work, recreation and other amenities also have to be provided. The

residential part will comprise 50% of the total

Capital of Sichuan province

Majo Chen

ation

floor space, the other 50% will be based on the outcome of our own research.

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Site area

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Site area

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Site area

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What does 100.000 people means?

Delft

Vertical City Asia

Area(2010) - Total 24,08 km2 - Land 22,98 km2

Area - Total

1,0 km2

Population - Total - Density

Population - Total - Density

100.000 100.000/km2

97.588 4.247/km2

Delft

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What does 100.000 people means?

Odijk

Vertical City Asia

Build-Area(2010) - Total 1,22 km2 - Land 1,21 km2

Area - Total

1,0 km2

Population(2010) - Total 5.220 - Density 4.314/km2

Population - Total - Density

100.000 100.000/km2

Odijk

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China’s Prospects Rural vs. urban population

total population urban population

1345 million

1370 million

585 million

632 million

760 million

738 million

1439 million

1426 million

770 million

1042 million

rural population 670 million

384 million

year

1998

2000

2004

2008

2012

2020

2050

“China has seen its rural population shrink in recent years as the country’s urbanization has gathered momentum.”3 Xie Fuzhan, director of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

3

www.china-embassy.org

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Insufficient Agriculture Land Required Land vs. Available Land

year land needed

1998

agriculture land

2000

2004

62 million ha

2008 52 million ha

65 million ha

67 million ha

2012

2020 43 million ha

48 million ha 69million ha

72 million ha

109 million ha arable land

122 million ha

118 million ha

2050 38 million ha 71 million ha 72 million ha

100 million ha

121 million ha

12% of China’s total population is undernourished Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT), 2010

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Importing Food China’s import & export flows

food import export

food import export

food import export

food import export

food import export

food import export

year

1998

Based on World Trade Organisation (WTO) data 2009

2000

2004

2008

2012

2020

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2050

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One of China’s Solutions... China’s overseas land lease

Russia

Kazakhstan

Philippines

Mexico

Cuba

Laos

Cameroon D.R Congo

Tanzania Zimbabwe

Australia

China’s land leases overseas 50.000 ha

UNEP Environmental Knowledge for Change, GRAIN, 2008; Mongabay 2008. ENEP Environmental Knowledge for Change, GRAIN, Mongabay 2008

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...Not a Long Term Solution Projected losses in food production due to climate change by 2080

Russia

Kazakhstan

Philippines

Mexico

Cuba

Laos

Cameroon D.R Congo

Tanzania Zimbabwe

Australia

Projected losses of countries due to climate change by 2080 -50 %

Cline, 2007

-1 5%

0

+ 15%

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Emissions food import export

food import export

food import export

food import export

food import export

food import export

pollution

year

1998

Based on World Trade Organisation (WTO) data 2009

2000

2004

2008

2012

2020

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2050

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Unstable Food Prices Food prices in relationship to oil prices

Changes in commodity prices in relation to oil prices. Crude oil price (index)

Food prices (index) 400

600

300

450

Oil

300

200 Wheat Rice 100

Index reference: 100=1998-2000

0 Jan-00

150

Maize

Jan-02

Jan-04

Jan-06

0

Oct-08

Source: FAO, 2008; IMF, 2008 FAO, 2008; IMF, 2008

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Percentage of Expenditure on Food

6%

33%

46%

38%

7%

35%

43%

25% 11%

Percentage of total household consumption expenditure on food

Time Magazine, March Issue, 2011

source: Time Magazine, 2011

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Employment Distribution in China Employment distribution in percentages

22%

22%

44%

6% 1% 3%

44%

6% 7% 1% 3%

5% 11%

1%

7% 5% 11%

1%

Agriculture, Fishery & Forestry Mining & Quarry Manufacturing Construction Retail, Hotel & Restaurant Transport, Storage & Communication Finance, Insurance, Business & Real Estate Community Others

UN Labour (LABORSTA), 2010

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Lowest Wages in Agriculture Sector Wages per occupation (earnings per month in yuan)

Wages per occupation

(earnings per month in yuan)

Financial intermediation Electricit y, Gas & Water supply Mining and Quarrying Public administration and Defence Transport, Storage & Communications Real estate and business activities Education Retail, Hotel & Restaurants Manufacturing Construction Agricultu re, Fishing, Forestry 0

UN Labour (LABORSTA), 2010

1500

3000

4500

6000

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turning point

Time for a Change!

food import export food import export

total population urban population

food import export

1345 million

1370 million

585 million

632 million

760 million

738 million

food import export

food import export

food import export

1439 million

1426 million

770 million

1042 million

rural population 670 million

pollution

year land needed agriculture land

384 million

1998

2000

2004

62 million ha

2008 52 million ha

65 million ha

67 million ha

2012

69million ha

122 million ha

118 million ha

2050

43 million ha

48 million ha

109 million ha arable land

2020

72 million ha

38 million ha 71 million ha 72 million ha

100 million ha

121 million ha

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Intentions

• Preservation of agricultural land • Reduce deficit of agricultural land • Local production • Organic farming

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Advantages of Urban Agriculture Environmental • Reduction of freshwater use by reuse of wastewater • More green improves the quality of urban environment and reduction in pollution • Wastewater and organic solid waste can be transformed into fertilizer

Socio-economic • Savings in transportation costs and storage space • Better food security and more stable prices • Increase awareness of food production P5 | MATERIALISATION | TALL | VERTICAL CITIES ASIA | APRIL 20TH 2012 | JOERI SLOTS

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Acting On the Cause of Air Pollution

Instead of resolving air pollution only locally and partially, we believe it is better to act on the cause; minimize transportation.

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Chengdu

context Chengdu in relation to China

Sichuan

Chengdu

Chinese cities in 2010

1

population > 5 mln population > 7 mln

population > 10 mln * including agglomerations Dongguang and Foshan

cation

Capital of Sichuan province

Major cities of China Chengdu is the last major city to the West

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Growth of Chengdu

1978-1988

1988-1995 P5 | MATERIALISATION | TALL | VERTICAL CITIES ASIA | APRIL 20TH 2012 | JOERI SLOTS

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Growth of Chengdu

1988-1995

1995-2002 P5 | MATERIALISATION | TALL | VERTICAL CITIES ASIA | APRIL 20TH 2012 | JOERI SLOTS

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Growth of Chengdu

1995-2002

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Current Situation of Chengdu

西南财经大学

40 km

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Doom Scenario 6.2 million 5.9 million 西南财经大学

西南财经大学

西南财经大学

西南财经大学

西南财经大学

5.4 million

大学 西南财经

经大学

西南财

4.9 million

西南财经大学

西南财经 大学

西南财经大学

西南财经大学

大学 西南财经

大学 西南财经

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Ideal Scenario Urban and rural synergy

西南财经大学

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Ideal Growth of Chengdu

plan situation

Growth of ‘fingers’ in order to preserve agriculture land.

Open space preservation & StimulationFinger growth

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Fo


Cover Area

Border Condition

ngq ing

Border between urban and rural land has an Location at Rural/Urban Border Condition advantageous condition for Agropolises to emerge. P5 | MATERIALISATION | TALL | VERTICAL CITIES ASIA | APRIL 20TH 2012 | JOERI SLOTS

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Coverage

Every Agropolis has a certain cover area that corresponds to the adjacent productive agriculture land.

Cover area of each Agropolis

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Introduction of

Connecting Express Line Food Park

Introduction of a continuous Food Park where the recreative urban parts flow out into the productive agriculture land.

Food Park

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Introduction of Express Line

Introduction of a circular Express Line that connects the ‘fingers’ and allConnecting Agropolises. Express Line P5 | MATERIALISATION | TALL | VERTICAL CITIES ASIA | APRIL 20TH 2012 | JOERI SLOTS

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Mia nya ng

&X ian

Public Transport Connections Food Park

Nanchong & Chongqing

Le sh an H

igh -sp M e e ed ish an

Ziyang& Neijang

Express Line connects to the public transportation network.

Public Transport & Express Line

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Virtual Connections

Virtual connections between the Agropolises and exisiting agriculture institutions.

Virtual connection (Information share)

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Recapitulation Connecting Express Line

Physical Distribution

Virtual connection (Information share)

M ia

ny a

ng

&X

ia n

Cover Area

N anc hong & C hongq ing

Z iyang& N eijang

Le

sh

an

Hi gh -sp M e eed is h an

西南财经大学

Cover Area

&X

ia n

Mia nya ng

&X ian

Connecting Express Line Location at Rural/Urban Border Condition Public Transport & Express line Foodpark Foodring Park Exising situation & existing masterplan situation Open space preservation & StimulationFinger growth Physical Distribution

M ia

ny a

ng

Nanchong & Chongqing

N anc hong & C hongq ing

Ziyang& Neijang

sh

an

Hi gh -sp M e eed is h an

Le sh an H

igh -sp M e e ed ish an

Z iyang& N eijang

Le

Connecting Express Line

Food Park

Cover Area

Virtual connection (Information share) Location at Rural/Urban Border Condition

&X

ia n

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ng ny a

M ia

Public Transport & Express Line

Public Transport & Express line

Mia nya ng

&X ian

Physical Distribution

Nanchong & Chongqing

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Masterplan

±7.5 min

±1.5 min

±4.5 min ±7.5 min 西南财经大学

Ring Road 110km ~ 40 min ±4.5 min

±5.5 min

±10 min

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Land Preservation The skyscraper is a necessary response to urban sprawl.

The skyscraper has many potential economic advantages where there is minimal land use and the amount of usable space per available land area is maximised.

NO

tances

YES

Compactness

land preservation & proximity

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But make Life vertical, not JUST the buildings!

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Horizontal City vs. Vertical City

VS. Conventional High Rise City

Continuous routing insead of 1 way up

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Massing

Minimal outdoor surface

Maximize outdoor surface

Maximize outdoor spaces P5 | MATERIALISATION | TALL | VERTICAL CITIES ASIA | APRIL 20TH 2012 | JOERI SLOTS

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Urban Grain 40 m

40 m

option 1 minimal 1/4 overlap

option 2 divide structure over 2 blocks

option 3 attach blocks to each other

40 m

40 m

example 2

example 1

dimension

9.6m structure

variable positions of the core

example 3

variable plan layout and facades

Arrangement rules of the blocks

40 m

40 m

40 m option 1 minimal 1/4 overlap

option 2 divide structure over 2 blocks

option 3 attach blocks to each other

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Urban Grain

Arrangement examples of the blocks

+375m2

800m2 1400m2 +600m2

+800m2

+800m2

+600m2

1100m2 1400m2

1100m2 1375m2

+900m2

+875m2

+975m2

+400m2

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Vertical City

Toronto city grid

Flip grid up

Creating vertical streets

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Vertical City

Toronto city grid

Flip grid up

Creating vertical streets

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Activating Higher Levels

La Rambla Barcelona

The lifted urban deck is a continuing linear urban (pedestrian) route like La Rambla

120 meters high

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Site Plan the Agropolis

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Site Plan

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Site Plan

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Selection

new block arrangement according to stacking principles

FAR 12 Selection has a FAR of 12 Plot area = 20.000 m²

20.000 m² x 12 = 240.000 m² min program 24 cubes = max 400.000 m²

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Increase Middle and Upper Class “The Chinese middle class wil continue to rise and income distribution will widen” Total urban China Upper middle-class (40K-100K) Lower middle class (25K-40K) Poor (under 25K) Mass affluent (100k-200K) Global affluent (over 200K)

1000 900

Sharp increase in overall urban population

800 700

Emergence of upper middle-class

600 Emergence of upper lower-middle-class

500 400 300 200 100 0 1985 Insights China, McKinsey & Company

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

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Selection

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Daylight and shadow studies Daylight calculations in AutoDesk Ecotect Shading studies Summer

Mid-season

Winter

09 am

09 am

10 am

10 am

11 am

11 am

12 am

12 am

1 pm

1 pm

Calculation

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Daylight and shadow studies 1 pm Daylight calculations in AutoDesk Ecotect

1 pm

2 pm

2 pm

3 pm

3 pm

4 pm

4 pm

5 pm

5 pm

9 am - 5 pm

9 am - 5 pm

Joeri Slots

P3

nov-2011

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Daylight and shadow studies

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Slicing Cubes

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Slicing Cubes

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2nd Urban Level

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Cores

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Energy concept

Combining functions make a very energy efficient building

RAINWATER COLLECTION BIOMASS

from building users

GREEN ELECTRICITY

BIOMASS from plants

WARMTH CHP PLANT FERMEN(combined head and TATION power)

HEAT EXCHANGE

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FRESH FRUITS

COFFEE

TEA 茶


Second Urban Deck

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Plaza

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2nd Urban Route


Housing block


Floors

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Floors

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Floors

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Floors

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Floors

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Floors

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Floors

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FRESH FRUITS

COFFEE

TEA 茶


Elevations


Elevations


Elevations


Elevations


Facade and Detailing

1:20

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Facade and Detailing

1:20

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Detail

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Detail • lightweight • minimal floor thickness • high adaptable • sustainable • ability to change functions inside block

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Floors penthouse

1:1000

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Floors penthouse

1:1000

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5th floor penthouse

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5th floor penthouse

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5th floor penthouse

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dwelling section

1:50

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Penthouse Entry

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Penthouse open floor plan

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Penthouse bedroom

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Balcony penthouse

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Thank you

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Vertical Cities Asia