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St. John Fisher College, Pittsford ​okay so first of all a little bit of background on me I work at Griffith University I'm one of the lecturers there in the School of ICT so that should tell you that my project management area is information technology I'm a lecturer now but my background is actually in industry in industry I started out as a business analyst I moved into the user experience field so unlike a lot of IT people my interest is always in the people rather than the technology which kind of met project management was then a fairly natural progression for me because let's face it with project management you're managing a lot of logistics around projects but really what you're doing is managing people so if it was a natural progression for me but today I'm going to be talking to you about change management because change if it never happens yeah if you want to make enemies try and change something and one of the reasons that's the case is people we're the ones who tend to make change a fairly awkward thing and we're the ones who tend to get in the way of a fairly successful change okay we're talking about change so let's talk about what we're talking about because there's actually two different sides to it first of all this change control now this is what you do when you're managing change inside your project so as project managers that's what you've got to do now this is when your client decides they want to change the scope or somebody goes off on maternity leave and all of a sudden you need to risk do your entire schedule or new legislation comes in and your budget needs to change completely change control is all about those kinds of things that's managing the change that's happening inside your project as it's running then you've got change management I tend to call it big picture change because that's what happens when you need to actually roll out your finished project into the organization the business the environment whatever it happens to be that's a slightly different process because for that one you've generally got to take the current way that people are doing something and make the changes to however they've got to do it now with whatever your new project is delivering now obviously for IT this is a very big area for us because nine times out of ten we're either introducing a brand new system that's never been used and what could go wrong with that or we're taking something that is already the way people do things and making them do it completely differently because you know no one's going to have your shoes with that at all are they so just to let you know that when we're talking about change this is what we're talking about how that applies for you guys well it's going to vary but the tools and techniques you use are going to be slightly different whether you're talking about change control or change management and we'll have a quick look at both so having had a look at the outline of what you guys have covered so far today I see that you should have looked at structuring your project looked at your timeframes and I believe you had just been looking at work breakdown structures just on the chart at all they've got everything fairly laid out right everything's going to run perfectly right right now the simple truth is that Hellmuth didn't actually say exactly these words he said something far more verbose which has since been shortened into the rather pithy expression that no plan survives contact with the enemy but the sentiment is the same because the problem is we can make all these plans and everything's all structured and clear but then as soon as you start putting them into action and people start coming into the equation and interacting with your plan yeah the best laid plans tend to disappear it happens a lot in IT because one of the things that happens is that say we're developing a project which needs an interface cause it's IT it needs an interface so you've got all of the requirements set out it's all documented it's all laid down you draw up your first interface as to what it's going to look like and how people are going to interact with it and you put it in front of your client and they go that's fantastic now can we make it do this and this and this and this and can we change it to pink and can we move these buttons around and then all of a sudden all of your scopes completely gone out the window so for us this particular sentiment is very very apt but it's true with anybody because you're dealing with people and we are very very messy creatures so how you manage change that's what's going to separate your project from being successful to being something at the disaster we're not talking Hindenburg disaster well I guess we could be really it could be that bad now the key thing is how are you going to manage those changes how are you going to control what's going on how are you going to make things happen as smoothly as possible okay so you're thinking about how you might manage a change within your project say it's the example I just gave you've just shown something somebody from your product they've said can we change this particular thing so they've come to you with a change what are you going to do what would be the first thing you might do is someone request a change to your project yes I know that's that I wait I have worked with project managers who take the very simple approach of just saying no so you need to go a little bit deeper than that where might you start ask why that is really really good you need to know why they want to implement the change

because that's going to give you an idea as to whether or not this is a benefit or whether what the actual advantage is that it's going to bring to your product what else might you need to do oh yes cost is a big factor as soon as you start talking change chances are you were talking Akane's to the budget no matter what the actual changes that's been requested what else sorry get it in writing that's actually the first thing you should do as soon as somebody requests a change make it official get it in writing try to get them to put down the reasons and the detail if you can so there's a really simple form of change request form and you can give it here you go have the pool give me as much detail as you can now that's often almost as effective as just saying no because it makes people think do I really want this change that they need to write it down now within your change request form you're going to have things like what is it you want to change what's the business case behind the change they're specific as you can you can even ask them to identify any budgetary or scheduling issues that they may be aware of they might not be able to tell you that that might be your job okay you've got it in writing what happens next investigate you need to have a look at everything they've asked for and you need to look at what the outcome is going to be what is the impact going to be on your project you need to evaluate their request then what what do you need to do that's it it's really simple it's a very simple straightforward process once you've actually done your evaluation then you decide well is this a change we're actually going to approve or is this a change we're going to reject no matter what you decide you then need to advise that outcome you need to advise it to the person who made the request in the first place you need to keep records of this within your project your thinking change logs and databases and all of that sort of thing if the change is approved you then need to advise all of the affected stakeholders so whoever needs to actually make the change whoever needs to control your budget and your schedule if you're not the person directly doing that all of the affected stakeholders need to be advised but this is the very simple process that you would use for controlling change within your project now instead of just saying no a lot of the time one of the tempting though that is one of the responses is to say well yes we can make this change happen and it is going to cost you this many hundred thousand dollars and it's going to take us an extra six months to complete the project it's amazing how quickly people often decide I don't need to change that buddy but in the end it's their choice you're the project manager so you know what the outcomes going to be you know what the effect is going to be but you are not the client you're not the person who is going to be stuck with this project once you're finished nine times out of ten and in the end it's going to be their choice so this is change control now we're going to look at change management the big-picture stuff that I was talking about and this is where people really come into the picture there are a lot of different frameworks and models that you can use to actually make these kinds of changes within organizations I'm not going to bore you to tears with all of them this one is actually based off one it's McKinsey 7s framework and it's called 7s for fairly obvious reasons I would think he was imaginative what can I say but the thing I like about it is that it doesn't look at change in terms of well what changes do we need to make to there so that it looks at changes from the point of view of the difference it makes to people because we're the ones who determine whether or not a change is going to occur successfully so it looks at first of all from the organization's point of view what is the structure of the organization what kind of strategy does the organization have what systems does the organization already have in place and then it looks at okay now let's look at the people what skills do we have with the people who are going to have to be dealing with this what's the style what's the management style the organizational style with style you're thinking culture what's that that exists within this particular organization and of course the staff exactly who is it who are going to have to use whatever this new system new product new project is that you're putting in place and amongst all of that you're looking at the tour of the shared values where are the connections between all of these so in terms of managing big picture change management you're looking at all of these different attributes and factors and looking at just what impact your project is going to have on each of these and nine times out of ten you can change an organization strategy you can change an organization structure you can put new systems in place but it's the people who are going to determine whether or not things work well or don't and this is where the different challenges come in because while we all know that change is inevitable that what people do with that change is completely optional change should involve growth bringing in a new project and you product a new system this should be done for the benefit of the organization the business society whatever it happens to be but that is often not the case I I worked for one particular cart and have to I have to express this very very carefully to make sure I don't give anything away one particular project that I worked on involved a private consultancy company a large public service organization so first of all you've got two very different cultures come in head-to-head so the public service organization wanted to change one of its core systems they needed new technology to back it up so that was fairly straightforward but they figured well while we're putting in this new technology maybe we can make the system better maybe we can make some changes so they came to us wanting these changes put in place and so we're great let's go for it and we started working on this new stuff and every single

thing we talked to the Arkham can we just change this to that and can we just change it they didn't really want a new system what they wanted was something that was identical to their old system just running on new technology can we have it brand new but exactly the same please now it took six to twelve months to work that out because they were still saying we want something new we want it exciting we want to make it different and better when that wasn't actually what they wanted at all and if we'd had the chance to just have the right people sit down together and talk that through we would have saved a whole heap of money and an awful lot of development time and given them what they wanted right up front but lesson learned people are amazing and one of the people that one of the reasons that people are amazing is because it doesn't matter how good a change is going to be what benefits it's going to bring there are always going to be some downsides for somebody and that's where the people come in because we don't tend to be very good at change we don't tend to like change very much and we tend to resist change quite a bit unless we choose to make the change so anybody who's like decided to sell a house and buy a new one you're generally doing that because you really want that new house and that's a great change IT people a weird because we love the fact that technology changes all the time and I know that drives most people who aren't in IT nuts and I'm sorry it's something we absolutely love about our industry but it's one of the problems because the people who are developing the technology forget the people who aren't in IT don't feel the same way and so all of those upgrades and changes that come through on your tech and your systems have been done by somebody who thinks you're going to love it and has no idea that you're sitting there fuming wanting to throw your iPad at the wall change resistance is human nature particularly when it comes to business systems and the way that you're currently doing the way you work you're you know what you need to do you can come into the office you can sit down you can do your job in no time flat I come in as the IT person saying I've got this fabulous new system for you you don't have to change absolutely everything you currently do but it's going to be so much faster and so much more efficient and you are going to look daggers at me and wish me to the very devil it's okay it's happened before I'm used to it but this is the problem how do you then introduce whatever it is that your project is going to deliver whatever product you're developing how do you introduce that into that kind of a situation and make it as comfortable as possible for all sides I have worked on projects where we have developed systems that are legitimately going to make a massive difference but the kickback that we get from the people who have to use it is so high that the project's will fail in the systems will fold and then you end up with a really really messy situation and that will happen because that change management process that process of kicking over to the new system is just not handled very well or very effectively you have to consider these kinds of things it doesn't matter how good your project is or how hot your product is that you're developing not everybody is going to like it and you have to be prepared for that Vassar College.