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8 Editorial 9

Infrastructure Over Time by CASEY O’NEILL

11 Fresh Frozen Flowers, Live Resin vs. Live Rosin and What It Means by BEARD BROS CREW 14 Transitioning to a Living Soil System: The “Dos and Dont’s” by WENDY KORNBERG 17 The Emerald Cup’s Tim Blake Looks To The Future by TIM BLAKE 20 From Salts to Sun, Soil, and Species by SY PATEL 22 When the Dead Got Busted: They Fought The Law and Won by DAVID BIENENSTOCK 25 Settling the Score Between Wild vs Landrace by AJA YASIR 28 Natural Pain Relief by BRIGITTE MARS 33 Bud Wise by THE REV 35 The Best Growing Containers for Cannabis by THE REV 39 Best LED for 3x3 Tents and Best Fast Living Soil Mix by THE REV 43 CO2: the Recipe for a Healthy Grow: An Interview With Josh Blazer of TNB Naturals by JULIE CHIARIELLO


76 Mendo Purps Bx by MICAH RUBINSTIEN 77 Purple Candy Cane by MIKE GREYSHOCK 78 Breeding the Culture: OldTimer1 by TREVOR WITTKE (SUNGROWNMIDZ) 80 Freakshow Cannabiis by MAX MONTROSE 81 Chocolate Cantaloupe “Fresh Air Phenotype” by FRANK T 82 TERDZ by THE VENDING MACHINE 83 Lem O.G. x Chemdawg by MICAH RUBINSTIEN 84 Vietnamese by FIRST CUT FARMS 85 Winter Hash Review 2021-22 by TONY STACKS 87 Success with Exotic Strains by MARYBETH SANCHEZ 90 Wine & Cannabis Terroir Are Not The Same... by MAX MONTROSE / TRICHOME INSTITUTE

47 Indigenous Roots: Mary Jane Oatman of Tribal Hemp and Cannabis Magazine by PEBBLES TRIPPET

96 Small Legacy Farms are Facing Extinction and Need Our Support by HEATHER DUNBAR

59 Garcia Hand Picked by BRIANNE FORTUNA



92 Cannabis Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Functions from Gene to Gram by JAMES DRISKILL

54 Renaissance Woman: Trixie Garcia of Garcia Hand Picked by JULIE CHIARIELLO


74 STRAIN: Black Girl Magic OG 2 by 1ST LADY OF THE WEST COAST

45 Cannabis Uses Less Water to Grow Than Many Other Crops by CHRIS CONRAD

51 Grow Cannabis With Healthy Roots Oxygen Can Be A Limiting Factor in the Root Zone by ED ROSENTHAL



60 Ripple on Still Water: The Enduring Legacy of the Grateful Dead by VIVIAN MCPEAK 65 An Interview with Carolyn “Mountain Girl” Garcia by VIVIAN MCPEAK 68 Taking it Further with Zane Kesey by VIVIAN MCPEAK

102 Welcome to Terplandia by NIKKI MARIE 107 Glass Vegas Artist Feature: Fiona Phoenxfire by AMY SHORT 110 STONEY BALONEY CARDS by BRANDON PALMA 117 The Ranchera Sisterhood: a Connection Produced by Passion for Hemp Under the California Sun by VERONICA CASTILLO 122 Five Captivating Questions for Nick Saad Co-Founder SitkA by WARREN BOBROW 126 Winterizing Your Greenhouse by ERIC BRANDSTAD



This Moment

Winter 2021/2022


un faster, jump higher, reach farther,

and you’ll always win! Live life expecting the worst, hoping for the best, and living for the future! Somebody has to do something, and it’s just incredibly pathetic that it has to be us. For me, the lame part of the Sixties was the political part, the social part. The real part was the spiritual part. If we had any nerve at all, if we had any real balls as a society, or whatever you need, whatever quality you need, real character, we would Run faster, jump higher, reach farther, and you’ll always win! Live life expecting the worst, hoping for the best, and living for the future! Somebody has to do something, and it’s just incredibly pathetic that it has to be us. For me, the lame part of the Sixties was the political part, the social part. The real part was the spiritual part. If we had any nerve at all, if we had any real balls as a society, or whatever you need, whatever quality you need, real character, we would make an effort to really address the wrongs in this society, righteously. Constantly choosing the lesser of two evils is still choosing evil. Once in awhile you get shown the light, in the strangest of places if you look at it right. There is a road, no simple highway, between the dawn and the dark of night, and if you go, no one may follow, that path is for your steps alone. ~Jerry Garcia

“Humans have to make mistakes to learn. Let them. The time and focus spent detailing the corruption and mechanistic means of a dying society can be spent building and creating anew. Let the old world meet its fate. No amount of psychoanalysis will cure or stop a broken system f rom dying.”

The renegades through time have deeply inspired me. The rebels, those who were strong enough to break the cycle, break the norm, to live wildly, to live free, to bring some new thought to existence. To birth something new as a gift to humanity, a gift usually born from challenge, born from pain. We are tested repeatedly so we can bring forth the treasure, the gold, in every situation. It is the eternal invitation. We are facing this right now within our cannabis industry. As we continue to move away from the injustice of prohibition, we are now wading through the injustices of greed, ignorance, and poorly written legislation that plagues the green rush. The green rush has done a great disservice to us all, but we must get through it to the other side, and being seasoned battle-worn warriors, I know many of us are still on the front lines fighting the good fight against all odds. We are fighting for a just and equitable cannabis industry, yes, but on a larger scale, we are also fighting for a better society, one that stands up for the Earth and her people. This is the pure energy of why cannabis and hemp are here as a gift to humankind. The modern cannabis industry was born from the Back to Earth movement, so-called hippies left the city for the mountains of the Emerald Triangle. They came to get earth connected once again, they

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brought the solar movement with them, they brought cannabis cultivation and organic regenerative farming of both food and medicine, and many were in love with the revolutionary counterculture music of that time. Many of them were Dead Heads, a group that we are celebrating in this issue. The legacy of cannabis, consciousness, and music and the places that they intersect are the keys to the new forms of society that are being born in the current renaissance that is underway. I believe it began over a century ago back in the French salons with Gertrude Stein and Alice B Toklas with their infused hashish brownies and carried up through the blues and jazz movements into the hippies, and now there is us. We are the ones we have been waiting for, and as Jerry so poignantly said, somebody has to do something. Earlier this week, I read this beautiful passage written by Mary Allison, which I believe illustrates the journey we are all traversing so eloquently, may all of our steps be blessed, may we be guided in the right ways, and may we birth new and more vibrant realities together…. An old world is crumbling. Let it. The agenda is becoming painfully obvious. Let it. People are questioning fabricated lies they’ve been told. Let them. Others are achingly intertwined in a dark domain of inverted reality ~ let them be. Even as the matrix slowly collapses, it still uses mind games and manipulation to distort the truth, let it. Allow the old reality to crumble, the disproportionate ideologies of Rome to fall. Let an inorganic reality built on global pessimism and materialistic addiction collapse. There is an organic process trying to emerge... let it. Those who have awakened from the matrix will not find salvation in desperately attempting to prove the matrix to itself. Let the matrix reap its own karma, its life cycle unwind, as it has no choice but to reveal itself through clumsy missteps of parabolic paranoia and pathological persuasion. Allow those who have a trauma bond with the matrix to fall in love with systemic deceit. Humans have to make mistakes to learn. Let them. The time and focus spent detailing the corruption and mechanistic means of a dying society can be spent building and creating anew. Let the old world meet its fate. No amount of psychoanalysis will cure or stop a broken system from dying. Be the doula for a new earth. You’re infinite potential woven into the tapestry of a new timeline. You’re free now, if you’d like to be. A new earth emerges, let it. Find Mary Allison here:

Editor-in-Chief: Julie Chiariello Managing Editor: Vivian McPeak Cultivation Editor: The Rev Senior Editor: Pebbles Trippet Senior Editor: Dan Pomerantz Cosmic Creative Officer: Brandon Palma of Founder: John Vergados Writers: Casey O’Neill Beard Bros Crew Wendy Kornberg Tim Blake Sy Patel David Bienenstock Aja Yasir Brigitte Mars The Rev Julie Chiariello Chris Conrad Pebbles Trippet Ed Rosenthal Brianne Fortuna Vivian McPeak Michael Dubois 1st Lady Of The West Coast Dutch Blooms Micah Rubinstien Mike Greyshock Trevor Wittke (SunGrownmidz) Frank T The Vending Machine First Cut Farms Tony Stacks Marybeth Sanchez Max Montrose / Trichome Institute Matthew Gates Heather Dunbar Richard Jergenson Nikki Marie Amy Short Brandon Palma / 8th Day Create Veronica Castillo Warren Bobrow Eric Brandstad from Greenhouse Advisory Group

Photographers: Jordan Badran of Scooch Lifestyle @scooch_lifestyle Crew Wendy Kornberg Sy Patel David Bienenstock The Rev Mary Jane Oatman AEssenseGrows Garcia Hand Picked Shutterstock Vivian McPeak Michael Dubois 1st Lady Of The West Coast Dutch Blooms Micah Rubinstien Mike Greyshock Oldtimer1 Purple Caper Seeds, Highsmen The Vending Machine Nell Rubinstien Marnie Birger Chance Franck Marybeth Sanchez Caitlin Podiack @certifieddank @massiveseeds_ Matthew Gates Sun+Earth Certified Cannabis Culture Museum and Archive Murdy Media Michal Grattaroti @mgprofessional_img Brandon Palma / 8th Day Create Kiana Shoots @liloisthecoolest courtesy: Sitka Hash House Eric Brandstad from Greenhouse Advisory Group Cover Illustrtation by Mike Dubois Advertising Inquiries Julie Chiariello Sales & Marketing Julie Chiariello Social Media Director and Senior Account Manager Beacon Nesbitt Account Manager Candi Jimenez Content Submissions


SKUNK Magazine 903 N. Stokes Avenue Santa Maria, California 93454 USA Telephone: 805-200-8446 PRINTED IN CANADA

Disclaimer: Occasionally, we use material we believe to be placed in the public domain. Sometimes it is not possible to identify or contact the copyright holder. If you claim ownership of something we have published, we will be pleased to make a proper acknowledgement. All letters and pictures submitted are assumed to be for publication unless stated otherwise. SKUNK Magazine cannot be held responsible for unsolicited contributions. Published 4 times per year SKUNK Magazine assumes no responsibility for any claims or representations contained in this publication or in any advertisement. All material is for entertainment and educational purposes only, and SKUNK Magazine does not encourage the illegal use of any of the products or advertisements within. All opinions are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect those of SKUNK Magazine. Nothing in this publication may be reproduced in any manner, either in whole or in part, without the expressed written consent of the publisher. All rights reserved. All advertised products and offers void where prohibited. Editors Correction: The author of “Love and Revolucion” article was incorrectly noted, the correct author is Miguel Gavilan Molina.


Infrastructure Over Time



ou never know when

hours of effort. They hopscotched all over

an instrument can create harmony and

these high-pressure

the garden as we tried different methods

beauty or chaos and discord depending on

systems are going to

and practices for summer and winter

how it is done, and farming is no different.

set up, and we’ll see

growing. As our practices deepened, we

a week or ten days of

began to allocate resources to better hoops

big mess or create something beautiful.

winter sunshine, but you know that

that would be more permanent in location.

Farming is often both a blending of

You can use tools and effort to make a

When I worked in carpentry, I would

chaos and creation that springs forth

steam, gearing up for the season to

acquire new tools as I encountered a need

abundance and bounty. Life is messy,

come. This is the time of infrastructure

for them on the job site. Because I used

joyous, difficult, and amazing. We lean

upgrades, refining our operations to

them in a professional capacity, I bought

into the shared effort and rejoice at the

be more consistent and professional as

quality tools that were made to be used

results of our labors, taking the time to

we gain knowledge and capability.

at a commercial level. Over the years,

recognize the changes over the years.

it’s going to happen. We’re going full-

We learn as we go, each season an opportunity to apply new lessons and grow in skill and capacity. As we refine our knowledge, so too do our practices and infrastructure needs change. There is a paradox in that it is important to plan for changes but that you can’t know what those are going to be until you’ve achieved the skillset to be aware of them. There are different levels of construction, from something built to last a season to building to last a lifetime. The longer you want it to last, the longer it takes to build and the more resources

“You can use tools and effort to make a big mess or create something beautiful. Farming is often both a blending of chaos and creation that springs forth abundance and bounty. Life is messy, joyous, diff icul t, and amazing. We lean into the shared effort and rejoice at the resul ts of our labors, taking the time to recognize the changes over the years.”

The clean rows of salad mixes and root crops in the hoop houses right now are evidence of our changing practices and increasing skill. Though it is early in the year, we are on the verge of a burgeoning abundance that is orchestrated through careful management— preparing the space, sowing the seeds, hoeing the weeds, and harvesting food and herb to share with the community. These are the steps that add up to the journey of our life’s work, each an increment of the universe. We are each blessed with different gifts, opportunities,

it requires. The governance of this relationship is a cornerstone

we’ve applied this same process to the

and levels of privilege. The shared goal

of our farm ethos and strategy.

farm, buying when we had saved enough

of human societies should be to increase

money to get high-quality equipment.

access to resources and opportunities

No hard and fast rules apply to decisions around infrastructure. We

This lesson applies to how we build and

for all so that each may activate and

evaluate each situation based on a rough

install infrastructure upgrades. We take

express the unique gifts of individual

set of criteria, a weighing and calculation

note and compliment ourselves on the

humanity and consciousness. May

of the importance of the project, the time

increasing quality of our work, an impetus

we each find steps of joy and love

and costs it will take to build, and the

to continue the journey of betterment.

in this world. Much love and great

length of time we expect it to be in use.

Just like learning the building trades,

success to you on your journey!

In the early days of our farm,

it takes years of effort and practice,

everything was built in the cheapest

and there is a clear pathway but no end

possible way, which meant it wouldn’t

goal. Joy is renewed through the cycle

last more than a couple of seasons.

of change as we experience and grow.

This worked in our favor because

Settling into the rhythm of seasonal

we always found that our needs had

change and the tempo of microclimate

changed as we had expanded the

allows us to refine the music that we play

number of garden beds, the amount of

with the farm. Complexity increases as

hoop space, and the areas for grazing.

different instruments are added to the

We used to build lots of 10x20 PVC hoop

mix, over time becoming an orchestrated

houses for small-volume winter crops,

symphony of operations, though there

popping the structures up and taking

are always rough parts where the melody

them down as needed with just a few

isn’t quite right yet. Making noise with



Fresh Frozen Flowers, Live Resin vs. Live Rosin A N D W H A T I T A L L M E A N S WORDS BEARD BROS CREW



e have come a long way since

Since this fella came in wanting the good stuff and apparently

the days of poorly purged, crumbly,

had the money to spend, he settled for the higher-priced Live

spark-shooting dabs of Butane Hash Oil

Rosin and left with a $90 gram that he did not understand.

(BHO), or at least, most of us have. Yeah, I’m looking at you – don’t dab that, dude.

Today, cannabis concentrates truly are the top-shelf

product in any weed shop, often priced at $80-90 per gram or more. Such a high price commands an equally

It got me thinking about whether the budtender was having a bad day and didn’t feel like consulting the customer to determine his needs or whether she truly didn’t know what the hell she was talking about. I assume it was a bit of both. So, considering the rising popularity of not only Live Resin

high-quality hash, and today’s top extract artists do not

but of Live Rosin as well (yep, they are two very different

disappoint, blasting, pressing, and washing the tastiest,

things!), we figured we’d bust out this breakdown of what it all

terpiest, and most potent dabs the world has ever seen.

means and how it is all made, hopefully steering some fellow

Unfortunately, some retailers’ and many consumers’ knowledge about cannabis concentrates has not advanced as rapidly as extraction technology, leading to a lot of confusion at the end of the supply chain. Recently, I was in a dispensary as a custy scooping some flower when an older gent wandered in and asked the other budtender for some “good hash.” She asked him, “Do you want Live Rosin or Badder?” Clearly confused, he replied, “What is Rosin? What’s the difference?” The budtender flatly ignored his first question

custies and some industry “professionals” straight along the way. Live Hash Starts with Fresh Frozen Terpene Preservation Whether it was grown indoors or under the sun when harvesting a cannabis plant, the farmer has a decision to make about the next step once those trees are chopped down. Traditionally, the branched buds are given time to dry a bit in a cool, dehumidified space. They are then bucked off the branches and passed to a trim crew where each nug is hand-manicured for quality control and bag appeal. Those trimmed buds are then jarred up and

and answered the second by saying, “One’s 90

again stored in a dark, cool, dry place for weeks while

one’s 70; the difference is the micron size.”

they “cure” to perfection, providing a smooth, clean burn

At this point, I am biting a hole through my tongue, but I am not an employee, so I stay in my lane.

and the flavor and effects expected from the strain. If you are looking to smoke the weed from this


harvest in joints, blunts, bongs, and pipes, this is

are quick to point out what was mentioned above, that nobody

the way to handle your post-harvest process.

smokes flowers right off the branch, so trichs should be aged.

However, hash artisans have known for years that the best

On the other hand, Purists seem to enjoy imbibing the flavors

way to harvest just the heads of the trichomes is to do so

and effects in as fresh a form as possible, convinced that the

under extremely cold temperatures. Whether using mechanical

plant offers its highest and truest form under these conditions.

separation like ice/water/agitation or conducting solvent-based extractions using butane or other liquified gas, yields and overall


quality tend to rise as temperatures of the trichomes drop.

You are bound to see both names crop up for years to come,

This realization led to a new form of harvesting the cannabis plants themselves which came to be known as “Fresh Frozen”. When the farmer’s goal is to harvest fresh frozen flowers, it is usually because that crop has been dedicated to hash production. Nobody smokes fresh frozen flowers, but we’ll get to that shortly. Immediately after the plants are chopped, the harvest is

so you might as well know the difference between the two. We already established that the “Live” portion of the product name refers to the fact that the flowers used to craft the product were harvested using fresh frozen techniques. The difference between Resin and Rosin when it comes to reefer is how the trichomes from those fresh frozen flowers

flash-frozen using dry ice or commercial-grade coolers. In theory,

were processed. Live Resin refers to a product crafted

this locks in the cannabinoid content and state and that of

from fresh frozen cannabis flowers, which are subjected

the terpenes and other constituents found inside the swollen,

to a liquified gas solvent (most commonly butane) which

frozen trichomes until the material can be processed into hash.

then strips the cannabinoids, flavonoids, terpenes, and

We know that both cannabinoids and terpenes change or

other pure constituents of a healthy trichome into a slurry.

degrade over time and/or at certain temperatures. This fresh-

Then, that mix has the residual solvent purged out, leaving

frozen method of harvesting pauses that process, leaving the

behind a tasty, potent, and safe, concentrated hash.

trichomes and their innards “alive,” kinda like what Jabba did to Han. Concentrates crafted from these “live” trichs have earned the title of Live Resin or Live Rosin, compared to “aged” trichomes that lead to more traditional forms of hash and dabs (i.e., crumble, shatter, bubble, etc.) Which is better, “live” or “aged”? That is quite literally a matter of taste. Both should be packed with THC and other psychoactive compounds, so you’re bound to “get high” from either. Critics of “live” concentrates tend to complain of “racy” effects and “greener” terp profiles. They

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“However, hash artisans have known for years that the best way to harvest just the heads of the trichomes is to do so under extremely cold temperatures. Whether using mechanical separation like ice/water/agitation or conducting solvent-based extractions using butane or other liquif ied gas, yields and overall quality tend to rise as temperatures of the trichomes drop.”

On the other hand, Live Rosin refers to a product crafted from fresh frozen cannabis flowers, which are then subjected to a mix of ice, water, and gentle agitation. This mechanically separates the trichome heads from the stalks and the plant material, leaving various grades of ice water hash, aka Bubble Hash. The higher grades of that sand-like, powdery hash are then collected, condensed, and squished between steel plates in a Rosin Press, providing thousands of pounds of pressure, squeezing the terps and cannabinoids out of the trich heads like a super

dank batch of thick, sticky orange juice. That sappy extract is Live Rosin. Just as in the “Live” vs. “Aged” debate, there are hash aficionados who land on both sides of the “Resin” vs. “Rosin” argument. Most of the time, though, it comes down to whether or not that person likes to dab BHO or if they stick to a “solventless” water hash. WHICH IS BETTER: LIVE RESIN, LIVE ROSIN, OR AGED HASH? It is easy for customers and budtenders to assume that Live Resin or Live Rosin must be “better” than other hash options on the dispensary menu, based solely on the fact that those products tend to carry a higher price tag. However, that higher price is more of a reflection of the skill and experience needed to create top-quality live hash products on a commercial scale. It is very easy to render an entire batch of those products unsafe if, for example, the added moisture from the fresh frozen material leads to the presence of mold or other impurities. Combine that with generally lower yields than you’d get when extracting dry/aged buds, and you see the real reasoning behind the premium pricing. Going back to that fateful day in the dispensary, I reckon that explains the price difference that the old hash-head was being presented with – $90 for the Live, $70 for the Aged. I’m willing to bet that he would have been more than happy with the $70 option, or even lower, had it been explained to him properly. Budtenders are, thankfully, getting more educated all the time. Still, would you ever go to a car dealership looking to spend top dollar only to rely solely on the salesman’s advice? Of course not. As consumers, we have an obligation to do some research of our own. After all, we are the ones dabbing and smoking the stuff, right?


Transitioning to a Living Soil System:


T H E “ D O S A N D D ON T ’ S ”


n a world where “going green” is about more

fabric pots/beds tend to create hydrophobic layers, especially

than just purchasing “USA-made” and eating and

around the outside, when allowed to go through a drying phase.

growing organically, understanding how to move toward

Three: they aren’t made to last more than a few seasons and can

regenerative methodologies is becoming imperative.

end up being more expensive if they need to be replaced often.

The buzz words of “living soil” and “sustainability” are

However, when treated gently, they can outlast a wooden bed if

enticing people into trying new practices like cover cropping

the wood is anything other than redwood or cedar and the soil

and companion planting. Yet, the beginning should always

is highly fungal. When time/space/money allows, a longer-term

be understood to be in the soil. Healthy soils create healthy

solution such as a raised bed built out of cedar or redwood is a

plants, and healthy plants are easier to care for, less prone

much better choice and eventually can be “recycled” in place as

to pests and disease, and produce higher quality crops.

a part of your soil. Even a smaller 3’ by 4’ tent can accommodate

In order to transition to a real living soil system, one must first understand what true living soil actually is and what it is not. Adding compost or worms to a three-gallon pot, for

a bed, and with only 18” of depth, the bed would hold over 135 gallons of soil, easily enough to support a sustainable living soil. The next thing to consider is the soil itself. Pure potting soil

instance, is not going to create sustainable living soil. We find

will not sustain microbial life for a significant period without

a fully functional soil food web in living soil that includes all

adding minerals. Generally, in nature, this comes in the form

kinds of soil microbial and soil faunal life, such as beneficial

of rocks and salt. Yes, salt. Sea salt added to water at a 1:30

nematodes, amoeba, microarthropods, fungi, and bacteria. The

ratio gives a solution that has nearly the same salinity as

soil life cycles much like life above ground, with each piece

plant sap, and sea salt contains all the trace minerals, and

depending upon another and creating a functional system

in the proper ratios, that a plant needs. If one chooses to go

that relies on balance. Soil ecosystems create and sustain

all in and try to recreate nature as best they can, look into

soil structure and cycle organic matter and minerals, and

building a soil horizons bed. Leighton Morrison of Kingdom

thus support the long-term health of the plants that depend

Aquaponics is a well-known proponent of this style and details

upon it as the base for their growth. As one can imagine,

out how to create soil horizons properly, but for those that

this kind of system requires a certain volume to remain

aren’t willing or able to truck in buckets of rocks, there is a

functional and healthy, and case studies seem to point to a

modified version that is gaining traction and is much easier,

minimum of 65 gallons of soil to sustain a soil food web.

especially for the elderly, infirmed, disabled, or those that

With this in mind, the first step to take to transition from

need discretion. In the modified soil horizons, one needs only

pots of potting soil to living soil is to ditch the pots and upgrade

a few bags of diverse rock dust and sea salt. In our 3’ by 4’

to a bed. The common practice of using fabric is generally not

bed, it is possible that one would merely need ten cups of rock

the best choice, despite it being a convenient way to increase

dust (basalt and granite are preferred due to their mineral

the soil volume. Fabric has a few major issues that should be

content) and 10-20 grams of sea salt annually. Remineralization

considered before deciding to implement this material. One:

is necessary for regenerative systems where crops are being

it does not do a good job of conserving water, and in a day and

removed from the cycle. Soil tests should be performed annually

age when clean water is more and more important, we need to

to confirm the necessary additions and to dial in types of

consider the value of treating it as a precious resource. Two:

rock dust to target specific minerals that may be deficient.

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Once the base soil has been built

as thrips and spider mites. Short-growing

up with minerals, it is generally a

cover crops are preferable, and herbaceous

good idea to add an initial dose of

plants like thyme may positively affect

microbiology. Good quality compost and

terpene production. Plants with blooming

leaf litter from trees that haven’t been

flowers can be used as a food source for

sprayed with pesticides, herbicides,

beneficial insects like green lacewing

or fungicides is a great way to bring

and can, therefore, reduce the need to

diverse microbial life to your soil. You

purchase biocontrol agents to battle pests.

can also buy products over the counter, but most are lacking

These systems definitely take longer to set up initially, but the

in the diversity we find in natural environments and require

payoff of never having to drag potting soil in or out of the grow

constant addition. If you practice Korean Natural Farming

is a major benefit, and living soils only get better with time, so

utilizing IMO (indigenous microorganisms) as the baseline

long as they are cared for properly. Of the techniques for caring

microbiological component is ideal, but that methodology takes

for these systems, the most important are maintaining proper

years to build up an ideal microbial stockpile. The microbes

moisture levels at all times, keeping plants growing in them at

are as necessary as the minerals in this type of soil, and one

all times, limiting the disturbance of the system (which means

without the other does not create the balance we are seeking.

running a no-till or low-till operation), and using minimal, if

Adding earthworms is another great idea, but again, the

any, soil drenched liquid fertilizers. Any disturbance of the soil

presence of earthworms alone does not define living soil.

can throw the system out of balance quickly, and that includes

The last necessary piece to begin building a living soil system is to keep the top of the soil covered. Mulch can be utilized for

the death of any part of the soil food web. The nutrients in liquid fertilizers feed the plant, and a plant that gets its food

this, and indeed aged hardwood chips are actually choice because they hold a dual purpose of keeping the soil moist and protected from light as well as being a food source for beneficial fungi. Companion plants as a cover crop can also be useful and hold a dual purpose as well; not only do they create shade to protect microbes, but their root system can serve as a host for endomycorrhizal colonies. However, have caution when choosing a companion plant as some can end up being bankers, or a source of food or habitat, for pests such

without working for it (or working with

“ The soil life cycles much like life above ground, with each piece depending upon another and creating a functional system that relies on balance. Soil ecosystems create and sustain soil structure and cycle organic matter and minerals, and thus support the longterm heal th of the plants that depend upon it as the base for their growth.”

the soil microbes for it) stops making the necessary relationships with the soil life, and thus the living soil system suffers. With a little extra time and effort, one can set up a living soil system that will pay off for years to come by increasing plant health and reducing labor and costs associated with growing, as well as providing some of the best quality cannabis.


It Takes More Than Just a Good Seed!

Medical Recreational Commercial Hemp farms P REMIUM D RY F E RT I L Z E R AND


The Emerald Cup’s Tim Blake




he Emerald Cup is in a good place.

place I’ve called home and hood since I was born, and I still

We’re coming off our very first Harvest Ball, which

believe that it rightfully should have been the epicenter of

we hosted in Santa Rosa, California, at the Sonoma

our cannabis industry. For a myriad of reasons, that didn’t

County Fairgrounds. The event was, in many ways, a

happen. The Emerald Triangle is still reeling from the political

homecoming after nearly two years of isolation due

shell game that led to many of our small farmers fighting

to COVID-19 lockdowns. At our December gathering, we gathered

to survive, and we’ve been traumatized by the prolonged

the tribe for an exhilarating celebration of the year’s harvest,

drought and wildfires. The Bay Area is too beholden to big

spotlighting the latest genetics, the freshest and best flowers,

tech and traditional industry. On the other hand, Los Angeles

the hottest new concentrates, and many other products that will

controls three-quarters of the cannabis market in California

be dropped onto the public. We also took over the Flamingo Hotel

and is the world leader in the media, film, television, and

and staged three days of meet-and-greets for our sponsors, crew,

music industries. Like it or not, Los Angeles is now the focal

and family, with after-hours parties that rocked until dawn.

point for cannabis in the United States moving forward.

Now that we’ve had that chance to celebrate, it’s time

We chose to embrace that reality and, with that in mind,

to pause and take stock of what the future holds before we

looked south and put things in place to host the main Cup event

go headlong into The Emerald Cup Awards. What is the

in Long Beach in 2019. Then the pandemic struck. Through

Emerald Cup’s vision for the future as we make peace with

perseverance and determination, we were still able to move

the pandemic and get control of it? What will we do for our

forward with the competition, producing a digital event in

event and the industry as things return to normal - whatever

partnership with Social Club TV. The pandemic crisis created

that is - after two years of trauma, pain, and loss?

an opportunity to broadcast the awards ceremony across the country and globe to a very receptive audience. There will now

BRIDGING THE GAP First, it’s time to bridge the Northern and Southern parts of our glorious state. I love Northern California. It’s the

be a broadcast component of the awards ceremony in place every year as we move forward. We also planted our flag in Los Angeles by staging our awards ceremony party there in April 2021.


that fresh-faced innocence

First the nation,

of farmers trying to outdo

then the world Even with Northern

themselves and their rivals.

California’s head start of

The world has always loved

decades in the cannabis

seeing the best of the best,

world as an underground,

and we are happy to be that

outlaw business, the rest of

showcase for cannabis.

the country is quickly closing the gap and gunning for us.


Who could have conceived


that Washington and Colorado

The next biggest thing

would legalize cannabis before

we must tackle is to do

California? Who would have ever imagined that Oklahoma would

what we can to heal our planet. Social equity, social justice,

be kicking our asses with almost as many permits to cultivate

the environment, global peace through education, inspiration,

cannabis as our home state? From Oregon to New York to states

and inclusion are and have always been central aspects of the

in the Deep South, cannabis is being embraced and heralded

Emerald Cup. We’re going to continue to inspire and educate the

as an economic savior after the ravages of the pandemic. I

world about sustainable, regenerative farming practices, clearly

welcome every aspect of this rollout, but at the same time, I’m a

demonstrating how to live organically with our food, clothing,

California boy, and I intend to do everything in my power to keep

and building materials. Our global community and the world at

our sunshine state as the leader in everything cannabis, the crown jewel of the agricultural world. We’ll do this by uniting our community from one end of this vast state to the other. Then it’s up to all of us to take a leadership position and, as cannabis is legalized in more and more states, to wholeheartedly welcome them and the rest of the world into the fold. The Emerald Cup is, without a doubt, regarded as the most reputable and sought-after cannabis

“ The Emerald Cup is, without a doubt, regarded as the most reputable and sought-after cannabis competition in the world. We intend to retain that title as federal legalization of cannabis takes place in the very near future. With our move into Los Angeles and its global connections to the entertainment, f inance, and technology worlds, we’re set up to expand the competition across the country and around the world.”

competition in the world.

large will be encouraged to be healthy, fitness-oriented, and spiritually driven. At this critical point in history, we need as many clear-minded, self-empowered souls as possible. Only a world filled with vibrant and creative beings can drive this planet back into balance with nature. With this magnificent plant at the helm, leading and inspiring us to new heights, anything is possible. Cannabis was an integral part of every society for thousands of years until a little over a hundred years

We intend to retain that title as federal legalization of cannabis

ago when the powers that be decided she had to be demonized

takes place in the very near future. With our move into Los

and her treasures hidden away. Those days are long gone.

Angeles and its global connections to the entertainment, finance,

With cannabis returning to her rightful place at the head

and technology worlds, we’re set up to expand the competition

of the table, every aspect of society is embracing and being

across the country and around the world. Last year we included

influenced by her. To that end, The Emerald Cup will continue

hemp flowers from around the United States. As legalization

to do what we do best: To serve cannabis, our sacred herb,

expands, entries will be flowing in from every state. Growers

and guide and bring her into the mainstream so she can do

from everywhere will try to take California’s World’s Best

what she does best. We will also lay the groundwork for the

Cannabis title, attempting to compete with our experienced

rest of the sacred medicinal plant world to be opened up to

farmers and perfectly suited terroir. Everything is in place for

the general public, from psychedelic mushrooms, ayahuasca,

a global competition, elevating our domestic “Oscars” to an

peyote, and all the rest of the highest beings in the plant

international “Palme d’Or” prize. We have already reached 40

realm. They are our guides, put here by Mother Earth to help

categories of competition, and there’s still room for more. I can

connect us to our Creator and to learn to live in harmony with

clearly see the best product from every corner of the United

nature and each other. How many fights or wars are started by

States going up against the best of Europe, South America, the

people grounded in unity with our revered plant medicines?

Far East, and Africa to claim the title of the world’s best bud.

The Emerald Cup team is honored and humbled to be part

The Emerald Cup started out as a friendly contest between

of the process of not only bringing Northern and Southern

Emerald Triangle farmers. It has become quite competitive,

California back together but the whole world as well. It’s time

with huge brand valuations now on the line, yet it still retains

for peace to reign on the earth, as it does in heaven.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022


From Salts to Sun, Soil, and Species


WORDS & PHOTOS SY PATEL ikola Tesla said, “if you want to find

with a thriving mycelium network. (I learned a lot from

the secrets of the universe, think in terms

Jeff Lowenfels, too!) Three critical systems enabled

of energy, frequency, and vibration.”

my switch to regeneration: Sun, Soil, and Species.

These words changed the way I look at gardening. My commercial journey with


cannabis cultivation started indoors, using salt-based

One of the first changes I implemented was to replace

fertilizers and a mixture of 1000W DE HPS and LED lights.

my artificial lights with indoor sun. I changed my room’s

These days, my plants flourish in living soil and sunlight.

layout to accommodate a 12’x12’ footprint and saved a

But you might be surprised to find out I’m growing indoors,

bunch on my electricity bills (reduced lighting and heat

up here in Canada! Not outdoors, not in a greenhouse, but

energy). Still, being at the forefront of new and innovative

inside a concrete and metal building. And, my plants are

tech certainly brings its own set of challenges - some of

thriving in an environment that is almost like outdoors.

my units were replaced due to a manufacturer’s issue.

It all started with the Future Cannabis Project (https://

However, I am happy to be an innovator. Having, where I discovered the team

the sun is essential to having the regenerative system

at The Sun On-Demand (https://www.thesunondemand.

I was going for, and I could immediately see the

com/) - Sun and Dr. Kat. Their biomimicry approach to

benefits through shinier, hearty-looking plants.

cultivation - relying solely on Mother Nature’s systems and models to solve problems - opened up my thought


process to the exciting opportunities in front of me.

Having the sun’s frequencies up here in the Northern latitude

I drastically changed how I operated from growing in

allowed me to build living soil, changing what went into my

hydroponics using a Rockwool medium and salt-based

coco coir and focusing on building up microbes, bacteria,

fertilizers into an entire living soil system complete

mycelium, and starting my own organic tea brewing. Reading

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Jeff Lowenfels’ trilogy on living soil gave me a great starting point. Next, I focused my efforts on growing the soil instead of growing the fruit - the fruit was just the happy consequence of allowing the plant to do the work to feed itself! SPECIES I could see the power of full electromagnetic sunlight as soon as I made the switch, but especially when I moved my vegetative plants into flower. It’s the same effect you notice when carrying your baby plants seeded under artificial light to full outdoor sun without hardening them first. The trouble was that my chemovars were heavily light-adapted to HPS lighting, so I began looking for landrace and heirloom chemovars to strengthen my genetic pool. This last switch turned out to be essential for unlocking the true power of biomimicry! With sunlight and

available to the plant from the sun’s

living soil, my outdoor bred genetics and

full electromagnetic range paired

other unique cultivars are thriving, and I

with those from a great living soil

can grow powerful and healing medicine

abundant in microbes, fungi, bacteria,

the way Mother Nature intended.

and symbiotic plants. The plants

Whether growing vegetables or cannabis indoors, I always felt I was

already know what they want and choose from the soil, sun, and water.

trying to “dial it in,” chasing the problems

Yes, I had a learning curve. I came

in my garden and working with shortcuts

from an artificial growing environment.

to achieve specific results. My plants

It took me about a year to adapt to the

became lazy, and I could never grow medicine similar to the quality found in the Emerald Triangle. I discovered that working with nature lets the soil and plants do all the work and that we, as growers, enable that work by providing the right conditions and inputs.

“Having the sun’s f requencies up here in the Northern latitude allowed me to build living soil, changing what went into my coco coir and focusing on building up microbes, bacteria, mycelium, and starting my own organic tea brewing.”

Sun and Dr.

ancient ways (new for me) into my indoor cultivation, but it was absolutely worth it. I now advise all my clients (https:// to focus on the Sun, Soil, and Species in their garden. These are the most critical factors for


the success of our

Based in Canada and managed by Sy Patel

medicine, where

since 2012, is inspired

we provide an

by and focuses on emulating nature’s

environment that

inputs in an indoor environment. Our

Kat were great mentors, but my most

allows the plant to express its full genetic

ramp-up processes empower your team

important mentor was the biomimicry

potential! So now, we all enjoy smelly,

and outfit them with the tools they need

science of Mother Nature. It helped me

sticky, frosty flowers year-round.

to succeed!

realize that excellent quality medicine is a by-product of having frequencies





n January 14, 1967, the Human Be-in gathered

together 30,000 early-adopting hippies in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park for a freeform “happening.” The seminal festival featured speeches from psychedelic luminaries like Timothy Leary—who for the first time advised an entire generation to “turn on, tune in, and drop out.” Plus musical performances from local rock bands Jefferson Airplane, The Grateful Dead, Big Brother, and the Holding Company, Quicksilver Messenger Service, and Blue Cheer. Underground chemist Stanley Owsley distributed a massive batch of his legendary “White Lightning” LSD, and the Diggers provided free food. Only two police officers monitored the entire event, which went off without a hitch. But outside the park, the police lay in wait. Over 100 people got busted on various charges while walking home, many for possession of marijuana. That prompted a group of idealistic young counterculture lawyers to step up and defend them, ultimately leading to the formation of the Haight Ashbury Legal Organization (or HALO)—a pro bono team of attorneys dedicated to defending the civil liberties of the neighborhood’s weed smokers and anti-war activists. HALO set up their office in “the city hall of the counterculture”—an old Victorian located at 710 Ashbury Street that also served as the Grateful Dead’s communal home and headquarters—and soon found all the work they could handle. Because while there’d long been simmering tension between San Francisco’s flower children and the SFPD, after the Human BeIn, the police’s authoritarian animosity boiled over. By the start of the so-called Summer of Love, it was open season on hippies. HALO’s lawyers worked tirelessly handling everything from minor cannabis busts to vagrancy to loitering, fervently defending the local community and tens of thousands of newcomers against police aggression. And then, in October 1967, the cops decided to set up the house at 710 Ashbury for a weed bust. WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

“IT WAS KILLER WEED, MAN.” Since the band’s earliest days, cannabis has been a source of bonding and inspiration for the Grateful Dead and their fans. “I remember the first time I met Bob Weir very well.” Bassist Phil Lesh once recalled. “I was standing around talking with Jerry, and I asked him, “Well, where’s the weed, man?” And Jerry said, “my guitar player’s coming with some weed any minute now.’ So we go outside and get in the car, and there’s Bob—who apparently had just scored from Neil Cassady. We sat in the car and rolled up, and we all got good and high. It was killer weed, man.” Despite being against the law, joints were smoked freely and often inside 710 Ashbury. Here’s how former Grateful Dead manager Rock Skully described a typical scene unfolding in his book Living with the Dead. Jerry [Garcia] and Mountain Girl have just scored a big block of Acapulco Gold wrapped in beautiful blue cellophane. It’s the happiest weed imaginable. We also had some really second-rate Cannabis Americanis out on the table in the house. Real stringy with lots of stems and seeds. Jerry and Mountain Girl are sitting in the pantry with the colander out on the counter, cleaning this Mt. Shasta weed and rolling some doobies when there’s a knock on the door and, hey, it’s Hermit from the Merry Pranksters. Hermit had been busy that day. Recently recruited by the police as a snitch, the Haight Ashbury mainstay had already led a raiding party to three different homes full of his friends and fellow hippies, setting them up like bowling pins for a string of busts. At 710 Ashbury, Hermit walked through the always unlocked door and found Jerry Garcia and Mountain Girl hard at work removing the stems and seeds from a big pile of “homegrown” cannabis. Hermit asked if he might roll himself a joint for the road—the flower power equivalent of popping in to borrow a cup of sugar.

Here’s how a Rolling Stone reporter—in the magazine’s very first issue—described what happened next: Eight narcotics agents, followed by a dozen reporters and television crews, raided the Dead’s house at 710

San Francisco Chronicle, Weir holds his free hand out at arm’s length, palm up, in a gesture of joyful defiance. Rosie McGee, by then stoned to the gills, hides behind her bangs. Along with the rest of the arrestees, she was taken to

Ashbury Street. The cops carried no warrant and broke

central booking, where she had to be propped up between

in the front door even after being denied entry.

two of her fellow defendants to keep from falling out

Two members of the band, Pigpen and Bob Weir, their two managers, their equipment manager, and six friends, were

entirely. Rosie didn’t speak for the next four days and wrote that “to this day, I still don’t eat vanilla ice cream.”

busted on dope charges. The police also confiscated the files, money, and phonebooks of the band and of the Haight Ashbury


Legal Organization, whose offices are in the Dead’s house.

Band manager Danny Rifkin was also arrested and booked.

While the narcs did their work, a rooting section gathered

Returning home from that decidedly rough day, he did enjoy

on the sidewalk across the street from the house and, like

a pleasant surprise upon discovering that while the cops had

a Greek chorus, filled the air with a running commentary

confiscated all the schwaggy weed on the kitchen table, they’d

on the proceedings. Rock photographer Rosie McGee, who was also bassist Phil Lesh’s girlfriend, was unlucky enough to return home as the bust was in progress. Here’s how she described it in her memoir, Dancing With the Dead. By that time, the Dead were known to some as the Pied Pipers of a drug-fueled lifestyle, and 710 Ashbury was famous enough to have Grey Line tour buses stopping in front of it at least once a day. So it wasn’t surprising that the Dead were at the top of a “mustbust” list for the local cops.

“I remember the f irst time I met Bob Weir very well.” Bassist Phil Lesh once recalled. “I was standing around talking with Jerry, and I asked him, “Well, where’s the weed, man? ” And Jerry said, “ my guitar player ’s coming with some weed any minute now.’ So we go outside and get in the car, and there’s Bob—who apparently had just scored f rom Neil Cassady. We sat in the car and rolled up, and we all got good and high. It was killer weed, man.”

I was climbing the stairs of the front porch at 710

entirely missed the massive block of Acapulco Gold still hidden in a cabinet. Rifkin immediately called on HALO to mount the Grateful Dead’s legal defense. And then, with unanimous support from the band, he decided to go a step further and arrange a press conference—held at 710 Ashbury—to denounce the bust as both unjust and counterproductive. But Rifkin needed help writing a manifesto against the SFPD and their War on Weed, so he sought out an old college buddy who occasionally crashed on the couch.

Actor Harry Sheer would go on to fame for his work

Ashbury, wholly unaware that my friend Sue was in the

in Spinal Tap and on The Simpsons, but he was wholly

front window frantically trying to warn me away. By the

unknown at the time. Rifkin called on his old friend because

time I saw her, it was too late. As my feet hit the landing,

they’d met while working on the student newspaper at

the cops pulled me into the house and arrested me.

UCLA. Nearly fifty years later, Shear’s press statement

I was brought to the kitchen, where a small group of us sat at the table, listening to the footsteps of the

on behalf of the Grateful Dead still rings true. A person convicted for possession of marijuana can be

cops who were searching the upstairs bedrooms. A bored

sentenced to up to 30 years in jail. But the real danger to

officer blocked the kitchen door but had his back to us.

society, as well as to thousands of individuals, comes from

I was petrified because under my poncho, I had a giant ball

a law that is so seriously out of touch with reality. And the

of hashish in my purse, and I didn’t want it to be found on

law creates an even greater evil; it encourages the most

me. When Sue asked if anyone wanted ice cream and headed

outrageously discriminatory type of law enforcement. If the

for the fridge with a stack of bowls, I saw an out. She handed

lawyers, doctors, advertising men, teachers, and political

me a bowl of vanilla ice cream, and I crumbled the entire ball

officeholders who use marijuana were arrested today, the law

of hash into it and mixed it up. Slowly and stupidly, I ate the

might well be off the books before Thanksgiving, but the police,

whole thing, all the while keeping an eye on the cop’s back.

in making arrests, prefer to concentrate on individuals who have been manufactured by the mass media into a group that

An hour later, McGhee was marched out of the house, handcuffed to Bob Weir. In a photo later published in the

typifies the now-popular image of the drug-oriented hippie. Afraid of people who are exploring new ways of living


freely, the larger society has created a

the Holding Company featuring Janis

mythical danger and called it a felony.

Joplin. According to HALO lawyer (and

And the people who enforce the law

living weed legend) Michael Stephanian,

use it almost exclusively against the

the Dead’s pushback created a kind of

individuals who threaten their idea

turning-point in the authorities’ attitude


of the way people should look and act.

towards cannabis, one that put San


This way the American people are

Francisco forever after at the forefront


protected, by the police and the media,

of the legalization movement.


from the fact that the law is a lie.

More than fifty years after the Human

The hippie, as created by the

Be-In brought 30,000 hippies and

mass media, is a lie as well.

seekers to San Francisco’s Golden Gate

The result is a series of lies and myths

Park for a good old-fashioned freak fest,

that prop each other up. Behind all the

the park was again filled with music,

myths is the reality. The Grateful Dead

art, and weed this Halloween weekend.

are people engaged in constructive,


Only this time, instead of sending police

creative effort in the musical field, and


to bust attendees on their way home

this house is where we work as well as

10/22/67 Winterland

for minor cannabis violations, the city

our residence. Because the police fear

Ballroom, San Francisco

permitted a “cannabis garden” at the

and misinterpret us, our effort is now

Morning Dew

three-day Outside Lands Music and

being interrupted as we deal with the

New Potato Caboose

Arts Festival that featured sanctioned

consequences of a harassing arrest.

It Hurts Me Too

sales and consumption of cannabis.

The arrests were made under a law

Cold Rain & Snow

Dubbed “Grasslands,” the festival’s

that classifies smoking marijuana along

Turn On Your Lovelight

groundbreaking cannabis integration

with murder, rape, and armed robbery

Beat It On Down The Line

created a green oasis for festival-

as a felony. Yet, almost anyone who has

Cryptical Envelopment > The Other

goers with its own entertainment,

ever studied marijuana seriously and objectively has agreed that marijuana is the least harmful chemical used

One > Cryptical Envelopment

for pleasure and life enhancement.

food vendors, and art installations. Plus dedicated pop-up stores from some of California’s most culturallyattuned cannabis companies, including Garcia Hand Picked, a

After reading that prepared statement to an assemblage of reporters, Danny

Deadhead-themed brand from the late

Rifkin took questions. According to

Grateful Dead frontman’s family. Long lines throughout the day

Grateful Dead historian Dennis McNally, in his book A Long Strange Trip:

attested to the fact that given the option, many music fans are more than happy

A bowl of whipped cream, a spoon

to make a special trip to Grasslands

jammed into it, was placed in front

to enjoy some cannabis at an event

of Rifkin, but it wasn’t meant for any GREAT MOMENTS

where beer, wine, and cocktails can be


sold and consumed almost anywhere.

your hair that long, Danny?” came

To hear the full story of The Grateful

Things came full circle musically when

one of the first media queries.

Dead’s 1967 pot bust—including

Jazz Mafia—–an eclectic collective of

“We’ve always figured,” replied

how they fought back against the

accomplished players in Electro, Hip-

Danny, “that if we ever held a press

man—check out the podcast Great

Hop, World, Classical, and Jazz—took

conference, the first reporter to ask

Moments in Weed History.

to the Grassland stage for a set of

sudden attack of the munchies. “How long did it take to grow

In each episode, hosts Abdullah

Grateful Dead covers, to the delight of

Saeed and David Bienenstock delve

a cannabis-infused crowd that ranged

deep into humanity’s 10,000+ year

in age from OG hippies old enough to

Rifkin’s compassion took over, and he

relationship with cannabis to uncover

have attended the original Human Be-

spared the lunkhead his just desserts.

the humor, heart, and historical

In to those born a decade too late to

In the weeks after the bust at 710

importance of the planet’s most

ever see Jerry Garcia play the guitar.

a really stupid question would get a pie in the face, and you’re him.” The other reporters cheered, but

Ashbury, the SFPD ratcheted up their

revered and maligned plant. Including

enforcement campaign, but the Dead

episodes about Willie Nelson, Maya

overhead, the future became clear. As

refused to back down. Even after their

Angelou, Bob Dylan, The Beatles,

cannabis prohibition winds down and a

charges were dropped from felonies to

Carl Sagan, Felt Kuti, Dennis Peron,

new green renaissance takes hold, every

small fines, the band played a Marijuana

Brownie Mary, and many other

music festival in the world will find a

Defense Benefit alongside Quicksilver

heroes of the cannabis movement.

way to follow Outside Lands’ lead.

Messenger Service and Big Brother and

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

As a cloud of fragrant smoke rose

Settling the Score Between Wild vs Landrace WORDS AJA YASIR


s a lover of history and plants,

not to say there aren’t genes from domesticated cannabis in

I am intrigued with how the two

them. Because in all those regions where cannabis grows

intersect. For it is nearly impossible

like that in a wild way, in most of South Asia and up into

to fully get a grasp on plants without

Central Asia, there are people growing domesticates. So,

understanding the history and political

there’s always this interchange of genetics in those really

fervor that has driven them to what they are today. Angus, the proprietor of The Real Seed Company, also has

old places. But there are very few places where people will deliberately use wild plants for high-quality cannabis.

a passion for these intersections and has built a business around preserving cannabis seeds and their histories. He’s a

Aja: How are global indigenous cultures being impacted

wealth of knowledge and it was a pleasure catching up with

by the loss of their traditional cannabis cultivars?

him to discuss the particulars of wild and landrace cannabis.

Angus: That’s really not something that’s part of the discourse in any part of the global cannabis culture. I’ve seen a little

Aja: Can you tell me how you define

bit of discussion in the context of NGOs that are working in

wild versus landrace?

places like Colombia, where they have mentioned that there

Angus: Landrace is a technical term going back to late 19th-

are local cultivars, like the types of plants that would be used

century crop science. Then it subsequently got used in animal

to produce Colombian Gold for example. But the discourse

breeds as well, like pigs and goats. A landrace is a region-specific

is still quite confused. So, hopefully, there’ll be more people

traditional domesticate that’s maintained by old-fashioned ways

talking about it and thinking in terms of consciously making

of selection, which can be conscious or unconscious. Whereas wild

efforts to preserve some of the seeds from these old plants

plants are not the product of artificial selection, or at least not in

so that they can be resurrected in the future and they don’t

any immediate way. Wild plants survive naturally by themselves.

just get immediately wiped out as legalization spreads to

They become much coarser plants. Very seldom do you ever find

places; which it will do very, very quickly over the next few

them used as a source of something that people will smoke.

years. That’s a big risk. Modern hybrid seeds will be brought

There are a few places where people will hand rub wild plants for charas, like in the Himalayas. From Nepal up to Indian Kashmir, you’ll find people will hand rub these plants that really haven’t been sown deliberately by anyone. That’s

into these places in a very uncontrolled way. That’s just an inevitability. There’s nothing really that can be done about that. In the same way, we can try and raise awareness to stop people from doing this, but the process itself is not


something that, even if you wanted to, you could stop from happening. No government in the world, even if it wanted to, can prevent the increasing homogeneity. But as you’ve alluded to, even where people are aware of

there’s a significant investment of resources involved. But as regards communities, yes, resurrecting and improving these traditional cultivars certainly can benefit the original farming communities. Real Thai or Lao ganja, for example,

the ecological crisis faced by Cannabis, the problem is seen

or real Nepali charas - these products have immense appeal,

as merely as losing landraces themselves. The conversation

and if they’re from the original places in the mountains

is only slowly edging closer to an essential aspect of what

and so on, that’s a unique aura they carry. Once younger

that means, namely extinguishing traditional products such

generations in the West are introduced to their aromas and

as authentic Nepali charas and Thai stick and annihilating

effects, that’s certainly going to see a huge increase in demand.

cultural heritage. The bigger picture is that we’re simultaneously

By comparison, most bud and so on that’s on offer these days

extinguishing a multitude of future possibilities for humanity

in the West is increasingly homogeneous and seldom has

and particularly marginal communities such as farmers

anything like those positive uplifting highs. There’s a reason

in Nepal and Laos. These plants are their heritage.

why old-timers rhapsodize about authentic traditional ganja and charas. It really does take you to a very different place.

Aja: Can you explain how prohibition helped

Exactly how to ensure fair trade and authenticity

to preserve landrace cultivars?

is a very big question of course. The world of business

Angus: Well, it’s a very nuanced picture. Prohibition ironically

remains as deeply predatory and destructive as ever.

had the effect of moving a lot of the cultivation into very marginalized places. That can be anywhere. For example,

Aja: You mentioned wars in Afghanistan earlier.

somewhere like Afghanistan, which has been destabilized

How has that impacted landrace cultivars?

by endless war. It has happened in places like Laos as

Angus: It tends to be that when you have wars, you have more

well for different reasons. The communist takeover there

production. When I first started going out to collect in places,

closed off the country for many years and impoverished the

I was influenced by urban myths that I got from places like

country, which is already, like Afghanistan, a landlocked

internet forums and just life in general. So, I had heard that

place anyway. Ironically that has created various kinds of

there wasn’t hashish being produced in Afghanistan that was on

barriers to getting modern hybrid seeds into these places. In

the level of quality that they used to have back in the late sixties

some ways it’s had a preserving effect. On the other hand,

and early seventies. I’d heard that from some people, but they

eradication has inevitably been bad for diversity. Also, the

weren’t actually people who’d been back to check. When I was

pressure of prohibition has had a negative effect on quality

in school, people from Peshawar were traveling and bringing

in some ways. The effects tend to move in two directions.

back this amazing hashish they got from Afghanistan. So, I

There is some evidence suggesting there’s been increased

never quite believed the myth that it disappeared. Wars can

potency during prohibition, but also there’s been a decrease

mean that the quality being produced is just whatever will sell,

in the quality for various reasons. You do have people still

but it doesn’t mean that you don’t still have incredibly high-

growing really high-quality products in places like Laos. On

quality stuff. I remember seeing hashish from Balkh in North

the other hand, you have people who are just growing in

Afghanistan in 2007 that was just phenomenal. I’d never seen

a much more haphazard way or who might be growing in

anything like it. But then that did suddenly disappear. That

the village for themselves just to put some plants in some

level of quality from that place very quickly disappeared for a bit

chicken soup. They’re not even growing high-quality ganja.

because of the crackdown in Balkh. The crackdown happened because the hashish started getting so much attention, even media

Aja: You’re talking about poverty in these lands and

attention. Then suddenly the whole economy of Afghanistan

what prohibition has done. But I’m wondering if the

changed and crackdowns ironically that happened in the non-

resurrection of these cultivars will benefit the people

Taliban areas of the north pushed production down into the

who traditionally have shared and saved these seeds?

more Talibanized parts of Afghanistan in the south. So, you were

Angus: You’re focused on exactly the important questions,

having very high-grade production from down there as well.

and these are things that people are discussing. Priority number one under international law is that cultivars should

Aja: When you have wars, you have more

be preserved in their home country if possible. But in some of

production. How is that possible?

these places the electricity supply can be quite unreliable, for

Angus: Because you have instability. In times of war, people

example. To store seed, you’d need to invest significant resources

need the money to buy guns. So, even cannabis can get caught

and then you’d have to have the resources to maintain those

up in this type of economy. The plant has no morality. The

collections, which means being able to have land somewhere

Taliban can come along and there’s a nice farmer who’s not

you can germinate them and not have them just contaminated

on board with Taliban ideas, or maybe he is but anyway, they

by other cannabis pollen that’s blowing around. So,

end up paying the Taliban a farm-gate tax. That’s one of the

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

things that will be imposed by Taliban-y type groups that

these things on the ground and want to see them again sort of

control areas for a bit. Afghanistan is super fragmented.

for nostalgic reasons resurrected is quite old now. A lot of them

It’s all valleys and mountains. One guy controls this bit

are in their seventies. So, I don’t know what percentage of the

and another guy controls that bit so that’s how war can

market are even familiar with these types of strains. Authenticity

increase production. Because people are fighting each other

is of course a big problem, because if you have a majority of

and they want the money so it’s in their interest to produce

consumers who don’t know the real thing, it’s very easy for people

poppy, cannabis, or whatever, to buy more stuff to fight.

just to be hoodwinked thinking that something is real. These old underground brand names can be resurrected and you

Aja: Do you think there will be a resurgence in

can call something ‘Panama Red’ but it’s not ‘Panama Red.’

the desire for landrace cultivars eventually? Angus: Yes. There definitely has been an increase in the last three

Aja: Well, what measures does your company

or four years since this word ‘landrace’ has been getting used

take to ensure that you are distributing

more often. I never used to use the word and I don’t particularly

landrace and not something else?

like it and there’s been so much confusion around it. I ended

Angus: We collect seeds from people we know. This will be

up writing this very kind of moody blog post about it, shortly

directly from someone from that area of cultivation so there’s

after the Trump thing. I was in a terrible, fucking…. excuse

that level of certainty that they’re authentic. We aren’t down

my French, but I was in a terrible mood. I’ve been banging on

some long supply chain. We’re always getting things directly

about this for years since people started using it. I hate this

from the farmer. The collector is there. All of the farmers

word but everyone’s using it but they’re still being confused

are directly supplying us. It’s a ‘friend of a friend’ situation,

and thinking that it means wild plants. I didn’t like it because

essentially, so that’s how I know they’re the real thing.

people would ask me what I did and then I would use it. And they’d all hear ‘race’ and they’d hear ‘land.’ (But) my answer to

Aja: I read this quote on your website, “Wild-

the question would be, yes. We’re in a position where we do still

type populations are the essential reservoir of

have the diversity around and could very easily have a level of

biodiversity.” What does that mean to you?

quality that is comparable to what people were seeing in the

Angus: Okay. This is really the big thing, you see. If we’re talking

sixties and seventies again. So, there’s the diversity and there’s

about a world where cannabis is legal to grow everywhere, that’s

certainly still interest. But the generation that would have seen

great news but the downside of it is that ecologically, you’ll have

all these ancient centers of biodiversity where cannabis has been

because you’re not even giving people a choice, you’re just

a wild plant for 28 million years, 6 million years, or 3 million

making the decision for everyone else. What I’m hoping will

years in various places. Suddenly you have all this being hit by

be possible is that most of the introduction is done in a quiet,

pollen from modern hybrids. And you’re having this introgression

controlled way by people who are conscious of the need to do it

where you have this major homogenization and narrowing of

in a controlled way. It’s unlikely to happen that way though,

the diversity. It’s just really bad news and it is avoidable. If

unfortunately. There are things we haven’t even imagined yet

people consciously get into collecting things, then cannabis

for problems we haven’t even conceived of yet in those wild-

could be in a relatively good situation from some perspectives.

type populations. They are the most biodiverse by definition.

This need for diversity can be quite urgent in some ways. There could be a situation like with wheat, where you had

In situ, these wild-type plants look very crappy and weedy as plants. They look like garbage, and this is the problem.

some huge achievements in the breeding of wheat going way back

People get to somewhere like Nepal and say, “Oh, this stuff

to the sixties and seventies which enabled famine to be avoided

growing around the place grows like a weed.” It is just a weed.

in places like India because of these new disease-resistant, high

And you very quickly start to realize that cannabis is just a

yield, advanced, semi-dwarf wheat plants. It’s fantastic news,

plant. You don’t even pay attention to it after a while. It’s just

but then suddenly you also have this problem that new breeds

there as a thing, as a fact of life, this weedy stuff growing

are hugely water demanding and that has had a negative effect

spontaneously around the towns and everything. But that is

on the ecosystem of places like Punjab, for example. Then you

what ultimately became stuff like haze. It doesn’t look like

have desertification going on in the Midwest of the USA where

it, but haze is just one possibility hidden in that straggly

to be able to grow there, they had to develop these drought-

looking, crappy-looking weedy plant that’s growing around

resistant strains of wheat. To do that they had to get these species

next to the post office or whatever. It’s just one possibility.

of grass from Syria where wheat was originally domesticated

There are other things in there. Perhaps there’s some form

from its wild relatives. They found these wild populations that

of brain cancer that hasn’t even been identified yet that is

are hugely resistant to drought. So, then they’ve used them to

cured by something created by genes that are in some weedy

breed them into the modern wheat varieties in order to farm

plant, somewhere in the middle of who knows where. But

in places in the Midwest in the States. So, it can be hugely

getting everyone up to that level of awareness so that they

important for practical reasons to have that diversity around.

can even have the possibility of making the right decisions on

Basically, we’re talking about future possibilities. By keeping

how to go about projects they have when there’s always new

all this old stuff, what you’re doing is keeping options open to

business and there’s so much money involved when people are

yourself for the future. Variety is the spice of life. That’s the

planning stuff is not easy. It’s probably asking a bit much.

fact of it really. So, you’re maintaining all these possibilities; a range of aromas, high yield characteristics, drought resistance,

Aja: How do you think the US pulling out of Afghanistan

different types of high or medicinal properties, all that kind

will impact their landrace and wild cultivars?

of stuff. By keeping the diversity preserved, you have the

Angus: Production will most likely continue. My guess is that

possibility of doing things that if you lose that diversity,

one effect will be to significantly slow and hinder the introduction

you’re just shutting the door on. You don’t even know what

of modern hybrid seed to farmers. I’m not aware of hybrid seed

you’re shutting the door on. Once it’s gone, it’s just gone.

being introduced yet, and now that the country is closing its doors

So, it’s very shortsighted to bring modern things into places like Nepal as legalization happens. It’s very shortsighted

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

again, as in the late 90s, it would seem less likely than before.

TEL: 01473 359754

INT: 0044 1473 359754














Natural Pain Relief


WORDS BRIGITTE MARS ain can serve as a

reduce inflammation include turmeric,

stimulates endorphin production and is

protective function by

rosemary, ginger, sage, and olive oil.

an anti-inflammatory agent. It contains

letting us know that

Foods can also be potentiators of pain.

a compound called capsaicin that blocks

something is wrong and

Foods rich in the amino acid tyramine

the transmission of substance P, which

needs to be corrected

(yeasts, processed meats like hot dogs,

transports pain messages to the brain. Corydalis root (Corydalis species),

before relief can be achieved. Pain is

bologna, and aged cheese) can cause

often due to inflammation, a protective

vasoconstriction, which can increase

a relative of Poppy (though it is not

function that prevents bacteria, toxins,

pain by impairing circulation. The

habit-forming), helps relieve pain

and foreign material at the injury site

additives MSG and aspartame contain

from traumatic injury. Corydalis binds

from spreading. Injured tissues release

neuron-activating compounds known

with opium receptors in the body

chemicals that irritate the nerves, one of

as excitotoxins that can increase pain

and slows down the breakdown of

which is histamine, which dilates blood

sensitivity and are best avoided. Trans

the B vitamin and neuro-protecting

vessels, increasing their permeability, so

fat and fried foods, high in Omega 6 fatty

nutrient, choline. Corydalis is analgesic,

healing can commence. The brain responds

acids (found in vegetable oils like soy and

antispasmodic and sedative.

to pain by producing morphine-like

canola oil), can increase inflammation

hormones known as endorphins. Though

and thus pain. Sugar and alcohol increase

is an analgesic, anti-inflammatory,

prescription drugs may offer relief, they

insulin levels, which can dramatically

antispasmodic, and sedative. It can

can also cause side effects and usually

worsen pain. Some people, especially

calm menstrual cramps, rheumatism,

don’t help in removing the cause of pain.

those that suffer from arthritis pain, fare

and spasms of the legs and back.

Food can alter our brain chemistry

better when omitting Nightshade Family

Cramp Bark (Viburnum opulis)

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)

in a way that affects perception. The

members (potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant)

herb inhibits certain inflammatory type

amino acid tryptophan (found in

out of their diet, as some react to their

hormones known as prostaglandins and

avocados, bananas, grapefruit, nuts

inflammatory properties. It might also be

prevents blood platelet aggregation

and seeds (especially flax and sesame

worth experimenting to see if avoiding

(clumping together). Used regularly, it

seeds), papayas, peaches, tomatoes,

gluten (found in wheat, rye, barley,

helps prevent migraines, relieves arthritis

millet, black rice, buckwheat, oats, and

spelt, and kamut), which are common

and menstrual cramps. Feverfew is

quinoa, poultry, and raw dairy products)

allergens that can be very inflammatory

anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic.

encourage the production of the calming

for some people, and avoiding them can

Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) is

neurotransmitter, serotonin. If you eat

help reduce pain. Junk food contributes

warming and improves circulation.

seafood (especially cod, halibut, tuna,

to weight gain, unhealthy eating habits

It can improve the pain of arthritis,

flounder, striped bass, salmon, and

and can irritate muscles, disrupt

backache, and menstrual cramps.

herring), they help relieve pain due to

sleep, and compromises immunity.

Chew a piece of fresh root for sore

their content of anti-inflammatory Omega

Herbal medicine has been used by

throat. Ginger is analgesic and anti-

3 fatty acids. Particularly beneficial

millions of people for thousands of years.

inflammatory. Ginger tea makes a

foods for pain include nutrient-dense

Herbs that help pain can be classified

pleasant warming beverage but is also

broccoli, cauliflower, winter squashes,

in several ways: Analgesics help allay

available in capsules and tinctures.

cherries, and celery. Strawberries contain

pain when used internally without

natural salicylates and are cooling

affecting consciousness. Anesthetics

a relative of Cannabis, are sedating to

and anti-inflammatory. Both papaya

numb existing pain either locally or

the nervous system. They calm cramps,

(containing papain) and pineapple (rich

generally. Anodynes are sedating and

insomnia, restlessness, stomachache,

in bromelain) contain enzymes that

help keep pain from being transmitted.

and stress. Hops are an anodyne,

aid digestion and reduce inflammation.

Antispasmodics relax muscle spasms.

antispasmodic, and sedative.

Enzymes present in fresh foods, such as

Sedatives promote rest and peace.

salad greens, raw vegetables, and fruit,

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa)

Hops strobiles (Humulus lupulus),

Kava kava root (Piper methysticum), enjoyed by many tropical island natives,

can reduce inflammation. Condiments

is an analgesic, anesthetic, and

is a skeletal and muscle relaxant. It

that may be helpful to include in the

anti-inflammatory agent that

improves anxiety, cramps, gout, insomnia,

diet to relieve pain because of their

can help promote relaxation.

neuralgia, pain, and rheumatism. It is an

ability to improve circulation and

Cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

analgesic, antispasmodic, and sedative.


Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata)

poem that doesn’t rhyme, but I remind

Visualize inhaling healing light and

doesn’t make you more passionate but

my students and clients, “If you have

exhaling pain out of your body. The color

slows the breakdown of neurotransmitters

spasms, think magnesium.” Omega 3 fatty

blue is considered anti-inflammatory.

serotonin and norepinephrine. Try

acids reduce inflammation and inhibit

Some have found that exposure to

it for cramps, headaches, insomnia,

unfriendly prostaglandin production.

blue light, visualizing breathing in

muscle spasms, neuralgia, shingles, and

Because pain is actually registered in

stress. It is anodyne, anti-inflammatory,

the brain, hypnosis and other relaxation

blue helps them experience less pain.

antispasmodic, and sedative.

techniques may all be of help. Exercise

Tightening the area around where the

and acupuncture can both help to

pain is centered and then releasing

ingredient in both curry and chili powder.

stimulate endorphin production. So

it can help to alleviate achiness.

The addition of black pepper can even

effective is acupuncture that in the

be more effective. If using a capsule or

Orient, it is used by itself as anesthesia

their experience with pain in a journal.

tablet, look for one containing Bioperine,

during surgeries. Acupuncture can send

This may even help one find clues such

one of the active ingredients in pepper. It

stimuli to the spinal cord, blocking the

as “pain is lessened on the days when

helps make one of the active ingredients

dorsal gate and closing one’s perception of

you take a walk, nap, or avoid sugar,” for

in turmeric, known as curcumin, be

pain. Yoga, Rolfing, massage, chiropractic,

example. Art can be used to describe pain.

released more easily. Turmeric is greatly

and osteopathic work may help relieve

regarded for its circulatory improving

pain by improving structural alignment

burning flames? Draw or paint it. In

and anti-inflammatory properties.

and circulation to a painful area. Check

your mind’s eye, muzzle the dog or

out the book Somatics by Thomas Hanna.

pour water on the fire. Then draw

It has wonderful simple exercises that

the images that may soothe pain and

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a common

Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a smooth muscle and skeletal relaxant. Try it for cramps, headaches, insomnia, neuralgia, shingles, stress, and trauma. Valerian is anodyne, antispasmodic, and sedative. White Willow bark (Salix alba) contains salicin, one of the original aspirin compounds, and is a traditional herb for arthritis, backache, gout, headache, joint inflammation, migraine, and general pain. It is an analgesic, anodyne, and anti-inflammatory. Supplements available from natural food stores can also be allies in pain relief. Vitamin B-1 and calcium raise one’s

the color blue, or simply wearing

Some find it helpful to write about

Is the pain like a biting dog or

“Herbal medicine has been used by millions of people for thousands of years. Herbs that help pain can be classif ied in several ways: Analgesics help allay pain when used internally without affecting consciousness. Anesthetics numb existing pain either locally or generally. Anodynes are sedating and help keep pain f rom being transmitted. Antispasmodics relax muscle spasms. Sedatives promote rest and peace.”

pain threshold. Vitamins C

Essential oils can be used in the bath (5-10 drops per bath) or 30 drops per eight ounces of coconut oil or massage and include oils of birch, cajuput, camphor, chamomile, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, peppermint, rosemary, and wintergreen. Combining several modalities to help relieve pain, including diet, herbs, and exercise, and lifestyle techniques, can help the body repair and find relief. Be patient and willing to try several techniques together to best support your body in

and E are necessary for the production

can help one get into proper alignment

of endorphins. Magnesium can help relax

that can relieve back and neck pain.

muscle spasms. There is even a little

visualize them giving relief.

finding a way to live with less pain.

Practice deep, slow breathing.

Brigitte Mars is an herbalist and nutritional consultant of Natural Health with over fifty years of experience. She teaches Herbal Medicine at Naropa University and The School of Health Mastery in Iceland. She has taught at Omega Institute, Esalen, Kripalu, Sivananda Yoga Ashram, Arise, Envision, Tribal Visions and Unify Festivals, and The Mayo Clinic. Brigitte is the author of many books and DVDs, including Natural First Aid, The Home Reference to Holistic Health and Healing, The Country Almanac of Home Remedies, The Desktop Guide to Herbal Medicine, Beauty by Nature, Addiction Free Naturally, The Sexual Herbal, Healing Herbal Teas, Rawsome! and co-author of The HempNut Cookbook. Her latest project is a phone app called IPlant. Brigitte is also a Psychedelic Sitter and End of Life Doula. Please check out

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Bud Wise



ey-hey-hey, my


flowering strain. I would get something

very good SKUNK


from South East Asian genetics. They

peeps. Welcome to Bud

From: Mark F., USA

are standout exotics regarding high-

Wise. This is basically just a Q&A with me.

type. Thai is a really good one. Pop over “Rev I love your stuff! I am only new to

to KOS and grab some Chunky Cherry

I try and select a correspondence that

growing and smoking cannabis; I only

Thai. Select females that go at least 11

represents a more commonly sought

have a few years in. I’m using your TLO

weeks (about half the females) and you’ll

answer to something. Like if I get a

methods, and things are going well. I

find some real Thai experience there.

bunch of peeps that all are asking me

learn a lot every grow. My question for

about Air-Pots, or whatever—you savvy?

you is about strains. Just wondering,

heavy hitter. Indica dominant, but not

Make sure and check out

I would also like to always have a

if you were me right now, what would

the AK47 type of Hashplant indica;

Sensi Sermons and True Living

you go after strain-wise? I can grow

personal preference. I like the more

Organics in this issue as well,

a few different strains at once, and

calyx-heavy old-school Champagne type

for more cannabis supernatural

I love weed. I want to get like a full

of indica. You have a lot of choices here,

growing stuff from yours truly.

range suggestion from you if you get

truly. One of my all-time favorites—

what I am asking you? Thank you.”

also a favorite wake-n-bake—in this

I have been growing cannabis for just shy of half a century; yup, I’m old, LoL. That puts me in a pretty good

category is KOS’ own Blue Rhino 1947. High Mark. Wow, that is quite a

Another pretty standout indica is the

position to be able to help out some

question. I have come across several

Deep Chunk. Yeah, those would be

growers experiencing issues. Let me

emails lately regarding variety selection

my targets, so my garden had a wide

say before we roll that if you dial in

of cannabis for various reasons. I love

bandwidth of genetics that rock.

your fundamental stuff, water sourcing,

weed as well, heh heh, and I have to

lighting, air-movement, air-extraction,

say right at the start here that my

soil, and growing containers. A lot of

recommendations are going to be

gardens I help out big is just by drawing

pretty KOS (kingdomorganicseeds.

their attention to one or two things

com) heavy since those are the varieties

that are out of line, like say their water

that I love and work with the most.

sucks, or shitty containers, poor watering

I would get C99 for sure. If you are

habits, temperature controls—you get

all or mostly about big yields, disregard

me yah? Fundamentals baybee, if there

this one, but she is a real gem of a

were a magic word, that would be it.

sativa heavy experience in a 9-week






From: Baker Boy, Washington, USA

From: Abel, AZ, USA

“Hello from Washington state Rev. I’m a

“Hi there, Rev, big fan. How bad can

decent grower using living soil, and I get

I fuck up a photoperiod and still get

pretty good results. My problem is I know

away with it? I missed closing my

my results could be better because my

room the other day and was late by

plants are off the chain kicking ass until

about 15 minutes after the lights

about three weeks from harvest, then they

went out. Basically, I just want to

kind of go to hell fast. I know they’re not

know if that was enough to make

starving; my water is good, and I have

them hermaphrodite out on me?”

watering skills. If I could just keep them as happy as they are at 4-weeks until

Hola man. You are all good unless

harvest through harvest, my bounty would

your genetics are not sexually healthy.

be so much bigger and better. Thanks

I always went by the rules of this

for what you do. Any suggestions?”

when it comes to photoperiods: You can be off by 20 minutes on either side

Yo, Baker Boy. This is an issue I hear a ton about from peeps all the time—

you let in light before lights turn on,

prolly like up in the top 5—and I do

or after lights turn off, and it’s less

indeed have some suggestions amigo…

than a 20-minute phuckup, you can

Do not under any circumstances try

get away with that once per 14 days of

and “goose” your P (phosphorous) and/

flowering. Twice within 2-weeks, and

or K (potassium) during flowering—Ever!

you will need to watch your plants for

This just unleashes chaos in your living

possible hermies (hermaphrodites).

containers, and the microbeasties cannot

What you really need to never do, is

do their jobs, and the plant suffers like

introduce light to your plants anywhere

it was starving. You do not need to goose

in the middle of their dark cycle.

up anything in flowering. As long as your

Not ever. Once you have crossed that

soil and water are good, you are fine.

20-minute “safety zone,” it will always

If your plant tops (buds) grow up into

cause some issues. Sometimes plants

your lights and are closer than about

will start expressing mutant growth,

18” away, then your bud tops will go all

or start trying to re-vegetate, which

hyper-metabolic and can essentially drain

shuts down most of the resin production.

the rest of the plant for mobile nutrients.

Hermies are a distinct possibility. After

Pay attention to this. It’s important.

the unfortunate light poisoning event,

PPM value of any water you use on your plant should be known by you using a TDS meter. If you use like 50-70 PPM water and you also use flowering teas or whatever that are even higher, then your fix is simple. Stop the teas keep PPM value consistent. I like a PPM of around 60-65 PPM for my cannabis water. That last one is really deadly because all the extra salts/minerals have slowly built up around the root zones, greatly affecting nutrient availability in a negative way. It takes at least 30 days to build up, so it’s sneaky. Good luck. Those are the most common fixes for your issue.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

of the photoperiod. That is to say if

it will take plants around 7 to 14 days to show any bad side effects.

The Best Growing Containers for Cannabis



reetings and salutations, my green amigos. Growing cannabis plants (or any plants) in containers puts them into a surreal world—a world where their roots are limited to the walls of the container. Things can change rapidly in

containers, and roots don’t dig rapid changes. Anytime you add any type of tea or liquid diluted nutrients, you are encompassing/ engulfing all the plant’s roots at once with it. No mistakes here, otherwise damage and maybe death is sure to follow. But there is more to containers than just that above when it comes to potential troubles. You also have that bothersome little issue of CO2 that needs to continuously be able to escape when the container soil is wet. I will explain that below. Another thing is airflow and air availability which is especially important right after any transplant. Not having this can slow your plants way down and harm them as well. You may be thinking, “Woah Rev, that’s a lot of potentially bad things.”…Yup. Once you “see” what you need as guidelines for container selection and/or modification,

PLANT WARRIOR PLANT CONTAINERS INVERTED NET-POT FLOOR STYLE Winner-winner chicken dinner—the Plant Warrior—the most

it becomes obvious why you want those qualities. The

badass container design I have ever seen. I have these in 1-,

wrong containers can wreak havoc with your plants.

2-, 3-, and 5-gallon sizes. Using these pots exclusively gives


you the ability to transplant your plants. And in their new

but at least very slow growth at first, and maybe even shock

pots, those roots still get a ton of immediate air exposure—

will result if you don’t transplant using that trick in the photo.

due to the inverted net-pot on the floor—the root-ball you are

You see, a plant’s roots adapt to where they are in the

transplanting will have that same cone shape that fits right

ground. Roots deep in the ground (water roots) don’t do a

into the new pot like Tetris. Those roots that have adapted

lot of food gathering. They are mostly looking for water.

to be close to the air will still be in full air exposure after

They don’t need much air exposure to function perfectly.

the transplant. Just see the difference once, how fast and

Roots that are for water and for collecting food are used to much greater air exposure. In fact, the plant grows these roots very differently than water-type roots, specifically adapted to use the high air exposure in their processes. In containers, plants do the same thing. Larger watertype roots can be seen, especially lower in the container. Smaller diameter, more feather-like roots grow where there is high air exposure. Now in the ground, these roots are limited to the surface soil for air exposure. But, in containers, they have high air exposure along every wall, the floor, and of course, the surface as well. These roots have grown (adapted) to utilize this increased exposure to air. Once you transplant into a new container, you have effectively cut off ¾ of the roots that need air to function properly. This is a huge potential problem for reals. These roots that have adapted to high air exposure effectively suffocate. As I said, make your own comparison, and you will see what I am raving about here.

aggressive new transplants take off, and you’ll be a believer. Also, I like to use the Micropond TLO methodology, which uses


your catch-tray water for days after watering. Using the Plant

Make no mistake about how I feel about these types of soft

Warrior pots, only a thin outer ring of soil stays underwater

growing containers that breathe. I love how they work. I have

when the catch-tray is full. Plus, the massive good venting,

one big problem with them because I am a tad disabled. You need

which includes drainage holes way up high on the sides—Boom!

to use large container sizes when you use these pots. Because

This keeps the CO2 “pouring” out of the drainage holes even

they dry out super-fast—crazy fast—so keep that in mind. I

when most of the lower drainage holes are underwater.

have a smaller issue as well, and that is that the whole bottom


of the container will sit in any runoff water in the catch trays. There is potential there for some anaerobic activity if your catch trays maintain a water level for more than 24 hours. A SIMPLE MODIFICATION TO THE PLANT WARRIOR POTS BEFORE USING (IMG: Drilled Out Container Legs (left) Unmodified Legs (right)) Okay, for TLO-worthy containers, and seriously, you need a few things to be true for any grower using containers. That list lies below. For these particular containers, the fix is really simple. There are six small stubby legs on the floor of the containers. Use a power drill to drill these legs to be open drainage holes. These will be in contact with the catch tray floor and have access to every last drop of runoff water. (IMG: Even My Small, 3 Inch Pots, Have Drainage Holes Way Up the Sides) Checklist for Killer Growing Containers

PLANT WARRIOR GROWING CONTAINERS If you are not using these pots, then when transplanting,

The container must have drainage holes that will remain above the water level if the catch tray is full of runoff water.

you will want to leave about 1 inch of the root ball above the

This is to literally drain out the massive influx of CO2 to

soil level of the new container. You can fill the space with

the container. Once you add water and the soil, the micro

bark mulch, and that’s fine. This allows enough of the roots to

life shifts into production and propagation modes. A lot-lot-

maintain close contact exposure to an air source—in other words,

lot of “exhaling” microbeasties release CO2 into the soil.

air availability, as I mentioned above. Otherwise, big problems,

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

The container must have drainage holes that are directly








o s w here t

t e g




ot g s ' e Sh r o f d e e n e th s d e se

in contact with the catch tray floor

holes. It literally fills the container.

so the plants can drink back up

party cups as pots for smaller plants. Even if modified with serious drainage


holes, they still suck. I’m not sure

I still love the self-watering style

exactly why that is, but I have seen it

of water drainage holes which are also

containers, and I have found other

enough to know what I babble here.

CO2 drainage holes. Remember that

good containers that would need a

CO2 is heavier than air, so it really does

little or no modifications as well. If

in this same issue written by yours truly

pour out of these holes. This action, of

you can’t get the Plant Warriors, just

if you feel so inclined. I am hoping to

course, sucks in more fresh air behind

make sure you transplant using the

finish the new TLO book manuscript

it—win-win. Both the plant roots and

previously mentioned trick to keep

by the end of 2021—whew! Grab a copy

micro life in the soil (the ones you want

enough roots with high air exposure.

of my latest TLO book on Amazon too.

My final thought to help some of

It is True Living Organics 2nd Edition

every last drop of runoff water. The container should also have a lot

there) need plenty of fresh air to “breathe”

Check out Bud Wise and Sensi Sermons

baybee. CO2 starts killing things fast

you guys out is to try to fade out that

by The Rev. Thanks for the support,

if not allowed to escape from drainage

whole using those brightly colored

everyone. See ya back here next issue!

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Best LED for 3x3 Tents and Best Fast Living Soil Mix



ello to you all. Welcome to Sensi

shill for anyone, so believe me

Sermons. Today is a twofer! First, I want to

when I tell you these lights rock.

let you know about my completed product

I ran them in 3’x3’ Gorilla Grow

review on the 420h LED full spectrum

Tents using living (TLO) soil.

growing light by NextLight. Seriously,

folks, this light is a pure ass-kicker in my tents, like wow. For part 2 of this article, I will share a little fast-ass soil

These 420h Lights are just under $600.00, and I think they’re well worth it. I was

mix with you guys that requires no “cooking” (fast composting)

originally looking at the

and is ready to roll in just 24 hours after mixing. I have

NextLight Core LED lights for

been giving this mixture recipe to some local cannabis

my tents, which I hear great

enthusiasts that just rave about how killer it is. Let’s roll!

things about, but Jarrod over at the lighting company asked me


if I wanted to test drive their


newest LED, the 420h. Yup, I

Let me run down some serious good stuffs about the 420h LED

did. Let me do this in bullets… Wattage: A 400-watt LED is just about perfect power. I like

from NextLight. I have used

the 300-watt LEDs a lot as well, but the 400-Watters really

these lights through a whole

take it all up a big notch. I’m not kidding when I say my plants

grow cycle all the way to the

outgrew their boundaries under this lightfast. Super vigorous

smoking. It grows some hearty,

response to these lights. Hearty stacked growth morphology.

very potent, super smelly/tasty

Size: The 420h measures 25” square. This makes it an

weeds, yessir. Now, they gave

absolutely perfect fit in my Gorilla tents, like literally perfect.

me these lights to try out, but

Having this broader light source footprint makes for some

I was already there looking at

decent yield increases. Especially so in the growth of the

them and asking questions; I was

secondary buds—yowza! Per-plant yields were up by somewhere

referred to them by a really good

around 15% over my expected yields from these genetics.

grower I know online. I don’t

Hangers: Finally! An LED light with smart, elegant


“ This soil mix is super-living, uber nutritious, with gobs of organic matter. It is pretty simple and bangs out some stellar herbs, as I have seen and smoked.” hangers that allow you to have the light higher in the tent,

wet. Then just combine everything

which is always nice. I was so glad when I opened the box

together thoroughly. Let it sit for 24

and saw the hangers. It’s a little thing, but it matters.

hours exposed to air and preferably

Toughness: This light is built well; you can tell when

above 65 deg. f. before using, in

you hold it. It is also resistant to any kind of overspray

order for the mix to attain some bio-

that may hit them from a mister or whatever.

equilibrium. Neither the crab meal nor

Dimmer: I love the dimmer on this light. Not only good for hardening off fresh clones, but it also works great for

the greensand will burn anything. Don’t think adding more will work better.

temperature control. If you experience a few super-hot days THE 2021 FAST SOIL MIX AH LA REV 1 to 1.5 cubic feet (6 to 9 gallons) quality soil like Ocean Forest or G&B. 1 cubic foot earthworm castings, and shoot for some quality here. 1 cup crab meal or shellfish meal. 3 tablespoons of greensand. If no greensand you can use two teaspoons of Langbeinite—NO MORE and mix in very well. 3 gallons of large nugget perlite. You could use pumice here; however it weighs a lot more when wet. It also holds more water than using perlite would hold, so consider those things too. or something, you can just dim it down to ¾ or ½ power, whatever you need. Truly a light for sprout to harvest. It runs really nice temperatures in my tents. Not surprisingly

The massive calcium carbonate brought in by the crab meal buffs the pH upwards, right where worms, microbeasties, and cannabis plants in living soil loves it. It packs a nice long-term

about 25% hotter than a 300-watt LED. It runs MUCH cooler

release of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P). It is really kicking

than the 400-watt Eye Blue Hortilux MH HID lights I normally

in as all the fast organic matter in the soil gets processed and

use in the winter months. These new LEDs being just a bit

used. Use good dechlorinated water on these plants. Start out

warmer than my old 300-watt LED lights, I am running them

running them at about 55-65 PPM; you can lower the PPMs

during my winter months to see if they are warm enough—pretty

of your groundwater with distilled, rain, or R/O water. You

sure they are going

raise the PPM using higher

to work great.

PPM well/spring water, or by adding aquarium water, or


worm farm leachate juice. L8r G8rs That’s a wrap for me today,

super-living, uber

my friends. Check out my

nutritious, with

other articles in this issue

gobs of organic

if you like: Bud Wise and

matter. It is

True Living Organics. Buzz

pretty simple

on by kingdomorganicseeds.

and bangs out some stellar herbs, as I have seen and smoked.

com and check out some

One of the keys here to this mix is mixing it very well. Use

exotic cannabis varieties. I miss summertime already—

a tarp, or kiddy pool, or a rubber trough-like in the photo.

ugh—heh heh. See ya all in the next issue.

My favorite soil mix blending container on the fly. Make sure the soil has some moisture but is not actually

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

CO 2 : the Recipe for a Healthy Grow






recently had the pleasure to catch up with

Julie Chiariello: Why is CO2 something that

owner and CEO of TNB Naturals Josh Blazer. I have

Growers should be aware of and have within

known Josh for many years and it is an honor to

their toolkit in the growing room?

tell his story and ethos a bit more. Josh has always

Josh Blazer: CO 2 is what plants breathe. This can easily be

deeply inspired me with his work ethic and the

overlooked but should not be forgotten. CO 2 is 1 of the three main

incredible values that animate his life and his company.

elements of photosynthesis and is essential when growing indoors. One of the biggest issues when growing inside is that plants use

JULIE Chiariello: When did you first

up the available CO 2 in the atmosphere and then go without. This

begin TNB Naturals, and why?

becomes what is known as the ‘limiting factor,’ and no matter

JOSH BLAZER: TNB Naturals Inc. was officially incorporated

what else you do, your plants will only grow to their weakest link.

in April of 2012, but we were alive for a few years prior to

By adding the right amount of CO 2 , you can maximize the

that time, just on a smaller scale. 2012 also marked the

photosynthesis rate within the plant, so it can grow to its full

first year we landed a major distribution deal, so we often

potential. When you add CO 2 , you’re basically adding more yield,

tend to consider that the beginning. TNB started with the

as your plants and their buds will grow bigger and become denser.

introduction of our first product, The Enhancer, an allnatural CO 2 generator that was brought out due to a void in

Julie Chiariello: Can you share with us some of the

the market and a need for a better natural CO 2 product.

scientific comparisons that you have done in grow rooms that use CO2 and rooms that do not?

JULIE Chiariello: You have built a very special team

Josh Blazer: There have been countless tests and studies that

over the years that travels the world, and your products

have shown adding CO 2 can increase yield by 30-50%. This seems

ship globally. Can you tell us about the guiding ethos of

to be the general consensus amongst most industry experts.

your company and also a bit about TNB’s Global reach? JOSH BLAZER: Our mission has always been to develop safe

Julie Chiariello: Tell us a bit about your product line

and sustainable, all-natural products with an emphasis on

and the other products that you now have available?

recyclability and forward-thinking packaging. We feel this has

Josh Blazer: While we’re most known for our flagship product,

helped play a role in us obtaining distribution that now spans

The CO 2 Enhancer, our newest product, an all-natural and

across over 30 countries and see us doing business on 6 of 7

granular pH Up and Down, has really made waves lately.

continents. Future goals include the launch of additional products

‘We’ve launched a number of other products in between, but

as well as expanding our distribution reach into new countries.

our new pH has been extremely well received and has quickly


“Our mission has always been to develop safe and sustainable, all-natural products with an emphasis on recyclability and forwardthinking packaging. We feel this has helped play a role in us obtaining distribution that now spans across over 30 countries and see us doing business on 6 of 7 continents.”

become our number 2 product. ‘We feel like growers we’re looking for an allnatural, granular option, especially one that doesn’t harm the beneficial bacteria and doesn’t contain any fillers or dyes. We also have an all-natural plant booster and a corrective supplement called The Enricher that’s definitely the sleeper product in our line. It’s been a steady seller for a lot of years now, and those who have tried it have been very pleased with the results. More recently, we introduced our

TNB Naturals is a company from British Columbia, Canada mostly known for

own ultra-lightweight stainless steel

its natural CO 2 generator called “The

trimming shears, which we have available

Enhancer.” They also have a full line of

in both straight and curved blades.

innovative products designed with the grower in mind. For more information

Julie Chiariello: Why do you

on TNB Naturals and products,

feel it is important for as many

please visit

people as possible to learn to grow their own organic, clean cannabis medicine at home? Josh Blazer: Having first-hand access to the medicinal benefits that this plant offers is something everyone deserves. Growing your own is not only therapeutic but also very rewarding, plus you know exactly what’s going into your plant. Julie Chiariello: When did cannabis first enter your life, and why are the global cannabis movement and a final end to cannabis prohibition important to you? Josh Blazer: Cannabis became a thing for all of us in our High School years and has always remained a part of our lives in one way or another. It’s time for the world to realize that cannabis is medicine and needs to be made available to everyone and anyone who may be interested in enjoying the many benefits that this plant has to offer. Our hope is that one day the entire world will have legal access without the possibility of prosecution.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Cannabis Uses Less Water to Grow Than Many Other Crops



ater usage has become one of

A 2020 report from New Frontier Data in partnership

the latest topics in prohibitionists’

with Resource Innovation Institute and the University of

reefer madness campaigns to suppress

California, Berkeley, concluded that “while the state’s orchards

cannabis production. Their effort

use nearly 7 million acre-feet of water, and rice fields use

is based on a debunked claim from

nearly 5 million acre-feet, the state’s lucrative cannabis

almost a decade ago claiming that each plant uses from

industry only uses 3,000 acre-feet, making it the most water-

six to 20 gallons per day to grow, a vast exaggeration. That

economical crop among the state’s top revenue crops.”

number is based on the heaviest use days for the biggest

Swami Chaitanya is a Northern California cannabis cultivator

plants at the end of the season — but ignores the rest of the

and operator of Swami Select. He calculated water consumption

growing season and the production of ordinary-size plants.

for cannabis as a farm crop, using an eighth of an ounce of

Experienced growers know that cannabis plants use less

dried flowers, about 3.5 grams, as a typical serving size for

water in their vegetative cycle and more during the flowering.

marijuana. “Each eighth requires 1.875 gallons of water,” noting

For example, one garden we are tracking uses just under

that, “It has been widely reported that producing a pound of

a gallon per week per plant as of mid-June, up from a

beef requires at least 1,500 gallons of water. Wine uses between

quart per week earlier in the season, with no expectations

180 and 400 gallons per bottle. Almonds need one gallon per

of using more than a half-gallon per day even at its peak.

nut or about 100 gallons per can, broccoli takes about five

Instead, gardeners mediate the usage through using

gallons per head and avocados about 75 gallons per pound.”

compost tea, mulch, and other conservation techniques.

“Another way to look at thirstiness is to consider how much

These medium-size plants will ultimately produce from a quarter

output is produced by a single gallon of water,” said Natalynne

to three quarters of a pound per year, about 120 to 350 grams or

DeLapp, executive director of the Humboldt County Growers

32 to 100 eighths each, with a higher yield and water efficiency

Alliance. “For other crops like tomatoes, lettuce or almonds, a

than the tomatoes growing nearby. But that is just one home

gallon of water produces between a tenth of a cent to two cents

garden, so what does it mean at a greater economy of scale?

of value in yield. For cannabis, a gallon of water produces nearly

Cannabis “Not Particularly Thirsty” as a Crop

$7 worth of value. In that sense, cannabis is by far the most

A team of researchers affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley and with the State of California, North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board decided to test that question. They assessed irrigation patterns among licensed cannabis farms in northern California. Their research has confirmed that licensed

“ Their research has conf irmed that licensed outdoor marijuana farms do not put undue strain on limited water resources, according to data published in the Journal of Environmental Management. In fact, it only consumes a f raction of the water used by other commercial crops.”

outdoor marijuana

water-efficient agricultural product in California.” What About Illegal Grow Ops? Experience and data both show that home grows and commercial cannabis crops are both relatively efficient users of water, but what about the underground growers? Because the UC Berkeley study only assessed water use among legally licensed farms, the authors

farms do not put undue strain on limited water

cautioned that their findings may not be applicable to

resources, according to data published in the Journal of

illicit growing practices. Illegal operators around California

Environmental Management. In fact, it only consumes a

are often charged with water diversion but their actual

fraction of the water used by other commercial crops.

impact on the water supply is not well documented.

Authors stated that cannabis farming isn’t “particularly thirsty

One thing that does appear clear, however, is that

relative to other crops.” They estimated that “legal outdoor

encouraging legal operators and legal retail sales will

[cannabis] production uses about the same amount of water as a

slow the flow and ultimately cut off the tap to the criminal

crop like tomatoes” and about 33 times less water than almonds.

market by taking away their customer base. That is yet

More Water-Efficient Than Commercial Wine, Almonds, Avocados

another fact that prohibitionists do not want to hear.

The study’s findings run counter to previous claims

Full text of the study, “Water Storage and Irrigation

that cannabis farming placed undue strain on the

Practices for Cannabis Drive Seasonal Patterns of Water

state’s limited water supply. However, there is plenty

Extraction and use in Northern California,” appears

of data to support the claim of water efficacy.

in the Journal of Environmental Management.


Indigenous Roots:




Indian law. Indian law is basically natural law, and there are unwritten rules that have been passed down for millennia about our relationships and responsibilities to each other, our lands, and our seasonal gifts are. These teachings were accompanied by lessons from Coyote Stories that always had layers of lessons about what happens

ebbles Trippet: What is your

when these old laws are violated

family background— where and

and the social and moral impacts of breaking natural law.

how did you grow up? Mary Jane Oatman: I am a member of the Nez

Pebbles Trippet: Do the Nez Perce have a special

Perce Tribe and descend from the Delaware

relationship to cannabis and hemp compared to other

Nation. I grew up on the reservation in Idaho with my three

tribes? What is the history behind the connection?

brothers and one sister. In my senior year in high school, my

Mary Jane Oatman: The special relationships are found in early

parents had another baby, so I have four brothers. We grew

historical records, such as the Lewis & Clark Journals, as well

up poor, but with our culture and traditions, I always call it

as the missionaries that came and left our homelands in their

“Indian Rich.” I was never hungry, never cold. We just didn’t

attempts to ‘civilize and Christianize’ our people. One of the

have money to buy all the expensive toys and clothes, and my

greatest and earliest frustrations of the missionaries was the

parents always drove Rez cars. It wasn’t until I was in middle

presence of the pipes and their perception that indigenous men

school that things started to turn around. My mom got her GED

just sat around smoking while the women did all of the work. This

when I was in 8th grade, and she returned to college to become a

was evident in the anthropological perspectives that also contain

paralegal. She opened my eyes to college and life beyond the Rez.

rich ethnographic and ethnobotanical evidence of a strong and robust cordage economy for hemp, as well as cultivation practices

Pebbles Trippet: What was your first marijuana experience

of ‘green herbs’ that were differentiated from the ‘white man’s

like? Were you turned on by your family members?

tobacco.’ Our cultivation territory was also a source of contention

Mary Jane Oatman: My very first experience was pretty

amongst one of the tribes that the Nez Perce warred and counted

crazy. I didn’t smoke, but I started ‘pinching’ plants from

a coup with. A very powerful historical document written by

my dad’s dry closet when I was in 6th grade. I ended up

Samuel Black in the early 1800s notes the green smoking herbs

getting my ass whooped after my older 10th-grade cousin

and provides more in-depth census style Q&A to expand the

got busted. He went home super stoned, and his mom was

knowledge learned during the Lewis and Clark expedition.

pretty upset. It also didn’t take long for the adults to conclude where the smoke was coming from because my dad was one

Pebbles Trippet: What were the circumstances behind

of the only home growers on the reservation. In our family,

your grandmother’s cultivation bust? Was she targeted?

we do not encourage the younger generations to smoke and

Were others involved? Did the tribe stand behind her?

try to dissuade them from joining the circle until they are

Mary Jane Oatman: My grandmother only started to grow after

older. But when the circle expands, there is celebration.

returning to the reservation in the late 1970s and found that the Rez was dry, and my grandpa had a hard time finding smoke.

Pebbles Trippet: When was the first time you

There were others on the reservation that smoked, but nobody

encountered marijuana as part of the Nez Perce tribe?

was growing. She actually just found some seeds in the corner

Mary Jane Oatman: Our people started doing pipe ceremonies

of a baggie and decided she would try it. She really didn’t know

to honor our ancestors that were killed during the War of

what she was doing, but it worked. She had her first harvest

1877 by the federal government and to give ourselves a space

and decided to do it again the following year. She was growing

to heal from the trauma. I know when the veterans get in

outdoors on her family’s allotment. The following year she

the circle, they are smoking a sacred blend that does not

grew a few more plants and was getting excited for harvest.

contain cannabis. Out of respect for others, it is not done

A Washington Water Power lineman was doing repair and

in those ceremonies. But as far back as I can remember,

maintenance work on lines and had to access the property. He’s

it has always been a part of our funeral ceremonies.

the one who called the cops and got my grandparents busted. I remember DEA agents, Idaho County Sheriff ’s officers, and the

Pebbles Trippet: You’ve referred to your tribe as

SWAT team all over the property, guns everywhere. I was 7.

“carriers of the pipe”. What do you mean by that?

My uncles had also started growing some plants, but my

Mary Jane Oatman: Many indigenous cultures have a strong

grandparents were the only ones charged. It was complex.

relationship with the peace pipe and a sacred obligation to

My grandmother’s land was federal trust land, so she was

the plants and the herbs to harvest them and give prayers to

prosecuted by the federal government. My grandfather, who

Mother Earth. As carriers of the pipes, our warriors have made a

was not a landowner, was non-Indian, so he was prosecuted

contract with the Creator to do no hurt to each other and to obey

by the state of Idaho. Sadly, they did not get the legal help


they needed from the tribe. If they had, my grandpa’s charges

Pebbles Trippett: What is ‘crime’ from

would have been dismissed due to lack of jurisdiction, and

the indigenous point of view?

my grandmother would have likely had a plea deal or even

Mary Jane Oatman: Crime is any harm that a person does

had the charges thrown out due to evidence issues. But tribes

to another, which includes animals and Mother Earth. Prior

have been whipped into submission. They stand for issues

to colonization, our people did not kill out of jealousy or

like salmon and water, but in our tribe, we have yet to have a

selfishness. It was only done in defense. Murder was almost

stance for healing with plant medicine. She spent a little over

unheard of. If we had not had this cultural value, the Lewis

a year at Geiger Correctional Facility in Spokane, Washington,

and Clark expedition would have been killed. The same goes

while my grandpa did slightly longer time in Boise, Idaho,

for animals. They give themselves for subsistence, not for sport.

at state prison. We would go see them in prison but did not

So harvest was only done when needed, not for entertainment,

really understand why we couldn’t just bring them home.

like zebra hunts in Africa, or digging and plowing Mother Earth for greed, Gold Rush style. That is a crime against

Pebbles Trippet: What were the lasting

Nature (but not like the one on the books in Idaho).

burdens and repercussions? Mary Jane Oatman: My grandmother has always carried

Pebbles Trippett: What prompted the formation

the burden of being a convicted felon. When she returned

of your remarkable magazine Tribal Hemp

to college in her 60s and again in her 70s, she had to do

Cannabis/THC? Is it supported by the tribal

the process that anyone convicted of a drug-related offense

council or limited to three generations of Oatman

must do when completing the FAFSA for federal aid. She

family women in a Sisterhood, so to speak?

hated applying for jobs and having to face that issue because

Mary Jane Oatman: THC was prompted by my grandmother’s

of the shame that comes along with incarceration.

story. As I was working in policy development and the

But today, she is proud that she stood her ground and

protection of Tribal sovereignty in cannabis legislation

fought the system. She took it to trial, and has always

post-farm bill, I was starting to realize that nobody

felt she did nothing wrong in planting seeds.

wanted to speak up and share the success stories of tribes. We are always left out of mainstream media or only get

Pebbles Trippet: Did your family and tribe

pop-ups against Columbus Day and Thanksgiving.

grow closer from the disruption of a raid and

I have always loved and collected magazines, so when I began

prosecution? How was the tribe harmed?

exploring how the Indigenous CANNabis Coalition (ICANNC)

Mary Jane Oatman: The tribe itself wasn’t harmed but rather

was going to do our education and advocacy, a magazine made

benefited from the raid and prosecution. Tribes only get

so much sense. For one, tribal communities gather for knowledge

funding to address problems. So our local, state, and tribal

sharing—at conferences, business summits, and national

law enforcement had ‘data’ to say drugs were a problem on the

events. And when they do, I wanted them to be able to return to

reservation that they must address. It is crazy, but that is still

their communities with tangible evidence of tribal success in

the same model. Race to the bottom. Communities that can

cannabis and hemp. For us, by us. Stories of healing and a place

articulate that their dysfunction is greater than their sister

to collect data, the Who’s Who in Indian Country Cannabis.

tribes win. Even though the federal government has a federal

We are blessed that our tribe has supported our efforts, funding

trust responsibility, the appropriations process of Congress

our family to travel to Washington, DC for the Feb 2020 launch

leaves tribes beholden to the budget process. And tribes do not

in February of 2020. The work of THC Magazine is 100% owned

get budgets for success. It’s not a federal government ‘investment’

and operated by Nez Perce women. But we could not do the

where they are looking for a return on the investment. It is

heavy lifting without the stories from across Turtle Island.

a black hole. By the time money gets from Washington DC to the tribal community where it is over-administered again

Pebbles Trippet: Deb Haaland’s remarkable appointment

by tribal bureaucrats, about 2 cents for every dollar actually

as Secretary of the Interior and First Native American US

directly impacts a tribal member. Tribal rights vs. individual

Cabinet member is a first step to writing a historical long.

Indian rights is a conversation that cannabis has broached.

Are you hopeful she’ll accomplish something significant,

After all, it takes the individual to give themselves permission

such as protecting cannabis and hemp cultivation as

to heal, not a government. They can only stop you from healing.

rights of sovereignty? Is this a feasible foundation? Mary Jane Oatman: I believe Deb Haaland has already made

Pebbles Trippet: What are the big picture lessons?

some great strides in the direction of protecting the rights of

Does your historical consciousness now include

indigenous people and sovereignty in cannabis already. She

‘cannabis criminals’ as well as ‘carriers of the pipe’?

has been an outspoken and very vocal ambassador of plant

Mary Jane Oatman: If we have a ‘cannabis criminal,’ it definitely

medicine and has made a very good position as an elective

has to be a conspiracy between Mother Earth and our Creator.

leader from her own community, and then working in Congress

Propagating seeds and seeing plants through a life cycle is

to very clearly articulate that it’s the right of each community

special. It has been done for thousands of years without high-

to decide how they will protect tribal sovereignty of their

priced light systems, synthetic nutrients, and human intervention.

community respectively and individually in cannabis.

I see a bigger picture emerging where power, privilege, and men will get less of a stage to dictate healing to others.

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Pebbles Trippet: So I think that that is a good thing be

cause it doesn’t create this monolithic approach

economies. There have been some tribes that have had no other

with tribes. Many are doing their cultivation or their

economy, and so they didn’t have any economy to rival or replace.

enterprises in very unique, in different ways according

This was new for them. They live in geographic areas where they

to their governance and their leadership. And within

have large land bases, but no tourist population, no highway or

many of our Pueblo communities and here within my own

freeway populations, but these are the communities that can be

community, we come from the Matriarchal Society in a

the cultivation hubs and the processing hubs doing it, finding

very strong matriarchal community where the voices of

regenerative farming practices and getting that quality plant

our elder women have a lot of say in the direction of the

medicine to some of the tribes that are in some of the higher

future. And that’s really monumental with Deb being in

volume areas where they can have dispensary storefronts.

the position that she is in now because it is so historic.

I really envision cannabis and hemp cultivation unfolding

Mary Jane Oatman: So with that, she has the ear and the

to benefit the whole tribe economically when tribes work in

hearts and the minds of Indian country, which includes so many

developing their regulation and compliance in consultation

grandmothers who have grown up in the era where cannabis

with the community. I think that that’s one thing that really

and marijuana are Reefer Madness, a very twisted and distorted

is key is that there’s more of a connection between what tribal

relationship with how cannabis can heal us and about how it’s

governments are doing for and on behalf of their communities.

always been a part of our agriculture and our smoking pathways. And so Deb Haaland being outspoken as a congresswoman is very much a positive step in that direction. Now what really needs to happen is that our elected leaders across Indian country who are in very pivotal positions themselves need to be working more closely together, making sure that their lobbyists are working on protecting tribes and tribal sovereignty in any decriminalization descheduling or federal language that is created and just be really loud

“Many indigenous cul tures have a strong relationship with the peace pipe and a sacred obligation to the plants and the herbs to harvest them and give prayers to Mother Earth. As carriers of the pipes, our warriors have made a contract with the Creator to do no hurt to each other and to obey Indian law.”

and vocal and utilize the words

And they do it in consultation with their community because, in some areas, it has just gone full steam ahead where the communities have not had proper consultation to make sure that they can lock out corporate cannabis to make sure that they can have ways that tribal allotment farmers can have opportunities to acquire permits and to make sure that economic interest of individual indigenous entrepreneurs is also protected. Because as I mentioned earlier, there’s this tendency to create tribes as one monolithic culture in some regard. That also happens within a tribe

and the wisdom of former congresswoman, now Secretary

or one individual tribe, and there are 574 federally recognized

of Interior, Deb Haalands’ voice, when she showcased in

tribes. Well, within those 574 federally recognized tribes, there

a video where she supported Tribal Hemp & Cannabis

are robust kinship and family networks. And sometimes, we’ve

magazine during the launch of THC, she provided a written

lost that kind of that balancing adjusting and adapting our

contribution as well as a video testimony and statement.

tribal governments to be little mini federal governments or

Since then, I’ve just always had so much love and respecting

little mini-state governments. And so with that, we need to

admiration. It’s grown. I always had it for her before following

make sure that the voices of the people are heard just like

what she does with the Obama Administration, but she’s in a very

constituents or elected voters in any other governance system.

heavy position as well. And so we need to continue to pray for her and support and uplift the work that she’s doing because it’s

Pebbles Trippet: Beautiful. Number three.

carrying a lot of Indian countries’ weight, and we need to do our

Are indigenous stories a way of honoring

part to help support her. And that includes prodding our elected

history to create a more authentic pool?

leaders to make sure that tribal cannabis sovereignty does not put

Mary Jane Oatman: I come from a very rich and robust culture.

through the cracks the enormous amount of work that they have.

The new people are the Nez Percé people, just rooted in oral tradition, and we’re very blessed to be raised in a family and

Pebbles Trippet: Yes. Oh my gosh. Yes. Beautiful

a community as well as the school system really early on our

answer. Number two. How do you envision cannabis

tribal head start program that was threaded in the story.

and hemp cultivation unfolding to benefit the

And so, in our creation of the Nez Percé people, everything is

whole tribe economically? Do you see weed

kind of, more integrated as a whole. And we see ourselves as

developing alongside casino gambling to diversify

a part of a whole. And so, I do think it’s important to honor

the economy or to rival and replace it?

our creation stories or alternatively because we are meaning

Mary Jane Oatman: Well, after the pandemic, we saw a lot of

if we’re not indigenous or from this land, occupying land that

tribes that had put all of their eggs in a gaming basket finding

is sacred to some other indigenous community. And so, I think

themselves in a difficult position because of not having the

that that’s one step in the right direction for all of us occupying

economic diversification to take care of the community’s needs.

Turtle Island to create a more authentic goal is to learn about

And so, I have noticed that tribes are looking to diversify their

whose land that we’re walking on. Learn a little bit about their


creation story and just carry that little bit of a treasure with

had an impact on their traditional gathering on their culture

you and that little bit of knowledge with you as we try to walk

because there’s a lot of lessons to be learned now so that those

a little bit more lightly on mother earth so that she can heal.

things don’t happen in the future and the network of families

That’s something that’s universal, and that’s something that

and advocates and water protectors that was created at Standing

doesn’t involve cultural misappropriation or anything that’s

Rock is still there. It’s still very vibrant and can be utilized as a

outside of any normal practice of going to another country and

call to action and will be because many of the people that gather

wanting to know a little bit about their laws so that you don’t get

there still do keep their smoke signals strong with each other.

into trouble or learning their language so that you have the basic knowledge to be able to navigate their homelands. I think it’s very

Pebbles Trippet: What does cannabis mean to you?

much the same here, except for people whose sight of that, because

Mary Jane Oatman: Cannabis always has, for me, since I

there’s so much concrete over the sacred trail, and there’s so much

was a young girl; it’s always just been healing. I’ve known

noise pollution that we can’t hear our own prayers at times.

that it is nothing more and nothing less, even despite having family members oppressed by the laws that surround it. My

Pebbles Trippet: That’s so true. Oh, so beautiful, Mary

dad went through severe alcoholism when I was a young girl,

Jane. How important was Standing Rock as an event that

and I saw him heal with cannabis. I’ve seen so many of my

shaped the way we see our indigenous ways of life? We

relatives heal from brain injuries, from cancer, from physical

learned about water protectors, not protestors. We saw

ailments, as well as mental ailments through cannabis.

a thousand soldiers arrive to stop the pipeline, and one,

And what has been amazing about the healing with this

the son of a General, give an apology to the Sioux tribe

amazing plant is to have the modern science that we have

for US genocide, including ways he too was an oppressor.

now to know that our bodies are connected to this amazing

Mary Jane Oatman: I was very torn about the timeline of

plant scientifically and biologically, and genetically.

what was happening during Standing Rock. One of my

So as we heal, I think reciprocity and learning that we’re learning

really good friends, Thomas Joseph, his family traveled over

from each other, we’re learning so much from the cannabis plant.

very early on when camps were just beginning to get set up

And I just really see for me, it’s going to continue to lead towards

at Standing Rocks and set up California kitchen, which is

more healings and growth. I want to see our tribes have economic

known to many people that went to Standing Rock and the

development. There are definitely opportunities for generational

community that was developed around the California kitchen.

wealth development, but the crux of it all is the healing.

I had a lot going on in my own family and my own community, but around Thanksgiving time, around this time of the year,

Pebbles Trippet: Beautiful. And last is your

as I was watching everything that was happening through

name, Mary Jane, short for marijuana?

social media and my childhood friend, Thomas, was sending

Mary Jane: Oh, I love that question. I get asked it quite often,

me messages and sending me video files, I realized that I

or the other fun one is if I changed my name to be a part of

can’t just up and leave my small business because that’s

the cannabis industry and no to both of those, it’s actually a

what I wanted to do. I just felt so compelled to just go and

family name. I have an aunt that’s named Mary Jane, and she

leave. But then I realized I had other responsibilities.

was named Mary Jane far before my grandmother ever went

So from where I was at, I just sent a lot of prayers. And then

to prison. And it’s actually on the other side of the family.

Thanksgiving morning, my mother and I, we had acquired

It was my dad that named me. And he named me after his

over the week before a tremendous amount of goods, including

big sister. She was named after her grandmother, who was

a moose and elk. And we brought over a Buffalo height as well

named Jane Mary. And they just flipped it around to Mary

to get signatures from some of the Standing Rock warriors.

Jane. And so it’s kind of carrying on a legacy, but we do have

And that was a big part of the journey into what I do now

several Mary Jane’s in the Nez Percé community. And it’s a

because while I was over there at Standing Rock, it was the

common name throughout Indian country; I’m kind of noting.

first time that I was ever a part of something that was so

But it’s one that came with a little bit of shame and stigma

spiritual. And that was about something that was so much

when I was a little girl having the experience of grandma going

bigger than us. It wasn’t a power of gathering. It wasn’t

to prison right there in the middle of all of the dare era, and

something costume or commercial. It was such a huge cause.

then having that name, Mary Jane. But I took a positive spin

I see what’s happening now with the direction of what’s

on it when I got older. Especially in high school, like running

happening with cannabis, even in our own tribal communities,

for leadership council positions, my campaign director and best

as being worthy of having that same type of, “Hey, we all need

friend Vinnie, had a good saying, “What time is it?” “Time to vote

to rise up, and we need to stand together, and we need to have a

for Mary Jane?” And he had all of these clocks that he made that

more unified voice because the green rush that everybody keeps

had four 20 on them. And the school made us change the time.

talking about that comes with a higher cost to mother earth.” Let’s ask our indigenous brothers and sisters that occupy and

Pebbles Trippet: That’s so beautiful. It’s

who have called the area that’s known as Humboldt and the

so cute. It’s meant to be Mary Jane.

infamous Humboldt County the Hoopa, the Iraq group people,

Mary Jane Oatman: I guess so.

how the bad farming practices and how the exploitation has

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annabis plants are dependent on their

environment for materials and energy. These key inputs, known as the limiting factors, drive photosynthesis and therefore plant growth. As outlined in the Marijuana Grower’s Handbook, the limiting factors are light, carbon dioxide, nutrients, water, and temperature. Through my work to update the book, which is now the Cannabis Grower’s Handbook, I’ve highlighted another critical limiting factor, oxygen. Oxygen is required by all of the plant’s living tissues for aerobic respiration. This means everything from the bottom of the roots to the tops of the shoots. If oxygen becomes limited the plant’s respiration rate will dip and its ability to perform its normal activities will decrease. Although, in theory, oxygen could be a limiting factor in

the stems, leaves, and flowers, that’s nearly impossible. The place where oxygen stress is a reality is within the plant’s root zone and occurs when oxygen uptake by the plant’s roots outpaces oxygen’s replacement there. Here’s an excerpt from the new book that includes information to ensure your cannabis plants receive the correct amount of oxygen: OXYGEN SOURCES FOR CANNABIS PLANTS Plants have three sources of oxygen: • Oxygen released during photosynthesis but held in the plant structure • Oxygen in the atmosphere (Air is about 21% oxygen) • Oxygen dissolved in water, which the roots absorb Cannabis plants are terrestrial, which means that their

Anaerobic bacteria flourish when a root zone is low in oxygen. The roots “rot” or turn brown, slimy, and smell like ammonia. Photo: Courtesy of

These roots were grown using a Current RDWC system from Current Culture H2O at High Latitude Farms in Hood River, Oregon.Photo: Courtesy of Current Culture

The orange line represents maximum saturation levels of dissolved oxygen at different temperatures. As water temperatures increase, the capacity to store dissolved oxygen decreases. Photo: Courtesy of AEssenseGrows


roots explore the soil or whatever growing medium they are in. Underground roots do not see the light of day, and therefore do not have access to atmospheric oxygen. ATMOSPHERE There is a lot of oxygen available in the atmosphere, which is about 21% oxygen. The roots’ source of oxygen is through diffusion to the root zone. Oxygen diffuses 10,000 times slower through water than it does through air. Roots growing in compacted soil or degraded growing medium with little air porosity can quickly lose access to oxygen. The growing medium or soil that cannabis is growing in must have enough air porosity that oxygen can diffuse through the small air spaces in between the soil particles. If the plant’s roots are actively respiring, oxygen stress can occur within 20 to 30 minutes. The primary way cannabis roots get oxygen is through diffusing through the air pores in the soil or growing medium or via water that is saturated with dissolved oxygen. When soil is watered from the top the draining water creates a vacuum in its wake. This pulls fresh air into the ground. DISSOLVED IN WATER Cannabis roots can also absorb oxygen that is dissolved in water or nutrient solution. As long as the water is saturated with oxygen, every time plants are irrigated or fertigated the roots get a fresh delivery. As temperatures rise, the rate of respiration in the roots increases. Although oxygen in the atmosphere is at a concentration of about 21%, oxygen dissolves in water and maxes out at 8.3 ppm at 77°F (25°C). At 68°F (20°C), the dissolved oxygen concentration in water maxes out at 9.1 ppm. As water temperatures decrease, the saturation level increases. The question arises: does it make sense to decrease the root zone temperature to increase oxygen availability to the roots? Unfortunately, a decrease in root zone temperature also drastically decreases the rate of root respiration, lowering the roots’ metabolism and productivity. Even though more oxygen may be available in a cooler root zone, slower root respiration rates slow the delivery of water and nutrients to the canopy. The ideal root zone and nutrient solution temperature should range between 68°F (20°C) and 72°F (22°C) in water culture and up to 75°F (24°C) in planting mix, where the water is interspersed with air. Dissolved oxygen, sometimes abbreviated as DO, is the primary source of oxygen for cannabis roots in aeroponic production. Growing cannabis without a physical growing medium requires frequent fertigations with oxygen saturated nutrient solution. NORMAL VS. LOW OXYGEN LEVELS Normoxic conditions mean that the level of oxygen is not a limiting factor for respiration in the root tissue. The roots are actively growing and absorbing nutrients and

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water sufficiently. Root respiration is heavily dependent on temperature and oxygen concentration. If the oxygen concentration declines with a constant root temperature, the rate of respiration will also slow down. As respiration rates drop, the amount of energy available to do work also decreases. This is the energy the roots need to grow, absorb nutrients, and maintain cellular integrity. The root environment goes from normoxic to hypoxic when the concentration of oxygen in the root zone drops to a level so low that not enough energy is available from respiration for the roots to properly function. Hypoxic root conditions lead to several problems for the plant. The rate of nutrient absorption declines and root growth decreases and dies. Plant roots signal to the leaves to close the stomata. Water absorption through the roots declines and then stops. This decreases the plant’s ability to photosynthesize since the stomata are closed and no longer allow CO2 to enter the leaves. The combined effects of a hypoxic root zone ranges from a smaller yield to plant failure. As oxygen concentrations continue to decrease in a hypoxic root environment, the root zone eventually becomes anoxic, that is, it has virtually no oxygen. Root respiration stops completely and usually results in root die-off. Not only does this decrease the surface area for nutrient and water absorption, but the dying roots provide entry points for microbial pathogens such as Phytophthora cinnamomi (Jacobs et al., 1997). An oxygen-enriched environment makes a big difference in plant vigor, ranging from 50 to 60% more growth for cuttings and 30% more for rooted plants. Root growth and development is best with oxygen saturated media, which is why it is so important to have high oxygen levels when taking cuttings for vegetative propagation. Root initiation from shoot tissue requires adequate oxygen levels. INCREASING OXYGEN IN THE ROOT ZONE Passive approaches capitalize on how cannabis roots get their oxygen. Oxygen naturally diffuses through the air spaces of a porous growing medium/soil. Using a growing medium with particles large enough to leave space for air once the soil drains is essential for allowing the passive movement of oxygen-containing air through the root zone. Proper management of the irrigation schedule is crucial in optimizing oxygen availability for the roots. Growing plants in fine grain or compacted soil or a growing medium that has low porosity leave little breathing room for the roots. The reason why cannabis suffers from waterlogged soil is that it is more likely to be hypoxic since the pores in the soil are filled with water. Irrigating with low oxygen water without allowing the soil to dry out between watering is the worst scenario since oxygen never gets the chance to diffuse through the pores of the growing medium. The water that is being introduced into the root zone is not bringing oxygen with

it. Allowing for the growing medium to dry out a bit between irrigations promotes oxygen availability in fine-textured soils. Irrigating with oxygen-saturated water is another way to passively introduce oxygen to the roots. Waterlogged soil is not harmful to the plants as long as the root zone has plenty of oxygen. Plants can be irrigated continuously as long as the nutrient solution is saturated with oxygen. This is the theory behind growing in aeroponic production. The roots are constantly being showered with a nutrient solution that is always exposed to air. The high exposure to oxygen allows for constantly saturated water raining down on the roots. Increasing oxygen concentrations in water is not difficult to do. There is so much oxygen available in the atmosphere that actively bubbling air through water in a storage tank with an aquarium pump attached to an air stone is sufficient. A pump-over or cascade can also be used to oxygenate water in a storage tank. A pump creates a spray or jet that splashes back into the water and mixes with the air. This increases the DO to saturation. The larger the surface area of air-to-water interaction that occurs, the quicker the water becomes saturated with oxygen. Increasing the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in fertigation solutions can be done through several methods. The simplest is a venturi system. Air is drawn into a flowing liquid so when a hole is drilled into the pipe and tubing is attached the water is automatically aerated as it flows. The Mazzei Airjection Irrigation system makes it easy to introduce oxygen-laden air into the water-nutrient solution. Just hook it up to the irrigation line and it draws air into flowing water automatically. It requires no power and has no moving parts. Bubbling air through the stock solutions and water storage tanks is one of the best ways to introduce oxygen into the system, as it is inexpensive and easy to maintain. Some air pumps can increase the temperature of the nutrient solution, which should be monitored. Other than air, there are other products that are available that increase dissolved oxygen concentrations that also sanitize the water. Ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are strong oxidizing agents that neutralize microorganisms in the water. Both compounds naturally break down to produce oxygen: Ozone breakdown 2o3 → 3o2 Hydrogen peroxide breakdown 2h2o2 → 2h2o + o2 Ozone has a half-life of about 20 minutes at room temperature. It is an extremely powerful oxidizer and has strong antimicrobial properties. Ozone can be produced on-site with an ozone generator. Ozone generators can be used to bubble ozone through water. Water should be ozonated at night in storage tanks and allowed sufficient

time to break down before being applied to the plants. High-concentration ozone in the nutrient solution can oxidize nutrients and potentially damage roots. Hydrogen peroxide also has oxidative properties although nowhere near as strong as ozone. Hydrogen peroxide should be diluted down to a maximum of 1% of the water volume. (It comes in various percentages from 3% to about. 30% solution). It also breaks down quickly, so it does not stay oxidative for too long. Exposure to light breaks it down more quickly, so it should be stored in an opaque container in a dark location. Much like ozone, hydrogen peroxide has strong antimicrobial properties, which means that it, too, can damage cannabis root tissue if exposed at too high of a concentration. Luckily for both ozone and hydrogen peroxide, neither compound leaves a residue and both break down into molecular oxygen that is available to the roots. Ozone and hydrogen peroxide neutralize pathogenic bacteria and fungi; however, they also can eliminate beneficial microbes in the root zone. A robust and diverse microbial community in the root zone is beneficial to the health of the plant. When using ozone and hydrogen peroxide to oxygenate the water, it is best to wait before applying so that the ozone and hydrogen peroxide molecules have broken down. HOW TO TELL WHEN THE ROOT ZONE NEEDS MORE OXYGEN In the absence of oxygen, roots die off. If hypoxia is suspected, use a soil moisture meter. If the plant can be popped out of its container, the roots can be inspected. Healthy roots are typically white in color and fuzzy with root hairs near their growing tips. In some water culture systems, no root hairs are present. Slimy, brown roots are unhealthy roots, however, some staining from soil, planting media, or nutrients and additives can be normal. Anaerobic bacteria flourish when a root zone is low in oxygen. These microbes produce ammoniasmelling compounds. Musty or acrid smells are usually indicative of persistent low-oxygen in the root zone.

This article excerpted from Ed Rosenthal’s new book Cannabis Grower’s Handbook, which will change the way people grow for years to come. Stay in touch with Ed @edrosenthal420




farming practices, with farm to table, know your farmer ethics, to foster more science and scientific understanding, and to fight for true equity, true representation for women and minorities, true equality and ultimately the decriminalization of cannabis and the release of drug war prisoners. Trixie Garcia: I’m happy to be here.


ll of us here at Skunk Magazine are huge fans of the Grateful Dead and their incredible

contribution to music and to humanity. They brought together the worlds of music, fun, consciousness, cannabis, and psychedelics, and their legacy will live on forever. Recently Jerry Garcia’s daughter, Trixie Garcia, launched a cannabis brand in honor of her dad with the values and guiding ethos that he would have approved of. Garcia Hand Picked is devoted to helping to continue to foster the groundwork laid out by her father and the band. As Jerry said, “Somebody has to do something, and it’s just incredibly pathetic that it has to be us. For me, the lame part of the Sixties was the political part, the social part. The real part was the spiritual part. If we had any nerve at all, if we had any real balls as a society, or whatever you need, whatever quality you need, real character, we would make an effort to really address the wrongs in this society, righteously. Constantly choosing the lesser of two evils is still choosing evil.” Jerry was truly a renaissance man, and Trixie and her Mother Carolyn are renaissance women. I was so thankful when I had the opportunity to sit down with Trixie to dive deeper into her work and mission. I hope you enjoy the interview as much as I did. Julie Chiariello: Hi Trixie, great to meet you. Trixie Garcia: Great to meet you too and congratulations on the publication. Julie Chiariello: Thank you so much for taking the interview. I was just saying that I’m so honored to be able to feature your work. I love uplifting women in business. I have been at the magazine for the last eight years but officially took up as Editor in Chief in the last couple of years. Since that time, I’ve been working really hard to bring us into a new era and really fight for all the things that we believe in. To continue to fight against overtaxation and over-regulation and to continue to do the work necessary to foster organic, regenerative

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Julie Chiariello: Okay, great. Awesome, this is just the start. So let’s go ahead and dive in…. Julie Chiariello: You are quoted as saying, “I sincerely believe that the more people that we can expose to Jerry’s playing and the kind of person that he was, the better we can make the world. That’s what motivates me to continue to do licensing. I say that after talking to so many Deadheads, who have testified to me that the Grateful Dead changed their lives.” You launched Garcia Hand Picked last year; how long had you been thinking about beginning a cannabis brand? Can you tell us more about the guiding ethos of the company and what things have really been important to you in its creation and focus? Trixie Garcia: Yes, so we had been reviewing potential cannabis opportunities for nearly eight years by the time we found our partners at Holistic Industries. I like to say we kissed a lot of frogs in the process. Starting a cannabis brand to honor my dad has not been an easy task. It just seemed like the right thing to do for the Jerry legacy and a new kind of realm of influence that is still intrinsically a part of who he was and his lifestyle. Everyone right now is tuned into the cannabis movement and industry, and I wanted to have a voice there, and that voice is one that is reminiscent of what I think people got out of the Grateful Dead. It’s the feeling of inclusion. It’s the feeling of a higher purpose, of humans coming together and doing good things on the planet. We have a bright future, and we have a lot of responsibility. With the brand, there were so many things that we had to consider. Number one, don’t disrespect the fans and what my dad means to them. So that right there sets the bar high for the quality and integrity that we embody. We wouldn’t want to just put out any weed with my dad’s name on it and try to sell it because we have the most loyal fans on the planet; it has to be more nuanced and special than that. It really is trying to just address the niche in the marketplace where the culture of cannabis was pretty oblivious for a while within the green rush, and I think we have done a good job of brightening up the space and remembering the roots. Julie Chiariello: And it’s incredible that you have

Trixie Garcia: I know cannabis from the ground up. So thoughtfully created a business that honors your many people that I know have found their livelihood father, protects his legacy, and helps to create and financial freedom through cannabis. The farmers right livelihood for yourself and your family, as a in California have really paved the way and they have woman in business and also as a daughter wanting been out there testing and developing methods and to ensure that her father would be proud. What practices. All with that great mindful way of life that is has been one of the most challenging things about classically hippie, you know, they were the naturalists, the this journey to birth Garcia Hand Picked and what conservationists who moved up to the Emerald Triangle. has been one of the most deeply inspiring things? These are the things Trixie Garcia: The most challenging that I want to help thing can be the “Why?” you know, “Why “Everyone right now is tuned protect as cannabis am I exploiting my father?”, and it is into the cannabis movement explodes globally. I true he always hated having his face and industry, and I wanted want to make sure on stuff, but it truly is for a greater to have a voice there, and that these respectful purpose and to make a positive impact, and thoughtful and I know he would approve for that that voice is one that is regenerative practices reason. I can feel him with me, feel reminiscent of what I think are part of the his guiding eye, and it has been very people got out of the Grateful machine. We need to cathartic. I have gotten to know him Dead. It’s the feeling of make sure that all of in new ways and definitely have come this knowledge that to him for guidance when it all feels inclusion. It’s the feeling of these people have pretty overwhelming. He was always a higher purpose, of humans been developing for 50 such a joyful and optimistic guy, and coming together and doing years is brought into he would ask, “Are you having fun? good things on the planet. We the industry because Because if you aren’t having fun, then it’s valuable and you are not doing it right.” It really is have a bright future, and we people need to know it, supposed to be a wonderful journey for have a lot of responsibility.” and people will seek me and for everyone who works with it out once they realize the difference with someone who the Garcia Hand Picked brand and then ultimately our takes the time to do integrative pest management, instead cannabis consumers, too, to really enjoy themselves when of pesticides, for instance, all the way to some growers who they imbibe our offerings. We have a reason to celebrate, are following the Moon cycles and watering their gardens and the reason to celebrate is life itself. It’s the beautiful with moon infused water. It’s beautiful, and California plants we work with; it’s our wonderful ecosystem. There is is the kind of place I believe that showcases all the types a lot to say about what we can celebrate, but I’ll stop there. of growers we have and the nuanced beauty of artisanal small batch, organic craft cannabis. Not to mention sunJulie Chiariello: Absolutely, so the second grown, I haven’t even mentioned the wonders of organic part of that question, Is there any advice you sun-grown cannabis, so yeah just wanting to showcase can offer to other businesswomen hoping how amazing California truly is. In the Cannabis world, to make a meaningful contribution? Trixie Garcia: Yeah. Know that your voice is important, and it’s the great laboratory where all these things have been worked out. Not to mention that a good portion of the it’s the lack of women’s voices that has gotten humanity growers that have moved to the hills to earn their livelihood into this situation. We need to stand up and have our voices are Dead Heads. These are the people who I meet at the heard, and in so doing, we can help make the world a shows. They come up, and they tell me their story about better place for all of us. Our traditional skills as women, being turned on by the Grateful Dead, and then they reach in creating sacred spaces and being compassionate, many into their pocket and pull out a big bud, and they are all of our qualities, have been historically missing in the smiles and want to share their passion with me. So it is modern world and especially the corporate world. Yet such a meaningful thing in our whole community. I really more women are being empowered to speak up and share love these people, and thankfully through the brand, I am their voices, and together with the quality of the product able to just hang out with some of these cool growers and and the vibes we are creating with these businesses, it’s see their farms. And that is part of our vision is to include going to be impactful, and we can change the tide. as many of these cool-ass growers on the boat with us. Julie Chiariello: Ahhhh, I love you. Hahaha. Julie Chiariello: Absolutely, and you made a good Okay, Garcia Hand Picked denotes that you point. This is so intrinsically intertwined with the are working with farmers to choose the best Back to Earth Movement, the Solar movement, and and most delicious cannabis you could find. the modern cannabis industry as we know it. It’s all Why do you think it is crucial to work with intimately intertwined, and thank you for honoring the farmer and to protect the farmer?


and protecting that, and I think we all need to. Trixie Garcia: I mean, it’s heartbreaking to hear about how some grows are just dumping pesticides into the creek. Julie Chiariello: Oh yeah. It’s such an aberration, the green rush, and that’s why, years ago, I coined the term green renaissance because I was so disheartened. As a certified herbalist, I believe that the Earth is propagating consciousness with her plants, and we are meant to evolve how we are doing business on the planet. It’s not just about money-making. As usual, that is the disease of the green rush. It has done such disservice in our community; cannabis and hemp are here to help heal the planet and the people. I feel like we are really aligned in those values, but not to digress. So I have heard that you are a classical cannabis stoner yourself. Can you tell us a bit more about when you first fell in love with cannabis and what it has meant to you? What are some of your favorite strains? Trixie Garcia: Oh, totally I’m all about the productive strains because I also feel this is a part of continuing to destigmatize cannabis, for people to know that pot smokers aren’t just sitting on the couch all day, but they are out there getting law degrees and doing stuff. It’s important; those sativas really get the job done. Obviously, I was raised with cannabis being present as an aperitif around mealtimes. It was kind of always around if you know what I mean. Then when high school began, I realized that I didn’t fit in with anybody. I ended up finding myself at the school bleachers with the other kids that felt like they didn’t fit in, and then we were all smoking weed, and that was fun. It was that first feeling of cannabis being a great connector, and cannabis has been present in my life ever since. In college, I certainly tried my hands at drinking, and it just makes me feel terrible, so I don’t drink much. Cannabis is my medicine of choice. I was also invited to judge some cannabis cups, which was super cool. I actually picked the winner the first time they invited me to judge, the Emerald Cup, so they all thought I was gifted. I’m not; it was just luck, but it was super fun. I love cannabis so much. I love all the terpenes and all the different forms and sparkles about it. Yeah, and I grow my own personal stash. I just harvested my six plants, actually, since the rains came recently. I had three OG Cookies strains that I grew from seed and two that were Hazes, like landrace Hazes. They were some giant sativas that were like 12 ft tall. Julie Chiariello: I love hazes. Trixie Garcia: Oh my god, they are the best. They’re so different. Yeah. So that’s my preference too, those lowkey, rare equatorial type strains, and I use a bong as my preferred method. I tried to do the dab thing, but it’s a bit too much. So I just prefer a nice, clean bong hit, torching it very lightly at the beginning, just burning off the crystals. I’ve learned a lot from friends in New York who have really good bong etiquette. Last year, besides Garcia Hand

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Picked, I pretty much smoked my own stash all year. Julie Chiariello: And growing your own is the best, the process of growing your own medicine and healing yourself. Isn’t it? Trixie Garcia: Yeah, and it’s a great way to really be connected with the planet. Julie Chiariello: Totally. Trixie Garcia: I love the whole experience. It’s so wonderful, and people need to get out and vote for that, you know. That’s a wonderful perk of legalization right there, is being able to grow your own plants for your medicine without fear. Julie Chiariello: Yeah 100% that is the goal. That’s the silver lining to the over-taxation and overregulation that we’re facing under legalization. I believe that people growing their own food and medicine is the renaissance, and this is what the Back to Earther’s believed. I feel like we are 125 years into the renaissance, and we need to pick up where the hippies left off. And it’s through business, I feel, that’s why I’m covering you because I feel like we have just got to keep showing examples of people who are doing new style business and doing it right. So Carolyn “Mountain Girl” Garcia, has mentioned that she is very proud of you and the work that you are doing in this space. I thought that was really beautiful when I read about how she is really supporting you in what you are doing. Can you tell me more about your mother and the ways that she had inspired you when you were growing up to one day begin this endeavor? She also has her own product line as well. Trixie Garcia: Yeah, okay. My mom has been growing in her backyard for years. I think before I was even born, so she was always knowledgeable. She was always knowledgeable about plants, and I have witnessed people bringing her their buds, and she would review them and stuff like that. And I think that another huge reason why we are both so touched by this plant is that my mom’s family is like several generations of botanists, and her grandfather was cataloging plants in the foothills of the Himalayas in the 1920s, so she was raised in a household where both of her parents were natural plantists, everyone knew the Latin names for the plants, it was a very scholarly thing. So she was raised in a kind of environment where plant knowledge and knowledge of the natural world was respected and upheld in the household. This continues on to my generation, where our best moments are enjoying nature together, taking a walk or identifying plants, or spotting a bird or whatever. These are just such grounding moments, and the care, knowing the life of a plant and all of its needs and stuff like that is something I’m privileged to know, but I think more people need to be in touch with that kind of stuff. And my mother’s father

was working in a college in Iowa, working with the corn viruses. So he was deep in agriculture, trying to help farmers have better yields. And then personality wise my mom was a powerhouse. She was unapologetically opinionated and outspoken, and I think that being a woman, that is the part that is most treacherous. To be loud and have an opinion and it’s scary, but it works when you speak up, and if people don’t listen in the beginning, you learn how to speak in ways that get stuff done. So she may not be the most soft-spoken. Actually, neither of us are the most soft-spoken people, but we value the information that we are exchanging. I think that is important to share with the world the information that you have been able to gather, and that’s the spirit of sharing, no man or woman left behind. Let’s just make sure everyone knows as much as they can about this thing, it’s the age of information, and all goes into the brand. We want informed consumers who know it’s better to buy a pesticide-free product. It’s better to buy a fair trade product, and these are the baby steps we can take to change the world. Julie Chiariello: That’s absolutely right, and 10,000 years of patriarchy is ending as well. It’s so important right now for all of us to find ways to just be ourselves and to express ourselves authentically and honestly. I feel such a kinship with you in this interview, Trixie because I am an herbalist and I take people on herbal walks and show them all the plants. It is so nourishing for everyone. It is the most beautiful thing to be able to wild harvest and wild forage. It’s something, as you said, that is so grounding, deeply grounding, and deeply human. And yet very simple and available to everyone. Let’s come back into California. Currently, California Cannabis is being impacted negatively under the over-regulation and over-taxation of prop 64. Being a native Californian myself, it has been heartbreaking to go through these extremely challenging elements as we push to evolve and one day come to a place where cannabis is fully decriminalized and regulated properly. Can you share with us more about your thoughts on California craft cannabis and the pathway forward? Trixie Garcia: Yeah, it’s such a damned if you do, damned if you don’t kind of situation for a lot of the growers. The whole out of the shadows into the light moment, I thought it was great, and you know we were encouraging people to get on the list and get permitted. And they’re like, “No no, oh no, we have been traumatized and criminalized for decades, and I’m going to be on a list!” Then later, when they do take the leap of faith, they get on the list, and they get permitted, and then the man comes in and takes half and then changes the rules, which is just devastating to these small growers who were really trying to have faith in the system. That is why we need to continue to push for federal descheduling. California has been such a great leader in so many

different things that it’s really a shame that this taxation came out so high, and the regulations are so oppressive for small, independent operations. I hope that we can lead the way, you know more about it than I do, in improving things. I don’t know if we would be better off if the state changes or if it’s better to push the federal descheduling first, but forcing people to deal in cash only, it’s just cruel and unforgivable. We need to empower the growers and help however we can to make it fair for the little guy. Julie Chiariello: Truly, yeah. I feel like the future is looking at cooperatives and collectives to basically counteract their injustice because they are really doing things that are criminal. To tax so heavily like this, you have to ask, what the fuck are they doing? What are they going to do? They’re going to tax dead bodies, dead companies. What are they doing? They need to wake up. The only people who are making money are the government right now and the system. Trixie Garcia: So that’s why people like us, and companies like Holistic Industries, are important because we’re putting the heart and purpose back into it, getting the whole thing grounded and helping to plot the future and helping people to get on board with it. Co-Op’s are also a good way to go, and I know there are a lot of services out there for the growers like the Sonoma County Growers Alliance is the local one around here. Julie Chiariello: Yes, and the farmers’ markets are coming. I feel like that is another thing that we should encourage. I love what they are doing. They just did the first Laytonville farmer’s market, and I feel like that is the way we want to go to see farmer’s markets across the states. Trixie Garcia: Yeah, the open-air farmers’ markets are a great deal. All the hippies should be fucking raking in the dough, and instead, they are all stressed out and bankrupt. There’s a lot of work to be done there. I hope that financial freedom is returned to the people who took the risk. Julie Chiariello: Me too. That’s what I am fighting for as well, and the fight continues. So another aspect that has been encouraging is that over the last five years, the psychedelic revolution has picked up heat, and it seems that everyone and their mother is microdosing these days. The Aquarian age has truly begun, and the Earth is seeding consciousness with her sacred plants. A renaissance is underway, and the Merry Pranksters were a key part of people waking up their consciousness decades ago. Growing up in a community of psychonauts, with Wavy Gravy as your babysitter, how have you felt about this amazing evolution now taking place, and what are you hoping for humanity? Trixie Garcia: Wow yeah. Psychedelics are so benevolent.


It really is an invitation to go and look at yourself more deeply. It’s so interesting to come from the psychedelic world and try to describe what is so special about it. I think the mystery of life and the mystery of why we are here, our purpose. The fact that that is still there as something to inspire and unify us is important. The raising of consciousness with psychedelics has had a great effect on humanity, you know. I feel like we are seeing now, what they call the dying throes of apathy. There’s a song about it from Camp Winnarainbow. It’s called The World is Coming to a Start. The chorus goes, “Well, it just may be, that what they see are the dying throes of apathy. The world ain’t coming to an end, my friend. The world is just coming to a start. I feel it in my heart.” And they were like indoctrinating, 100 kids a week with this song, and the optimism and the perspective about it is amazing. I see all these conservative people freaking out, but they are freaking out because they’re losing control. You are so right with the Aquarian age thing. I think it’s so wonderful that you are even bringing stuff like that up. It’s amazing. It’s the paradigm shift, and it’s real, and the more people that sense it and grab on to it, the stronger the wave will be. We are watching aspects of the world crumble around us. We have far too much information, and what, at the end of the day, is crucial is our bonds with each other and protecting all our relations here on the planet—protecting biodiversity and our humanity. One of the best things that happened this week was William Shatner going to space. If you ask me what my future vision of the world is, it would be that Star Trek, where the whale comes out of the water by the Golden Gate bridge and everyone is all peaceful. Having someone like William Shatner go up to outer space and come back and tell us about it, I think that is a great moment, and I hope that he just goes on a huge media blitz about it and how fragile it all is. These are the kinds of moments, like the blue dot moment, the earth flag moment, all these things which really put things in perspective. That’s what people need more of, cherish the Earth. Julie Chiariello: No, it was beautiful, and that’s what I believe too, that an intrinsic part of the renaissance is the recognition and realization that we are the Earth and the Earth is us. We are the universe, and the universe is us. And there is no more separateness. I think you are exactly right. Trixie Garcia: Yeah, I mean what a great, healthy perspective than, oh god created me and then; therefore, I get to stomp on everything else. Julie Chiariello: Exactly so the age of taking, using, and abusing the Earth, which is basically the sacred feminine principle, is basically over. In the renaissance, I believe that the sacred feminine is coming back, rising up to meet the sacred masculine in union once again. And it has nothing

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to do with gender. It’s a stopping of this desecration of what is sacred and a massive shifting to the honoring of what is sacred now like you said so beautifully that it’s simple. It’s about us getting up in the morning and being very thankful that we are living and that we have the gift of this life. And to honor and foster our sacred connection to the Earth. It’s as simple as that. Isn’t it? Trixie Garcia: Yeah, yes it is. I love it. To know where we came from and to achieve some balance in our presence here and get stoned, hahaha. I’m so happy that someone like you is in charge of Skunk Magazine. Skunk has been around for a long time and had some more high timesy vibe to it in the past. Julie Chiariello: Yeah. No totally. The origin of it is definitely like a Maxim hahaha, when it first started, it was all tits and ass and cannabis. When I came in as co-owner eight years ago, the thing that I really appreciated about it, is that it was organic. I was like, man. This needs to be protected. This is the only cannabis magazine in the world that actually fosters organics. And that was my big thing as an herbalist. I was like. We have got to protect this. And little did I know how hard it was going to be. You brought tears to my eyes, Trixie, so thank you. Because it has been a hard fight, but you’re right, it’s a 16-year-old brand, and the reason I fought for it was because I wanted to protect the parts of it that were pure and to see if we could protect those parts, the sacred parts and move them into the new era and let the vehicle be of service to the conversation that needs to happen. Trixie Garcia: You’re seeping wisdom into an old form. Julie Chiariello: Hahahahaha, yes, I didn’t throw the baby out with the bathwater. I guess that’s a key part of it for me, too, is that we can’t deny the shadow. We’re meant to integrate the shadow. It isn’t some kind of Pollyanna, pie in the sky thing. This is very rooted and grounded, and it is filled with shadow. As you said, you said so beautifully that death is the part of birth, and we need the shadow. Actually, it’s sacred, and we can integrate it, and that’s what I have done on this journey. And I know you have done the same thing. It’s basically alchemy. It’s taking the best parts and moving them into the future so that others can benefit, and I feel that’s what you are doing as well. Trixie Garcia: That’s awesome. Thank you so much for your encouragement. Julie Chiariello: Thank you so much for sharing this time with us, Trixie, and for all of the meaningful work that you do. It was truly wonderful to spend time with you today.

“From eco-f riendly packaging to Jerry’s original artwork and quotes and suggested playlists for each strain, Garcia Hand Picked products and merchandise are designed specif ically for the fans.”

Garcia Hand Picked



(GHP) is a collection of cannabis products and merchandise created in partnership with Holistic Industries and The Garcia Family to honor the legacy of Jerry Garcia. And like his music and art, and unlike any other product available, Jerry’s signature cannabis collection is spontaneous revelatory healing and anything but ordinary. From the plant’s genetics to packaging design and marketing, Garcia Hand Picked has been carefully curated by The Garcia Family to create an inspired cannabis experience that’s the highest quality, spontaneous, harmonious, and can bring people together in the way only Jerry could. Holistic and The Garcia Family worked together to identify and select old school strains and new genetics passed down from life on tour for Garcia Hand Picked. It was important for this brand to have a variety of form factors to be inclusive and accessible for different types of consumers and patients while also maintaining authenticity. The products have been recognized and awarded across the industry, with its Super Lemon Haze strain from California winning second place in the Emerald Cup’s ‘Indoor Licensed Cultivator Flower’ category,

and placing first in High Times’ NorCal ‘Sativa Flower’ category. “We set out to create a national cannabis brand that resonates with Jerry Garcia fans, young and old, and is also accessible to cannabis consumers who are curious about the brand or just now discovering Jerry’s music and legacy,” said Josh Genderson, CEO of Holistic Industries. “We saw remarkable demand for Garcia Hand Picked across the country since our initial launch, and because of our ability to scale, launch and market new brands, we’ve been rolling out Garcia Hand Picked in new markets across the country.” Jerry’s fan base is diverse in generation, geography, and almost every other demographic. What they share is a sense of belonging to the unique community Jerry helped build. From eco-friendly packaging to Jerry’s original artwork and quotes and suggested playlists for each strain, Garcia Hand Picked products and merchandise are designed specifically for the fans. Those close to Jerry have said he rarely smoked weed by himself; it was more of a social interaction: “a joint became a bridge between him and those around him.” Holistic and The Garcia Family put an emphasis on pre-roll packs for a special

experience – eco-friendly packaging made from recycled paper, matches, and a custom glass tip with Jerry’s handprint. Jerry’s Picks, GHP’s line of edibles, are all-natural gummies shaped like Jerry’s actual guitar picks. Each product is paired with a curated playlist of Jerry’s music that corresponds with the strains and will bring out the best GHP experience (fans can go to the “Music Never Stopped” section of to listen). Merchandise, including apparel and accessories, with Jerry’s original artwork, the GHP logo, and other designs are also available for purchase. Bertha, a custom Airstream filled with cool merchandise, positive vibes, music, and bliss, has been touring around the country, visiting select dispensaries. And she doesn’t plan on stopping anytime soon. Garcia Hand Picked launched in California in 2020 and on the East Coast earlier this year. It is available in more than 125 dispensaries in California, select dispensaries in Massachusetts and Maryland and is on its way to becoming one of the first national cannabis brands with availability in additional markets in 2022. For more information, please visit www.GarciaHandPicked. com and @garciahandpicked.




965 was a pivotal year in American society. In January, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in for a full

the highest-grossing touring bands in the world. That year, however, the group would cut its chops in a fashion

term as U.S. President. Soon after, the United States

like no other, as they were designated a house band at LSD

escalated the growing conflict in Southeast Asia with

parties produced by Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters.

an aerial bombardment campaign on North Vietnam.

Fruit-flavored Kool-Aid would be spiked with LSD-25 at these

In late March, in Selma, Alabama, the Reverend Martin Luther

Acid Tests, as Kesey named them. The band would provide

King Jr. led 25,000 peaceful protesters on a four-day march

the soundtrack for attendees’ acid trips against the pulsing

from the capitol in Montgomery, demanding racial equality.

backdrop of psychedelic oil-on-water light shows. It is worth

And Russian cosmonaut Alexei Leonov exited his spacecraft

mentioning that LSD was legal at that time. It was already

for 12 minutes, making him the first person to walk in space.

federally illegal just a few years later, when those events

And that’s not all that happened in the middle of a decade that would radically transform the American experience. On

were immortalized in Tom Wolfe’s book The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, helping to kick-start the psychedelic revolution.

May 5th of that year in Menlo Park, California, young classically

By 1967 the Grateful Dead was making a name for itself

trained trumpeter Phil Lesh walked into Magoo’s Pizza Parlor to

on the West Coast and saw the addition of a second drummer,

see a new music act called the Warlocks. The blues-based band

Mickey Hart. A lyricist named Robert Hunter was added to

featured a 16-year-old guitarist named Bob Weir, a 17-year-old

the mix and began crafting the verbal imagery of the band’s

drummer, Billy Kreutzman, and a 19-year-old frontman and

songs, mixing nostalgic Americana with a Western outlaw ethos.

keyboard player named Ron “Pigpen” McKernan. Jerry Garcia,

Hunter was an old friend of Garcia’s, and the two had played

a former banjo player a few years older than the rest, already

banjo together around the days of Mother McCree’s Uptown

well known locally for his musical prowess, was on guitar.

Jug Champions, the Dead’s earliest musical incarnation.

Lesh, the oldest of the bunch, was asked to play

The Dead’s new double drummer lineup would soon become

bass in the fledgling act. He had no idea that he was

a San Francisco hippie scene staple. The band moved into a

entering into what was to become a global phenomenon

Victorian house in the city that they resided in for three years.

that would touch the hearts and minds of millions of

The Grateful Dead performed at Bay Area festivals and clubs,

people and carve out a legacy of untold proportion.

further honing their skills at gigs including those produced

The band would be renamed the Grateful Dead by

by Chet Helms and the Family Dog along with other notable

December. They would eventually sell 35 million albums

bands like Jefferson Airplane and Big Brother and the Holding

worldwide and earn the distinction of being one of

Company (with Janis Joplin on vocals). Called “the Dead” by

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When the band discovered that another act was going by the Warlocks, the band’s new name Grateful Dead was taken from Funk & Wagnalls dictionary, being the first thing Jerry Garcia saw when he opened the book. Poster and album artists endlessly riffed off that theme; the term lifted from an Egyptian prayer. Of all the Grateful Dead logos and images, the most prolific and widely adapted is the skull-with-lightningbolt Steal Your Face, designed in 1969 by financier Owsley Stanley when the band required something to help identify its massive touring gear on the road. Stanley, nicknamed Bear, was also a clandestine chemist. He is said to have produced millions of doses of pure LSD, fueling the psychedelic explosion on the West Coast and beyond. The dancing bear seen on so many patches and stickers within the Grateful Dead fan base is an homage to Augustus Owsley Stanley III. Touring aggressively throughout the early 70s, the Dead produced many recordings, resulting in the Europe ‘72 live album. In early 1973, a disturbing trend began as vocalist and keyboard player Pigpen McKernan died of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage after years of alcohol abuse. Over the next few decades, the Dead would see multiple keyboardists pass away from various causes, either during or shortly after their stints playing with the band. But nothing would slow down the Dead’s ascension, and by the 1980s, their popularity continued to grow, blossoming like a budding pot plant under the bright Mendocino sun. The folky, Western flair of fans, the act gained notoriety for its long improvisational jams; a style developed playing the Acid Tests and concerts rich in the sweet smell of patchouli and wafting cannabis smoke. Garcia met a young Merry Prankster called Mountain

the Dead’s melodies started evolving as the band incorporated funkier, jazzier elements into its songwriting. By this time, Robert Hunter’s lyrics had become musical folklore. Hunter was a master storyteller, skillfully incorporating

Girl, who in 1965 was involved in one of the most high-

mysterious, mystical imagery that the listener could personally

profile West Coast pot busts of that time while smoking

interpret while evoking dark yet cosmic wisdom for the ages.

ganja with Kesey on the rooftop of a home in San Francisco.

And there were plenty of fans keenly analyzing every word.

Garcia and Mountain Girl would later marry and go on to

As the fan base of the Grateful Dead swelled, many fans

have two daughters. Called MG by her friends, Mountain

began annually embarking upon a nomadic quest to follow the

Girl had a green thumb and would become a primary

band’s tour schedule. Wherever the Dead were performing,

cannabis grower for the Dead and their intimate circle.

parking lots bulged, as followers with and without tickets

The Grateful Dead would become known for the intricate psychedelic lettering and art on their albums, carried over from

set up shop in truck beds, campers, and alongside vans and busses adorned with stickers and psychedelic paint jobs.

the mind-bending posters that promoted the music of the late-

“Deadheads” developed a mobile underground economy as

1960s San Francisco music scene. Artists such as Rick Griffin

long-haired and dreadlocked entrepreneurs hawked everything

and the team of Stanley Mouse and Alton Kelley (Kelley Mouse

from homemade hemp jewelry, tie-dyes, and freshly cooked

Studies) created visual compliments to the Dead’s musical

grilled cheese sandwiches to an abundant selection of Grateful

landscapes with evocative renderings such as the Skull and

Dead-themed decals, pins, and patches. The parking lot scene

Roses graphic and the now-iconic Steal Your Face image.

was known as Shakedown Street, mirroring the song of that title


and eventually creating challenges

middle of the second set, a dual

for the band’s management.

drum solo featuring the evocative

Municipalities welcomed the

improvisations of Bill Kreutzman

revenue that Dead shows brought,

and Mickey Hart, known as the

but some bristled at the spectacle

Rhythm Devils. In reverence to the

and impact of the sudden influx of

Dead’s psychedelic roots, “Drums,”

“deadicated” fans into their towns.

as fans called the segment, was followed by “Space.” That portion

A famous patch says, “There is nothing like a Grateful Dead

of each Dead show was a sonic

concert,” a proclamation shared

journey of improvisational sounds

by many a true believer.

presumably emulating the illusory sensations of an LSD trip. When

Jake Dimmock is a West Coast cannabis expert who attended

you thought the band had fallen

his first show in 1973 in Norfolk,

entirely apart, they would burst

Virginia. “I related to the lyrics

into the next song totally in sync. Another ritualistic element of

and the sound immediately. Going to a concert would become

each Grateful Dead concert was

a spiritual experience. We would

the band’s uncanny ability to tease

gather and commune with one

the audience by manipulating

another en masse. Everywhere

the energy and intensity of the

there was a spirit of love and

performance, slowly building

sharing,” says Dimmock.

upon each musical stanza until reaching an explosive crescendo.

Whether intended or not,

For many fans, a Grateful

the Grateful Dead attained the unspoken designation as the flag bearers of the Woodstock

The Grateful Dead house at 710 Ashbury St., San Francisco

Dead performance was a form of church. Each show was, for

Nation, becoming the extemporary musical ambassadors

them, a musical and cultural jubilee evoking a state of euphoric

for the 1960s counterculture. And while the band members

ecstasy evident in the unique and individual dancing styles

generally shied away from making public statements on

that emerged among many of the most diehard Deadheads.

politics and domestic affairs, their fans strongly identified with the Dead’s non-conformist Bohemian origins. “For me and for many of those I associate with, the Grateful

By the late 70s, the Dead’s songwriting was further shifting away from the folksy, Western-influenced songs of their earlier albums like Workingman’s Dead and American

Dead is what somewhat defined who we are and what we value.

Beauty to a more syncopated, funky blend evident in

I’m certain the experiences I had with my friends, and fellow

1977’s Terrapin Station album and the 1978 Shakedown

Deadheads changed each of us in some way. It helped make

Street, their 9th and 10th respective studio recordings.

me into who I am and define the values I hold dear. I’ll forever proudly wear the mantle of a Deadhead,” Dimmock beams. Keeping with the Grateful Dead’s anarchic tendencies, they became one of the only touring bands to allow the taping of their performances by fans. For years there was an allocated taping section where microphones dotted the air resulting in over 2,000 shows recorded for posterity. Tape trading continues to this day, with renditions of Dead tunes being scrutinized and rated by the legions of Grateful Dead enthusiasts all over the world. The Grateful Dead only once played the same setlist twice in three decades of performances. Therefore, the recordings of each show are distinctive and unique, generating a near cult obsession among fans and aficionados who dissect each performance in a quest to find

Keith Godchaux and his wife Donna, backup vocalist for the

“One of the most famous music groups of all time, the Grateful Dead, al tered the landscape of American music . It embodied the avant-garde aesthetic and creative exploration of the post-beatnik al ternative cul ture.”

the best renditions of each song. Dead concerts featured a few other signature components. From 1978 on, every Grateful Dead performance included, in the

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Following a trip to Egypt where the band performed at the base of the Sphinx during an eclipse of the sun, keyboardist Grateful Dead, left the band. Godchaux was eventually replaced by keyboardist, vocalist, and songwriter Brent Mydland, resulting in the group’s most enduring lineup. That iteration of the Dead saw growth in the band’s popularity that few could have predicted. The 1980 Go to Heaven album featured three songs written by rhythm guitarist and singer Bob Weir and lyricist John Barlow and would chart slightly better than the previous two records. The material signified a return to the rock influences of earlier works. Weir is widely considered one of the best rhythm guitarists of all time. The Grateful Dead would release two live albums in the next year, not releasing another album until 1987’s In the Dark catapulted the band into global superstardom, achieving double-platinum certification in the United States, reaching No. 6 on the Billboard 200 chart.



The next album, Go to Heaven, was the Dead’s first and only

of the post-beatnik alternative culture. Few other musical acts

record that reached the top ten. The song “Touch of Grey,” the

in history have captured the hearts and minds of their fan

band’s only top 40 single, rose to No. 9 on the Billboard Top

base like the Grateful Dead. In addition to the band being the

100. MTV placed the music video for “Touch of Grey” in heavy

catalyst for a slew of ‘90s era jam bands, the Grateful Dead

rotation, and an entirely new generation of Deadheads became

songbook influenced numerous artists to cover an array of

enraptured with the band. The lyrics ‘we will survive we will

tunes. The remaining members have continued to record and

get by’ became a creed for the band’s fans, new and old.

perform, some with side projects and together off and on.

A grueling tour schedule followed, with the Grateful Dead performing in giant stadiums. The ironically named Built to

And the enduring legacy of the Dead lives on. While this article was being written, a vintage 1967

Last (1989) was the band’s final studio recording. After making

Grateful Dead T-shirt designed by graphic artist and member

a miraculous recovery from a 1986 diabetic coma, Jerry Garcia’s

of the Hell’s Angels, Allan “Gut” Turk, was auctioned at the

health now began to decline in part due to his use of heroin.

famous Sotheby’s and sold for a record-breaking $17,640.

Keyboardist Brent Mydland was also using opioids. After an

Sotheby’s is one of the world’s largest brokers of collectibles,

early summer tour in 1990, Mydland died of an accidental heroin

art, and jewelry. The yellow Dead shirt was an auction

overdose. The death of his friend reportedly was very hard on

piece in “From the Vault: Property of the Grateful Dead and

Jerry Garcia, since the two had forged a close brotherly bond.

Friends,” featuring items from the band’s inner circle and

Former Tubes keyboardist Vince Welnick was added to be briefly complemented by Grammy Award-winning

Grateful Dead Productions, the band’s official corporation. The long strange trip of the Grateful Dead cannot be

singer, keyboardist, and songwriter Bruce Hornsby.

summed up in a few pages, but it is clear they were a group

They were the second dual keyboard team of the band’s

unlike any other. While not everyone is a fan of the Dead’s

history (from 1968 to 1970, Tom Constantin played keys

music and legacy, for those of us “on the bus,” as it is said,

in the band along with Ron Pigpen McKernan).

our appreciation of the band connects us to a worldwide

The Grateful Dead toured extensively in the first half

brotherhood and sisterhood of hardcore fans grateful for the

of the 1990s, bringing in $285 million in concert revenue.

experiences that the group bestowed upon us. That legacy

Only the Rolling Stones outsold the Dead in ticket revenues

lives on in the performances of the surviving members

during this period. The traveling circus of loving fans that

and the hearts and minds of Deadheads everywhere.

flocked to each Dead show, many financing the pilgrimage by

Yossarian Kelley, son of the celebrated psychedelic

capitalizing off the black-market economy that surrounded

poster and album cover artist Alton Kelley, is a

the Dead parking lot phenomenon, expanded to unprecedented

Pacific Northwest ganjapreneur who grew up in the

proportions. More municipalities grumbled about having the

extended Dead family. His recollections do a great job

Dead perform in their cities, prompting the band to issue a

of summing up the Grateful Dead experience:

message to its fans to stay away if they did not have tickets. Having been elevated to near-deity status by some in

“I do remember going to the GD office in the early 70s with my dad. He’d bring sketches and show them to the

the Deadhead community, Jerry Garcia, never wanting

band. They’d hang out and smoke joints for a while. It wasn’t

to be a leader, struggled on and off with addiction in the

until the 1982 Veneta Field Trip where I really “got it.” I was

band’s final years. Garcia tragically passed away of a heart

living in Washington with my mom, and an older kid who was

attack while receiving care in a drug treatment center

maybe 17 or 18 brought me down to Oregon. Ken Kesey and

in Forest Knolls, California. Garcia remains one of the

the Pranksters were in full effect. There were psychedelic

most revered and influential guitarists in the world.

parades with naked people dancing. People were putting

By most accounts, Jerry Garcia was a gentle, gifted person

buds and mushrooms in the vendor’s tip jars. Eventually,

who was highly intelligent and had a keen sense of humor.

the band came on, and I found myself becoming the rhythm,

His loss so early was mourned by fans everywhere.

blending with the melody. Losing the separate self and getting

One of the most famous music groups of all time, the Grateful Dead, altered the landscape of American music. It embodied the avant-garde aesthetic and creative exploration

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lost amongst the swirling cascade of music and people.” The moral of the Grateful Dead story is plain and simple: If you get confused, just listen to the music play.

An Interview with Carolyn “Mountain Girl” Garcia


WORDS & PHOTO VIVIAN MCPEAK arolyn “Mountain Girl” Garcia is an

psychedelic bus called Further, holding LSD parties

author, cannabis cultivator, and entrepreneur,

along the way. I am experienced, as Jimi Hendrix put

and was a member of the 1960’s group the

it, having traveled to Electric Lady Land several years

Merry Pranksters, which was immortalized

later, and my psychedelic experiences largely formed

in Tom Wolfe’s book The Electric Kool-Aid

the person I am today. How much did those early days

Acid Test. Garcia is the former wife of the late Grateful

of taking acid contribute to the person you are today?

Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia, and she currently sits on the

Carolyn Garcia: Well, I think a great deal. I was a sort of a

boards of the Rex Foundation and the Further Foundation,

withdrawn person, a little too smart, kind of sassy but not really

as well as on the advisory board of the Marijuana Policy

thinking well for myself as a younger person. But I think that the

Project, and she kindly took time out to speak with me.

very first LSD opened a part of my brain that had been fogged over or closed. And I realized the magnitude of the universe and

Vivian McPeak: Your public persona began, I believe,

our infinitesimal role in it. But also sort of the glory of life, of life

when you were thrust into the media spotlight after you

itself. What a fabulous, amazing thing life is. And our planet’s

and the father of your first child, Ken Kesey, were busted

full of it in all these different varieties. So I think I had a coming

for pot in 1965, making you a high-profile American

to nature moment there that has really driven me ever since.

cannabis personality and activist about as long as anyone alive. In 1965 Cannabis was highly controversial.

Vivian McPeak: You were married to Jerry Garcia,

What was that experience like for you at the time?

the guitarist of the quintessential San Francisco

Carolyn Garcia: Well, it was a really busy time. I have to say,

counterculture group, the Grateful Dead. Jerry is

getting arrested and having a lot of drama suddenly emerge

worshipped & while he was alive, he was practically

was a shock. It was wake up, and suddenly you have to take a

deified by Deadheads like myself, but you intimately

position, you’ve gotta look over your shoulder a little bit more.

knew Jerry Garcia, the human being. What kind

It changed our lives. Becoming an activist sort of happened

of person was Jerry Garcia behind the scenes, and

later, once the drama had faded and I felt safe. And then

how did he perceive the degree of adulation and

I got into being a marijuana proponent and wrote a book

attention he received? How did that affect him?

about it, you know, how to grow, how to do a good job. And

Carolyn Garcia: Well, I think that, first of all, here was an

I’ve sorta stayed in the loop ever since as much as possible.

extremely unique person with an incredible sense of humor and a real love of getting together with other musicians. He loved it.

Vivian McPeak: You first became known to me in 1970,

So at home, when that wasn’t happening, I would answer your

when I was 12, as I read Tom Wolfe’s acclaimed book,

question by saying he was sleeping, eating, and practicing. And

The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, which is, of course,

watching TV from time to time, but mostly he sat and warmed

about the Merry Pranksters traveling America in a

up. And I think his obsession was to play well. His obsession


continued on to “I have to play better.” It was his entire inner

never turn down a request to play somewhere, either.

mechanism, was to always getting him to be a better musician and being more competent feeling. To get rid of that feeling of “oh,

Vivian McPeak: Like Jerry, you, as Mountain Girl, have

I’m not doing it quite right.” That would just drive him crazy.

been elevated to counterculture icon status. When I first met you at Seattle Hempfest, I was struck by how

Vivian McPeak: He was a perfectionist.

open, gracious, and down-to-earth you are. More so than

Carolyn Garcia: He was a super perfectionist, but perfection

many similar icons I have met. What is it like for you

was always the next step beyond. He could always see

to be a historical figure connected to both the famous

farther and hear farther than other people. It drove him

and infamous elements of the 1960s counterculture?

hard, but he had an incredible sense of humor to go along

Carolyn Garcia: What’s it like for me? I realize now that I’m

with that. He was an over-achiever, to say the least.

70 plus, I see the up-and-coming intelligence, you know, from our offspring. They’re very smart, and they are supporting the

Vivian McPeak: Jerry was really like, you know, unusually

right things. They are involved in agriculture of all things. How

worshipped as a living deity, but he was really just

wonderful is that? I am terribly pleased with what I am seeing

a musician, he was a very intellectual guy, but really he was just a guitar player. How did it impact him being— Carolyn Garcia: Wait, wait, he was really just a banjo player. That’s the thing, and that banjo playing that he did in his early days of playing in the bluegrass bands, and for the Mother McCree’s Uptown Jug Champions in Palo Alto, which is where I saw him for the first time and went “Holy Moly, what is this?” And he was just; he loved the genres so much, these different kinds of music. He studied, he chased down bluegrass musicians to get their banjo licks. And then suddenly,

from what I would call my next

“I have to say, getting arrested and having a lot of drama suddenly emerge was a shock. It was wake up, and suddenly you have to take a position, you’ve gotta look over your shoulder a little bit more. It changed our lives. Becoming an activist sort of happened later, once the drama had faded and I fel t safe. And then I got into being a marijuana proponent and wrote a book about it, you know, how to grow, how to do a good job. And I’ve sorta stayed in the loop ever since as much as possible.”

it was time to play the guitar he had already made friends with his fingers. He had the gift.

generation. You know they are hitting 50, right? So they are not teenagers anymore. They are 50-year-old adults with families and teens of their own, but they’ve accepted some of the gifts that we discovered for them. So, things keep changing, and I am very happy about the acceptance of organics on all sorts of mass scale. I think that’s been an amazing shift in consciousness. Vivian McPeak: Back in the day, was there any concept of, I’ll say, our culture, the post 60s alternative culture, was very aware of environmentalism, and decentralization, organic farming, and back to

the land and living small. Was there any concept that something like climate change could happen? Do you

Vivian McPeak: But to dig down deeper, he was kind

remember anything like that, anyone aware of that?

of worshipped as a living God by Deadheads…

Carolyn Garcia: No, I remember people starting to get worried

Carolyn Garcia: He really didn’t want to be worshipped,

about the contrails. But I don’t think we had a smooth awareness

he would say with a small smile. He didn’t like the

of climate change. My dad and mom were scientists, and we had

concept, but in reality, he used it to his own…

a weather station at our house. And it was my job to go out and change the paper on the little needle that recorded the temperature

Vivian McPeak: He knew to play the part

and humidity on our little weather station. So, I was trained

and to kind of live in that skin?

as a kid to watch the sky. And I have to say; there are no clues

Carolyn Garcia: Not exactly. You gotta remember he was

being left except for the extremities, the extremes. These extreme

also a serious iconoclast. Number one, he was an artist. He

events happen, but if you read back in history, extreme events

was a multi-gifted artist which made him very unusual. He

have always happened here and there. You know the weather just

didn’t only do one thing. He always had something going. He

winds up, but the size of the new weather system is not a good

liked to stay busy. So I think his drive to be a better artist

thing. You know, I think that there is a change and it’s not good.

was always with him, was always there. And so he could

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Vivian McPeak: You had two books published about

Oregon Liquor Control Commission, and I’ll just say that they

growing ganja; Primo Plant: Growing Sinsemilla

have really fumbled around with it quite a bit. There are now nine

Marijuana, in 1976 and Primo Plant: Growing Marijuana

agencies you have to work through to get your products properly

Outdoors, in 1998. Are those books still in print, and where

labeled and stamped to go to market, and it is making it a little

did you develop your skill for cannabis cultivation - how

tricky for the small grower to ever see a profit here at this point.

long were you growing before you wrote that first book?

And the continuous change of labels. The labels are changing

Carolyn Garcia: Jerry and I landed. We bought a place with

like every six weeks, which means refiguring the whole thing.

a garden in a very lovely spot. And we immediately thought

But it’s kind of entertaining because here comes CBD in

about putting in some pot plants, so I did. They were early

a blizzard of beautiful CBD hitting the market right now,

seeds from Vietnam; what I would call Vietnamese War

and the prices are coming down, and the availability is

seeds came over with a young vet that we knew. So we had

going up. And I have my own little cannabis company called

four little plants that never got very big, but boy, it was

Mountain Girl’s Botanica, and we’re very pleased. Of course,

the strongest pot I think I have ever smoked in my life.

we’re 100% organic, and I don’t think everybody is, but

We couldn’t use it. We had to give it away. It was just

there’s no room on the label to say that anymore (laughs).

ridiculous. So that launched me into the search for better stuff because Mexican marijuana was the standard in those

Vivian McPeak: Let’s talk about your business,

days, and some of it was really, really good. And it was also

Mountain Girl’s Botanica. What do you

about half seeds, at least, by weight, so we were throwing

sell, and how can people find you?

those away. I think of all those seeds we threw away. But we’re

Carolyn Garcia: We have two strengths of CBD, a one-ounce

doing OK at this point, but seeds are a valuable resource. So,

bottle with 300 milligrams or 1,000 milligrams. And then we

I learned to keep them in little labeled envelopes, and that

have what I would call a hippie nootropic called Alert, which

gave me a lot of information over the years. That enabled me

is a capsule with three herbs and a small amount of CBD in it.

to test different things and try different soil types and make

It is what I would call a mental energizer. It’s great for driving

mistakes, and have wild successes. And it was easy for me to

at night through a storm after a show. I can attest to that.

write the book after I got a couple of seasons under my belt.

We have beautiful chocolate bars, organic Peruvian chocolate with a bunch of CBD in it, and that is basically what we are

Vivian McPeak: Is it true that the weed you grew

selling. And we are going to respond to civic needs as this

supplied the Grateful Dead for a while?

campaign goes forward for better terms with the government.

Carolyn Garcia: This is true, and this is how I was able to gauge

We all need to get on better terms with our legislators and

success, how often my phone rang during that time. It was fun is

our government. We have to tell them what we need and

all I can say, we were having fun. We weren’t feeling threatened

ask for what we want, and perhaps someday, the legislators

or chased down. It was a lovely time of experimentation and

will pull it together the way it should be pulled together.

beautiful music, and great friendships that we’ll always have. You know how marijuana creates community. It’s one of its greatest

Vivian McPeak: Can you touch on the work of the

aspects. And it used to be that in the 60s, that community was

Rex Foundation and the Further Foundation? What is

tiny and distanced from each other. You were always careful when

the purpose and function of those organizations?

you went over to somebody’s house. It was so illegal at that time.

Carolyn Garcia: Well, they are fairly small by foundation standards, but we seek donations, and we put on events to raise

Vivian McPeak: There was a camaraderie, right? It was

some money for non-profit groups that are small. Important

like your secret, and you were a member of a secret club.

little growth patterns can emerge if we give them a decent grant. This is a good way to also involve our offspring in learning

Carolyn Garcia: Yes, and it trained us all to be secret

about charitable giving. The Further Foundation puts on a

agents. Right now, the secret is we are working here in

good little party. It’s a nice show with wonderful music.

Eugene to try and get decriminalization for all plant medicines. This is what Denver and Oakland have

Vivian McPeak: Are there any other projects you

done, and we are trying to do something like that.

are excited about or anything else you’d like to share while we still have a few minutes?

Vivian McPeak: You live in Oregon, a state that has been

Carolyn Garcia: Well, I would just like to say it would

a cannabis cultivation mecca for many decades. What are

be really good for people to check in with Project CBD

your thoughts on Oregon’s legalization model, and how

because it is a really interesting and scientifically

has it changed the historic cannabis community there?

based website. And find your local cannabis groups and

Carolyn Garcia: Well, again, they handed the rule-making to the

support them. Support your grower friends.


Taking it Further with Zane Kesey



ew people played a role as pivotal as

the Merry Pranksters set off in the Further Bus

Ken Kesey in the psychedelic phenomenon

to spread the gospel about psychedelics, but the

of the 1960s. I was fortunate to speak

Acid Tests continued in the bay area until, I think

with Zane Kesey, Ken’s son, who has kept

1966. Were you ever present at any of them?

the fire burning in a society that needs

Zane Kesey: Yeh, I slept under the stage for a few

introspection and mind expansion as much today, if

of them, at least that’s what I was told.

not more, than it did over a half-century ago. Vivian McPeak: In an interview, your father, Ken Vivian McPeak: Thank you, Zane, for taking time out

Kesey, said of Jerry Garcia: “We’re not talking about

to talk with me today. The Grateful Dead honed their

a guitar player, we’re talking about a revolutionary.”

chops and partially developed their improvisational

Do you think Ken saw himself as a revolutionary?

style at the Acid Tests your father produced with the

Zane Kesey: Oh, he saw that that happened, he saw

Merry Pranksters. What was your dad’s relationship

that there was a lot of attention, he knew that there

like with the members of the Dead? Did he maintain

was a wave, a big wave, and he just happened to catch

contact with them throughout the years?

it, and he understood magic and attention. And while

Zane Kesey: Sure, I mean, for one thing, Mountain Girl

you have that attention, what can you do with it.

was Jerry’s wife and Sunshine lived with us or lived with him so we’d see them plenty, you know. Christmases and

Vivian McPeak: Maybe more of a shaman?

all that, and aside from that it was, mostly, whenever they

Zane Kesey: Well, that comes with its own words too, but a

came to town or whenever we decided we were gonna go

magician is always what he strove to be, and in the larger sense

have fun in the Bay Area, New Year’s shows and all that.

of the word. In a simpler version, any time that there was a

It was always loads of fun. We loved showing up with the

gathering, say, just a family get-together or family reunion,

Thunder Machine and driving the sound man crazy.

the last thing he wanted was for everyone to sit around and talk and make it so five years from now, nobody remembered

Vivian McPeak: You were only a few years old when

a damn thing about it. He wanted to get everyone together

the Acid Tests began, and you were four when

and do one thing at least; that was something that nobody

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expected, and that would always be remembered. It wasn’t

years, where he would say that that killed conversations.

about him but how he treated time and how he treated the now. He wanted to make it, so there was something real happening

Vivian McPeak: The Merry Pranksters are still

at any given moment when the opportunity presented itself.

around, and some of the original members are still alive and going strong. I understand work

Vivian McPeak: He also said “they’ll be singing

is underway on another bus, Farther. What is the

Dead songs forever” and called them “equal to the

current status of the Merry Pranksters today?

greats” and “God’s band.” Do you know if your

Zane Kesey: That’s George’s (George Walker) bus, Farther,

father had a favorite Dead tune or concert?

yeh that one excites me, and he’s really doing a dynamite job

Zane Kesey: Oh, he had many favorite tunes, but, ya

of starting from the nuts and bolts getting it, uh, pristine,

know, they’re a lotta the classics. I Know You Rider.

it’s just about the same year as the original Further which

And his favorite concert was Sunshine Daydream by

we’re also trying to restore. I’ve been raising money for it. My

far. You know, Veneta 72. God, how do you top it?

wife’s in charge of the non-profit foundation, Further Down the Road, at And, oh, the rest of the

Vivian McPeak: You mean the Field Trip at the

Pranksters, they’re mostly around here in the Eugene area,

Oregon Country fairgrounds. Were you there?

there’s still a few in the Bay Area, still a couple in the New

Zane Kesey: Oh yeh, my first ground score.

Yorkish area, but, uh, some in Portland. And, yeh, we still get together. In 2014 we did the 50th anniversary of the original

Vivian McPeak: In one of the more high-profile

bus trip and, gosh, 17,000 miles in the newer version of

pot busts of the time, your dad was taken into

Dad’s bus, and we got a bunch of new Merry Pranksters, and

custody in La Honda, California, for possession

they all rode around the bus for a week in Prankstery and

of weed in 1965 and then arrested for cannabis

dressing like it and acting like it, and it was truly a blast.

again a few days after getting released from jail. Did your father use cannabis in his later life?

Vivian McPeak: You own and operate Key-Z Productions,

Zane Kesey: Sure, you know, it’s one of those things that even

a small mail-order company out of your home of

the kids gotta try, sometimes it all depends upon what was

Pleasant Hill, Oregon, with the stated hope of enlightening people of

going on. But, yeh, you know, that was more important than having a drink. It was when the time was just right, and you bring out a joint, and it raises the conversation up to a different level. He wasn’t that big on the real potent pot that they had in later

“Well, in psychedelics alone, there are two different paths, and I’m not saying no to either one, but one of them is the “let’s take a dab, get high, and party,” and the other is “I’m gonna take a tab, I’m going to sit down and see what I can learn.” And the pioneers of doing both of those are important. And if you don’t learn f rom the past, you’re doomed to make some of the mistakes that they made, and you can leapf rog ahead to go explore new territories if you know where they left off.”

their psychedelic past and enabling them to learn about the people who brought them to the present. Why do you feel it is important to connect people with their psychedelic past and know about those pioneers who laid the


groundwork for the consciousness movements of today?

decriminalized possession of psilocybin and legalized

Zane Kesey: (Laughs) Well, in psychedelics alone, there

it for therapeutic use. Do you think your father’s high

are two different paths, and I’m not saying no to either

profile in your state played a role in Oregon being

one, but one of them is the “let’s take a dab, get high, and

the first to do so, and what do you think Ken would

party,” and the other is “I’m gonna take a tab, I’m going

think about the emerging psychedelics movement?

to sit down and see what I can learn.” And the pioneers

Zane Kesey: He would love it, and he would also warn

of doing both of those are important. And if you don’t

people of it and embrace it. Oregon was always just this

learn from the past, you’re doomed to make some of the

close to California, and where a lotta the people escaped

mistakes that they made, and you can leapfrog ahead to go

to, where California wasn’t going where they wanted it to,

explore new territories if you know where they left off.

just like the Merry Pranksters. A lot of it is that mentality where those people are now the parents and grandparents,

Vivian McPeak: I know that you sell LSD blotter

and they’ve taught their kids what to be scared of and

paper adorned with various iconic images. What other

what not to be. And alcohol, uh, hard white drugs, maybe,

items can people access from Key-Z Productions?

yeh, you want to be scared of those things. But, what to

Zane Kesey: (Laughs). Well, I’m just about to go

outlaw? Like Dad would say, every drug has its purpose.

vending right now, just about anything, tie-dyed toilet

It’s a question of, you know, are you gonna use it or are

seats, tie-dyed little painted Further busses, pins, and

you gonna abuse it? You know, even cocaine, Dad would

magnets, and just about everything under the sun.

say, “God put it on this earth because your tooth hurt.”

Vivian McPeak: Your father was first exposed to LSD

Vivian McPeak: Ken Kesey’s final serious writing project

when he volunteered to participate in a CIA financed

was for an article in Rolling Stone magazine where he

study, one of the top-secret MK Ultra series of covert

called for peace shortly after the September 11 attacks

government experiments that occurred before many

on the world trade towers and the Pentagon. Do you

people even knew what acid was. Did he ever talk about

have a sense of his concerns for humanity at that time?

those experiences with you, and how ironic do you think

Was he optimistic that we would be able to find a way

it is that the U.S. Government inadvertently helped

out of such darkness to a place of love and light?

to foment the psychedelic revolution of the 1960s?

Zane Kesey: Yeh, he would, but I also wonder if he would tie it

Zane Kesey: That’s just the words that Dad used. He talked

to the one thing that he thought was gonna sort of save it. He

about it often. And, uh, he enjoyed it. You know, he set out, he

thought that the internet that people being able to be in touch

was given a tip saying that he should sign up for this, and

with each other this easily was going to create peace. And, now

that’s who Cuckoo’s Nest is dedicated to, his friend, Vick Lovell.

I think he might worry that it is doing the opposite. That, you

And, its dedication is “to Vick, who told me that there’s no such

know, people are so quick to judge each other, so quick to make

thing as dragons and led me to their lairs.” And, uh, his quote

these judgments based on this sentence said this way and

is something like that’s the definition of irony or that God

that sentence said that way. I think that he would ask people

understands irony. It’s that God discovered LSD and decided

to breathe a little and get together and hold hands a bit.

he wanted to get it to the people, and how is he gonna get it to the people? He says, I know, I’ll get the CIA to do it” (laughs).

Vivian McPeak: Can you touch on Going Furthur, the recent feature-length documentary film that

Vivian McPeak: Ken Kesey was buried on the

highlights the escapades of the Merry Pranksters

family farm in a tie-dyed casket. I assume his

and the ongoing activities furthering the legacy?

resting place is not far from where the original

Zane Kesey: Yeh, that’s the 50th-anniversary trip that we did.

Further bus has been retired. How would you

The documentary just came out. It’s called Going Further,

most want your father to be remembered?

and it’s been bouncing around in different streaming

Zane Kesey: Oh, as a magician, as a family man, as a friend.

formats, so you’ll have to Google it. The filmmakers did

He was a lot of things to a lot of people, but mostly he was

a dynamite job of documenting that trip. It’s just a whole

approachable and solid and would give you good advice, but

lotta fun, and you’ll see this group of people blossoming

also try and make sure your day was a little brighter. Try and

and turning into the most colorful, vibrant version

put a positive spin on things. Most of the people that even met

of the Merry Pranksters that you could hope for.

him briefly have a really lot of positive things to say about him. Vivian McPeak: Any final thoughts? Vivian McPeak: There is what might be characterized

Zane Kesey: Yeh, let’s do this world peace stuff. It only

as a psychedelic renaissance today, with some people

takes convincing your family and your neighborhood. If

saying that entheogens are where medical cannabis was,

everybody did that, we’d have it down. Go say hi to your

say 12 or 15 years ago. Your home state of Oregon has

neighbor and invite ‘em over for, uh, a joint! (Laughter).

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022




he art of Michael DuBois has been described as visionary, surrealistic, psychedelic, all of which fail to adequately define a body of work that transcends conventional categorization. His unique style has set him apart as an original.

Working in mixed-media, oil painting, and computer graphics,


DuBois has established himself as a pioneer in the work of

and interior graphics for.

contemporary music art, with commissions by many bands

Born in 1963, DuBois grew up in Syracuse, New York, and began

and artists including The Grateful Dead, The Allman Brothers

drawing as soon as he could hold a pencil. By the age of twelve

Band, Neil Young, Hot Tuna, Tom Petty, Fleetwood Mac, Black

he was designing t-shirts for local organizations. At fifteen he

Sabbath, The Jerry Garcia Band, Michael Hedges, Robert Plant,

was in several bands and designing posters for regional punk

Wavy Gravy, Gov’t Mule, The Wailers, Phil Lesh and Friends,

and new wave bands, and at eighteen he was painting murals

Levon Helm, Bob Weir and RatDog, Santana, The Rolling Stones,

on the sides of city buildings for the Syracuse Art Squad. In

Furthur, Pink Floyd, Dead & Company, Bassnectar, Woodstock,

1981, DuBois studied art at SUNY New Paltz, focusing on

Peanuts worldwide llc, the Jimi Hendrix estate and many

metalsmithing, jewelry design and visual arts while continuing

more. In addition to creating designs and artwork for the music

his mural painting. In 1985 he moved to San Francisco where he

industry, DuBois also produces tour merchandise and special

began designing posters for Bay Area rock bands and festivals.

event products for shows and events including Phil Lesh’s

Returning East in 1987, DuBois settled in Woodstock, New

Terrapin Crossroads, Levon Helm Studios, The Tampa Bay

York, and founded HappyLife Productions, a multi-faceted

Blues Festival, Gathering Of The Vibes, Jam Cruise, Mountain

company which produces an extensive line of greeting cards,

Jam, Nateva music and arts

window stickers, children’s

fest, Lockn Music Festival, The

clothing, posters, t-shirts and

Capitol Theatre, benefit concert

limited edition prints, featuring

for Arthur Lee of the band Love

reproductions of his original

featuring, Ian Hunter, Ryan

paintings. HappyLife has

Adams, Nils Lofgren, Yo La

since become an international

Tango and Robert Plant.

distributor of these products.

In 2009 DuBois designed and

DuBois currently oversees

illustrated the Grammy award

HappyLife Productions and

winning album Electric Dirt

DuBois Studios, does commission

by Levon Helm and in 2011

work, graphic design, fine

designed and illustrated parts of

painting and licensing his work

the remastered and repackaged

for reproduction on a variety

Classic Recordings Europe ‘72

of products. Although based in

multi-disc set by The Grateful

Woodstock, DuBois’ art reaches

Dead. In 2015 DuBois designed

worldwide audiences through his

and produced iconic limited

reproductions, concert t-shirts,

edition prints and merchandise

prints, posters and other licensed

for the Fare The Well Grateful

products. In 2013 HappyLife

Dead final shows. Released in

Productions opened a retail store

March 2016 is a biography by

and Art Gallery in Woodstock,

Bill Walton, Back From The Dead

NY showcasing DuBois and

which DuBois created the cover

other artists’ work. NEXT PAGE: GNOME DREAM, 18x24 INCHES MIND MATRIX


WIN TER 2 021/ 2022


Black Girl Magic OG 2



STRAIN NAME: BLACK GIRL MAGIC OG BREEDER: DukeofErb HEIGHT: Depends if it’s indoor or outdoor. Indoor, I would say 4 feet outdoor they can grow taller than I’m 5’3. WEIGHT (YIELD): Outdoor it yields 5 pounds per

lackGirlMagic OG comes from Northern California. She is a purp hue, with beautiful trichomes covering her with amazing pine, cinnamon, skunk smell. She grows bushy and big. I like it cause it is my 2nd Strain line,

plant/ Indoor personal grow 8- 10 oz indoor FLOWERING TIME IN DAYS: 90 days SATIVA/INDICA/RUDERALIS/ETC. RATIO: Indica Hybrid SCENT (BURNED/UNBURNED): Gassy, Sweat, Skunk smell,

and it helps with depression and pain, and that’s big for

I can’t explain, I just know your hole car and house will be

me. I want to help people get off pharmaceutical drugs.

spelling like, and it be so strong. WHAT THE DRIED BUD/

8. Taste (burned and unburned): It tastes amazing. I’m

CRUMBLED BUD LOOKS LIKE: They look amazingly very dense

really proud of BlackGirlMagicOG. When she isn’t burned, you can really taste very well the amazing terpenes of man, and when it burns, you can taste it as well, very good as well. Not a harsh taste, very flavorful.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

and big, full of purp hues and trichomes all over the bud. QUALITY/TYPE OF HIGH: Top Shelf 14. Medicinal qualities: Depression, Pain, Appetite

Dog Licker


WORDS & PHOTOS DUTCH BLOOMS his is a cross between a Dog Walker female (created by one eye out of PDX) and two Liquorish Lime males. The originals F1 cross of Liqourish Lime was made by Urban Terp Factory out of Cali. It’s Limevine (by Mean

Gene) crossed with a Testarossa Male. I was gifted seeds. That year was an exceptionally hard fall. We had hard frost

second week of September followed by contestant hard rain pressure until mid-October. I literally lost 90% of my acre of cannabis to botrytis.. But the Liqourish Lime, alongside her sisters, the BWG made it through. The next season I went through 800 plus of the F2’s I had made from the select female and male. I found two males I couldn’t choose between, plus I like to keep diversity in genetics so as not to bottleneck. One was leaning towards the vanilla frosting flavor, and the other was all citrus. In reality, I was after adding the vanilla frosting to the Dog Walkers extremely loud, and potent flowers. I can’t say enough about the intensity of the Dog Walker aromas. For certain, it has been one of my very favorite flavors until the Dog Licker. She holds the plant and bud structure of the Dog Walker with upfront gas and foul garbage can odors that quite frankly make some folks nauseous. The LL also ads Trichomes density and bag appeal to the Dog Walker flower. I couldn’t be happier with this cross. She tastes like she smells; extreme gas with putrid gnar and hits hard, fast, and last. This is an extremely beneficial plant for patients with pain or insomnia.




he latest offering from Lempire Farmaseed. The Mendo Purps BX is an old-school Mendocino legendary purp crossed

with Skunk 1, Chemdog, and NYC Diesel. Although it’s loaded with gassy genetics, the nose is predominantly grape skunk with a hint of citrus cherries. This strain finishes outdoors mid to late September with beautiful purple hues, and neon green chunk. The #7 pheno, which was selected for the Bx showed amazing resistance to mold and pests. After crossing the diesel strains into the purps, the T.H.C. Rose to 24%. A classic example of purp dominant nose and color with a chunky structure glittered with crystals. Fresh seed packs are available at Compassionate Heart in Ukiah.

BREEDER: Lempire Farmassed HEIGHT 3’-4.’ WEIGHT- 4 lbs in a 100-gallon pot FLOWER TIME- 40 days INDICA SATIVA- 80-20 TASTE BURNED/ UNBURNED -Raspberries, Currants, Maraschino cherries, Sliced lime SCENT BURNED/ UNBURNED -Caramelized plums, Grape skunk LOOKS- Chunky neon hues of purple SPEED- Instant DURATION- 2-3 hours QUALITY/ TYPE OF HIGH- Clean Indica high, upbeat yet relaxing MED QUALITY- Good for back pain, Muscle pain

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022


Purple Candy Cane WORDS & PHOTOS MIKE GREYSHOCK HEIGHT: Above Average YIELD: Heavy long colas FLOWERING TIME: 56-63 days TASTE AND SMELL: (burnt and unburnt) Peppermint,

sage with an ever-present backing of orange and grape. The first panel of Emerald Cup judges to try her were won over, placing her in third place at the 2015 Cup, and followed her up with 2nd place the next year. Some of the many notable strains that can claim ancestry of the Purple Candy Cane are Bubba Kush, Lavender, Agent Orange, Blue Dream Haze, and some old-school Twilight and Purple Star. Noting this long history of breeding projects that led to her birth, Mark remarked, “I enjoy putting many

Sage, Grape, Juniper and Orange combine to make a unique

of the strains I enjoy, strains I think have good traits to

aroma of semi-sweetness with a hint of earthiness.

add together. Mixing up the good ones and then hunting

BREEDER: Greenshock Farms

down the winner phenos. It’s something I have always

TYPE OF HIGH: Fast-acting high that is strong and uplifting with a pleasant head high that melts into the body with an overall sense of enjoyment with a long duration.

enjoyed.” He also comments that this plant achieves his rarely awarded AAA rating by gaining top marks in vigor, strength, mold and pest resistance, taste, smell, and effect. Vigorous growth lends itself to heavy yields resulting

GROWTH: Vigorous and resistant to mold, mildew and pests.

in tight, hard purple and green buds that really pop

Open tall colas with dense, tight buds. Colder temps turn

the purple in cold temps. Its traditional name comes

the plant and buds a combination of purple and green.

from the deep purple striping that winds its way up the

MEDICINAL QUALITIES: Effective for stress


relief, anxiety, and a number of other uses.

stalks to give them the appearance of candy canes. This cultivar remains unique to Greenshock Farms and has proven to be an excellent breeder. Paired with a male Pina from Mean Gene of Freeborn Selections, she is the

wenty years of breeding by Mark at

mother of the many times Emerald Cup award-winning

Greenshock Farms in Mendocino County has

Tropical Sleigh Ride, taking home first place in the highest

led to the multi-award-winning Purple Candy

Terpene category of the 2017 Emerald Cup. When hit with

Cane, now known as Purple Sleigh Ride, on the

a male Long Valley Royal Kush, she gave existence to the

legal market due to naming issues with candy.

very dank, gas and orange, citrusy combined flavor and smell

The delicious taste and smell are an instant reminder

of Christmas with strong notes of peppermint, juniper,

of fellow Emerald Cup winner, Orange Terpentine.


Breeding the Culture: OLDTIMER1 WORDS TREVOR WITTKE (SUNGROWNMIDZ) PHOTOS OLDTIMER1 from around the world as well as the early progenitors of what would later become known as Haze and Skunk. The Oldtimer’s Haze produced by Ace Seeds, for instance, comes from this early Haze seed stock that Ot1 collected during the heyday of the international commune movement, the hippie trail, and the emergence of the global counterculture. OLDTIMER1 AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE ONLINE CANNABIS COMMUNITY In addition to witnessing and participating in the emergence of the international counterculture in the 1960s and 70s, Oldtimer1 was also an active participant in the emergence of the online cannabis community in the 1990s. Ot1 helped found Overgrow and played a significant role in the creation and development of the online cannabis community. Oldtimer1 participated in the


early chat networks that eventually gave rise to the original Overgrow forum. Overgrow was the original online message board forum dedicated specifically to ldtimer1 (Ot1) is a lifelong collector,

cannabis. It quickly became one of the largest most

grower, breeder, and preservationist of

active online message board forums on the internet.

cannabis genetics from around the world.

Oldtimer1 was an active member of all of the early cannabis

Since the 1960s, Oldtimer1 has dedicated

forums. He was on the BCGA forums set up by Vic High, whom

his life to collecting, preserving, and

Oldtimer1 worked with on collaborative breeding projects.

sharing knowledge about cannabis. As a breeder, he is

He was also active on Cannaworld where the Oldtimer1’s

best known for his work preserving unique traditional

haze preservation project was initially documented.

equatorial varieties. Based in the UK, Oldtimer1 has

Oldtimer1 also helped set up, moderate and support

been forced to perform his life’s work with cannabis

the website. UK420 has long been Oldtimer1’s

completely underground and at considerable legal risk.

primary online home. For years Oldtimer1 has supported

Cannabis and the Global Counterculture of the 1960s/70s.

the site through his presence, constantly sharing

Since the 1960s, Oldtimer1 has collected and cultivated

information and helping to cover the cost of maintaining

cannabis genetics from all around the world. Beginning in

the site. UK420 is the only place where Oldtimer1 has

the mid-late 1960s, the international Commune Movement

formally released his genetics to the public, and it remains

and the hippie trail emerged, connecting communes in the

the only legitimate source of Oldtimer1’s genetics.

United States and the United Kingdom with the places and cultures of traditional cannabis cultivation around the globe. Oldtimer1 was part of the international Commune

Over the years, Ot1 has been an invaluable resource to the online cannabis community sharing his vast knowledge and experience with cannabis horticulture (from lighting to

Movement and the counterculture scene of the 1960s

organic cultivation), history, and botany. His article explaining

and 1970s. It was at these communes that Oldtimer1

the Bonsai Mother technique has been shared and archived on

was introduced to travelers who came from around

numerous websites.

the world with the different cannabis varieties

As one of the founders of the online cannabis

from traditional places of origin and cultivation as

community in many ways, Oldtimer1 represents the

well as early hybrids brought from America.

best of what the community has to offer. Oldtimer1

It was during his time at the communes that Oldtimer1 was able to collect various imported landrace varieties

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

remains a respected member of the many online forums he has participated in over the years.

mother plant and a Camden Poison male. Oldtimer1 described the effects of the Smile and how it got its name, “…it is not couchlock; everyone that has smoked the bud says it puts a big old smile on their face every time they have a puff of it. I think this cross has a really nicely balanced and quite complex energetic up high. One tester said he thought I should call it Prozac from a seed, as it does what Prozac ought to do.” The Celia mother plant is still alive and in the care of UK420 forum member GSVV (@gsyrupgoesfourth). Oldtimer1 gifted the Celcia and Smile seed stock to GSVV, who is currently working on a Smile Dynasty backcross project using these genetics with Ot’s blessing. Oldtimer1 released lot5 and later lot5evolution. The Lot5 was the best of a series of experimental crosses (lot1-lot8) that Ot decided to release after positive feedback from those who grew it Sadly, however, in recent years, health problems have

out. The Lot5 and Lot#5evolution varieties are known for their

forced Oldtimer1 to pull back from participating in

energizing and trippy high, with extreme variants producing

online forums. Oldtimer1 has experienced further health

speedy highs leading to clenched jaws, sweaty palms. The

complications recently that have impaired his ability to

pedigree information of these varieties has never been divulged

engage with the online community he helped to create.

besides to say that there is no Dutch genetics in the mix.


of diverse and divergent germplasm from around the world,

Ot1 never referred to himself as a breeder and preferred to

predating the mass hybridization and introgression of foreign

refer to himself as a gardener. Oldtimer1 always likened his

germplasm in traditional places of origin and cultivation.

work to that of a chef cooking a meal for friends. For all of

Oldtimer1’s breeding and preservation have always focused

his humility is Oldtimer1 is among the most accomplished

primarily on the quality and character of the high of the

and respected cannabis breeders of the last four decades.

varieties he works with. Over many years Oldtimer1 carefully

Oldtimer1’s breeding stock comes from his unique collection

Ot1’s public breeding work goes back several decades to

selected his breeding pairs, isolating and maintaining

his development of the variety ES, which was a Nigerian

exceptional phenotypes. The offspring from these breeding

crossed with an early skunk1 from California. The ES was

pairs have been subjected to extensive progeny testing,

later crossed with a male selected from Dj shorts original

demonstrating the breeding value of his selections.

Blueberry released by Sagamarth to create what has

Over the years, Oldtimer1 has made many contributions

been dubbed ESB. Ot1 shared this line with many people,

to the theory, practice, and discourse of cannabis breeding in

including Vic High. ESB is still available through Fleur

various important online forums and threads. He was an early

du Mal @fdm420, thanks to the work of Baudelaire.

proponent of the backcross breeding method along with (Mr.

Oldtimer1 has written extensively about his collaborative

Soul and Vic High) Ot1 helped to popularize the technique in

breeding work with Vic High selecting and breeding the

the online cannabis breeding community. As noted above Ot1

Blueberry line to remove undesirable traits (herming,

was a proponent of extensive pedigree selection and progeny

mutants, variegation) before using it in their own work.

testing to isolate and maintain exceptional breeding stock.

In the mid-2000s, Ot1 began working with Underground Originals (UGORG), a Uk based seed company, after meeting

Oldtimer1’s breeding exemplifies the simple adage attributed to Luther Burbank “Accept the best, reject the rest.”

VRG at the 2004 Uk Hemp Fair. During their time working together, Oldtimer1 provided genetics and breeding strategies


that were used to develop Stinky Berry, Killer Skunk, and Blues.

Over the decades, Oldtimer1 has left an indelible mark

Over the years, Oldtimer1 has made a limited number of

on cannabis culture and history. Oldtimer1 spent his life

the seed drops of his own work. In 2008 he released OldTimes,

learning from and working with cannabis. His willingness

which was a backcross project with a lineage of (es mother x

to share his experience and knowledge helped to create the

esb) x blueberry (different blueberry selection) x es/ESB). The

online cannabis community and shape the ethos that has

OldTimes was selected from the ESB line for its nice up high

manifested its best aspects. Through his intentional efforts

but with more of a body high than some of his other work.

of collecting, cultivating, breeding, and sharing genetics and knowledge, Oldtimer1 helped to preserve parts of the


culture that would have otherwise been lost forever.

Another one of Oldtimer1’s projects that he originally released in 2008 was Smile. Smile is a cross of the Celia


Freakshow Cannabis




he Freakshow variety of cannabis sports

and Maxx used Holy Banana as the father and both crossed it

a fern-like leaf and is quickly becoming popular

with a female Pineapple Express #2. Berryfreak uses the same

due to its striking uniqueness. Humboldt Seed

original Pineapple and Holybanana parents as Freakshow bred

Co. is known for distributing the variety, but

independently. Both sprouted many f1 seeds with different

they did not create it. Freakshow was created

phenotypes; Shapeshifter used the deeply serrated male

in central California around 2017 by a breeder known as

pheno called “17a” while Maxx used a unique female from the

Shapeshifter, and another Freakshow variety called Berryfreak

same batch dubbed pheno #4 while creating Berryfreak.

was created by his son Maxx. Shapeshifter and Maxx were

Freakshow and Berry Freak both demonstrate the fern-like

cross-breeding some old-school and heavy-hitting hybrids

leaf, which causes people to think they are tomato sprouts when

simply to see what new varieties they could come up with.

seedlings! Both have trace amounts of CBD and have around

This interesting lineage of plants starts with an urban

18%+ THC. Freakshow smells like a combination of pine and

legend regarding a Monk named Perry from Big Sur who was

lime, an aroma that is reminiscent of the classic strain Train

growing ganja to treat drug addicts. Yes, cannabis is used

Wreck. Berry Freak has a nice menthol/berry flavor mixed with

as an exit drug and works well to help people get off things

a candy-like berry scent that seems almost artificial. They both

like opiates and alcohol. The Monk was working with a local

produce the same yields as other marijuana plants and seem to

variety called Big Sur Holy Weed which has been known to

be a little more cold tolerant. Hybrids display strong vigor and

carry a variety of unique traits and is sought after for its

a promising future for aficionados and mutant cannabis types.

high THC percentages. Big Sur Holy Weed was crossed with

By @Max.Montrose You can check out other wild

another local favorite, Banana OG from Santa Cruz, which

plants like these from the trichomeinstitute.

created Holy Banana bred by Coastal Seed Co. Shapeshifter

com blog, forum, books, courses, and more!

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Chocolate Cantaloupe “Fresh Air Phenotype”


he Fresh Air is a special cut of Chocolate Cantaloupe! Best from a 100 seed phenohunt. Proven in several different

environmental conditions. Excels in Greenhouse, Hydro, Light Deprivation, Assisted Light, and Outdoor Full Term in California, from Santa Cruz to Humboldt. Organic living soil produces the best flavor! This cut was initially selected for a Highsmen trophy winner and then picked up by a pre-roll company. Winner of a blind taste test held at the Barberry Coast in 2017, from where the Fresh Air name came to be. Named for the unique Clean exhale flavor on the palate. This clone was exclusive to Highsmen from 2017 to 2020. Grown only by Purple Caper and Family in 2021. This clone will be released in California to the public for the 2022 season!







he Terdz ( Runtz x Jet Fuel Gelato) was bred by Wyeast and pheno hunted by a small batch traditional market cultivator in Santa

Cruz, CA. Jet Fuel Gelato is a combination of Jet Fuel G6, High Octane, and Gelato 45. Runtz is Skittlez x Gelato. The concept of Terdz came to me when I was touring grows in Massachusetts and noticed that all of these multimillion-dollar facilities were filled with corporate mids. I jokingly said all of this flower should be branded as “turds.” As the concept evolved into something more serious, I decided to dedicate the dankest candy gas strain I had, coupled with bright, colorful packaging, to create the Terdz. With 30.7% THC and 3.2% terps, Terdz is the perfect combo of potency and flavor. The bright purple and lime green flowers burst with sweet candy gas aromas that match the smoke. Drenched in oily trichs, she stacks and cures chunky and fat drying at the perfect density. Her leaves are hearty and painted with trichs, and she’s fun and easy to trim. The bud breaks down fluffy and easily in your fingers and doesn’t powder up in the grinder. Creamy and smooth nose when cracked, finishes perfectly with a balanced rebound when pinched. Terdz yo life up.

1. STRAIN NAME: TERDZ 2. BREEDER (IF IT’S NOT YOU): WyEast 3. HEIGHT: AVERAGE 4. WEIGHT (YIELD): MEDIUM 5. Flowering time in days: 60 6. Sativa/Indica/Ruderalis/etc. ratio: INDICA 8. TASTE (BURNED AND UNBURNED): Sweet candy on the front with a gas finish. 9. SCENT (BURNED/UNBURNED): Sweet candy and gas. 10. WHAT THE DRIED BUD/CRUMBLED BUD LOOKS LIKE: Vibrant purple and lime green dense buds break down to the perfect fluffy chunks that rebound and hold form when rolled or packed. 11. SPEED OF HIGH ONSET: After exhaling, nearly instant heavy and euphoric high that hits you right behind the eyes. 12. DURATION OF HIGH: Buckle up fohm. 13. QUALITY/TYPE OF HIGH: It’ll put your dick in the dirt. 14. MEDICINAL QUALITIES: Excellent for pain, stress relief, sleep, and just for fun fohm.

BREEDER: OGenius Seeds HEIGHT: 6-8 feet WEIGHT / YIELD: Huge 8 lbs TIME UNTIL HARVEST: 60 days SATIVA/INDICA RATIO: 30/70 TASTE BURN AND UNBURNED: Citrus jet fuel. Burned = burnt sugar + lemons SCENT: Lemon gas mint windex WHAT DRIED/CRUMBLED LOOKS LIKE:

Lem O.G. x Chemdawg




em Dog is a hybrid of

remember the sacred days of the Dead

my two favorite strains.

Lot. Back in the day when bud was kind,

Chemdawg from the Dead

not just because it was unsprayed and

lot and the Lem OG The first

you were young, with more tastebuds

new offering from OGenius

and more brain cells, but because it was

in years, Lem Dog delivers serious jet

not schwag - it was “The Kind.” Lem O.G.

fuel terpenes and an overwhelming skunk

brings a brightness to this lady that is

profile. This strain grows big and tall and

unmatched, which keeps the Chemdawg

is neon green in color. She smells like a

side of the cross from oxidizing,

DURATION: 2-3 hours

skunk fell in a bucket full of lemonade

resulting in the neon citrus chunder

QUALITY / TYPE HIGH: Gives you drymouth

and tastes so good you can’t wait to stuff

we so lovingly call Lemdog: available

and redeye. It makes you feel like you are

another bowlpack into your Snoddy and

only at Compassionate Heart.

Neon. Crumbled = fairy dust gleaming with chi TITRATION: Instant upbeat indica leads into a strong high

in high school and you can’t stop laughing, or you’re in a supermarket tripping, and the overhead lights are humming. MEDICINAL QUALITIES: Good for sleeping and appetite. It drops your blood sugar.




his seed was a gift from a friend in Vietnam. It grows long, slender leaves. The tall, spear-shaped colas have large, dense

flowerlettes. It develops great lateral branching. The scent is an intense smell of lemon and pine. Vietnamese is a unique landrace strain unlike anything on the market today. Where an ailment exists, this is the cure. This strain is ideal for smoking daily. Inhaling will lead to bliss, relaxation, and creativity. We like this strain because it’s Sativa. The high is clear and euphoric.

1. STRAIN NAME: Vietnamese 2. BREEDER: Landrace 3. HEIGHT: 6’- 8’ 4. WEIGHT (YIELD): 2 - 5 lbs 5. FLOWERING TIME: finishes in late October 6. SATIVA/INDICA/RUDERALIS/ ETC. RATIO: Sativa 8. TASTE (BURNED AND UNBURNED): fresh citrus, lemony, hazy, floral. 9. SCENT (BURNED/UNBURNED): Lemon pine Haze, and smells like fresh-cut wood. Zingy. Lemon candy. Refreshing. Extremely aromatic. Amazing. Overpowers all other scents in the room when the jar is opened. 10. WHAT THE DRIED BUD/CRUMBLED BUD LOOKS LIKE: The bud is light green with lots of red hairs and glistens with silver trichomes. 11. SPEED OF HIGH ONSET: Immediate uplifting effects with a special kick that keeps us coming back for more. 12. Duration of high: We aren’t sure because we can’t stop smoking it. Using cannabis is proper self-care. 13. QUALITY/TYPE OF HIGH: This cultivar will surprise you in all the best ways. It’s a very positive high. 14. MEDICINAL QUALITIES: Strong cerebral effects. Homeostasis in the body and mind.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022



Winter Hash Review 2021-22


WORDS TONY STACKS n the heat of one of the most flooded markets

many others. The Crop Duster quickly became my favorite

the West Coast has ever had, the community of cannabis

based on the ChemDog provided high. The Grapes and Cream

is reexamining the value and commitment it takes to

was a mouthful of terps that really gave off the flavor of dry,

be a part of what once was governed by an outlaw code

hot chocolate mix reminiscent of ski lodge cocoa. Not only

of no toe stepping and all boats floating resulting in

did we have a buffet of amazing rosin from the Grasslands

a great economy, to a legal market driving the price down as

lineup, but the Real Deal Guys had a treat that they were

fast as farmers can close up shop. On the flip side of it, quality

calling the Nam Wah, I think (sorry if I fucked that up),

will always be king, and sometimes change can really push

that was straight from heaven. It will be something you will

everyone to step up their game. In our world, many of the top

hear about in the future because of its original and epic

farmers have realized that harvesting their best plants for hash

smoke. They kept the flavors coming with a Garlic Juice

instead of a trash-to-stash model leaving only the trim or littles

that was not only picture-perfect but a clean as fuck hit.

available to most hash makers, has really made the amount of

Once the snow started to fall, it was straight to

fire rosin on the market unbelievable. The last time there was a

the mountain with a quiver of boards and terps.

flood of weed on the market was pretty much the birth of rosin.

Boards provided by Academy (@academysnowboardco)

We had already been squishing small amounts for the head painstakingly with flowers and hair straighteners as seen

and terps from up and down the West Coast. Since it came the furthest it can go first; the Cherry Dosi from

on the net. Still, when the value of flowers dropped to an all-

Solventless Soup Kitchen (@solventlesssoupkitchen) in Oregon

time low, we decided to figure out a way to squish everything

was just incredible. Everything you want out of a dab, mouthful

we had, even if we were just going to end up smoking it. That

of sweet gassy flavor, and a real mule kick for the high. Evolved

seemed like a better time than crying over accepting such low

Extracts (@evolvedextracts) and Dojo teamed up to make some

prices for the flower. We were mostly smoking rosin by the

classic Z (until a better legal name evolves) and Trop Juice.

end of the year, and Honeysuckle had a new direction. Fast

If you know, then you know, nothing gets past quality control

forward to this year, another slump in the market, and the

with these guys that doesn’t belong on the top of the shelf.

amount of fresh frozen available to cherry-pick has been giving

Some of the Kombucha washed by Real Deal and grown

some of the best returns and quality we have seen in years. A

by Grasslands would have to make the top of the list for

combination of attention to detail while harvesting and the lack

flavor and appearance. We have also been working on some

of smoke in the air have made for an incredible year of hash.

mixed cocktails with the Grasslands family by making such

On a rainy, ready to be winter day, Mendocino Grasslands (@

masterpieces as The Gateway, Furious Styles, and the Tied

mendocinograsslands) gathered a select group of family and

the Room Together that make any snowboard trip great no

friends to enjoy the year’s harvests and give thanks for the

matter how much downtime. I hope that the playing field

rain to come. Along with the crew from Real Deal Resin (@

has leveled out by the spring, and the people who really

realdealresin_), we washed some of the great strains put out

care about being a part of this ganja family have found their

by Christian and Phinest and grown by Mendocino Grasslands

places and can move happily forward with the plant.

such as Trepaya, Grapes and Cream, and Kombucha, among




Success with Exotic Strains



e have all seen the exquisite

chance of the seedlings surviving the early growing period, when

photos in our favorite cannabis

they are the most fragile and susceptible to any problems.

publications, on Instagram and

After the seeds have sprouted, be sure not to keep the lights

social media, of those exotic-looking,

so close that they burn the tender seedlings. Make sure that air

fantastically colored strains of cannabis

circulation is good, but don’t have fans too close to the young

flowers, in all their blazing glory. We’ve wondered if we would

plants, as they can easily be desiccated to death. Sprouting

have any luck growing one of those strains that well.

seeds and young seedlings like warm bottom heat, so heating

When research reveals the costs of these amazing strains are

mats with a thermostat are helpful. 75-78F is a good temp.

often $20.00 or more per seed, you really don’t want to spend a

Plants will need to be monitored with a hand-held

great deal of hard-earned cash for seeds that may still turn out

microscope daily to ensure that no pest populations or

to be males or hermaphrodites or not survive the seedling stage.

powdery mildew start to get established at all! If such a

To achieve the best results with these types of strains,

thing occurs, pest management steps must be increased

optimize your chances of success by taking careful preparation

dramatically to get the problem back under control as quickly

& precautions throughout the growing experience.

as possible with the minimum of stress to the plants.

To ensure that your seeds are free of mold spores, be sure to

Plants need to be constantly monitored for male flowers,

do your initial seed-soaking in some safe solution such as The

which may appear at any stage of the grow, even if fully

Amazing Doctor Zymes & water. This way, you have a better

in flower with all the other flowers appearing females!


“Your plants pick up on your energy and respond to it, believe it or not, so one important tip in plant care is keeping a happy, positive attitude while working around your plants and not worrying about what kind of music they like. They respond to emotions, so if you like the music , it will make them grow better because they respond to your positive energy. Intangibles count.”

Plants should not be fed at all until they have a couple of sets of true leaves on them. Then, feeding should start light & organic, only gradually increasing feeding quantities as the plant age. Don’t forget the silica. In most cases, you can use much less fertilizer than the manufacturers recommend, but don’t forget the trace minerals, particularly the essential calcium, magnesium, & sulfur. High-quality humic acids can ensure that you get all the aminos, trace minerals, and chelation

In fact, it also makes the perfect bud wash to cure a perfectly clean & tasty flower, and true-taste terpenes shine through when the dust, debris, dead bugs, feces, etc., are cleaned from the plants. Clean plants will have a longer shelf-life due to the lack of contaminants that speed decay. The simplest method of bud washing that I have ever heard of is just 5 gallons of warm water and one cup of The Amazing Dr. Zymes. A strong swishing, shake off

you want for your precious plants. The highest quality

excess and hang it up to dry in a cool, well ventilated (with fans)

humic acids are actually obtained from your own finished

space. No rinsing is needed! Slow and steady wins the race.

homemade compost! You can leach it out of your compost or top-dress with it and water it in with each watering. It pays to be gentle with the application of nitrogen during

These exotic-type strains will often have a long flowering period, so patience is required, and a long growing season for outdoors. Outdoor growing is actually

the vegetative stages, as an overdose of nitrogen not only

considered to be the superior method for growing these

weakens the plants and their immune systems. It also attracts

types of strains because only natural sunlight and terroir

a variety of plant-eating pests in very disturbing numbers.

seem to bring out their full potential expressions.

Never over-water and use a sand-barrier mulch to retain soil

One of the most important parts of achieving the utmost from

moisture and thwart many pests, which like to pass through

the exotic strains is being extremely slow and patient during

the soil. Get a moisture meter to monitor the soil moisture

the drying and curing process. Don’t be tempted by quick-

and try to keep it close to 50% moisture as much as possible.

drying techniques and fail to obtain the flavors and intense

These special beauties will want plenty of organic potassium and phosphorus to develop the flowers and terpenes during the flowering stages. Growing organically with biologically living soils is ideal for seeing and tasting the intangible qualities you are looking for with these varieties. Your plants pick up on your energy and respond to it, believe

effects you paid so much for when you purchased the seeds. There is no substitute for real-time and patience. If you rush this part of the process, you may as well burn your hard-earned cash. Quick-drying will destroy the finest efforts that you made while the plant was growing. The final cured product should be stored in air-tight glass jars in a very cool, completely dark place. Don’t forget to frequently

it or not, so one important tip in plant care is keeping a happy,

burp the jars to release built-up gasses and prevent possible

positive attitude while working around your plants and not

molding from insufficiently dried flowers. (Boveda 62% humidity

worrying about what kind of music they like. They respond to

packs can be helpful, but not everyone likes them, so that is

emotions, so if you like the music, it will make them grow better

your call. Experiment with those if you haven’t tried them yet.)

because they respond to your positive energy. Intangibles count. Topping plants and other low-stress training techniques

The strain pictured is Putang, bred by Mass Medical Strains and part of the Pupil family of crosses bred by the company.

will greatly increase flowering sites, but be careful; breaking

The seeds are available from a variety of purveyors of high-end

branches can occur if you aren’t experienced in this.

cannabis seeds. All of the crosses in this family have marvelous

1-2 times weekly, preventative maintenance spraying should be

colors, aromas, flavors, terpenes, and uplifting effects. They

done to keep microscopic pests away, such as the dreaded russet

are known for their anti-depressant qualities and appear to

mites, aphids, etc. Nothing beats prevention for avoiding the

contain the highly desirable and elusive THC-V cannabinoids!

worst sorts of problems, and safe products such as The Amazing Dr Zymes can be sprayed on the flowers, all the way to harvest.

The time and resources spent cultivating Putang were well worth the effort.

Author Marybeth Sanchez is an Agriculture and Horticulture Consultant who shares tips, resources, and expertise for sustainable organic farming and gardening practices. To try a free sample of Eliminator, the all-natural, all-in-one insecticide and fungicide used to keep her garden clean, happy, healthy, and natural, go to

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Wine & Cannabis Terroir Are Not The Same...




ith cannabis appellation Bill 67, there is no debate between cannabis

other environments; noticing this is what terroir is all about. There are some key differences between cannabis and

and wine appellations; they are equally

grapes that may need to be better understood. Grapevines are

legal even though they may not be

perennials with roots that grow deep into the soil over time,

defined or policed the same. Both

allowing each plant to regulate itself and the environment

cannabis and wine also have unique typicities, another similar

over time. Whereas cannabis is an annual plant that is rarely

viticulture crossover. However, the topic of terroir is where

planted in the earth. This means the root system for cannabis is

things become a bit more interesting, complex, and contentious.

new each year and much smaller, whereas a mature grapevine

Terroir is real for both cannabis and wine because it is

is 12-25 years old with 15 foot deep roots. As grapevines

based on the microclimates of their region and how the plants

age, their roots lengthen and spread, allowing them to draw

are cultivated there. However, while sommeliers can taste the

nutrients from deeper in the soil, creating more concentrated

subtlety of the terroir in wine, it’s questionable whether the

flavor in the grapes and, therefore, more identifiable terroir.

same can be done with cannabis. Wine sommeliers can taste

Cannabis is known as a bioremediator and bioaccumulator,

the typicity of a cabernet sauvignon from the terroir of the

meaning it accumulates substances from the soil such as

Russian River of Sonoma County. They can detect how the terroir

pesticides and other chemicals, not necessarily flavor compounds.

makes the wine taste a particular way which is different from

Hemp is currently being used and tested as a way to clean up soil

all cabernet’s grown elsewhere. The flavor of Russian River

contaminated with radiation and other toxic chemicals, including

cabs comes from the influences of the microclimate, including

pollution from mining. Do the bioaccumulation properties of

soil composition, climate, weather, terrain, and cultivation

cannabis cause it to take in flavors of the earth and transport

techniques. In other words, terroir is not a direct translation

them into the plant or its trichomes to become flavorful along

of “soil flavor” in a certain area but the whole array of growing

with the terpenes? No, the terpenes and other flavorants are

conditions. Particular environments cause wine to taste

what give cannabis its aroma, taste, and also psychoactive

different from wines made from the same varietal, grown in

effects. The many different flavorings of cannabis come from the

plant’s genotype, available nutrients,

overpower the plants’ genetically

and photosynthesis; they do not

programmed terpenes? No. Is it

mimic or transmute flavor from their

possible to taste the geography

environment the way grapes can.

before or after lighting it on fire or vaporizing it? No. No one has proven

The terpenes are programmed from the plant’s genetics and

that they can detect the geography

increase or decrease due to

differences of terroir from tasting

environmental and growth

the earth in ganja from smelling

conditions. Cannabis trichomes

or smoking it the way it can be

do not accumulate compounds

done with wine. It would be cool

from the soil or earth. Any taste

if someone could taste if cannabis

of earth in cannabis is most likely

came from Sonoma vs. Humboldt;

accumulated in the plant cell walls

or if cannabis came from Oregon

or in the apoplast pathway between

vs. California, for that matter.

cells, not in glandular trichomes

This hasn’t happened yet, and it

where terpenes (aroma/flavor)

may never be because cannabis, an

and cannabinoids are primarily

herb, does not work the same way

produced. Jeff Lowenfels states,

fruit vines do, and that’s okay. In conclusion, cannabis does

“Too many fail to understand that the plant does not take up terpenes in the soil. The plant


have a terroir when farmers consciously grow cannabis in

manufactures terpenes by utilizing the 18 essential nutrients

unique and natural environments; but this doesn’t mean you

necessary for plant life. It is the nutrients that are taken

can taste the environment it comes from the way you can

up, not terpenes within the soil.” See Jeff Lowenfels’ book

with wine. Therefore the biggest impact cannabis farmers

Teaming With Nutrients: The Organic Gardener’s Guide to

get from understanding terroir is their ability to use it for

Optimizing Plant Nutrition for a more detailed explanation.

marketing purposes. Family farmers from the Emerald

It is possible to taste an earthy flavor when consuming

Triangle and similar places that understand and actively work

“dry-farmed” cannabis, which means it is grown directly in the

with their unique terroir should express it while explaining

ground with totally restricted nutrients and water during its

how and why it helps their cannabis be as high quality and

whole life cycle. But this is not the same thing as terroir; it’s

unique as it is. Small batch and craft family farms deserve to

just dry-farmed cannabis which could be in the earth or in a pot

separate themselves from big marijuana by explaining why

with non-native soil. Being able to taste the earth more is cool,

their ganja is special, and that’s where terroir comes in.

but it’s not the same thing as wine fanatics falling in love with

An example of a California terroir-driven cannabis

the complex typicity and terroir flavor they can count on when

cultivator is Alpenglow Farms. Craig Johnson and his family

certain grapes are grown in specific and special microclimates.

operate in the southern Humboldt’s subregion of Alpenglow.

Wine is more consistent with fewer variables, whereas cannabis

The Alpenglow terroir and Craig’s cultivation practices

is a total cluster you know what; when it comes to the label.

produce cannabis within the microclimate of the alpine

Wine is produced from grapes grown in the earth, outside,

forests and the nearby pacific coast, combined with the

under the sun, always. Not complicated. There are a hundred

following techniques: regenerative, sun-grown, Hugelkultur

different ways to grow cannabis, yet it’s quite rare to find it

bedding, mycorrhizae-inoculated, compost tea, biodynamic,

growing strictly in native soil, like how grapes are grown. A

agroforestry, organically grown, with companion planting, and

common practice is to buy or build the growing medium for

no off-the-farm-nutrients, pesticides, or fungicides, ever.

cannabis plants. There are dozens of different elements to use

These agricultural practices implemented by a happy and

when building a grow medium that isn’t the earth. Within the

loving family within this terroir create unique, high-quality

Emerald Triangle and the rest of the cannabis growing world,

cannabis plants with a true sense of place. Alpenglow terroir

you’ll find many farmers planting Hugelkultur beds, raised

makes Alpenglow cannabis special due to the oceanic air filtered

beds, hoop houses, tilled in the earth with non-native soils, and

through the alpine trees twice a day. The freshly filtered ocean

mixed media in pots indoors or out. This makes the simplicity

air surrounds the cannabis plants in a literal glowing pinkish-

of appellation Bill 67 meaningful for cannabis farmers, even

orange fog during sunrise and sunset, while the ganja roots are

though it’s as basic as it is. Terroir is not possible if you grow in

nestled in the native soil and rich forest duff. That’s cannabis

any style whatsoever other than in the ground, under the sun,

terroir. Cannabis terroir is real; it works best for marketing

with no building structure and no mixed media. The question

and doesn’t work the same way for wine which is fine.

remains: If you farm cannabis in a particular region, can you

Want to learn more from Max Montrose about how

taste the region from the cannabis grown there as you can

the cannabis sommelier world works? Check out his

with wine (i.e., its terroir)? The answer is, unfortunately, no.

books, tools, and courses at

Is the subtle taste of the environment strong enough to


Cannabis Symbiosis: F U N D A M E N TA L S A N D F U NC TIONS F ROM G E N E T O GR A M



he health status of a plant is predicated

produce in plants destroys the potential for connection to both

on many factors, biotic and abiotic, a fact which

the parasite and the mutualist, illustrating how such small

not only defies but punishes oversimplification.

changes at the genetic level result in profound symbiotic changes.

Holistic plant cultivation is enriched by the

Fluctuation of genetic expression accounts for the changes in

deluge of information percolating through the

physiology important to cultivation, and while the MLO group

scholastic disciplines of ecology, microbiology, entomology, and

have been known as puzzlingly common despite their nature

molecular biology, to name a few, clarifying the microcosm in,

as susceptibility genes for years, it is only very recently that

on, and around plants. Symbiosis is not a false dichotomy of

the additional benefits of their widespread existence have been

beneficial and detrimental forces vying over the plant in an

explained, and so it is for the other gene-based microbiome

eternal struggle of Good versus Evil, but a spectrum of diverse

interactions between viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes,

and sometimes stochastic interactions spanning mutualistic

and their interaction with the SYM and CSSP Pathways.

facilitation, asymmetric commensalism or amensalism, negligible

The artificial selection pressures through more than 10,000

neutralism, and parasitic impediment all occurring across

years of human cultivation have vastly altered the genetic

the environmental background of changes in temperature,

expression of Cannabis compared to its wild ancestors. In

humidity, light, hydration, and substrate factors among

other crop plants such as Maize, comparisons between modern

others. While cultivators have grown Cannabis for many

cultivars, older lineages, and wild relatives show changes

millennia without this explicit knowledge, understanding

related to nutrient and water acquisition and the ability to filter

the erudite magic behind a plant’s ability to distinguish ally

microbial populations, which are an adaptation to this human

from enemy as well as resist or attract so many different

element. Plants must balance their resources, and ancestral

organisms confers great benefit by avoiding costly practices

adaptations that established costly but necessary symbioses and

based not on evidence but opinion in the agricultural space.

defenses have been lost in the advent of easily acquired nutrients

In brief, genes and the RNA or proteins they produce are the causal agents of pest resistance and susceptibility traits

and the externalized protection of pest management techniques. Even the most basic, essential metabolic processes for plants,

like the production of metabolites such as terpenes, esters,

like the production of sugars from photosynthesis, are costly

and even cannabinoids—likewise, genetic products are also

to supply to every cell every second of every day. Defensive

responsible for the success of pathogens and herbivores.

responses are even more costly to initialize and maintain, as

Symbioses are not stark, binary incidences but complex

is recognition of beneficial microbes since not every beneficial

connected systems comprised of thousands of molecular

relationship is equal, but exist on a gradient that is heavily

exchanges acting in concert. These molecular communications

regulated by the plant in much the same way that the human

are mediated at this genetic level between multiple organisms,

body regulates the movement and development of gut microbiota:

with the immune systems of plants or insects playing a

whether in the human or plant body, typically beneficial microbes

major role in regulating their microbiome, influencing

can cause dysfunction if they colonize atypical areas, the host is

compatibility. For this reason, various plant colonizers have

stressed, or the host lacks the ability to recognize it as beneficial.

adapted to suppress, bypass, or commandeer this system. For example, Cannabis root and leaf structures are made

The empirical literature on the subject of plant-microbe, -predator, or plant-herbivore relationships identifies a number

up of rigid cells. At the surface of leaf tissue, a wax cuticle

of commonly documented responses to stress that help to

layer to retain moisture is produced out of which hair-like

frame the concept of plant health. Land plants like Cannabis

structures well known as trichomes emerge. At the surface

generally cannot escape damage through movement, and

of roots, projections called root hairs also emerge. In these

different kinds of damage both come from different sources

cells, select sets of genes of the Mildew Locus O (MLO) family

and necessitate specific responses, but the resources for

found in other land plants exists, and they produce proteins

these responses come from the same pool that is shared

important for sensing and reacting to mechanical stimulation.

with processes for growth and reproduction. Aside from the

Among other things, this capability is necessary for colonization

inherent stress of metabolism that must also be mitigated,

of root cells by mutualistic microbes like mycorrhizal fungus

plants are usually under the pressure of multiple external

Glomus mosseae, as well as the colonization of leaf cells by the

stressors, and for this reason, the plant immune system must

parasitic lettuce powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum.

balance with processes related to growth, reproduction, and

The absence of these few genes and the sensory proteins they

defense, often referred to as the Growth-Defense Tradeoff.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

“ The artif icial selection pressures through more than 10,000 years of human cul tivation have vastly al tered the genetic expression of Cannabis compared to its wild ancestors. In other crop plants such as Maize, comparisons between modern cul tivars, older lineages, and wild relatives show changes related to nutrient and water acquisition and the ability to f il ter microbial populations, which are an adaptation to this human element.”

Managing plant stress in a holistically

by lacking effective countermeasures.

sustainable fashion is one of the

Similarly, a typically beneficial microbe

most important objectives related to

may be unable to colonize a plant due to

facilitating plant health globally.

genetic incompatibility or even become

Nutrition, hydration, and even microbial

mildly or severely pathogenic due to

inputs are important means to this end,

a change in genes or their expression

but ultimately genetic makeup dictates

within the microbiome. It is this

how these natural processes contribute

molecular harmony that orchestrates

to plant stress resistance. The most

plant health, and as cultivators, we

nutritionally optimized plant can still

must compose a floral symphony by

be vulnerable to a pest because it is

conducting the right instruments.

compatible at a genetic level, such as


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Small Legacy Farms are Facing Extinction and Need Our Support



he perfect storm has been building

“Taxes are without a doubt the greatest cost associated

in California’s cannabis industry, taking an

with the regulated market.” said Daniel Fink of Down Om

especially hard toll on legacy, sun-grown

Farms in Nevada County, California. “Being held to the

farms. The combined pressures of massive

same commercial regulations as farms with the benefit of

overproduction, unprecedented droughts, and

economy of scale makes huge challenges for the smallest

wildfires, along with regulatory burdens, have conspired

farmers,” continued Fink. “If small farms were regulated

to create what many in the industry are calling an

as agricultural, we would have a fighting chance.”

“extinction event” for small-scale, family-run farms. While Proposition 64, and the legalization of cannabis

A large majority of cannabis in California is now dominated by large-scale, indoor and greenhouse mono-

in California, held the promise of greener pastures,

crop facilities, but the Emerald Triangle (encompassing

many of the state’s craft farms were left to fend for

Humboldt, Mendocino, and Trinity Counties) is home to

themselves in an inequitable marketplace.

more than one-third of all cannabis cultivation licenses in

Regulations adopted in 2018 laid the groundwork for massive cannabis production that is currently far-outpacing demand in the state. According to the California Department of Food and Agriculture, licensed cultivators produce more than six million

the state, with over 1,700 licenses in Humboldt alone. The Emerald Triangle is also where many legacy farms weathered decades of adversity during the era of prohibition, only to be squeezed out by the legal regime. Many of the farms being affected by the current

pounds of cannabis annually, even though Californians consume

landscape are Sun+Earth Certified, upholding rigorous

less than a third of that amount. While craft cannabis farms can

regenerative organic standards which go beyond USDA

be as small as 2500 square feet, few limits exist for the acreage

Organic requirements and include cover cropping, mulching,

or number of industrial-sized farms. Overproduction has caused

composting, and reduced tillage to increase soil vitality.

a precipitous price drop for all cannabis sold in California, and the small-scale outdoor farms are getting hit hardest. When you add onerous licensing fees, regressive

Such practices also eliminate a reliance on toxic pesticides and other chemical inputs and, through carbon sequestration, help reduce the cannabis industry’s extremely large

cultivation taxes, and other regulatory requirements,

carbon footprint. The health and environmental benefits

craft farmers are struggling to survive.

of regenerative organic cannabis should be ample reason

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

alone to preserve and protect these small legacy farms. But their extinction not only impacts the lives of farmers tending the land but also spells the end of an

$15 million. However, the roll-out of equity grants to local jurisdictions has been slow and inadequate to meet the need. In October 2021, the newly-formed Department of Cannabis

era. Cannabis genetics that have been passed down

Control unveiled guidelines and application requirements

over generations are being replaced by designer strains

for $100 million in grants to local jurisdictions, proposed

that fall out of vogue as quickly as they appear.

by Governor Newsom and passed by the legislature

Cannabis grown in the Emerald Triangle and other

earlier in the year. With three-quarters of the state’s

California appellations carries with it the history of the

cultivation licenses still provisional, these funds are

modern cannabis culture and has a unique “terroir” that

intended to bring more farms into annual compliance.

embodies the soil, topography, and climate in which it

But many in the industry believe this funding is too

was grown, something that cannot be replicated by mass-

meager and does little to address inequitable market

produced, commodified cannabis devoid of heritage.

competition and formidable regulatory burdens.

“We are undergoing a mass extinction of small, family-run

High on the list of demands are (1) waiving the cultivation

cannabis farms, and this loss of diversity will be sorely missed

tax for small-scale farmers and (2) placing a moratorium on new

once consumers realize the quality and terroir that is only

licenses to stem the flood of cannabis due to overproduction.

possible on a small scale,” claimed Kila Peterson of Sweet Creek Farm in Guerneville, California, a Sun+Earth Certified farm. “We are women-owned and run, and we farm where we

Overproduction may also become less of a problem once the issue of interstate commerce is addressed and legal cannabis states can freely exchange cannabis products without the

live,” continued Peterson. “Because we own our land, we

threat of federal

have that extra incentive to take great care of it. We go that

enforcement. But,

extra mile with organic and constantly look at ways to close

unless federal

loops on our land. We teamed up with Sun+Earth this year

legislation contains

to help communicate our integrity to our customers.”

explicit protections

The limited amount of retail opportunities in California

for small farmers,

is another externality many small producers and operators

they will continue

are facing. The cultivation rate and product availability

to struggle and

continue to multiply, but the shelf space doesn’t exist to

face extinction.

sell it all. It’s a buyer’s market, and the market is largely

The Cannabis

“We are undergoing a mass extinction of small, familyrun cannabis farms, and this loss of diversity will be sorely missed once consumers realize the quality and terroir that is only possible on a small scale.”

dictated by high THC potency and price point. Well-resourced


entities are buying dispensary shelf space making it

and Opportunity

nearly impossible for small farm-owned brands to compete.

Act (CAOA),

Sun+Earth is working diligently to educate consumers at

federal legislation

the point of sale about the devastating impacts of industrial

introduced by US

cannabis and why choosing sun-grown cannabis can have

Senators Cory

a positive and direct effect on cannabis communities.

Booker (D-NJ), Chuck Schumer (D-NY), and Ron Wyden (D-

“We have to get the word out that earth-conscious

OR), is an important proposal, but it falls short of providing

cannabis is a better option for people and the planet,”

protections for small farmers. Comments submitted on the

said Judi Wood of Sun+Earth Certified Sol Spirit Farm

CAOA by nonprofit New York Small Farma embody the

in Trinity County. “We know this cannabis consumer

importance of regenerative organic farming and the critical

is out there. They just have to learn that they have

needs of small farmers. These comments are a blueprint

this option and understand how it benefits them.”

for legislators and should be heeded if we hold any hope of

“Part of the barrier is cautious retailers not understanding that people will pay a little more for regeneratively farmed

sustaining small legacy farms for more generations to come. We are at a crossroads in the cannabis industry. If

and sustainably packaged cannabis,” continued Wood. “If you

we continue on the current trajectory, small legacy

buy organic produce and support your local farmers’ market,

farms will become a thing of the past, replaced by mass-

you should be buying Sun+Earth certified cannabis.”

produced cannabis lacking in terroir, culture, and

The State of California has recently implemented modest

respect for the land. We must come together to lift each

recovery programs, but struggling farmers say the measures

other up, unify and amplify each other’s voices, and

are not nearly enough to prevent their extinction.

provide sacred stewardship of this powerful plant.

In April 2020, the Governor’s Office of Business and

“To survive in the new regulated market, we must stay

Economic Development (GO-Biz) announced that $30 million

true to our roots of natural farming and connect with

would be allocated under the umbrella of the Cannabis

those who truly care about the source of their cannabis,”

Equity Grants Program to help California cities and counties

said Fink of Down Om Farms. “Stewardship of land and

support low-income farmers and farmers of color. Then,

care of community is the highest honor imaginable.”

in March 2021, GO-Biz announced another allocation of


Cannabis Culture Museum and Archive




021 marks my 53rd anniversary with this

And so it began. In 1970 my brother Phil had recently

magical plant. Yes - it has been a long and strange

designed and fabricated a unique smoking pipe that he called the

trip. Growing up in the 1950s and 60’s many adults

Contrivance. He moved from Denver to San Francisco to launch

smoked tobacco and drank alcohol. All media:

this pipe dream. San Francisco was the epicenter for the growing

print, radio, billboards, and television were filled

youth movement. I dropped out of college and followed him there

with adverts for them. Almost immediately after turning on to

in 1971. Little did I know what a journey that would become.

cannabis in1968, I realized there was a double standard being

For 6 years we lived and manufactured the pipes in Berkeley,

practiced. Why was smoking pot illegal while drinking alcohol

another haven for youth and the growing counter-culture. I began

and smoking tobacco was encouraged and made to look sexy?

to be an archivist, saving and storing the most amazing posters,

I first smoked cannabis in 1968 in between seeing the performances of Jimi Hendrix Experience and the Led

books, and cultural icons, which became a life-long passion. The undeclared war in Vietnam was part of this moment

Zeppelin bands. Smoking Cannabis was an act of rebellion

in time as were the civil rights movement and political

against the establishment. While the media demonized

assassinations. Unlike many of my friends I was lucky and

it, those of us who partook quickly found out we had

won the draft lottery that year-365. I would have been the last

been brainwashed into believing it was evil. If ‘they’ were

one called to ‘duty’. Many youths fled the country-most went

lying to us about something as simple as smoking this

to college or university to sit it out. Protests were happening

plant then what else were they lying to us about...

everywhere and the youth culture was creating its place in

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

“I hope you’ll join me as we visit the Cannabis Cul ture Museum and Archive Vaul t in future issues of Skunk magazine. Some of the topics will include Prohibition, the Back-to-the-Land movement, youth cul ture - music and lifestyle, activism, solar connectivity, and more. - Richard Jergenson, Founder Cannabis Cul ture Museum and Archive

history. For me, cannabis seemed to be the

culture is rapidly disappearing due to

glue that helped to hold the movement

post-cannabis legalization growing laws.

together. Youth culture was forming at

When we sold the ProtoPipe business

the time and it seemed unstoppable.

in 1987 I kept all the founding business

I began to collect flyers, news stories,

records, original artwork and advertising,

and articles about “us”. It seemed

periodicals, and hundreds of colorful

important, and my natural instinct as an

testimonials and fan mail. I believed

archivist gained a focus and momentum.

and knew this was a treasure trove

I saved a lot of information, although

of an era- 1960’s, 70’s and 80’s.

most of my friends moved around and got rid of everything as they went. We continued manufacturing & selling

I have continued to add to this cannabis culture collection including the 80 plus year prohibition

the Contrivance pipe and I became a

history as well as the back-to-the-

licensed Berkeley street artist in 1974

land movement here in Northern

on Telegraph Avenue. I also got my

California - the Emerald Triangle.

vendor license to sell at Fishermans

My collection has been

Wharf in San Francisco. Selling on the

kept in immaculate condition

streets gave me a continuing big picture

and continues to grow.

of how the culture was evolving. We

Besides the ProtoPipe and prohibition

lived and worked in several warehouses

documentation, there are hundreds of

in co-housing artist/inventor groups,

books, magazines, and news articles

which was also very edgy at the time.

that are culture and canna-centric.

The University of California Berkeley

I’m continually adding to what has

attracted students from around the globe,

become the Cannabis Culture Collection

a real melting pot of youth. In 1976 we

which is reputed to be one of the most

rebranded our pipe as the Proto Pipe. The

inclusive collections of original articles

business was great and soon we moved

and documents on the American

our business north to Mendocino County.

‘youth counter culture’ in the world.

In Mendo, I lived in a growers’ paradise,

I hope you’ll join me as we visit

where you never ask anyone what they

the Cannabis Culture Museum and

did for a living. “Everyone was a potter,

Archive Vault in future issues of

jeweler, or a carpenter”. Our close friends

Skunk magazine. Some of the topics

included lots of pot growers. Many of the

will include Prohibition, the Back-to-

Mom and Pop homesteaders not only grew

the-Land movement, youth culture

their own weed but inadvertently helped

- music and lifestyle, activism,

jump-start the solar industry by buying

solar connectivity, and more.

solar panels for powering their homes in the mountains & woods. I collected and

- Richard Jergenson, Founder Cannabis Culture Museum and Archive

archived these stories for the future. I believe the time is at hand to share this

incredible story, as the back-to-the-land


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WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

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Glass Vegas Artist Feature F I ONA P H O E N X F I R E


PHOTO MICHAL GRATTAROTI @MGPROFESSIONAL_IMG hat does your work aim to say? My work aims to say that it is

the pleasure of being shop mates for several years early in my career, and we got to learn a lot together. I have

important to return to ceremony.

gotten to watch her follow her creative voice and build a

No matter where you are from,

successful business by my side and I am so inspired by

all our ancestors have ceremonies

her. She is also one of my best friends and soul sisters.

to harmonize the ebb and flow of life and its cycles. How does your work comment on

How have you developed your career? First was the access that Turtle provided to me, the

current social or political issues?

industry, and our community. I had no idea the glass pipe

I feel like my work is pointing specifically to indigenous

world even existed before I met him. He taught me how to do

ritual tools like the ceremonial pipe because the ongoing

cold calls with head shops, how to price my work & how to

erasure of indigenous cultures never stopped. We must be

run a booth at a trade show. The second part of developing

able to talk about it. On a personal note, bringing more ceremony into my daily life and reconnecting with my cultures has been very powerful. Both personal and cultural conversations are important. The whole point of ceremony is to nourish our spirits and relationships in the face of a very difficult time politically and otherwise. Who are your biggest influences? My lover, my teacher and coparent, Turtle @turtletimeglass. He has taught me anything I could ever ask to learn on the torch. My other biggest influence is Sarah @saritaglass. Where Turtle is more of a mentor and teacher, Sarah is my classmate and peer. We had

“ The world is crazy right now, and people tell me that my work helps them feel connected to their smoking ceremony in a deeper way. If my work helps people connect to the magic of the universe for healing and changemaking, then that is the greatest gift I can hope to give.”

my business was really staying true to my creative visions and message. Ultimately what I love about being a glass artist is that being successful depends largely on your relationships. Working together with other artists and head shops and taking care of those relationships makes us all stronger & it helps the artistic message to get out. How do you seek out opportunities? If I was talking to someone just starting out and they are looking for opportunities, I would tell them to start


decision. It’s more of a journey and less regimented than production time. I also dance and sing a lot at my torch! What’s your background? My background is in the performing arts. I have always been into theatre, singing, and writing. I have some phycology education in school, I have had customer service jobs, but the call to use creativity as a tool for healing and transformation has always been a part of my life. In glass, I have been on the torch since 2011. I have been running a successful production and glass art business as a wholesaler to shops as well as online and at local art markets. I have been the first-place winner in a handful of glassblowing competitions and was the first pregnant woman to compete in the CHAMPS Masters. I have also had the pleasure of being featured in several industry magazines. Most recently, I had the pleasure of doing a live glass demo at my favorite tradeshow Glass Vegas.! What’s integral to the work of an artist? I think for an artist to balance the ideals of their work with a humble attitude. I see ego disrupting the potency of creative PHOTO DOUG BALDWIN @DBPHOTO773

people all the time, and while they may have successful careers, their work misses the mark in serving their community. The job

researching anything close by in their area such as local

of an artist is to comment and reflect on society and give people

head shops, other artists, craft fairs, and farmers markets. I

the opportunity to have good conversations. Also, by creating

have been able to develop relationships with the local head

emotional reactions and telling stories, but only if we stay

shops, and sometimes they have events, including glass

humble in the face of the pressure to make money and gain clout.

blowing completions or glass blowing demonstrations, and you never know which one of these connections will lead you

What do you want to convey to the industry? The industry is currently standing on the backs of imprisoned,

into a new opportunity. I would encourage anyone to say yes

black, indigenous people of color (BIPOC) while privileged

whenever possible to new experiences, collaborations as well

members of the community make a lot of money on cannabis.

as being flexible and staying open to trying new things.

It is vital that the industry turns its eye to the victims of the

How do you cultivate a collector base?

drug war. It is also imperative that we operate with integrity

Under promise and overdeliver! Stay humble and have

with our ecosystems. If the industry and, more than that, our

integrity with your word and operate with kindness. People

whole human family is going to be successful, we must restore

like my work, but they also tell me how much they appreciate

balance and justice with our relatives and environment. I

how well I communicate with them and how I make them

sincerely hope that people will draw on the power of ritual,

feel. As important as skill and artistic vision is, it comes

especially with cannabis to fortify them for the work ahead.

back to how well you take care of your relationships. Why do you do what you do? There are so many reasons why I do what I do. A very deep reason is that I feel like I am doing something important for my community. The world is crazy right now, and people tell me that my work helps them feel connected to their smoking ceremony in a deeper way. If my work helps people connect to the magic of the universe for healing and changemaking, then that is the greatest gift I can hope to give. How do you work? I work when the kid is in school. I am very strategic; I have rhythms that I follow. I like to open all the handles from yesterday’s work, burn a little plant medicine to help the session, and if I am working on production, I like to prep batches of pieces at one time and get as many finishes in the kiln as possible. If I am making a oneof-a-kind piece, it’s a slower process with more time in between moves also more time to sketch and make the next


WIN TER 2 021/ 2022



ILLUSTRATIONS COURTESY OF STONEY BALONEY CARDS re you a collector? Do you love art? Do you love weed? Do you enjoy finances? If you have answered “yes” to these questions, you are in for a special treat! There’s a new and exciting world happening right as you read this, and I’d say it’s safe to guess that you, dear reader, may be involved in this movement. Why yes, I am talking about NFT’s (Non-fungible Tokens), and if you have

no idea what I am talking about, my goal of this article is to give you a brief introduction to the NFT world and the amazing creative possibilities this technology is providing. For those of you familiar, I’d love to share my discovery of one of the coolest brands / IP (intellectual property) to come onto the NFT scene and one of my personal favorites. WHAT ARE NFT’S? Before I get into the brand, it’s important to understand a few basics and what NFT’s are all about in the simplest way I can explain. The best way to sum it up: think collectible digital baseball cards. NFT stands for NON-FUNGIBLE TOKEN and is a way to represent anything unique as a cryptocurrency-based asset. Content creators are being empowered more than ever as technology allows for complete and direct value to be gained by creators for the life of their digital and blockchained assets. Powered by smart contracts on the blockchain, each digital asset has complete transparent receipts showing the movement and in-depth information which can be seen by anyone. This allows for unique qualities and high value to be bestowed on assets that have caused an absolute scene in the art and collectible world. (For more info, please visit 2021 will be remembered as the year NFT’s took over the world as the information and movement really gained traction with news of artists such as Beeple having immensely successful NFT auctions ($69 million USD) and household brand names getting involved with bringing their brand and IP (intellectual property) to the Metaverse. As I started my own path of discovery, creativity, and collecting in this new world, the art lover in me was astounded by the number of mind-blowing artists embracing NFT technology through platforms such as Rarible and OpenSea and showcasing and selling their work. I don’t think there’s ever been a time such as 2021 where I discovered more artists than I have in my entire creative career. Navigating the NFT world has led me to

discover one of the most enticing and exciting brands I have personally laid my eyes upon.


STONEY BALONEY There’s a saying that goes the best things in life find you. And by the stars’ alignments, this is exactly what happened. I happened to receive an Instagram friend request from @StoneyBaloneyCards, and upon viewing their profile and website, I was immediately drawn to the amazing art illustrations they had in their collection. As a designer, I always like to say, “let the work speak for itself,” and I feel Stoney Baloney Cards hits that high mark. As taken from their website,, “Stoney Baloney Cards are unique NFT digital cannabis trading cards on the WAX token. Each NFT pack comes

"Stoney Baloney Cards are unique NFT digital cannabis trading cards on the WAX token. Each NFT pack comes with a unique collection of characters & strains because who wants to live in a world with just one strain?"

collector; take note - the creators hired one of THE ORIGINAL illustrators from Garbage Pail Kids to produce the art. What truly made me a fan of this brand was their attention to artistic detail and uniqueness to each card. In my eyes, it was far superior art-wise to 75% of the NFT collections currently being offered. THE CREATORS Stoney Baloney Cards is a creation of twin brothers Mike and Lee Goldstein. Based in Los Angeles and originally from the city of brotherly love, Philadelphia, PA, the Goldsteins have distilled down their respective professional and personal experiences in bringing to life the

with a unique collection of characters & strains because

Stoney Baloney Card brand early this year. Lee Goldstein

who wants to live in a world with just one strain?”

brings his business, sales, and marketing experience while

The overall collection features a cast of highly illustrated and

Mike brings his creative touch and direction to the table,

articulate characters inspired by cannabis, and various strains

which creates the very strong and formidable brand that

come to life; there’s a mad scientist named Dr. Herb, who is the

is Stoney Baloney Cards, emerging into the NFT space.

antagonist of a brand that has turned human “test subjects”

Taking a trip to Los Angeles to meet the brothers, I had the

into weed strains! All-time favorites such as “Purple Haze,” Blue

wonderful opportunity to hear their story in-depth and share

Dream,” and “Sour Diesel” appear as never-before-seen artistic

some ganja vibes. Just like many of us in the creative space,

renditions in which the art jumps out and grabs your attention.

both Mike and Lee know the art of hustling and making moves

One glance at Stoney Baloney’s art direction and the

to survive and thrive. Prime examples are Lee being a previous

thought “these look like Garbage Pail Kids but with weed”

brand ambassador of a well-known energy drink and Mike

may have crossed your mind. This is the ultra-kicker as a

previously dressing up as the official mascot for the San Diego

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Padres. The brothers shared with me a snapshot into their lives and their love


and dedication to their family and loved


ones. That creativity is artistically weaved into the ethos and vibe of who they are.


I also surprisingly discovered that they actually had a successful run of college-based comics called “Zoo University” in the last decade that took animal illustrations and placed them in your typical college situations. I felt this was a strong basis of the foundation of storytelling coupled with fun and


whimsical illustrations that are found in the Stoney Baloney Cards collection. They also shared with me the roots of what led to Stoney Baloney Cards. Their original plan was to start an edible

1) Visit

cannabis line in the CA market; however, after much research and insight, they

2) Obtain a wax wallet (https: //

soon realized the hurdles that would


need to be cleared to launch a cannabis


brand effectively. After a focused and collective effort over a time span of 7 months, Stoney Baloney Cards was

3) Visit https: //

born and launched in August of 2021.

drops/81372 to purchase pack

IN SUMMARY In this ever-changing NFT space, I feel

4) Sit back and enjoy the show!

that true attention to creative detail

You have off icially joined the

and the execution of art will dictate how

Stoney Baloney Card Family!

future brands blossom into household

Scan to collect an off icial Skunk

names. As more people become aware of NFT’s and their implications, early adopters and early collections such as

x Stoney Baloney Card NFT ! This could be your f irst NFT! :)

Stoney Baloney Cards will not only be valuable but a part of a unique timestamp


of humanity’s digital experience. Truly,

if you love cannabis, beautiful art, and storytelling, Stoney Baloney Cards are a sound choice and an exciting new brand

TELEGRAM https: // stoneybaloneycards

to keep your eyes on as they grow.









2022 I N T E R N AT I O N A L C B C . C O M

The Ranchera Sisterhood A C ON N E C TION P RO DU C E D BY PA S S I O N F O R H E M P U N D E R T H E CA LIFOR NIA SU N



Whole Flower CBD Superfoods Mask

generation Mexican-

Whole Flower CBD Face Elixir

American born in Madera, CA; whose


grandfathers on both


sides came from Nuevo Leon, Mexico,

For as much as social media creates

and both grandmothers were born in

hardships for cannabis and hemp

Texas. Sue, a Chicana from the south,

businesses, it’s also a helpful tool to

was born into and raised on farms by

connect with the community. In 2020,

her family of generational farmers.

through social media, Adriana and

Together they formed a sisterhood, which

Sue connected. Adriana describes the

is the foundation that serves as the

meet that led to connection as:

heart of their collaboration endeavors.

“I found Sue through a hashtag. She was popping off on some misogynistic


troll, and in my head, I was like, “Uh-huh,


you tell his ass!” Then she mentioned


she was a Latina hemp farmer; I knew

Ranchera Familia, formerly known

I had to reach out because that in

as the Botanical Joint, is a licensed

itself is extraordinary in this space.”

hemp farm owned by the first Latina

The connection led to Adriana

hemp breeder in the United States,

purchasing CBD flower grown by Sue for

Sue Carlton. Ranchera Familia offers

the creation of the Bitchy Hippie products.

a variety of hand-crafted artisanal

Sue and Adriana say that it was a no

hemp and wellness products, with a

brainer to collaborate and work together:

line of CBD flower that pays homage

“We are Latina, so it was a no-

to Sue’s roots. These hemp cultivars

brainer to help showcase each other’s

are for the culture, and it’s obvious:

products. Ranchera Familia is one of

WAP: Named after Cardi B’s song, featuring Megan Thee Stallion. Frida: Named after a Mexican painter

the only Latina-owned and operated hemp farms in the United States and the first Latina genetics company on

who helped bring light to Mexican

the market, so it’s important we push

culture through her paintings.

the message throughout its journey into

Not Your B*tch: Named due to

consumer brands. Seeing Latinas in this

a wicked sense of humor in an

industry is uncommon. It’s easier to work

effort to stick it to the man.

together and be seen rather than go it

Ranchera Tingz: Named as remix to Nicki Minaj’s song- Barbi Tingz.

alone. And besides, how can one not be inspired working alongside other jefas?” Both women give each other

The Bitchy Hippie, owned by Adriana, a Registered Nurse, who offers a

Sue: “I could tell that Adriana was

beautiful line of whole flower hemp/

serious; we don’t just partner with anyone.

CBD infused skincare products:

She showed up for her business and

Curated Boxes

mine; she’s hella smart and a Registered

Whole Flower CBD Intense

Nurse. She is the kind of person that

Hydration Serum Whole Flower CBD Beauty Balm Botanical Cleansing Oil PHOTO KIANA SHOOTS

their flowers by adding:

would represent Ranchera Familia.” Adriana: “Sue is incredibly smart and talented. She really takes care of and


takes pride in her craft. When I walk

here; we are here to push for equitable

on her farm, I feel the love and energy

health amongst all genders and ethnicities

she pours in. I absolutely trust what

through representation and showing up

she grows, which is why I’m confident in

for us our Amigas and communities.”

recommending her flower to patients.”

Adriana: “As a patient, my health symptoms and concerns were ignored


for years. I was overmedicated, without


actual relief. Cannabis was life-changing


for me. As a nurse, I feel like I have


a responsibility to help others.”

It’s no secret that cannabis and hemp


are male-dominated industries. In an


article published by The Insider in 2020,

Sue: “As a Latina-owned/operated

they reported: “Between 80% to 90% of

business and as the cannabis industry

the industry is run by white owners.”

matures and improves, it is of the utmost

I asked Sue about their favorite parts of being a Latina owned

cultivator to supply our flower. We

hemp business, she stated:

needed someone beautiful as a flower

“It’s the dream to provide for our


WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

and delicate as a bomb, a hardworking

families and our friends to make a direct

Latina that would represent all of us

impact for those around us, providing

Chicanas securing the bag in a male-

a healthy structured workplace and

dominated industry. The future is female.

family values through owning our own

“As a Latina-owned/ operated business and as the cannabis industry matures and improves, it is of the utmost importance to have a strong female cul tivator to supply our flower. We needed someone beautiful as a flower and delicate as a bomb, a hardworking Latina that would represent all of us Chicanas securing the bag in a maledominated industry. The future is female.”

importance to have a strong female

Adriana: “It’s important to me

ranch. We do it for our people every

because so many businesses are male-

step of the way. Which is why for us,

dominated. No shade to the dudes out

it’s a dream to own our own properties

there, but representation matters.

to provide jobs and economic resources

Women also tend to be meticulous

for our communities just like we

when it comes to the little things,

saw when we were the laborers.”

which makes all the difference.”

I asked Adriana about the biggest

We wrapped up with the question:

benefit in working with Sue, she stated:

“Right now, there are young Latina’s

“Sue is the biggest cheerleader you’ll

seeing a very male-dominated world

ever meet. She doesn’t know this, but she

and feeling discouraged. What piece

has lifted me up when I needed it. It’s not

of advice would each of you give?”

easy owning a business, especially in this space. She is genuinely good people, and I’m beyond blessed to have her in my life.” I asked both Latina’s about their industry why’s: Sue: “Being a community health major,

Their response was full of BOSS inspiration: “Babe, don’t give up! Stand up, show up and work hard. Never settle; reach out, find your tribe and THRIVE. You have to work hard. You can’t just say

I aligned with women of color, especially

I wanna do it. You have to show up on

women who are of my own ethnicity.

time for yourself, your business, and

We see each other, understand our

others. Stand tall and proud of what you

upbringings, and know that the industry

do, and don’t lose focus of your why.

lacks a strong presence of Latinas to

If you need help, ask. We count on each

represent the women and young ladies

other to push for excellence. Link up,

of the world. Latina’s/Latinoa/Latinx is

find a mentor, and never stop projecting

automatically a Familia vibe; even when

about what you want in the future. It

I see other POC, like Black, Asian, and

will happen with the will to drive. Be

Indigenous women, we automatically

you, embrace your uniqueness, have self-

have a sense of we got your back. I’m

respect, be happy, and be confident.”



Five Captivating Questions F O R NIC K SA A D CO-FOU NDER SITKA





Rum wasn’t the only thing that sailors partook in on their long

Middle Eastern

sea voyages. Hashish was and still is a commodity, like molasses,

craft hashish

just a different set of rules—some legal, others less than legal.

is something very rare in

the USA. There are only a handful of hashish connoisseurs who are even knowledgeable enough to produce traditional European/

Is it a wonder why the global rum industry dates back to 1762 in Amsterdam, the European capital of weed? What binds the tradition together is time. When I smoked Sitka for the first time, it was like being

Middle Eastern style hashish. The commercial marketplace

a young man again, smoking history, experiencing, and

has quickly become a wasteland of high-priced “ice-water”

deepening my nearly fifty-year relationship with the plant.

finely powdered hash that enterprising dab-heads get super

Please allow me the pleasure of introducing you to Nick Saad.

high on. More concentrated cannabis flavor and aromatics are apparent in each dab of powdered hash. It does nothing for me. I much prefer the traditional hash of my travels around the globe throughout my life. While working as a journalist who specializes in cannabis,

Warren Bobrow: Why hash over flower? Do you take a craft approach to the plant? Nick Saad: There isn’t a right answer, just a preference of what you’re looking for at the time. This question to me is like

I’ve tried to focus on reviewing Organic and Biodynamic

asking why wine over beer, or espresso over coffee.

cannabis flowers. I’ve always hoped that someday the

Nick Saad: Hashish is basically a concentrated version of flower,

arcane talent and knowledge to make European/Middle

which makes it more potent in Cannabinoids. But also more

Eastern style hashish would come back into vogue.

limited in flavor varieties as hashish’s flavor profile changes from

Decades went by while I waited for traditional hash to

bright and flowery to spicy and earthy. Overall, hashish tends to

arrive, the hash from my somewhat misguided teen years

have a much more mellow effect on the user, rarely bending into

in the 1970s. Hash was plentiful then. I remember coveting

the Anxious/Paranoid realm. It also has a much fuller robust

little chunks of black Nepalese hashish from a friend’s dad

& spicy flavor than flower. Flower can come in all flavors of the

who brought it back from a pilgrimage to Nepal. Stamped

rainbow, while hashish tends to always have a bit of a “hashy”

in gold and oozing with sticky oil, this represented a

flavor unique to itself, which can be a comforting and trusted

smokable art form. One that I’ve finally found with Sitka.

flavor and consistent experience one can crave. So, strangely I’m

I had some decent old-world style hash in Jamaica back in the 1990s. They have a way of extracting hash oil

concluding that hashish, while it can come in many forms and slight variations, it offers potency, consistency, & reliability.

that resembles the distillation of rum, but I digress. Traditional hashish is part of global history. Study the

Warren Bobrow: Who was your mentor? Inspiration?

history of hashish, and you start to learn about the earth in a

Nick Saad: I never had a mentor; I’ve been self-taught in almost

manner not taught in prep school. The early adventurers and

everything I’ve done professionally. I have always looked at that

explorers of the globe sailed to the furthest reaches known to

as a disadvantage or some insecurity, namely, the fact that I

man. With them, they took elixirs to make the long sea voyages

didn’t have a chance to study under someone. Now I feel that

a bit easier to take. Buccaneers, for example, were probably not

was a blessing. The best way

smoking just tobacco in their pipes. I’d take a guess that it was weed! Maybe even hashish? After all their ropes to haul the sails were made from the fibers from hemp, I’m sure they didn’t just throw out the flowers if they were already smoking tobacco or distilling alcohol from sugar cane molasses. They like to get messed up to forget their pain. As a former sailor, I learned there are moments that stretch into weeks without wind or good humor. Discovering the globe comes with vices.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

for me to have learned

was to have had the freedom to learn,


make mistakes, learn, & repeat. I’d say

You could say his dedication to

my inspirations have always been other

making delightful quality products

self-taught makers and craftsmen. I

is a feature that is standard Nick

can say I’ve drawn inspiration from

since he was practically assembled

family, coming from a line of self-

on the factory floor of his family’s

taught makers and craftsmen from

plastics business - subsequently

farming to plastics, to footwear, to toys.

learning what it takes to build

Anybody who can put his or her focus

products with heart throughout

and creativity, make something out of

most of his formative years. After

nothing is incredibly inspiring to me.

four years of studying Fine Arts and Design Production, he immersed

Warren Bobrow: First time you

himself in Seattle’s design and art

smoked real hash? With whom?

scene; maintaining an artist’s loft in

that he’s an Eagle Scout too? In 2012 on a rainy night in a dark

Nick Saad: Sheesh. It must have been

Pioneer Square where he expanded

dive bar in Seattle’s trendy Ballard

around 1998 when a friend of mine

his creative outlets (not to mention

neighborhood, Sitka co-founders Nick

showed up with a little brown chunk

his mind for cannabis), all the while

Saad and Shawn Richards decided

wrapped in aluminum foil and showed

honing his motion graphics skills

they’ll pool their resources and

me hashish. Back then, we didn’t

while working for numerous Emmy

know-how to develop hash-infused

know crap about pot strains, and

Award-winning design houses. After

smokable products true to old-

hashish was literally foreign to us as

15 years of topflight design work

world tradition. Sitka Hash House’s

we’ve only ever experienced flower in

under his belt, a lingering itch to

fully cured handmade hash has the

the states. I remember being in awe

get back into product design &

authentic, characteristically cakey

as it bloomed when we kissed it with

development, and the fortuitously-

texture found across the middle

a lighter flame to soften it. Then we

timed cannabis legalization bill in

east and Europe. Sitka’s stated goal:

rolled it into a horrendous spliff that

Washington -drew Nick in. He knew

Craft hash products with such care

got us much higher than we expected. I

that this was JUST the opportunity

that the whole world finds wonder.

loved the experience but wouldn’t get to

he needed to invest in himself to

Today, Sitka’s products occupy

meet hashish again till 16 years later

dive hash-covered hands-first into

9 out of the top 10 hashish SKUs

when I created my own in Seattle!

the cannabis industry. So, along with

in Washington, and in April 2021,

a close friend and the support of an

Sitka launched its storied Classic

Warren Bobrow: Please tell

amazing wife, he formulated a plan

Line to serve California, a market

me about your company. Six

to build a solid and honest Cannabis

also calling for the very best

and twelve-month goals?

brand. Thus, Sitka was born and,

handcrafted, full-spectrum, old-

Nick Saad: We have smoking

over the past nine years, grew into

world hashish. A few months later,

paraphernalia and other ancillary

a thriving Hash House: a cannabis

Sitka’s unique products have sold

products in development to complement

production facility dedicated to the

into 165 California dispensaries.

the famed Sitka dome, all of which

study and creation of fine hashish

Sitka mixes traditional Middle

are for sale on That’s a

in all its forms. Along the way, Nick

Eastern Artisanal hashish

really fun process, collaborating with

became a father, which helped him

methodologies with local cannabis

craftsmen from the Pacific Northwest. We

see his role in a greater light - not

farm collaborations, undivided

also find that some items can be made

just as a business owner but as a

care, and exclusive recipe methods

overseas. Part of the joy in making the

guide, teacher, and torch-bearer.

to create products that have

journey abroad is to source products

His strong focus on building quality

incomparable flavor and a richer,

more affordably for our consumers.

products - be it crafted objects,

brighter finish. The taste of Sitka’s

Plans for Sitka long term? Continue

motion graphics, or Sitka Hashish

terpene-full hashish has people

expansion beyond Washington and

- is something that Nick not only

talking. Taste Hash Mastery.

California while always maintaining

hopes would make his Lebanese

the quality of our output. Come check

ancestors proud but something to

Author’s note:

us out at the Hall of Flowers in Santa

share with his own young son when

There was other one other person

Rosa or Palm Springs this year and

the time comes from generation to

in the USA that I discovered

at and Instagram etc.

generation and in between you’ll find

crafting the real thing…which

Nick teaching his apprentices the

is European/Middle Eastern

Warren Bobrow: What

art and science of hashish, making

style traditional hash, and

is your passion?

his own line of Nocino, and Nick

now he’s gone. RIP Frenchy.

Nick Saad: To be honest, right now, my

palling around on his bike with

two-year-old son is my passion.

his son. Oh, and did we mention






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s the seasons

If you have equipment like lights

In extremely high snow and ice conditions,

change and it starts

or controllers, you might want to

the greenhouses are not only outfitted

to get cooler, so do the

take them down or shrink-wrap

with proper heat, but they might also

capabilities of your

them in plastic. For the substrates/

require under the gutter heating to ensure

greenhouse. Even

containers/beds, you can plant cover

what is melted easily flows and continues

crops or cover them with a tarp.

its path through the downspouts.

though greenhouses are made for winter conditions, not all greenhouses are equipped or rated for things like

When preparing a Gothic frame

With any greenhouse, wind can

snow and high winds. In addition, many

greenhouse for the winter, some of the

also be an issue. Whether it’s a Hoop,

cannabis growers take the winter off, so

same advice for the hoop houses can

Gothic, or A-Frame, having the proper

let’s look at a few ways we can prepare

apply. However, Gothic frames tend

spacing of your post/columns is another

ourselves for the upcoming winter.

to be a more year-round greenhouse.

important factor. Engineered and

If they are not outfitted with heat,

permitted greenhouses generally state

the greenhouses can be compromised

what spacing needs to occur, but if you

in a snowstorm and collapse.

are a DIY builder, the closer your posts

When purchasing greenhouses, it’s always best to check with the manufacturer or supplier to find out

what snow and wind rating they might

In areas that have heavier snow,

are, the stronger the greenhouse will be.

have. Even permitted, engineered

you might skin the greenhouse with

greenhouses can run into trouble with

polycarbonate over a poly weave or film.

center layout, but to be stronger,

the changing weather. Typically, Hoop

When using a double-insulated poly or

a 4’ on center would be best.

Houses have the least amount of snow

twin wall polycarbonate, you will be

resistance, while Gothic frames can

required to turn up the heat. It takes

handle more, and A-Frames stand

more heat to reduce the snow load because

A-frames are typically a 12’ on center

up to the toughest conditions.

of the two layers creating insulation.

spacing, and they can be reduced

Most Hoops are a 5’ or 6’ on

The same principles apply to Gothics.

to 10’ 6’ and even 4’ on center. This With Hoop Houses, there are a few

Single wall greenhouses do not need as

will initially add more cost to the

options to try. Center bracing helps

much heat, but the engineers will tell you

structure, but the savings are made

strengthen the hoops from the inside,

to keep the heat in the greenhouse to 55-

when the greenhouse remains intact.

and adding heat will create a reducible

60 degrees F to protect it. Unfortunately,

snow load. Wet, heavy snow can pile up

engineers typically don’t take single wall

much quicker than it can be reduced in

and double wall covers into the equation,

not to miss - make sure you drain

some areas. If you are taking the winter

so it’s best to do your homework and verify

your water lines, filters, and tanks;

off, the best solution is to remove the

how much heat is needed to melt snow.

otherwise, you will have broken fittings

greenhouse cover completely. This keeps the greenhouse from taking on any weight

and split pipes when winter is over, A-Frames are generally known to be the

from snow and prevents the possibility

strongest of all greenhouse options, but it

of wind blowing the greenhouse apart.

doesn’t mean they can handle everything.

WIN TER 2 021/ 2022

Lastly, and a very important one

and you’re ready to grow again!


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