Stop Coding State Violence: Campaign Platform

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who we are we, students for the liberation of all people (SLAP), are supporting and building a movement coming from immigrant communities to challenge the ties between immigration enforcement and silicon valley. as stanford students, we challenge the pipeline from our campus to racist tech companies. this is our platform. we ask you to join the fight to cancel these contracts and build the foundations to challenge the continuing racism and exploitation that tech companies construct and expand, in local communities and globally. “no reforms will make caging immigrants acceptable. no new cages must be built. all forms of immigration detention must end.”26 put your email here {} to sign up for our campaign newsletter, updates, and ways to plug in :) follow us: @slapliberate on twitter | Students for the Liberation of All People on facebook | disorientation guide:

we didn’t start this work We acknowledge that we did not start this work. We have a lot of privilege as Stanford students, and for us, doing this work does not carry the same risks as it does for undocumented community members and working families. This campaign comes out of our belief in supporting and building liberation movements. We do this work by taking the lead from those most affected by targeted policing against working class, black and brown communities. This campaign stands on the shoulders of activists and organizers, community organizations, immigrants and their families, families of those lost to police violence and incarceration, and countless others who have fought for safer communities in the past and present. Without their contributions, we would not be able to write this platform and do our work today. We are situated in Silicon Valley, a hotspot of gentrification and overpolicing. We hope to be a small part of the long history of Bay Area movements against gentrification and overpolicing in Oakland, the Mission District in San Francisco, and our neighbors in East Palo Alto. Silicon Valley, gentrification, and overpolicing are all tightly connected. For example, in 2014, Menlo Park approved Facebook to pay a salary of $200,000 a year for a police officer in Belle Haven,29 a low-income, majority black and brown community inside the otherwise majority white Menlo Park. In 2017, Facebook increased its donations to targeted racialized policing by funding a whole police unit with $11.2 million dollars despite protests by community members that called the project “corporate sponsored racial profiling.”30 We want to shout out Mijente, California Immigrant Youth Justice Alliance, Tech Workers Coalition, Incarcerated Workers Organizing Committee, Wage Theft Coalition, Critical Resistance, and so many others that inspire our work. We stand in solidarity with other movements for living wages, immigrant justice, prison abolition, housing justice, and all struggles for liberation.


our campaign We acknowledge that we sit on occupied indigenous land. At Stanford specifically, we are uninvited visitors on Ramaytush Ohlone and Muwekma Ohlone land. We share this wisdom from the California Immigrant Youth Justice Alliance, that “Though many migrants who flee their homelands are Indigenous and fleeing anti-Indigenous governments, the mainstream immigrant rights movement has failed to make space and bring light to these issues. As such, we acknowledge that we must defer to Indigenous peoples whose lands we occupy for permission to stay, and establish a platform for globally displaced Indigenous communities to speak their truth and ultimately reclaim the land that was stolen from them.”1 Currently and historically the US uses borders to authorise violence against people of color, while wealth and resources flow without borders in a system of global capitalism that brings huge profits to large corporations, and political control to the United States. The borders of the United States deny opportunities to people disenfranchised by US imperialism. The continued existence of the borders make it profitable to run detention camps and to deport people. “Separating families is an ongoing tactic used throughout U.S. history against communities of color, indigenous people, and people with disabilities”.26 US imperialism and intervention in other countries to benefit US corporate interests has also created widespread poverty, unemployment and violence. As a result many people flee seeking safety and jobs. The US also helps cause the migration that they then punish. The US imprisons more people than any other country.5 This holds true for immigrant detention.

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Federally and privately-owned immigrant detention centers, County jails working with ICE Border Patrol-run temporary detention facilities Bureau of Prisons facilities designed specifically to hold immigrants

We envision and organize for community care and safety outside of state punishment. All forms forms of immigrant detention are motivated by racism, profit, and control, rather than safety for immigrants or those who the state labels citizens. Tech companies like Amazon, Palantir, Microsoft, Salesforce, Northrop Grumman, etc have contracts with ICE and Border Patrol. Palantir has been called “mission critical” to ICE’s success, using their technology to create


databases and profiles for immigrants to be later targeted by ICE. Salesforce has a contract with Border Patrol that helps recruit Border Patrol agents and manage border activities. All tech companies with contracts with ICE or Border Patrol profit from the continued deportation and immigration enforcement industry, the violent separation of families and children, and the massive human rights violations that immigrants undergo in detention centers. Stanford, with its location in the heart of Silicon Valley and its close relationships with neighboring companies—many of which do work with ICE and Border Patrol—has a responsibility to pressure companies to cancel their contracts. Technology has a huge presence on Stanford’s campus, and students are encouraged to major in computer science or related majors. CS is consistently the top major and degree at Stanford, with over 300 bachelor’s degrees over 270 master’s degrees in 2018. Through recruitment, seminars, and other events, tech students are funneled into tech companies that facilitate the detention and deportation of immigrants in the United States. Stanford students are especially well-positioned to work at tech companies immediately after graduation, helping build these companies’ harmful work. The consequences of detention centers, ICE, and Border Patrol have effects on Stanford’s own community. Students and workers at Stanford from immigrant communities directly experience harm as a result of immigration enforcement. We have an obligation to our community to end the profitable deportation industry that abuses families and violates human dignity. We will work alongside immigrant communities to make it unprofitable for tech companies to work with ICE and Border Patrol. This means creating a national network of organizers, tech workers and students across campuses to organize together and win.

ICE + CBP ICE what is ICE? Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) was established in 2003 by George W. Bush when he also created the Department of Homeland Security.1 While today ICE seems like an ancient and permanent part of the United States military industrial colonial project, it has existed for less than 20 years. During the surge of patriotism in the years following 9/11, the War on Terror and the War on Immigrants converged, out of which emerged an increase in modern surveillance, the Iraq War, and ICE. 3

According to the ICE government website, ICE is responsible for Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO) as well as Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), combining enforcement and investigative aspects. ERO includes “all aspects of the immigration enforcement process, including identification and arrest, domestic transportation, detention, bond management, and supervised release, including alternatives to detention” as well as deportation. HSI has legal authority to investigate “all types of cross-border criminal activity” and works with international, federal, state, and local law enforcement.2 ICE is generally viewed as a mainstay of Trump’s administration, but was also supported by Clinton and expanded by Obama, making it clear that it is a bipartisan effort to maintain the United States’ presence as a police state.

ICE as police and prisons While officially operating to “uphold U.S. immigration law,” in practice ICE acts like a police force for immigrant communities through violent and inhumane practices. Because there is little oversight, ICE has engaged in many human rights violations, such as sexual assault, separating children from family, holding parents as political prisoners, and others. Furthermore, ICE officers are trained to use military tactics, over-aggressive policing, widespread surveillance, and disregard for constitutional and human rights. The federal government motivates ICE raids through “performance goals” to deport as many people as possible. When deporting migrants who threaten public safety, ICE defines “public safety threat” as a wide range of people, including those with serious medical/mental health issues and those with decades-old conviction. Through its acts of immigration enforcement, ICE acts as an extension of the carceral state, which in turn serves the purpose of ethnic cleansing. Immigration becomes criminalized, leading to immigrants being placed into detention centers which are de facto labor camps. Families are split apart and placed into poor conditions in camps often run by for-profit corporations in the private sector.

ICE operation tactics Through widespread surveillance and military tactics, and collaboration with police and prisons, ICE operates on a mass scale to arrest and deport people. By surveilling private citizens and using deception, ICE is able to arrest people outside their homes, on the street, in the courts, in government-run spaces like homeless shelters, and in other places where people should be able to freely exist. When making arrests, ICE often uses military tactics such as SWAT teams for situations like civil arrests, where using such force is excessive and traumatic. ICE also depends on the proliferation of mass incarceration; without the continuous re-population of prisons, ICE could not be as successful in 4

identifying and deporting undocumented people. Sheriff and police officers detain undocumented immigrants or notify ICE when undocumented people are released from jail and are vulnerable to arrest. This cycle entrenches undocumented people in the prison industrial complex; it enables the complete exploitation of undocumented people through profiting from their labor in prison and deporting them after release. Additionally, ICE uses its connections with prisons and jails to identify undocumented people. ICE uses the Criminal Alien Program to screen people in prisons and jails, partners with local law enforcement using 287(g) agreements, works with local jails to target specific individuals using the Secure Communications and the Priority Enforcement Program, and uses task force operations to conduct home raids and community arrests.

abuse by ICE Without real accountability, ICE agents can use their leeway to enact abuse without fear of repercussions, leading to gender-based and racebased violence. Using deceptive tactics like pretending to be local police, ICE illegally enters—without warrant— and searches the homes of private citizens. The severity of ICE raids result in traumatizing experiences of those targeted and present, especially children. The exploitation and abuse of immigrant women has become common practice as part of ICE operations and detentions.3 ICE Agent Isaac Baichu was convicted of sexually assaulting a woman, using coercion by threatening to withhold her Green Card. Lloyd W. Miner, Eddie Miranda, and Kelvin Owens are other ICE agents who have committed similar assaults. In ICE detention, widespread sexual abuse is a systemic phenomenon enabled and perpetrated by ICE officers themselves.4 In addition to facilitating sexual abuse, ICE operations are racially motivated and disproportionately harm black and brown people. Due to substandard medical care, 200 people have died in ICE custody. In Peter Sean Brown v. Richard Ramsay, ICE detained someone named Peter Brown and almost deported him to Jamaica, a country he has no connection to.6 This was made possible by collusion between ICE and local police in Florida. ICE intentionally targets black and brown migrants while not investigating white migrants,


furthering the racial motivations of criminalizing immigration.

CBP In the larger conversation about immigration enforcement, the focus is often on ICE. However, Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) is one of the largest law enforcement bodies in the world, with around 60,000 agents. This was not always the case. CBP was only established in 2003, and in 2004 only had 4,287 agents.7 Alongside growing anti-immigrant rhetoric and policies, CBP has continued to grow exponentially, and as it grows, so does its abuse, violence, human rights violations, and corruption. Compared to any other law enforcement bodies, CBP perpetrates more incidents of sexual abuse and assault, and like many statistics on border violence, there is so much more that goes unreported.8 While some people try to paint ICE as the only culprit in the racist immigration enforcement system, CBP’s operations include, detaining 400,000 immigrants in detention camps every year, separating thousand of families, illegally denying entry to asylum seekers, and policing the majority of America’s residents.7 Does that sound weird to you? The ACLU reports that “roughly 2/3 of the American population lives within the 100-mile zone where CBP officers and agents— particularly the Border Patrol—claim and exercise extraordinary power based on outdated and ill-defined legal authority to stop, question, and detain border residents as they go about their daily lives.”9 The numbers will never tell the whole story. As a group, we believe in alternatives to putting people in cages. We say the names of Felipe Gomez Alonzo and Jakelin Caal Maquin, the 8 and 7 year old indigenous children from Guatemala, and a 16 year old boy only a few days ago, name yet to be released, who have died in CBP custody since December. CBP has always served as a violent, abusive, corrupt force without scope or accountability. It is time to address the roots of immigration enforcement with abolition, and create alternatives to ICE and CBP. We refuse to uphold the status quo that abuses, incarcerates and separates families. Companies in Silicon Valley must stop profiting from this violence and cease to create technology to increase racist policing of black and brown immigrants.

policing the prison industrial complex In our vision to end the criminalization of immigrants, we challenge the roots of all forms of policing, surveillance, and imprisonment. ICE and CBP act as police for immigrant communities, so simply ending ICE and CBP would not solve the broader issue of a broken criminal justice system. To tackle the underlying issues of policing and incarceration, we look beyond ICE and CBP to local police departments. Police departments historically acted as slave patrols and enforcers of Black Codes11, and continue this practice today by 6

“criminaliz[ing] dark skin and poverty”10. We see policing as part of the larger prison industrial complex, which serves the interest of economic and political elites, creating profit for corporations and social control for government. Policing and prisons are inadequate solutions to social inequalities. We believe in abolition of the system that criminalizes poverty, black, brown and indigenous communities, trans people, survivors of abuse, disabled people, and others outside of dominant society’s approved ways of being. What is abolition? Abolition means understanding that people commit crimes for a reason, and addressing that reason by meeting the basic needs of people, such as healthcare, food, housing, and education.12 This is about how we address violence and harm without creating more of it. This is a community process, not a fantasy that isolating individuals in cages will solve anything. Incarceration does not work: if prisons were truly meant to improve society and rehabilitate people, we wouldn’t have an almost 100% recidivism rate and a prison system built for profiting off black and brown bodies. We work within an abolitionist framework to imagine a world where we work as a community to keep each other safe, rather than imprisoning people in response to any conflict.

tech + policing: garbage in, garbage out Police across the country have racial biases, visible in the way they disproportionately stop, arrest, shoot, and kill black and brown people. Today, tech companies are building “predictive policing” technology to make it easier for police to target black, brown, and working class communities. This “predictive policing” goes hand in hand with arresting, incarcerating and deporting immigrants. Local police work with ICE to target immigrants. Palantir has been profiting (much of it secretly) from policing for years now, in cities like New Orleans and Los Angeles. From 2009-2015, the city of LA used Department of Homeland Security grants to pay Palantir $17 million.13 Imagine if these resources went to mental health care and affordable housing. Instead, they go to technology that is proven to replicate “systemic bias” against overpoliced communities.14 Think about it this way: garbage in, garbage out. The data that police collect is based on racist policing patterns, from the biases in the way that data is collected, to the biases in reporting and analysing the data. Just adding the newest technology does not make policing more legitimate, fair or unbiased. Rather, they reproduce and magnify the same racist trends.14 Multi-million dollar contracts with big tech companies are now guiding the future for policing15, instead of addressing the root causes of overpolicing, violence, drug use, 7

and theft. Big data tech companies exploit this new form of militarized, data-driven policing for their own profit, and do it behind computer screens hundreds of miles away from the communities that face the consequences.

why tech An incredibly broad range of sectors and services help make the policing of borders possible; tech is just one of the components sustaining immigration enforcement. Many tech companies profit from providing essential services that allow ICE and CBP to function. This includes services that allow ICE to gather and and store surveillance and biometric information about immigrants, analyze data, and track immigrants.24 By providing these softwares, companies like Amazon and Palantir “have secured a role as the backbone for the federal government’s immigration and law enforcement dragnet.”25 Currently, about 10 percent of the DHS budget is used for data management,26 indicating how pivotal Silicon Valley is for immigration enforcement. Targeting these companies’ contracts with ICE and CBP would impact the government’s ability to carry out its deportation agenda. Meanwhile, the companies are huge, multibillion-dollar corporations that can afford to drop the contract and provide less harmful services instead. Targeting the role of tech companies in immigration enforcement also aligns with existing work to challenge unethical roles of tech. Although leadership of these companies are content to sacrifice bodies for profit, tech workers have begun confronting their own role. In 2018, Google canceled Project Maven, which would have supplied AI for analyzing drone footage to the US Department of Defense.27 This decision was influenced by a petition signed by about 4,000 Google employees in protest, as well as the resignation of several employees. Similarly, over 650 employees at Salesforce signed a petition demanding that Salesforce cancel its contract with CBP.28 Hence, moving tech companies is possible, and there will be support within tech companies.

which tech companies There are so many companies that have contracts with ICE, CBP, and other arms of immigration policing. But we are focusing our efforts on these companies, because we believe we have the momentum and strategic position to pressure these leading companies to cancel their contracts, and stop profiting from deportation, incarceration, and police violence.

amazon Amazon is now the wealthiest company on the planet, and has more government contracts than any other company.31 Amazon Web Services hosts 8

many of the other companies that work with ICE and CBP, as well as housing Department of Homeland Security’s database of biometric information.32 Amazon is now attempting to sell its facial recognition to ICE, which would be another way for ICE and police to unjustly target, arrest, incarcerate, and separate immigrant families.33

palantir Palantir is funded by the CIA and was founded by Peter Thiel, a billionaire and advisor to Donald Trump. A proprietary intelligence branch of the company called FALCON started being funded by ICE in 2013. ICE uses FALCON to track immigrant records and relationships34 and, along with data from the Department of Homeland Security and the FBI, creates profiles of people who have crossed the border.35 Funding documents for FALCON stated it would eventually allow ICE access to four billion profiles and could give the agency the ability to follow telephone activity and GPS movement.36 In addition, Palantir lied about tech not being used to deport and detain migrants and migrant children, claiming instead that the software is used for criminal investigations as opposed to deportations.37

salesforce Salesforces provides a variety of cloud tools to CBP, including Salesforce Analytics, Community Cloud and Service Cloud, to “manage border activities.”38 CBP uses Community Cloud and Analytics “to recruit and support new agents in the field,” and Service Cloud “to drive efficiencies around U.S. border activities.”39 Salesforce employees wrote an open letter expressing their concern that their products are used by CBP, and they are “particularly concerned about the use of Service Cloud to manage border activities.”40

microsoft Microsoft’s Azure cloud computing platform provides deep learning capabilities, which greatly improves facial recognition and identification programs. This technology is implemented for “homeland security and public safety,” assisting in the identification and detention of immigrants.41 Beyond these four, here is a list of other companies that have contracts with ICE or CBP: • Dell Federal • LinkedIn • Hewlett Packard Systems Branch • Devtech Enterprise (aka • Xerox • IBM Perspecta) • Canon • Oracle • Thomson Reuters • Deloitte • Northrop • Motorola Solutions Consulting LLP Grumman • Forensic Logic


why stanford As Stanford students, we occupy a position in an institution of higher learning that allows us to produce knowledge that is considered legitimate and holds influence over the broader cultural and economic conversation. In other words, we have social influence due to our place at this university, as well as economic resources due to Stanford’s connection with Silicon Valley. We seek to use our position to elevate the voices of marginalised communities organising against the racist tech pipeline, as well as to disrupt the culture of complicity present in tech conversations and practices. Stanford’s complicity in border violence is not new. Leland Stanford, a robber baron and railroad tycoon, founded the university. This act was made possible only by the genocide of indigenous people and the exploitation of workers. Without displacing the Muwekma Ohlone people who lived where we now call Palo Alto and Stanford, there would be no land to build Stanford on. Only by stealing the land of the Ohlone as a settler colonial project was it possible to found the university. Furthermore, the actual construction of the buildings that make up Stanford was done by Chinese workers and servants.16 Although Leland Stanford imported many numbers of Chinese workers to build both his railroads and his university17, he publicly stated his anti-Chinese views. He believed that Chinese people were an “inferior race” whose immigration must be “discouraged”16 — despite himself being a white settler on land that did not belong to him. Without Stanford, Silicon Valley as we know it would not exist. Stanford has played a crucial role in the formation of tech companies and Silicon Valley, providing land in the Stanford Research Park since the early 1950s. Even before the Vietnam War protests in the 1960s, Stanford researchers had contracts with the military, and there was a Department of Defenseaffiliated Stanford Research Institute.18 Although a student-led movement called the April 3rd Movement19 succeeded in reducing Stanford’s military connections, in 2013 many policies were reversed. Now, defense contractors have an increasing presence at career fairs, including Lockheed Martin, the Air Force, and Marine Corps.18 In addition to profiting from the military industrial complex, Stanford directly feeds into the entrepreneurial tech industry of Silicon Valley. Since 2013, Stanford invests in its own student’s companies, just like a venture capital firm.20 StartX is an organisation that connects entrepreneurs, early startups, and tenured professors, most of whom are millionaires or billionaires.21


Stanford’s connection to Silicon Valley has fostered the creation of companies, such as Palantir and Google, that work with ICE and police. Computer Science is the largest major at Stanford22, creating a pipeline that churns out hundreds of graduates each year who go on to work at these companies. Today, companies contribute immense amounts of money to Stanford facilities and computer science research. Additionally, professors have worked at and still have appointments at Stanford-funded startups and companies, and continue to invest in grad students’ companies.23 Stanford’s prominent computer science focus and the Silicon Valley tech industry mutually support one another, acting like two sides of the same coin. Although Stanford advertises “ethical” computer science applications and “conscientious” startups, it uses this facade of care to hide the fact that this tech startup industry is just a new form of global capitalism. Its deceptive ethical considerations mislead people into thinking that social good can be achieved through more and “better” capitalistic growth and profit, but ultimately social entrepreneurship is just a new form of the same exploitative systems. While it can be tempting to believe that we can engineer or invest our way out of systemic problems like overpolicing and border violence, corporations act only in the interest of profit. To truly effect change, we must take collective action to put pressure on corporations where it hurts — profit. Without fresh Stanford graduates to build their violent technology, tech corporations will have nobody to create their products. Without consumers putting money into their pockets, tech corporations will have no way to continue existing. Stanford needs to be held accountable for its role in creating tech companies that work with ICE and Border Patrol, as well as for feeding students directly into these workplaces. Stanford claims to exist in order “to promote the public welfare by exercising an influence in behalf of humanity and civilization.” This relatively vague and open-ended mission statement leaves questions of ethics open for interpretation. Stanford has responsibility to define what constitutes “the public welfare” and what sort of “influence” Stanford should be preparing its students and affiliates to exercise. As Stanford students who fund the university endowment through our tuition, we have the obligation and the power to hold companies with ties to Stanford and border violence accountable.


our demands to stanford admin Close off relationships with tech companies implicated in immigration enforcement and border control until these companies agree to end their contracts with CBP, ICE, police departments and other arms of the deportation machine in the united states. This includes:

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Inviting these companies to the Computer Forum and career fairs Holding recruitment info sessions Bringing panelists from tech companies

to companies Cancel your contracts with immigration enforcement and all ties with ICE, CBP, police departments and other arms of the deportation machine in the united states.

Stop making excuses. Donating to causes doesn’t minimize or justify your profits from border enforcement. Be transparent about what you are doing and accountable to your impacts.

action items to students Pledge not to work for the companies that have contracts with immigration enforcement.

To FLI (first-generation, low-income) students: • We must hold each other accountable. • We want to work together to find other companies. FLI students deserve to help themselves and their families -- let’s work on doing this a different way. Hit us up :)

If you have class privilege, you don’t have an excuse.

Educate and organize

• •

Attend teach-ins, events, rallies, and actions Talk to your friends, co-workers, and other students about these issues

to professors • Do not invite representatives from companies that have immigration • • • •

and police enforcement contracts. Encourage students to use computer sicence for immigrant justice Divest from the companies listed in this booklet Give us space for a teach-in presentation in your class about tech and border violence Donate to groups working immigrant justice - we know you can afford it. 12

works cited [1] First We Abolish Ice: a Manifesto for Immigrant Liberation. California Immigrant Youth Justice Alliance, 2018, First We Abolish Ice: a Manifesto for Immigrant Liberation, [2] “Who We Are.” ICE, Department of Homeland Security, 14 Dec. 2018, [3] Hing, Julianne. “ICE Violence Against Immigrant Women: Anti-Immigrant Fever Ignites Violence Against Women.” INCITE!, Allied Media Projects, 2008, [4] Speri, Alice. “Detained, Then Violated.” The Intercept, First Look Media, 11 Apr. 2018, [5] Free Our Future: An Immigration Policy Platform for Beyond the Trump Era. Mijente, 2018, Free Our Future: An Immigration Policy Platform for Beyond the Trump Era, [6] Peter Sean Brown v. Richard Ramsay. 3 Dec. 2018, [7] The Truth About ICE & CBP. United We Dream Network, 2019, The Truth About ICE & CBP, uploads/2019/02/TheTruthICECBP-02052019-v3.pdf. [8] Heyman, Josiah. Why Caution Is Needed Before Hiring Additional Border Patrol Agents and ICE Officers. American Immigration Council, 2017,Why Caution Is Needed Before Hiring Additional Border Patrol Agents and ICE Officers, www.americanimmigrationcouncil. org/sites/default/files/research/why_caution_is_needed_before_hiring_additional_border_patrol_agents_and_ice_officers_final.pdf. [9] Rickerd, Chris. Implementing Law Enforcement Best Practices For Our Nation’s Biggest Police Force. Implementing Law Enforcement Best Practices For Our Nation’s Biggest Police Force, ACLU, 2015. document/aclu_backgrounder_re_cbp_profiling_and_police_best_practicesfinal.pdf [10] Enough Is Enough: a 150 Year Performance Review of the Minneapolis Police Department. MPD 150, 2017, Enough Is Enough: a 150 Year Performance Review of the Minneapolis Police Department, mpd150_report.pdf. [11] “Abolition of Policing Workshop.” Abolition of Policing Workshop, Critical Resistance, [12] Sarah-Ji, and Rachel Wallis. “A Community Compilation on Police Abolition.” Issuu, 10 Oct. 2016, gbnf_zine_all. [13] Naimo, John. Sheriff’s Department - Review of Transactions between Los Angeles County and Palantir Technologies, Inc. (Board Agenda Item 7, April 14, 2015). County of Los Angeles, 2015, Sheriff’s Department - Review of Transactions between Los Angeles County and Palantir Technologies, Inc. (Board Agenda Item 7, April 14, 2015), [14] Lum, K. and Isaac, W. (2016), To predict and serve?. Significance, 13: 14-19. doi:10.1111/j.1740-9713.2016.00960.x [15] Bond-Graham, Darwin, and Ali Winston. “All Tomorrow’s Crimes: The Future of Policing Looks a Lot Like Good Branding.” SF Weekly News, SF Weekly, 30 Oct. 2013, [16] Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer, The Anti-Chinese Movement in California, University of Illinois Press, ISBN 978-0252062261, 1991, p. 43-44 [1] [17] Kekauoha, Alex. “Uncovering the Lives of Chinese Workers Who Built Stanford.” Stanford News, Stanford University, 11 Apr. 2019, [18] Contreras, Brian. “‘Hacking for Defense’ Class Puts Stanford’s Relationship with Military Center Stage.” The Stanford Daily, The Stanford Daily Publishing Corporation, 10 Dec. 2017, [19] Siegel, Lenny. “April Third Movement.” About the Stanford Movement | April Third Movement, The April Third Movement, [20] Gallagher, Billy. “Stanford University Is Going To Invest In Student Startups Like A VC Firm.” TechCrunch, Verizon Media, 5 Sept. 2013,


[21] “StartX.” StartX, StartX, 2019, [22] Stanford Registrar’s Office Student Affairs. “School of Engineering Enrollment Statistics 2017-18 .” 2018. [23] Clark, Meaghan. “21 Stanford Professors Who Could Be Your Biggest Startup Investor.” The Stanford Daily, The Stanford Daily Publishing Corporation, 4 Nov. 2013, [24] Corbett, Erin. “Tech Companies Are Profiting Off ICE Deportations, Report Shows.” Fortune, 23 Oct. 2018, tech-companies-surveillance-ice-immigrants/. [25] “Tell Amazon: Stop Powering ICE!” Mijente, [26] “New Report Exposes Tech & Data Companies Behind ICE.” Mijente, 21 Oct. 2018, [27] Wakabayashi, Daisuke, and Scott Shane. “Google Will Not Renew Pentagon Contract That Upset Employees.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 1 June 2018, [28] Sydell, Laura. “Tech Workers Demand CEOs Stop Doing Business With ICE, Other U.S. Agencies.” NPR, NPR, 14 July 2018, www.npr. org/2018/07/14/628765208/tech-workers-demand-ceos-stop-doing-business-with-ice-other-u-s-agencies. [29] Kurhi, Eric. “Menlo Park: Facebook’s Offer to Pay for Neighborhood Cop Is Approved by Council.” The Mercury News, The Mercury News, 4 Mar. 2014, [30] Bradshaw, Kate. “Menlo Park Council Supports Facebook-Funded Police Unit.” Almanac Online, 3 May 2017, www.almanacnews. com/news/2017/05/03/menlo-park-council-expresses-support-for-facebook-funded-police-unit. [31] “New Report Exposes Tech & Data Companies Behind ICE.” Mijente, 23 Oct. 2018, [32] Corbett, Erin. “Tech Companies Are Profiting Off ICE Deportations, Report Shows.” Fortune, 23 Oct. 2018, tech-companies-surveillance-ice-immigrants/. [33] Brandom, Russell. “Amazon Pitched Its Facial Recognition System to ICE.” The Verge, The Verge, 23 Oct. 2018, www.theverge. com/2018/10/23/18013376/amazon-ice-facial-recognition-aws-rekognition. [34] Collins, Ben, and Meghan Sullivan. “Tech Companies Quietly Work with ICE as Border Crisis Persists.”, NBCUniversal News Group, 2018, [35] Dellinger, AJ. “It Turns out All Kinds of Tech Companies Are Working With ICE.” Gizmodo, Gizmodo, 21 June 2018, turns-out-all-kinds-of-tech-companies-are-working-with-1827006046. [36] Biddle, Sam, and Ryan Devereaux. “Peter Thiel’s Palantir Was Used To Bust Relatives of Migrant Children, New Documents Show.” The Intercept, 2 May 2019, [37] “Who’s Behind ICE?” Mijente, [38] Donovan, Caroline. “Employees Of Another Major Tech Company Are Petitioning Government Contracts.” BuzzFeed News. 26 June 2018. [39] Salesforce. “U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Selects Salesforce as Digital Modernization Platform.” PR Newswire. 27 June 2018. [40] Fight for the Future. “An Open Letter to Salesforce: Drop Your Contract with CBP.” Medium. 17 July 2018. [41] Collins, Ben. “Microsoft backtracks on ‘proud support’ for ICE as blog post goes viral.” 18 June 2018. NBCUniversal News Group.