SL Teacherâ€™s Handbook &
Language Link VIETNAM 1
Welcome to Schools Link! This handbook aims to introduce new teachers to the program and offer some advice on teaching methodologies, classroom activities, and classroom management tips.
Table of Contents INTRODUCTION TO SCHOOLS LINK COURSES ................................................................... 4 Teaching methodology ...................................................................................................... 4 Assessment .................................................................................................................. 4 Feedback and Reporting .................................................................................................... 5 Course Materials ............................................................................................................ 5 Supplementary materials for all levels .................................................................................... 7 Teaching Assistants ........................................................................................................ 7
USEFUL TIPS FOR PRIMARY CLASSES ............................................................................. 9 General lesson structure ................................................................................................. 10 Teaching vocabulary ...................................................................................................... 11 Pronunciation and drilling new language ................................................................................. 12 Classroom language ....................................................................................................... 13 Songs in the classroom ................................................................................................... 13 Story time................................................................................................................. 14
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................16 First lessons: first lessons checklist .................................................................................... 30
30 WAYS TO USE FLASHCARDS ...................................................................................32 DEVELOPING LITERACY SKILLS IN THE PRIMARY CLASSROOM ..............................................38 STAGES OF A LESSON ..............................................................................................46
Introduction to Schools Link Courses The Schools Link (SL) program offers English language courses at primary and secondary schools in Hanoi in cooperation with the Hanoi Department of Education and Training. Classes usually run from 40 to 80 minutes and meet two or three times a week during regular school hours. Teachers will stay with the same class for the duration of the academic year; usually beginning in September and ending in late May. As a new Language Link teacher, you will be assigned a Language Link Vietnam gmail account. Through this email account you will have access to all of the information and forms you will need; e.g., timesheets, lesson records, feedback forms, and leave applications. Not only will you have access to these forms, but you will be able to submit completed form directly to SL through your LLV gmail account. You will be expected to check your LLV account daily for updates in scheduling and other important announcements. You will also be assigned a locker at the one of LLV’s three centres depending on where you are located. Teaching methodology We aim to achieve the following: • Modern approach to teaching, which places students at the centre of all training activities. • Creating an open learning environment to build up students’ confidence • Developing students’ overall communication skills through teamwork, role plays, language games, songs and cultural exchange activities. • We aim to build and develop literacy skills from an early age • Lessons are well paced and interesting for students, based on familiar situations they will meet when studying overseas. • Topics covered are relevant to their age and life style, school study programs, sports and hobbies. • The program features high-energy drama role-plays, writing and pair work practicing conversations. • It develops students’ confidence and proactive attitudes to study.
Assessment New students sit a placement test and will be grouped according to test performance and age. During the program students will have two mandatory exams: a midterm and a final. The tests are a written paper only, focusing on listening, reading and writing. A speaking test is also administered prior to the written test - please take notes 4
during the speaking test so that you can include detailed comments about each child in the progress report that is issued to parents at the end of the first term and the final report issued at the end of the year. Speaking assessment packets are available for each level; please see SL administrative staff for copies. Parent-teacher meetings are typically held following the midterm tests, so it is compulsory to be well-prepared with comments and reports within a week of administering the midterm tests.
Feedback and Reporting
After both tests, marks and comments on individual performance should be promptly entered into the reports spreadsheets sent out by SL administrative staff. This is to ensure that reports can be issued to schools before parent-teacher meetings after the first term and on the final lesson. Please speak to Schools Link academic officers, Ms Ha or Ms Trang, if you have any questions with regard to entering results into the reports spreadsheets. Lesson records are another important aspect of reporting as they will help to ensure that the class is in pace with the testing schedule, and in the event that cover has to be arranged, a cover teacher will know what has been covered and can plan accordingly. The course pacing guides act as a lesson record and they include columns for inputting relevant information with regard to topics covered, supplements used, and homework assigned. They need to be filled out daily. Lesson records for each class are available under the link ‘documents’ on your LL email account. In many instances, teachers may teach the same level at the same pace for more than one class, but if there are any variances in pace because of varying abilities, please let the SL office know so that other pacing guides can be drafted for individual classes. All SL classes are provided with Teacher’s Assistants. In order to help SL ensure that these TAs are fulfilling their responsibilities, TA report sheets are available under the link ‘documents’ on your LL email account. These reports should be filled out and submitted monthly with your timesheet or whenever you have something to report.
Course Materials Primary schools course books: Magic Time & English Time!
Magic Time Magic Time is a two-level communicative course developed to introduce the basics of English to kindergarten and early primary students. The book focuses on developing speaking, listening, and basic literacy skills through 5
colourful scenes, music and activities. Each unit includes at least one song or chant, and a phonics section. In addition to the course book content, each level includes the following: • workbook • teacher’s book • picture cards (laminated) • wall charts • class audio CD’s • picture & word card book English Time English Time combines with Magic Time to make an eight-level course, but alone consists of a six-level communicative course developed for primary level students. Like Magic Time, English Time includes colourful pages with engaging illustrations that can be easily exploited in a number of fun ways. The series also includes all of the aforementioned supplementary resources. *English Time 5 does not include phonics sections and teachers wanted to introduce phonics can use phonics books and activities in the SL office.
Secondary schools course book: Solutions
Solutions is a 5-level course (from Elementary to Advanced) specifically designed for teens. The series focuses on
all four skills, including a heavy focus on speaking practice for students. Because it is specially designed for teens, the topics are teen-targeted and include many personalized activities to help get and keep students motivated and interested. There is a dual focus in this series on everyday English as well as on academic English, with special attention paid to language exam preparation. Each level of the series comes with a Student Book, Workbook, MultiROM and student website, in addition to a Teacher’s Book and Teacher’s website with further resources. Portfolio Student at this level will be expected to compile a portfolio of written work over the course of the year with one writing exercise per unit of the course book. Teachers will assign a writing task to be completed either during the lesson or for homework. This work will be marked by the Teacher, assigned a grade to be recorded in the class record, returned to the student to be revised and corrected. The corrected version of the assignment will be put into the student’s folder. The mark assigned for these assignments can be used to help give students a grade and comments for their reports. Marking Scheme At the start of the course, give students a marking scheme. See marking scheme below. This will help them understand your marking. The aim is for you to highlight the errors by writing symbols next to the errors, and the students to take responsibility/ownership for correcting their own work. 6
Marking symbols: p = punctuation ch = change the word t = tense ^ = missing word sp = spelling You can add more symbols as the course goes on and the students start making different errors
Supplementary materials for all levels
All SL classes need to be supplemented with additional materials relevant to the main topic being taught. This will ensure students are engaged in the lesson, providing more stimulation through communicative and task-based activities. Due to the offsite nature of SL courses access to supplementary materials can be difficult. Teachers are encouraged to make full use of any of the three Language Link centres (24 Dai Co Viet, 36 Cat Linh, 80a Lang Ha) for planning and preparation needs. A list of books available in the above centres to help you make the most of the resources can be accessed online through the googledocs link in your languaglink.vn email account. In addition to the resources available at centres, we are in the process of making some resources available to our teachers through Google Docs. Graded readers will be introduced into lower-secondary school classes, and each book will include related supplements that can be adapted for use in class or at home.
Role of a Teacher’s Assistant All Schools Link classes are provided a teacher’s assistant, usually by the school itself. The teacher’s assistant’s main role is to assist teachers in classroom management and support teachers in communicating with students when necessary (especially helpful at lower levels). Teacher assistants are most important for the smooth running of the Schools Link classes. Teachers and Teacher Assistants work in partnership to deliver high quality education to their students. Friendly teamwork and mutual respect are most important in the relationship between the two, and open communication and discussion of ideas and classroom management issues are encouraged. Teaching assistants can assist in all classroom matters; such as monitoring, translation when necessary, assisting children who are experiencing difficulties.
Ways Teacher Assistants Can Help: 1. Before Class: • Give special instructions for help during the lesson • Mark the class register at the beginning of class • Ensure students have correct books and equipment and have completed set homework 2. During class: • Monitor student behaviour and attention to teacher’s instructions • Facilitate speaking activities and acting as a second teacher • Assist teacher with handing out worksheets • If asked by teacher, interpreting instructions into Vietnamese to make sure students understand class and homework tasks • Monitor students’ work using English language as much as possible, and not giving students answers, but asking them questions which allow them to work out the answers for themselves 3. After Class • Help teacher pack up • Relate specific information noticed about particular students to teacher • Discuss any task to do in preparation for next lesson Teacher’s Assistants are expected to: • Come on time and be prepared for class • Pay attention to the lesson and help students to understand what to do Teacher’s Assistants are asked not to: • Sit and do corrections for other classes during class • Read books or magazines unrelated to the lesson during class • Use a mobile phone for calls or texts in class • Interrupt or contradict the teacher’s instructions Please do not hesitate to contact one of the SL administrative staff if you have a problem with a class that cannot be resolved with the help of the teaching assistant.
Useful tips for primary classes The main focus is to get all of our students speaking English in class. We do this through a number of ways; • • • • • • • •
Songs and activities Games Mingling activities Role-plays Brainstorming sessions Group work and pair work Use of multi media facilities Team orientated activities
This age is so important for children learning a language. By giving children access to the English language at this age we are putting them in the best possible position to attain native like pronunciation. Things to remember: Be patient Be positive (positive reinforcement) Develop routines Relax Enjoy Keep activities varied Take in more activities and tasks then you will need Language will come in chunks (the building blocks) Logistics, things like team events may be difficult until they are trained Classroom patterns Varied activities High energy Students easily bored Short attention spans Don’t get frustrated with higher levels of L1 then you are used to 9
General lesson structure Develop a routine and stick with it throughout the course. Such a routine may be structured as follows: TPR warmup songs, take the register, and correct the HW books and ask individual questions to students (perhaps focusing on language covered the previous lesson) followed by a brief warmer. (See pages 25-27 in the activity manual) Typical staging • The first stage of the lesson should be interactive and engaging for the students. Total physical response (TPR) activities adapted to a song and using target language is a great way to engage students at the start of the lesson. Using the Oxford Bear, or a YL graded reader, both available in for borrowing at any of the LL centres, are a fun way of engaging juniors. • Introduce vocabulary or language points through the use of flashcards, realia or the pupil’s book • Model and drill target language and continue practice with a student-centred approach • Work through the pupil’s book using additional games and activities to stimulate interest and enhance motivation. • The workbook should then be introduced in the second half of the lesson or at the end of the lesson to consolidate topics covered. • Monitoring and error correction is vital at this stage, especially to focus on weaker students ensuring good learner comprehension and an opportunity for the younger pupils to practice writing and spelling • Sign and write comments in the workbook and on handouts upon completion to encourage students and correct errors • Close workbooks, put away handouts and move onto further student-centred practice, making learning as enjoyable as possible. This might include chants, songs, or project work • At the end of the class, ask questions focusing on the vocabulary and target language of the lesson to individual students. Students raise their hand and if they answer correctly they can go home. Any misbehaved children can be kept to the end to answer questions. NOTE: It’s vital for the teacher to maintain consistency, as routine is essential for a productive learning environment. It helps with classroom management and in the development of positive learning habits. Of course vary your approach with games and activities but keep the general structure of the lesson the same. Students will know what to expect and what’s expected from them in the class, ensuring the lesson runs smoothly and to great affect. 10
Teaching vocabulary An example of teaching fruit: ¾ Bring in a bag of different fruit – six to eight items at a time is plenty. Realia with this age is really important. Anything that you don’t have can be substituted by flashcards. ¾ Pick up one piece of fruit and say the word clearly a number of times, encourage the students to repeat the word. Drill the whole class and occasionally pick out individual Ss. Go through all the words in this way. ¾ Return regularly to a word they have already been introduced to and check they have remembered it e.g. pick up a banana and say ‘an apple?’ or ‘is this an apple?’, students should be able to say ‘yes’ or ‘no’ appropriately before you move on to check the vocabulary further. ¾ To further check that students have connected the new word to the meaning ask students individually ‘show me the banana’ etc. They will get actively involved in recognizing the target word and indicating the object which it describes. You may even select a student to come out and show you or you may even be able to set up a team event with the winner being the first Ss to successfully identify the relevant piece of vocabulary. ¾ Words are the building blocks of language and having a good supply of them is very important for students right from the beginning of their English learning. ¾ With young students vocabulary learning is relatively easy as the words they need (the words they would use in their mother tongue too) are concrete – things they can see, touch, taste, play with etc; so it easy for the meaning of the words to be made apparent without resorting to translation or complicated explanations. How better to teach the word ‘apple’ than to show the children an apple or a picture of an apple?
¾ The sooner students are able to communicate ideas in English the more motivated they will be, so giving them a bank of vocabulary to draw on is necessary – starting with nouns and adjectives. (Classroom rules and objects apply here, see below). ¾ Although children seem to learn new words very quickly, they will also forget quickly, so it is important to give them lots of practice of vocabulary to help them remember. ¾ With verbs, actions should be used. TPR is very useful, stimulating and fun for all young learners. E.G. Walk, sit, swim. Hop etc and students should be encouraged to respond to the words with the appropriate actions. 11
Pronunciation and drilling new language Students must hear correct models of the target vocabulary in order to copy the pronunciation and to recognize the words later. They should also have plenty of practice of saying the words in order to get the pronunciation right and also to help memorization. Choral repetition of words is useful but can become meaningless. To keep focused on meaning, try choral repetition like this: Put these five faces on the board: (would be a good idea to keep these faces for every lesson and refer to them for pronunciation type activities, enlarged of course).
When children repeat the words they have to do so conveying these emotions. Try it with the word chocolate. Children enjoy doing this and they do the activity meaningfully. Chants and songs are a good way to get students repeating vocabulary and by adding actions focus on meaning is not lost. There are a lot of songs and chants in the books as well as in other books in the resource library; e.g., Jazz Chants, Let’s Chant Let’s Sing 1-6. Final "s" sound • Left-right jumping: This raises awareness of sounds at the ends of words and singular/plural. It's important to teach this point at the lowest levels, as some of them never get it later if they miss out early! Children stand in a queue facing you. On one side of the board, write “s”. On the other, write “s” and cross it out. Ask the children to help you write the numbers: 1, a, an for the crossed out “s” side and 2.3.4,100 for the “s” side. Say “elephant” and the children jump to one side; say “elephants” and the children jump to the other side. Concept check when they’ve jumped: “Elephants?” No! “An elephant!” • Busy bee, hissing snake: a little over the top but fun anyway: give each child a picture of a bee and a picture of a snake. You say the plural word and they have to hold up a bee for the z sound and a snake for the s sound. 12
Classroom language It is very important that the kids be able to use language that will be directly relevant to their every day environment. Classroom language and classroom commands will be very useful and will make your job a lot easier. It is helpful to have visual aids or other cues to help Ss learn and follow commands and basic classroom language. Having a quiet corner or a place where Ss all go, sit and wait until a command is given is something that could make a situation a lot calmer and easier to manage. Under the quiet tree for example, otherwise the lion will pounce. Label the classroom Children learn from everything around them and need constant reinforcement of language. A fun way of reinforcing the written form of the words for classroom objects like door, board, window etc is to label them. Write the words on card and as you teach the words stick them to the appropriate object. Or get students to label the objects themselves. One lesson jumbles them up and gets students to label them appropriately. Songs in the classroom • Children love songs. • Songs can be integrated into language learning - listening, singing and doing activities around the songs. • It is a medium that children are very comfortable with. • Songs are memorable. • Songs often include a lot of repetition that helps to make language memorable. • Songs contain chunks of language that children can remember and use. • Because songs must be sung at a reasonably fast speed they encourage natural phonological features like l inking and weak forms. • Children have energy and want to make noise. Songs will channel these natural inclinations positively. • Parents will enjoy hearing their children singing in English. • Singing is a happy and stress-free activity that will add to a positive classroom learning environment.
Methods • Try singing in a whisper • Follow the tape script (could be distracting, you will only have their attention for a short time) • Teams event boys Vs girls. You score them at the end. • One half sings one line the other half the next. • Off beat humor, you singing very slowly with no music, or singing very fast. Your song It’s good to learn a song and tune well so that you can use in during transition periods between stages or adapt it to new language; e.g., Father Jacque, Hokey Pokey, Heads, Shoulders, Knees and Toes, There was a farmer, Dr. Knickerbocker. Story time
Children love stories and are comfortable with them. With their pictures and often-repetitive language stories are easy to understand and acquire language from. Meaning not form leads the learning.
Stories inspire the imagination.
Stories can lead into fun, holistic learning activities.
Stories can teach much more than just language and be a basis for cross-curricula learning. Stories make a nice change from the course book.
You can read the same one several times (many in fact) and go over past-learnt vocabulary. Children are comfortable with familiar characters.
Importance of Input
From this very young age students need to hear and process as much English as possible, stories are a great way to introduce vocabulary with an instant visible and relevant context.
Don’t get worried if children do not seem to be paying attention, they might be crawling under a table or even wandering around the classroom. As long as the children are not being disruptive I would not be unduly concerned. If you spend a lot of time saying ‘Bich sit down’ etc it’s distracting for the other students. Many children at this age find it hard to sit in one place for long and are only comfortable moving.
The child who is under the table or staring at the ceiling may well be more engrossed in the story than the child at the front looking into your eyes!
Use dramatic intonation when you read the words and perhaps even body language, the meaning will be clear and even subconsciously they will begin attaching meaning to the words or chunks of language they hear.
Ask questions; “Is the rabbit happy”? “Is this an apple?” “What colour is this?”
Get the Ss familiar with characters.
Get them comfortable with story time. Use patterns that they recognise so they instantly know what is happening and what is expected.
Classroom Management 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
TPR in the primary classroom Managing larger classrooms Managing mixed-abilities The English Box Tom and Jerry Performance/Reward Charts Certificates Points System First Lesson
1. TPR in the primary classroom TPR stands for Total Physical Response, and is a very important tool in the primary classroom, particularly lower level classes. It can help insecure students to participate in a non-threatening way and for others to learn whilst moving and having fun. It is generally an active part of the lesson, in which your TA should also participate. Each teacher will develop his or her own TPR. You may choose to base it on songs and music, or on classroom language and counting. A mix will work best. It is also important to establish a routine that you basically stick to, so that students will become more secure in your classroom. Possible TPR Routine 1) Stand up/sit down … repeat several times, and demonstrate the action. 2) Counting – clap, hop, jump, star jumps, punches, up/down, elbows in/out to 5 …aim to build up to 20 or so by the end of the course. 3) Body parts – touch your eyes/ears/nose/mouth/elbow/shoulders/toes etc – you demonstrate, they copy. After a while you can ask them to lead the class! 4) Teacher says – great for listening 16
5) Song: “Head, shoulders, knees and toes”. 6) Circle to the left ….. slowly, faster, big, small. 7) Circle to the right ….. slowly, faster, big, small. 8) Walk like a ……. Animals – cat, dog etc – as their knowledge grows so will the range! 9) Swim/hop/jump/drive/fly etc like a … animals/cars/planes/bikes/trains etc – you can get them to go left/right/in a circle as well. 10) ABC TPR – Ss sit in circle. Choose 2 or 3 letters to focus on. (e.g. A,B, C). Write the letter on the floor in front of them. The A’s stand up …. Hop (do an action!) around the circle. Sit down. B’s stand up – do a different action. C’s stand up – do a different action, then sit down. Next to AB, BC,AC. 11) True/False – use a bunch of flashcards. One side of the classroom is yes, one side is now (e.g. the door is yes, the window no). You say something about the flashcard. E.g. ‘It’s a cat’. If it’s a cat, they run to the door, if it isn’t they run to the window. You may need to draw a box or circle on the floor for them to stand in – or they will crowd around you an/or cheat!
TPR Routine Example Turn off the lights and say: “Sleep” Turn on the lights and say: “Wake up” “Smile” “I see Annie….Ted….Digger…Dot” (Ss wave at the flashcards of the characters) “Good morning Annie…Ted….Digger….Dot” “Wash your face” “Brush your teeth’ “Comb your hair’ “Get dressed” “Walk downstairs” “Good morning Mum…dad...etc” “I’m hungry” “Let’s eat together” “I’m thirsty” “let’s drink together” “Wash your hands” “Pick up your pencil…ruler…eraser…” “Pick up your bag” “Go to school” “Bye bye Mum…dad” “Good morning teacher” “Good morning students…sit down”
*Note: Language can be added into this routine as it is covered in the book. It is a great way of reviewing and using the new language in a fun and active way. 18
2. Large classes Teaching English with games is becoming standard through out ESL classrooms of the world. And this is good news, because children love to learn through games, and become much more motivated students as a result. However games often make children excited and if you have a large class you need a few things up your sleeve to bring the class into line immediately if things get a little over-heated. Here are some tips and ideas to help you contain your pupils' enthusiasm and manage your large class. There are three sections. Essential basics, useful tips, and attention grabbers. a. Some essential basics to manage a large class Together with your pupils define the rules in the first lesson, and post them on the classroom wall for reference. Knowing WHY a rule is in place makes it easier to keep. You must establish the rules on day one and stick to them! Be consistent in applying your rules. If you are arbitrary about how you dish out your rewards or 'consequences', or punishments you will undermine the rules themselves. Praise good behavior to generate love and self-esteem. Whatever you do, avoid being like so many parents who spend their whole time telling their children, "don't do this", and "don't do that". By focusing on the positive in order to draw more attention to it you apply the universal law of "you attract what you focus on". If you are working in a school know the law and rules of your institution before you go into the classroom for the first time, and work in harmony with the school. Start out strict and fair - and stay that way! Being strict is not about looking stern and being bossy. It is about making sure the rules are kept, in a firm but fair way. You can still be a really fun, loving teacher and be strict with your class at the same time. b. Useful Tips Don't break your own rules by raising your voice to be heard. Instead talk quietly or stop and wait. Your class should know that for every minute you are kept waiting they will receive extra English homework, or whatever consequence you have designated. 19
Children love the sound of their own name more than anything else. So use an individual's name for praise and avoid using it when telling someone off. Create teams and deduct or reward behavior points to a team's score during a game. Your class will respond naturally by using peer pressure to keep the naughty children from misbehaving. Empower your children with choices. For example, ask a naughty child, "Do you want me to speak to your Dad?" By asking a question you give the child the power to choose, whereas if you use a threat such as, "I'll call your Dad if you don't behave", you take the initiative away and seem tyrannical. You can also say things like, "you can either play the game properly or you can sit in the corner". The child will probably choose to play the game properly, and you make them responsible for their behavior. Prevention is better than cure, so try giving boisterous children an important task BEFORE they start to play up. They may respond well to the responsibility. It is important, especially with a large class, to hand things out quickly or use a system to have this done, such as giving the well-behaved children the task as a reward. Sing a song together or do some counting or a quick game to occupy the class while materials are handed out. Play a mystery game and, before you start your fun game say that during the activity you will be watching the whole class for 3 well-behaved children who will be rewarded. Only play games where you know you can keep a handle on the situation. For example there is no point playing a boisterous game with a lot of movement if you have more than around 20 children. With large classes, including classes of up to 60 children, you need special games where the children have limited movement - such as standing up or making gestures but while remaining in their seats. You can sign up to receive free games in the resource box below, and some of the free games given out are suitable for very large classes.
c. Attention grabbers Start an English song the children know and love – they will all join in with you and at the end you’ll have their attention. Clap out a pattern which the class must clap back, or start a rhyme they know with actions. Use quiet cues such as heads down or lights off. Vary these with other fun quiet cues such as "Give me five".1--on your bottom, legs crossed; 2--hands folded in your lap; 3--face the speaker; 4--eyes and ears open; 5--mouths closed. You teach this repeatedly in the first lessons and after a few weeks, you only have to say "Give me five:1,2,3,4,5", and the children will do it. You can also use the Magic 1 2 3 idea. When a child does not comply start counting 1, 2,… The child knows that if you get to 3 there will be some sort of consequence, such as missing out on the next game. If you use this and you reach 3, you must follow through with an appropriate consequence consistently. To summarize, establish the rules and consequences for good and bad behavior, apply them consistently, set a good example, use peer pressure and points, and use attention grabbing cues such as favorite songs, English rhymes with actions and countdowns. Above all play suitable games where you know you can keep in control of your class. You can be firm and fun at the same time, and if you cannot manage your class, you should realize that, although it sounds harsh to say it, you are wasting their time.
3. The top nine mixed-level class solutions (in no particular order) a. Use cooperation rather than competition. b. Use teams and groups. c. Change the scoring system. d. Add an element of luck. e. Compare students with themselves. f. Use mixed abilities as a topic. g. Use projects. h. Use the best students as ‘teachers’. i. Give individualized work. a. Use cooperation rather than competition Using games that are cooperative rather than competitive goes against almost every sport and game we play in our lives and can take a bit of getting used to. It does exist in the outside world though, for example, making a human pyramid. Similar activities can be done in class by getting the whole class to join hands and touch two far away objects at the same time or make a particular shape. An easier way of moving from competitive games to the class cooperating together is to play ‘class against the teacher’ with guessing games like hangman. A similar one is to add up all the points from all the students in the class and compare it to the total number of points last week. b. Use teams and groups Being in teams quickly stops individuals standing out from the crowd and so gives everyone a chance to be part of success, as long as you make sure one team or group doesn’t keep doing better than all the rest... c. Change the scoring system If your classes, like mine, are motivated more by competition than anything else and add up points even when you don’t suggest it, then you’ll have no choice but to keep score. There are several techniques for making sure this doesn’t just point out the difference between the top students and the others. One is to give points in a game, but 22
have such an exciting and/ or chaotic end to the game that they forget all about adding them up. A similar one is to give so many points that it covers the whole whiteboard and they will never be able to count them. Alternatively, you can have a scoring system that makes it more and more difficult to score points the more points you get, e.g. balancing blocks, catching the ball in more and more difficult ways, or running and touching while holding more and more objects. You can also award points, prizes, stickers or praise for things other than good English ability, e.g. good behavior, helping to clear up, a good singing voice etc. d. Add an element of luck As well as being fun, playing Paper Scissor Stones, using dice, flipping coins etc. should give everyone more of an equal chance. e. Compare students with themselves Rather than comparing each student to the others, compare the number of points in a game, marks in a test or length, neatness etc. of written work to their own work last week and congratulate them on any progress. f. Use mixed abilities as a topic You can make students aware of what having mixed abilities means by consciously bringing the topic into the English classroom. One example is using reading texts that specifically deal with the issue of people having different abilities at different things, e.g. stories of people who suddenly found something they were good at (the Ugly Duckling etc.) or stories of people helping each other out. g. Use projects As well as being great teaching tools in general, project work can really help in mixed ability classes. You can increase this effect by helping students choose topics and ways of presenting them that tie in with their interests and skills. You can also vary the difficulty of the tasks with policies such as allowing students to choose what percentage of text and illustrations they want to use depending on their ability and confidence. h. Use the best students as â€˜teachersâ€™ The students who always speak out and do well in class are usually only too happy to step up to the front of the class and take the teacherâ€™s role. As well as providing them with a fresh challenge it also gives everyone else a chance to speak out.
i. Give individualized work Homework is a great opportunity to give the best students something challenging and the slower students something to boost their confidence and/ or help them catch up. All the methods for doing this take some preparation, but the easiest ones could just be varying worksheets slightly by filling in some of the gaps in a text etc. in some of the worksheets and adding some more in some of the others. Similar techniques can be used in class, by having an additional game or fun worksheet for those students who finish quickly. But donâ€™t forgetâ€Ś As a final point, when you are worrying about the best and worst kids make sure you donâ€™t forget the kids in the middle - something that many teachers and parents can tell you is easy to do! 4. The English Box Aim: The focus the students on speaking English during an activity. Procedure: Draw a box on the board and label it English Box. Draw a smaller box within the box. Before the teacher starts a communicative activity he/she explains that for the appointed time of the activity the students must only speak in English. If the activity is 5 minutes in length, then the teacher writes 5 minutes in the smaller box. The teacher also draws a hand in the English box, and explains that if a student wants to talk in Malay that they must put up their hand. Each lesson the teacher can increase the amount of time in the English box. 5. Tom and Jerry Aim: To monitor the behavior and also the amount of L1 in the classroom. Procedure: The teacher makes a copy of Tom and Jerry from the popular cartoon. The teacher explains who they are e.g. a cat and a mouse, and elicits what the cat might do if it catches the mouse. The teacher sticks the two characters at different sides of the blackboard. Explain that if the students work well the mouse will move away from the cat, the teacher demonstrates by moving the mouse away from the cat. If the students misbehave or speak too much L1 then the cat will move closer to the mouse, the teacher demonstrates. If at any stage the cat catches the mouse then the students will be given a class punishment e.g. extra homework. 24
6. Points System Aim: To monitor the behavior and also the amount of L1 in the classroom. Procedure: Divide the class into teams at the start of the class. Award each team 5 points to begin the lesson. Throughout the lesson ward points for good behavior or good work. Likewise deduct points for any misbehavior or too much L1 etc. At the end of the class award a small prize for the winning team. You could set up an on-going points/team chart for the teams. The team which has the most victories over the space of a week/month wins a prize. 7. Performance Charts Think about preparing a performance chart for your classes. After each lesson/week you and your TA will award stars to students who have performed well. Record how many stars each child has. At the end of each month or so (suggestions), they will get a small prize. Use it to encourage any positive behavior, whether it be English or general behavior. It would be good if each child could get a least one star per class.
Happy and Sad Face Behavior Chart The Behavior Model that has been implemented is a Happy and Sad Face Chart. This Model, has been thought out, tested, and proved to be a successful tool to use in the classroom to promote safety and learning. Initially all of the childrenâ€™s names start on a happy face. Due to behavior a child may move down to a sad face, then to 5 minutes off of recess, to 10 minutes off of recess, then finally 15 minutes off of recess. Rules and parameters for movement up or down the chart must be clearly communicated to all Ss. The chart provides a visual reminder and to avoid any negative connotation itâ€™s important that the child knows he or she can ALWAYS move up from a sad face to a happy face. Remember that the student who is more apt to lose recess is typically the student who needs it the most. While Ss are sitting out, make sure to speak with the child about why he or she is sitting out and strategies and ways to make sure they don't have to sit out again.
The happy/sad face is beneficial since it provides a uniform and consistent behavior model for all the students, and helps them understand what is expected and shows them that there are consequences, which in turn makes them begin to take responsibility for their behavior. Without the children taking responsibility for their behavior, would certainly make it difficult for one teacher to ensure 19 students are safe and thriving! Another variation focuses on rewards and praise to encourage positive behavior. This encourages "put ups" rather than put-downs. Itâ€™s important to continuously give positive reinforcement for positive behavior and have other positive behavior plans to build classroom community and self-esteem
Variations on Behaviour Charts and Classroom Management Systems
Make sure your assistants know your expectations and structures before you introduce them in class. Your assistants are essential for following through with your systems! Charts are too big and difficult to carry. Keep charts posted in rooms all day. Students write their names (in the beginning of the year, they will need help with this) on stars, place them on the bottom of the chart using tacky tack, and move up the board from the bottom to the top (spaceship/planets on the top?) according to behaviour. Or, students all start in the middle and move up or down based on their behaviour. (This needs to be translated well by the assistant.) Finally, if all students get above a certain line, then there is a class reward. If all students get below a certain line, then there is a class punishment. Classroom teachers won’t allow English materials displayed in class all day. Bring charts to class with you every day. Make a lightweight, easy to roll up version. Write the students’ names on the left of the chart and add star stickers or drawings across the board. Make sure the student adds his/her own star to feel successful. This method doesn’t note students who misbehave. You can also make groups if it gets too unruly with so many names. When individual students fill their lines with more than 20 stars or drawings, then they get a surprise (snack, leaving class first, coming to the front of the room to sing a song they all know…).
Daily behaviour monitoring is needed throughout class. Hand out red/yellow/green cards when students are behaving in ways that need to be adjusted or reinforced. At the end of class, all green students get to leave first, then yellow, then red. Make a chart to track who has red and green cards at the end of each class. Offer Friday rewards or standing ovations for students with green cards all week. Classes are too big and time is too short to individually track each student. Make teams at the beginning of the year. After each test, mix up the teams again. (If possible, create a new chart with a new theme each quarter, giving teams the chance to do better.) Students sit with their teams, and watch their teamâ€™s progress on the chart.
http://www.stickersandcharts.com/ Studentsâ€™ seating is distracting to them. Make table name cards with students (folded stock card so it stands up and you can read them). To leave class, students must give them back to you each day. When you enter, set them up and students find their cards and seats. This also mixes up seating order each day. As students learn more vocabulary, they can draw their favorites on the back of the card (ex. animals, colors, foods). 29
Only some students verbally participate. Call on students individually to name vocabulary or answer questions. Ask the whole class to answer, then go back to individual students who werenâ€™t able to speak at first. Keep picking other student to model correct answers, then go back to the quiet ones until they respond. Make this a habit in class. The behavior charts take up too much time and are distracting. Assign your assistant control of the task. Make sure she knows the rules you are enforcing with your system and join in when you can. Students can learn more vocabulary through the charts as well as learn how to follow directions and act in an English classroom. Itâ€™s a valuable use of time. Possible Chart Themes Race cars ` Planes Boats Kites Stars and outer space Apples Hearts that turn to flowers at the end Uncle Ho
Sports Ice cream scoops and parlor Animals from zoo to jungle Superheroes Tree climbing Smiley Faces Slides & Ladders Fairies & Wizards
First lessons: first lessons checklist Checklist point
You do something the students already know to boost their confidence You do something new that none of the students knew before The students have fun You can test the level and knowledge of the class You can test how quickly the class picks up new vocab and/ or grammar There are activities using several different learning styles The teacher makes a personal connection to the students and the students with each other The students have a chance to work together as teams, groups and/ or pairs You learn the studentsâ€™ names, and other personal information about them Set up some classroom management strategies. Start as you mean to go on. Everybody in the class has an opportunity to talk The class is a good example of the methodology you want the students to get used to in the rest of the course The language you teach will help you teach future lessons- e.g. classroom language, phonics Students are introduced to your policy on English use (e.g. teacher only speaks English; instructions are given in English but grammar explanations in L1 etc.) You have a list of materials you and the students need, including how many spares you are going to take for students who forget theirs Homework is set and explained You set homework that can be completed even if you donâ€™t get through your whole lesson plan (all revision or several options depending on where you finish) You plan to use activities that work well with all kinds of classes, not just ones that were very popular with just one class.
30 ways to use flashcards 1 Make the alphabet Give out the alphabet flashcards in random order to different children. If there are fewer than twenty six in the class, give some children two flashcards showing consecutive letters. Children take turns to come to the front of the class and stick their flashcards in alphabetical order on the board. Alternatively, the children stand up, hold up their flashcards and arrange themselves in alphabetical order in a line. 2 Spell it right! Give out the alphabet flashcards in random order to different children. Say words from vocabulary the children know one at a time. Children who think they one of the letters from the word you say come and stand in a line at the front of the class and hold up their flashcards to spell the word. The rest of the class check the spelling. Note: It is important to choose words that only have one of each letter e.g. lunch, hamster etc. 3 Word race Stick a selection of alphabet flashcards in jumbled order on the board. Divide the class into pairs or groups and give the children a time limit to make words of two or more letters from the flashcards on the board. Explain to the children that they can include words in their list where letters are repeated e.g. green, dinner etc. After five minutes, check the words and find out how many the class has collectively managed to make. 4 Letter and picture match Choose between 6-10 alphabet flashcards and stick them in different places on the walls. Have ready a selection of magazine pictures or flashcards showing known vocabulary. Divide the class into two teams and give the children in each team a number. Give children with the same number from each team a picture of flashcard. The children race to stand by the alphabet flashcard that shows the initial letter of the picture of flashcard they have been given. 5 Flashcard Hangman Use the alphabet flashcards to play this. Think of a word the children know and draw dashes, the same width as the flashcards, for each letter on the board. Children suggest letters to go in the word. If a letter is correct stick the corresponding flashcard in the correct place in the word. If the letter is not correct, stick the flashcard on one side of the board and start to draw a line to the hangman figure. Children win the game if they guess the word before you complete the picture. 32
6. Flash! Stick a plain card on the reverse side of the flashcards you are using so children cannot see both pictures. Show each flashcard to the children very quickly by holding it at the sides between your thumb, index and second finger and turning it round very quickly. Children look and guess what it is. 7. Slowly, slowly! Choose the flashcards and have ready a plain piece of card the same size. Hold up each flashcard in turn covered completely by the card at first. Pull down the card to slowly reveal the picture and encourage children to guess what it is. 8. Point to â€Ś ! Stick a set of flashcards on the walls. Hold up each one and children say the names as you do this. Give instructions e.g. Point to the supermarket! Children listen and point to the correct flashcards as fast as they can. 9. Mime the flashcard Hold up flashcards in turn and say the words or phrases, which correspond to the pictures. Children mime in response e.g. they can pretend to do a different activity or sport. 10. Whatâ€™s missing? Stick a set of flashcards on the board getting the children to say the names as you do this. Say Close your eyes. Quickly remove one of the flashcards from the board. Children open their eyes and call out the name of the missing flashcard. 11. Magic eyes Stick a set of six flashcards in a row on the board. Say the names and get the children to repeat. Remove the flashcards one by one. Point to where they were and children repeat the names as if they were still there. 12. Flashcard instructions Stick a set of flashcards on the walls. Divide the class into groups. Give each group instructions in turn e.g. Group 1 Walk to the kitchen. Group two. Jump to the dining room etc.
13. Repeat if it’s true Stick a set of flashcards on the board. Point to one of the flashcards and say the name. If you have said the correct name, children repeat it. If not, they stay silent. This activity can be made more challenging if you say sentences e.g. It’s a lemon ice cream. 14. Lip reading Stick a set of flashcards on the board. Choose one flashcard and say the name without the use of your voice. Only good for the vocabulary that Ss know already. Great for revision. 15. Kim’s game. Stick 8- 10 flashcards from different units on the board. Elicit the names. Give the children one minute to memorize the flashcards before removing them. Children work in pairs and write a list of the flashcards they can remember. Elicit answers from the whole class and write them on the board. 16. Flashcard charade Divide the class into groups of three or four. Give each group a flashcard, making sure that other groups don’t see. Children think of a way to mime their flashcard. Give them a minute or two to prepare. Each group takes turns to mime to the rest of the glass and guess each other’s flashcards. 17. Stand up! Divide the class into two teams. Stick four or five flashcards on the left of the board for one team and four or five flashcards on the right of the board for the other team. Say the words in random order. Children stand up as fast as they can if the word belongs to their team. 18. Who’s got the flashcard? Have a music cassette ready. Children stand in a circle with their hands behind their backs. One child stands in the middle of the circle. Show a flashcard and elicit the name. Explain that when you play the music, children pass the flashcard round the circle behind their backs. When the music stops, they stop. The child in the center has three chances to find out who’s got the flashcard by asking questions e.g. Have you got the hamster? Yes, (I have)/ No, (I haven’t). If he or she finds the child with the flashcard, that child has the next turn. The game continues using a different flashcard and with a different child in the middle of the circle each time. 34
19. Ball game Have ready a soft ball. Stick 8-10 flashcards on the board, Children stand in a circle. Hold up the ball, say one, two, three… and name one of the flashcards on the board e.g. Cinema! As you throw the ball to a child in the circle each child who catches the ball repeats the procedure and names another flashcard. The game continues in the same way until all the flashcards on the board have been named. 20. Flashcard chain Have a set of flashcards ready. Stand or sit in a circle with the children. Pass the first flashcard to the child on your left and ask a question e.g. Do you like chocolate ice cream? Yes, (I do)/ No, (I don’t). The child then asks the question and passes the flashcard to the next child and so on round the circle. When the first flashcard is about three children away from you in the circle, introduce another one by asking the child on your left a question in the same way. 21. Threes! Stick a plain card temporarily on the reverse side of the flashcards you are using. Sit in a circle with the children and divide them into two teams. Lay three of the flashcards out in front of you and elicit it the names. Turn the flashcards over so that the pictures are hidden. Change the positions of the flashcards on the floor so that they are no longer easily identifiable. Invite a child from one of the teams to name one of the three flashcards. He or she then tries to find this flashcard by choosing one of them and turning it over to reveal the picture. If it isn’t the flashcard they named, the three flashcards are turned over and move around again and a child from the other team has a turn. If it is the flashcard they named, they keep it for their team. You then introduce another flashcard to make up the three in the game. The game continues in the same way with the children on each team taking turns. The team with most flashcards at the end wins. 22. Flashcard bingo Use at least twelve flashcards. Stick the flashcards on the board. Children draw a grid with six squares and write the name of one flashcard in each square. Remove the flashcards from the board and shuffle them. Hold up the flashcards one by one and say the names. Children write a cross on the word if it is in their grid. The first child to write a across on all six words in their grid calls out ‘Bingo!’ and is the winner.
23. Flashcard whispers Children stand in two lines facing the board. Secretly show the last child standing in each line a flashcard. This child then whispers the name to next child and so on up the line. The child at the front runs to the board and draws or writes the word. Repeat several times, changing the children who stand at the front and back of the line each time. 24. Flashcard story You will need to invent a very simple story with relevant flashcards. Give out flashcards you are going to include in the story to the children in pairs. An example may be of a house and a character from your book; One day Mr. Macaroni loses his watch. (Use mime to convey meaning). He looks in the bedroom but he canâ€™t find it. He looks in the bathroom but he canâ€™t find it, etc. (Name all the rooms). Then Mr. Macaroni goes into the garden to play football. Suddenly, he sees his watch under the tree. Mr. Macaroni is very happy. Children listen and hold up the corresponding flashcard when they hear the word in the story. Note: For the following activities, you need to make word cards to accompany the flashcards you are going to use. The word cards should show the words or phrases corresponding to the pictures on the flashcards clearly and be large enough to use with the whole class. 25. Jumbled words and flashcards Stick flashcards and word cards on the board in the jumbled order. Invite children to the board in turn and get them to draw lines to join the flashcards and words. 26. Match the flashcards and words Stick flashcards on the board. Give out word cards to individual children. Children take turns to stick their words by the correct flashcard. Alternatively, you can stick the word cards on the board and give the flash cards out to children. 27. Stop! Stick a flashcard on the board and elicit the name. Hold up word cards one by one. Children read silently until you hold up the world card, which matches the flashcard. They call Stop! And read the word out loud. Repeat with different flashcards. 36
28. Team game Have already two sets of word cards for the same flashcard for this game. Divide the class into two teams. Stick flashcards (as many as there are children in each team) on the board or on the walls. Give one word card to each child in both teams. Call out the name of one of the flashcards. The child in each team who has the corresponding word card runs to touch the flashcard and hold up their word card as fast as they can. The child who gets there first each time scores a point for their team. 29. Board Pelmanism Stick a plain card on the reverse side of the 8-10 flashcards you are using. Stick the flashcards in jumbled order on one side of the board, so that children canâ€™t see the pictures, and number them. Do the same with the word cards on the other side of the board. Invite one child to choose a flashcard e.g. Number two, please and, as you turn it round to show the picture, to say what it is e.g. (Itâ€™s a) mint ice cream. Invite the same child to choose a word card in the same way. If the flashcard and word card match, remove them from the board. If not, turn them both round so that they are in the same position but facing inwards again. The game proceeds with different children choosing a flashcard and word card in the same way, trying to match them from memory until they are all removed. 30. Classify the words Draw two or three large circle on the board and write topic words at the top of each one e.g. rooms, shops. Children take turns to come to the front of the class, either individually or in pairs, read a word card that you give them and stick it in the correct circle.
*Note: Language can be added into this routine as it is covered in the book. It is a great way of reviewing and using the new language in a fun and active way.
Developing Literacy Skills in the Primary Classroom A wealth of easily adaptable supplementary materials can be found in the Magic Time and English Time Picture & Word card books that accompany each level. The pictures found in these can be easily adapted in many ways; please refer so some of the ideas below for inspiration. In addition to the ideas listed below, a number of free online apps will allow you to create easily and quickly crosswords, word searches and other worksheets aimed at developing literacy; see http://www.discoveryeducation.com/free-puzzlemaker/. Some ideas for introducing simple writing strategies Body letters Ask children to make themselves into the shape of given letters ‘make yourself an ‘s’ etc’. Children contort their bodies into what they think the letter looks like. You can model this easily by showing them an ‘x’ by standing with your feet apart and your arms in the air and wide apart. Or you can show a ‘T’ by standing with your feet together and your arms stretched out to the sides. Or ask children to make a letter and the whole class has to try to recognize what the letter is.
Tracing letters Ask students to shut their eyes and with your finger trace a letter on their hand or back. They must tell you what this is. They can play the game in pairs. There may be giggles from the ticklish in the class, but the activity requires them to ‘see’ the letter in their mind’s eye and its great fun, too.
Air writing Before writing letters on paper, get all the students to stand up and you stand at the front of the class with your back to them. Using your writing hand draw a big letter in the air saying its sound at the same time. Get the students to copy you, moving their arms to form the letter in the air.
Letter sculptures Give out plasticine (soft modeling clay) to all the children (half-cooked spaghetti works too, but is messier). Ask the children to make certain letters (or words). They have to concentrate on the shape of the letter and its proportions. The children can choose their own letter and make a big one out of plasticine or card, then stick it on a large piece of card. Give out magazines and newspapers and let the children look and find either words or pictures of things that begin with the same letter. They cut these out and create a collage with their big letter. Decorate the classroom with these posters. A selection of tips and activities to help you introduce words to children. It is a short journey from letters to words. In order to introduce words, show pictures and words together and sound out the phonics. E.G. /c/ /a/ /t/ = cat Move you finger under each letter as you sound it. Remember not all languages are written in the same direction. Encourage the children to read with you.
Word building Word tiles â€“ get the children to make 26 letter tiles out of cardboard (old cereal boxes will do) by simply cutting out small squares and writing each letter on them. a Each child has their letters spread out in front of them. Call out a word they have learnt e.g. cat and the first one to find the right tiles and put them in order must put their hand up. This encourages quick eye movement over the letters, recognition and letter combining. Races â€“ for fun you could challenge the children working in pairs or threes (to encourage cooperation and peer teaching) to make as many words as possible in a specified time. As each child has their own letters, they can play with them at home or if they finish an activity early and see how many words they can make. Later they can move into building short sentences. 39
Worksheets You can produce easy worksheets like this: What animal? c_t
Children fill in the gaps. If you can add a picture of the word too: it will make it all the more meaningful. atc =
Children unjumble the letters to make the word. You could also do this on the board with children coming up and doing the activity one at a time.
http://www.onestopenglish.com/section.asp?catid=59455&docid=146632 - Top#Top 40
Word searches These are good for children to recognize words within a jumble of other words. It makes them concentrate and â€˜seeâ€™ words on the page. Children have to circle or color the ten key words in the grid.
Children have to find the ten animal words in the box. You can either give them the ten words at the bottom to help them look. Or attach the pictures of the animals to the word search. BIRD, CAT, COW, DOG, ELEPHANT, FISH, LION, MOUSE, SNAKE, TIGER
Crosswords Children look at the picture, have to remember the English word and then have to write the word â€“ spelling correctly â€“ to fit it into the crossword. This worksheet is also a good record of vocabulary for them to keep and refer to.
REMEMBER: Start early. Make it fun. Make it holistic. Encourage life-long skills.
A selection of games to help young learners practice using letters and sounds. Games are motivating and help make language memorable, so try to think of lots of fun ways to practice the new letters and sounds that you are introducing to the children.
Run and point Pin up the letters that you have introduced to the class so far on the walls around the classroom at a height the children can reach. Nominate one student and say ‘Juan, run and point to /s/’. The child must look around and find the correct letter and run up to it and touch it or point to it. (Model the activity so that the children are clear about what they have to do). You could then turn this into a race. Divide the class into two groups. They stand in two lines at the front of the class or down the centre of the room (it’s great if you can move furniture to the sides of the room). The children at the front of each line are the runners. You say the sound of the letter and the one to reach and touch it first is the winner. They then go to the back of the line and the next two children are the runners for the next letter. It is fine if other children in the team help the runner – it’s not a test but a means of helping children learn the sound-letter link.
What begins with /b/? Ask the question with all the letters the children have been introduced to. They can tell you any words they know that begin with that sound. This is great for them to make their own connections between the letter and the sound. You may be surprised at how many words they know – even ones you haven’t introduced in class.
Hold up the letter Get the children to make cards with the letters they know. Call out a sound and the children have to hold up the corresponding letter. This game allows all the children to join in and to focus on processing the sound-letter link without having to produce any language.
Recognizing the letters Produce handouts like this: n
Children have to recognize which is the same letter and simply circle it or maybe color over it. The letters are actually very similar in shape, so it’s important that children can differentiate between them.
Copying There are many good books that allow children to practice writing letters and words. They simply copy by following the arrows that show them which way their pen/pencil must move. After having done the air, body, plasticine activities it is good to move onto paper and allow the children lots of practice with holding a pencil and making the shapes. With the developing motor skills of younger students it is not easy to begin with and they need lots of practice to control their hand and follow the shape of the letter. It is easy to create your own tracing or copying worksheets Æ download ‘jardotty,’ ‘tracefont,’ or another trace font and make your own. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Sample lesson/activity plan
Word sequences Aims To logistically deduce the pattern in word sequences; to practice writing familiar words; to write a word sequence for a partner to complete. Language focus In the example clothes
Alternatives: any other familiar vocabulary
Materials: None Procedure: 1. Write a sequence of familiar words on the board following a 1,2,1,2 pattern e.g. boots, shoes, boots,
2. Read the sequence rhythmically. Encourage students to join in and supply the last two missing words. 3. Repeat the procedure with other word sequences from the same lexical set e.g.
hat, T-shirt, coat, hat T-shirt, _______, ________. (Following a 1,2,3,1,2,3 pattern) or trousers, jumper, jumper, trousers, jumper, _____, ______. (Following a 1,2,2,1,2,2 pattern). 4. Ask students to copy and complete the word sequence in their books. 5. Check the answers by asking children to read the word sequences. 6. Ask them to invent and write the first five words of one or two more sequences using familiar vocabulary from the same lexical set. They can either follow any of the patterns you have introduced or they can create a new pattern. 7. Get them to check the spelling of words before they begin, e.g. by looking at their course book. 8. When they are ready, children exchange their books with a partner and read and complete each otherâ€™s word sequences. 9. They then return the books to the original owner, who checks that the sequences have been completed correctly. Comments and suggestions â€˘ This activity gives children practice in copying and writing familiar words. The logical deductive element involved in working out the patterns of the sequence ensures the students are also cognitively engaged. 45
Stages of a lesson
Stage 1 TPR - Review Stage 2 Classroom management Stage 3 Review of last lesson Stage 4 Introduce new vocabulary/language Stage 5 Book work Song/chant (actions) Stage 6 Practice activities/Consolidation Games Stage 7 Set Homework