Edgebrook Briefing Book

Page 1

Edgebrook Super Neighborhood 79

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Collaborative Community Design Initiative. No. 5 SPECIAL EDITION: HARVEY Community Design Resource Center 2018

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Briefing Book

MEADOWBROOK

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KINGWOOD KINGWOOD KINGWOOD


Edgebrook Neighborhood, After Harvey


Contents Introduction (Harvey)

5

Edgebrook (Harvey)

7

Context

13

Demographics

25

Opportunities

33

Participants and Sponsors

47

Figure Ground Land Use Parks Transportation Drainage

Population and Age Race and Ethnicity Income Education Housing

Resilient Neighborhood New Transit Alternative Networks Resilient Housing New Community Center Food Truck Spark


Tropical Storm Allison Track, 2001

Hurricane Ike Track, 2008

2015-2016

AUG 24, 2017

A HISTORY OF FLOODING

HURRICANE HARVEY

Houston suffered two major flood events in the years preceding Harvey, the Memorial Day Flood in 2015 and the Tax Day Flood in 2016.

4

AUG 26, 2017

On Thursday Harvey is upgraded from a tropical storm to a hurricane. 30 inches of rain is forecast in isolated instances. Supermarket shelves empty as residents make preparations.

ABOVE: Harvey Timeline (Based on Analysis and Graphics by Matthew Nguyen, Constanza PeĂąa, Victor Romo, and Cristina Trejo)

Hurricane Harvey Track, 2017

On Saturday Harvey makes a second landfall and weakens to a tropical storm. Rain forecasts for Houston are measured in feet. Several cities implement curfews and roads begin closing. HISD cancels school for the next week.

AUG 25, 2017

On Friday Harvey is upgraded to a Category 4 storm and makes landfall at 10pm near Rockport. Several counties call for voluntary and mandatory evacuations. Tornado and flood warnings are issued. HISD closes schools.

AUG 27, 2017

Heavy rainfall begins Saturday night and by early Sunday morning neighborhoods begin flooding and high water rescues by boat and helicopter are being televised live.


Introduction At the time of this publication, it has been nearly a year since Hurricane Harvey made landfall and slowly circled around the greater Houston area for five days. Harvey left behind over 150,000 flooded homes and a maximum recorded rainfall of 47.4”. It took only one month before the city seemed to be functioning normally. But the tragedy unfolding for thousands of families continues behind the closed doors of flooded homes and temporary hotel rooms. While natural disasters are equal opportunity events, the resources to recover are not. As civic leader Keith Downey notes: “The storm hit many underserved communities long before the hurricane arrived.”

The slow motion flood disaster that inundated Houston is evidence of a new climate normal. In the wake of this new normal we must begin to define and build towards greater resiliency—not just in preparation for the next disaster, but to ensure everyday resiliency. The fifth biennial Collaborative Community Design Initiative, titled “Floods” is a partnership with four Houston neighborhoods that were severely impacted by Harvey: East Houston, Eastex/Jensen, Edgebrook, and Kashmere Gardens and Houston/Trinity Gardens. This Briefing Book is for the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood.

AUG 28, 2017

THE NEXT WEEK

AUG 29, 2017

THE AFTERMATH

In an unprecedented move, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers begins releasing water from reservoirs in west Houston. The release is to avoid a collapse that would inundate downtown Houston. The release floods thousands of homes near the reservoirs.

The rain from Hurricane Harvey begins to taper off, and by late Tuesday most neighborhoods would not see any more rain. The highest recorded rainfall in Harris County is 47.4”. An estimated 30,000 are in Houston shelters.

Professionals, volunteers, and communities begin cleaning up. Donation drives and distribution points are set up across the city. Individuals are prompted to contact insurance companies and apply for FEMA assistance. Some begin returning to work.

SIX MONTHS LATER

Some reconstruction efforts begin. Nearly 894,000 FEMA applications are filed by the November deadline. An estimated 150,000 structures flooded in Houston. Houston residents must now consider whether to rebuild or permanently relocate. Many still reside in temporary, sometimes makeshift, homes. FEMA hotel programs extended through June 2018.

Edgebrook Location Map

ONE YEAR LATER

Over $2 billion in Recovery Funding is finally allocated to the City of Houston and Harris County for rebuilding. Codes and policies are being rewritten to mitigate flood risks. Efforts are lagging to ensure residents are more informed and prepared for future disasters.

THE FUTURE

THE MONTH AFTER

Mucking, demolitions, and citywide cleaning continues. Some schools reopen. Displaced families relocated to temporary housing. Insurance and FEMA agents begin property inspections.

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I-45 I-10

I-69

Sims Bayou Watershed

ABOVE: Sims Bayou Watershed and Edgebrook Super Neighborhood

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Edgebrook


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Much of the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood is inside the 100and 500-year floodplains. During Harvey, estimated structural flooding correlated with the mapped floodplains. The Freeway Manor and Sun Valley neighborhoods in Edgebrook experienced the most significant flooding. According to the Civic Club, 1552 homes were impacted by Hurricane Harvey. Of the homes damaged in Freeway Manor, the City of Houston has mandated that 80 of these homes be elevated before being repaired. Edgebrook has experienced significant flooding three times, during Hurricane Claudette in 1979, Tropical Storm Allison in 2001 and Hurricane Harvey.

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The Harris County Flood Control District reports that 154,170 homes flooded during Harvey; 48,850 were within the 100-year floodplain and 34,970 within the 500-year floodplain. 70,370 flooded homes were not in an identified floodplain hazard area. Harris County Flood Control District estimates that 36% of flooded homes across the county were covered by flood insurance policies, while 64% were not.

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The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood is located in southeast Houston in the Sims Bayou watershed. The neighborhood has a complex system of natural and man made drainage ditches that connect to Berry Bayou. Berry Bayou flows into Sims Bayou further north. In 2016, Harris County Flood Control District completed improvements along Sims Bayou, it was one of the only bayous to remain in its banks during Harvey.

ABOVE: Flood Map Floodway 100-Year Floodplain 500-Year Floodplain BELOW: Edgebrook Photo, 10 months after Harvey

7


6.5

Inundation Level Sunday August 27, 2017 1 a.m.. 6”

Wednesday

Tuesday

Monday

5.5 5

Inundation Level Sunday August 27, 2017 12 a.m.

Sunday

Saturday

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Inundation Level Saturday August 26, 2017 11 p.m.

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5” 4”

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8/30/2017 13:00

8/30/2017 1:00

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8/29/2017 1:00

ABOVE: Hourly Rainfall Totals, Berry Bayou at Nevada Avenue

8/28/2017 13:00

8/28/2017 1:00

8/27/2017 13:00

8/27/2017 1:00

8/26/2017 1:00

0

8/26/2017 13:00

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ABOVE: Stream Elevation, Berry Bayou at Nevada Avenue 08.26.2017 08.27.2017 Source: Harris County Flood Warning System

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08.28.2017

08.29.2017

8.30.2017

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8.29.2017

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8.27.2017

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28’ 24’

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8.26.2017

OK

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08.30.2017

20’ 16’


The Harris County Flood Control District has compiled Hurricane Harvey rainfall data for gages across the county. The Edgebrook gage, located at Berry Bayou and Nevada Avenue, was used to identify maximum rainfall in the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood. The total rainfall over the four-day event was 43.9”. Edgebrook rainfall measured near the Harris County maximums for nearly every time interval, from one hour to four days. Over 14 inches of rain fell in one three-hour period. Berry Bayou topped its bank late Saturday night during the first round of heavy rainfall. The Bayou remained over the top of bank for nearly 10 hours, until mid-day on Sunday August 27, 2017. The maximum stream elevation peaked at 31.3’, which is 6” below the 500-year flood level of 31.9’; and 6” above the 100-year flood level. According to data from the Harris County Flood Control District, 8,510 homes flooded along Berry Bayou, roughly 6% of the 154,700 estimated flooded homes county wide. FEMA estimates from September 2017 reported 1,684 of these homes were in the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood, or roughly 20% of all flooded homes along Berry Bayou. Based on FEMA estimates 22% of all the homes in the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood flooded during Hurricane Harvey.

4 days

Harris County Maximum Recorded Rainfall Eastex/Jensen Rainfall Kashmere Gardens Rainfall Edgebrook Rainfall East Houston Rainfall

35.2” 36.2” 38.2”

26.7” 28.7”

2 days

29.5” 18.3” 18.8”

1 day

12.6” 14.2” 14.8”

4.0” 5.3” 6.1” 6.8”

1 hour

34.6”

25.6”

2.4” 3.7” 6.0” 3.9”

20.9” 20.1”

17.0” 14.8”

5.9” 7.2”

14.2”

7.9”

2 hour

35.2”

18.9”

7.6” 9.4” 10.7”

3 hour

43.9”

23.2” 20.6”

12 hour

6 hour

47.4”

11.9” 10.5”

TOTAL RAINFALL =

43.9”

ABOVE: Harris County and Neighborhood Maximum Recorded Rainfall Source: Harris County Flood Control District

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Tract 3209

Tract 3210

Tract 3213

Socioeconomic Vulnerability Persons below poverty

Income and poverty impact a family’s capacity to prepare for, react to and recover from a disaster

Civilian (age 16+) unemployed Per capita income Persons (age 25+) with no H.S. diploma Household Vulnerability Persons aged 65 and older

Seniors, children and single parents are more vulnerable to a disaster than other population groups

Persons aged 17 and younger Civilian non institutionalized population with a disability Single parent household with children under 18 Minority Status and Language Vulnerability

Access to information can be a challenge for those with language barriers

Minority (all persons except white, non-Hispanic) Persons (age 5+) who speak English “less than well� Housing and Transportation Vulnerability Housing in structures with 10 or more units

Access to transportation and quality housing that is outside of designated risk zones reduces vulnerability

Mobile homes estimate At household level, more people than rooms Households with no vehicle available Persons in institutionalized group quarters

Overall Social Vulnerability Vulnerability ranking (75% and over indicates social vulnerability)

ABOVE: Social Vulnerability Index Tracts in the top 10%, or at the 90th percentile (Indicate high vulnerability) Tracts below the 90th percentile Source: Social Vulnerability Index (2014), https://svi.cdc.gov/map.aspx

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90%

82%

90%


The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood has a very high Social Vulnerability Index as developed by the ATDSR of the Centers for Disease Control utilizing 2014 Census data. Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, including natural or human-caused disasters. The social vulnerability index is the “degree to which a community exhibits certain social conditions, including high poverty, low percentage of vehicle access, or crowded households.” Each of these conditions can impact a community’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from a disaster. The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood includes three Census tracts: 3209, 3210 and 3213. An analysis of the specific social vulnerabilities are provided in the table to the left. Each of the three Census tracts that comprise the neighborhood are in the highest vulnerability category, averaging 87% compared to tracts across the United States.

Tract 3209

Tract 3213

Tract 3210

ABOVE: Edgebrook Census Tract Map BELOW: Edgebrook Harvey Flooding

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Context The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood, located off the Gulf Freeway in southeast Houston, is fullydeveloped, densely populated and home to many young families. The cities of South Houston and Pasadena define the northern and eastern boundaries of the neighborhood.

South Houston

Pasadena

Edgebrook

Edgebrook began developing in the 1950s. Over the next two decades the neighborhood was built-out and the first wave of residents moved into the area. Single-family housing is the most predominant building type, making up the core of the neighborhood. The south, east and northeast edges are defined by multi-family housing, institutions, and industries. There is very little vacant land in the neighborhood.

ABOVE, Top: Edgebrook and City Boundaries ABOVE, Right: Figure Ground BELOW, Left to Right: Edgebrook Historic Aerials OPPOSITE PAGE, Left: Edgebrook Aerial 2017

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Edgebrook, and the subdivisions that comprise it, is the quintessential post-war suburban community. Development began in the 1950s, sparked by the completion of the Gulf Freeway, and continued across the next three decades. The neighborhood’s residential subdivisions are characterized by modest ranch-style single family homes. In the 1970s new multi-family developments were constructed along Galveston Road and the Gulf Freeway. In 2016, single family homes made up 50% of the housing stock in Edgebrook, slightly higher than the 45% in Houston overall. In the same year, 40% of housing was in apartment buildings with five or more units, lower than the 43% in Houston. Today, much of what exists in Edgebrook could not be built. Recently revised City floodplain ordinances will require any new construction in the floodplain to be elevated. The new ordinance is already impacting local rebuilding efforts post Hurricane Harvey. According to civic leaders, 80 area homes severely damaged by flooding have been unable to secure permits for rebuilding, unless the structure is elevated. ABOVE, Right: Residential Land Use Map Single Family Multi-Family RIGHT: Year Structure Built, Edgebrook and Houston, 2016 OPPOSITE PAGE, Top: Median Year Structure Built by Census Block Group OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom: Edgebrook Home Source: ACS 2016

16% Edgebrook

After 1980

42% Houston

80%

19501980

Before 1950

49%

4% 9%

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Edgebrook Drive is the essential commercial corridor connecting to destinations both inside and outside the neighborhood. Locallyowned restaurants and food trucks are becoming a crucial part of the economic resiliency of the neighborhood.

Almeda Mall

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Fairmont Parkway Shopping

Industrial uses are concentrated along Galveston Road. ABOVE, Right: Commercial and Industrial Land Use Map and Main Commercial Corridors Commercial Land Use Industrial Land Use RIGHT: Retail Transition Diagram OPPOSITE PAGE: Edgebrook Drive 2018, Best Products Store 1975, Foley’s Almeda Mall 1965

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Edgebrook Dr

Almeda Mall, which opened in 1966 and is located just south of the neighborhood, was a destination for shoppers for decades. While the mall remains open, many large national franchises have moved to other areas, particularly the Fairmont Parkway area in Pasadena. In the last ten years, the Almeda Mall area has lost a Target, Circuit City, JCPenney and a number of other big box stores. However, the most iconic of these losses was the demolition of the Best Products store in 2003.

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Edgebrook’s major commercial corridors are the Gulf Freeway and Edgebrook Drive. Along these two corridors there are two major grocery stores, numerous retail outlets and dozens of restaurants, fast food chains and food trucks. The eight food trucks sited along Edgebrook Drive are a destination for many residents and visitors.

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6.5 miles

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The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood is nearly fully developed with very little vacant land. However, much of the vacant land in the community is south of Edgebrook Drive, an area with a diverse pattern of land uses that includes industrial uses, residential developments and commerical spaces. on

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ABOVE, Right: Park Map Public Parks 1/2 Mile Radius SPARK Parks RIGHT: Park Needs OPPOSITE PAGE, Top: Vacant Land Vacant Land OPPOSITE PAGE, Left to Right: Freeway Manor Park, Garfield ES SPARK Park

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Garfield and Freeman Elementary Schools in the Pasadena Independent School District both have SPARK Parks. Parks are a crucial asset to the health and well-being of a neighborhood. Approximately half of Edgebrook families and residents are more than a 10-minute walk to a public park.

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Edgebrook is home to two neighborhood parks: Freeway Manor and Wilson Memorial. Combined the parks encompass 39 acres. Based on the recommended standards for park space developed in the City of Houston Parks and Recreation Department’s 2015 Master Plan, Edgebrook needs an additional 20 acres of park space. In the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey, Freeway Manor Park served as an emergency distribution point for food and necessities.

Wilson Memorial Park Area: 29 acres Amenities: Water Feature Trails Plaza/Picnic Area Playground Open Field Baseball Field (2) Soccer Field Swimming Pool

Freeway Manor Park Area: 10 acres Amenities: Trails Plaza/Picnic Area Playground Open Field Baseball Field Tennis Court

HPARD Recommended Park Area for Neighborhood, Community, and Pocket Parks 2.5 acres/1,000

Existing Park Area 1.7 acres/1,000

Park Area Needed 0.8 acres/1,000= 20 acres

19


1% Use Public Transportation

20

Drove Alone

Carpooled

Public Transit

Bicycle/Walked

2%

1%

3%

2%

4%

1%

12%

19%

76% Houston

95% Drive to Work

76% Edgebrook

Edgebrook

Other


In 2016, 95% of Edgebrook workers over the age of 16 drove to work, either alone or in a carpool. In the same year, only 1% used public transportation to get to work, while 2% walked or biked. Currently, the Edgebrook neighborhood is not served by public transportation, there is not a single bus route that traverses the community.

Pearl Hall Elementary School

The lack of public transit has left many residents dependent on automobiles for transportation. This dependency is evident in the number of households without a vehicle. In 2016, only 1% of home owners and 4% of renters were without a car. In addition, only 10% of home owners and 27% of renters in the area have only one vehicle. Hurricane Harvey was paralyzing to many in the neighborhood who lost cars in the flood and had no alternative means of transit.

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Freeman Elementary School

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Milstead Middle School Garfield Elementary School

There are no existing bike routes in the Edgebrook neighborhood. However, the Houston Bike Plan identifies seven future routes, that when built, will create greater connectivity to area parks and schools. ABOVE, Right: Proposed Bike Lane Map Dedicated On-Street Shared On-Street Off-Street Parks BELOW, Right: Vehicles by Households by Tenure OPPOSITE PAGE, Middle: Edgebrook Drive OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom: Means of Transportation to Work (Based on Concept by Gabriela Espinoza, Luis Garcia, Danielle Johnson-Hazelwood, Andy Rowell, and Jose Vazquez) Source: ACS 2016

4%

Edgebrook

10%

27%

Owners

Renters

13%

31%

1% Owners

Renters

8%

Houston

1% Households without access to a vehicle, 2016

Households with access to one vehicle, 2016

21


22


The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood has one of the most complex drainage systems in the City. The system is dependent on many small drainage easements and ditches, in addition to the storm sewer, that move water towards the two major channels on either side of Galveston Road, and from there to Berry Bayou. The conceptual section of the area illustrates that the residential areas of Edgebrook become a bowl, holding water, and Galveston Road acts as a levy. Two storm water detention basins, both constructed within the last ten years, sit at the southern end of this system. These basins failed to mitigate flooding in Edgebrook during Harvey.

Berry Bayou

Edgebrook Dr

ABOVE, Right: Drainage and Storm Water Detention Map Primary Drainage and Flow Secondary Drainage and Flow Storm Water Detention Basin Utility Easement BELOW: Edgebrook Conceptual Section OPPOSITE PAGE, Top: Gilpin St Drainage Easement (Conceptual Section by Gabriela Espinoza, Luis Garcia, Danielle Johnson-Hazelwood, Andy Rowell, and Jose Vazquez)

Detention

Detention

50’ 39’

35’ 31’ 27’ Gulf Freeway

Edgebrook Neighborhood

Galveston Rd

Downtown Houston

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Edgebrook

Houston

2000

2010

2016

2000

2010

2016

19,770

20,786 5%

23,652 14%

1,953,631

2,068,026 6%

2,240,582 8%

6,576

6,869

7,816

3,372

3,449

3,737

Race/Ethnicity White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino Other

30% 10% 3% 55% 1%

14% 10% 14% 71% 1%

9% 7% 15% 81% 2%

31% 25% 5% 37% 2%

26% 23% 6% 44% 2%

26% 23% 6% 44% 1%

Age 17 Years or Younger 18 - 64 Years Old 65 Years or Older

31% 61% 8%

33% 60% 7%

32% 61% 7%

28% 64% 8%

26% 65% 9%

25% 65% 10%

Place of Birth Foreign Born Residents

25%

31%

31%

28%

29%

26%

Means of Transportation to Work Drove Alone Carpooled Public Transportation Bicycled and Walked Other

74% 21% 1% 2% 0%

74% 19% 1% 3% 2%

76% 19% 1% 2% 1%

72% 16% 6% 3% 1%

74% 14% 5% 3% 2%

76% 12% 4% 3% 2%

Educational Attainment 25 Years + Less Than High School High School Graduate (includes equivalency) Some college Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Other Professional School Degree

33% 32% 24% 8% 3% 1%

38% 28% 26% 6% 2% 1%

36% 31% 24% 8% 1% 0%

30% 20% 23% 17% 6% 4%

26% 23% 23% 18% 7% 4%

23% 23% 24% 19% 8% 4%

$36,021 98%

$37,183 87%

$42,791 91%

$36,616

$44,124

$47,010

12%

18%

21%

19%

18%

19%

7,163 94% 6%

7,675 87% 13%

7,810 87% 13%

782,009 92% 8%

889,489 86% 14%

937,245 89% 11%

48% 52%

52% 48%

45% 55%

46% 54%

45% 55%

43% 57%

Households without access to a vehicle

2%

1%

1%

12%

10%

9%

Persons per Household

3.2

3.1

3.5

2.7

2.7

2.7

Total Population Population Change Population Density (per Sq Mile)

Median Household Income Percent of Houston’s Median Percent of Population Below Poverty Housing Units Occupied Vacant Housing Units Tenure Percent Owners Percent Renters

Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016

24


Demographics Edgebrook is one of the smallest Super Neighborhoods in Houston, at just three square miles in land area. In 2016, the neighborhood was home to 23,652 people, a 14% increase since 2000.

3209 3213

The neighborhood’s population density, which has risen steadily since 2010, is twice as high as the average in Houston with 7,816 people per square mile.

3210

Edgebrook is a community of families, many with young children. Since 2000, the number of residents under the age of 18 has grown substantially from 6,077 to 7,542, a 24% increase. In 2016, 32% of area residents were under 18 years of age, a much higher percent than Houston overall at 25%.

Edgebrook Population in 2016

23,562

Between 2000 and 2016 the population of Edgebrook increased by 14%

ABOVE, Top: Census Tract Map BELOW: Edgebrook Population by Age Over Time Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016

12,056

6,077

1,637

2000

18-64 Years

Under 18 Years

Over 65 Years

14,443 12,523

6,855

7,542

1,408

1,667

2010

2016

25


The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood is predominantly Hispanic or Latino. Between 2000 and 2016 the Hispanic or Latino population rose steadily, from 55% of the total neighborhood population to 81%. In 2016, White residents made up 9% of the neighborhood’s population and Black or African American residents 7%. In 2000, 25% of the Edgebrook population were born outside of the United States. By 2010, this number had increased to 31% and remained the same through 2016. In Houston 29% of the population was born outside the U.S. in 2016. While the population diversity of the neighborhood has transformed over the last several decades, the civic leadership in the neighborhood has not made the same transition. Nurturing a new set of leaders in the community will build social cohesion and resiliency. RIGHT: HCDD Housing Recovery Meeting BELOW: Population by Race and Ethnicity Over Time Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016 81% 71%

55% 30%

Hispanic

or Latino

White 14%

10% 3% 2000

26

Black or African American

Asian

10% 3% 2010

9% 7% 2% 2016


In 2016, the median household income in Edgebrook was $42,791; 9% lower than the Houston medain of $47,010. Nonetheless, in four of the twelve Census block groups that comprise the Edgebrook neighborhood, the median household income surpasses that of Houston’s, these block groups are characterized by single-family homes. The lowest median household income block groups are located in areas with predominantly multi-family housing units.

$40K

$40K

$41K

$35K

$75K

$33K $52K

$43K

$65K

The number of Edgebrook families living below the federal poverty level increased between 2000 and 2016, rising from 12% in 2000, to 18% in 2010, and to 21% in 2016. In Houston the poverty rate was 19% in 2016. In Edgebrook, 39% of children lived in households with incomes below poverty in 2016, compared to 34% of children in Houston overall.

N/A $31K

$70K

ABOVE, Right: Median Household Income by Census Block Group BELOW, Right: Poverty Level Over Time by Age Group Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016 39% 31%

ty

17% 13%

7% 2000

Pover

rs

8 Yea

nder 1

e, U by Ag

21% 18%

Years Poverty by Age, 18-64

17%

Poverty by Age, 65+ Years

9%

9%

2010

2016

27


Students in Edgebrook attend schools in the Pasadena Independent School District. Two high schools serve area students: Memorial and South Houston High Schools; while students are also zoned to two intermediate schools (grades 5-6) and two middle schools (grades 7-8). The Children at Risk rankings for the majority of area schools have steadily declined over the last three years.

Graduate Degree or Higher 1% Bachelor’s Degree

Graduate Degree or Higher 8%

Some College 24%

Less than High School 36%

High School Graduate 31%

Edgebrook 2016 Matthys Elementary

South Houston Intermediate

Pearl Hall Elementary

12%

Less than High School 23%

Bachelor’s Degree 19% Some College 24%

High School Graduate 23%

Houston 2016 South Houston High School

Miller Intermediate

Young Elementary

Freeman Elementary Garfield Elementary

28

Milstead Middle Schneider Middle

Memorial High School


There are four public schools located in the Edgebrook neighborhood, all of which are part of the Pasadena Independent School District: Pearl Hall Elementary School, Freeman Elementary School, Garfiled Elementary School and Milstead Middle School.

Pearl Hall Elementary School

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Freeman Elementary School

In 2016, 36% of the Edgebrook population over the age of 25 had not completed high school, much higher than the 23% in Houston. Unlike many other neighborhoods in Houston, educational attainment is declining in Edgebrook. In 2000, only 33% had not completed high school.

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In 2016, 9% of Edgebrook residents had a college education, much lower than the 31% in Houston. Again, the number of college graduates has declined in Edgebrook since 2000, when 12% had a college education.

Milstead Middle School Garfield Elementary School

ABOVE, Right: Edgebrook School Map BELOW: Children at Risk Grades OPPOSITE PAGE, Top: Houston and Edgebrook Educational Attainment OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom: School Boundaries Sources: ACS 2016, Children at Risk Freeman Elementary Pearl Hall Elementary (B.R.) Matthys Elementary Garfield Elementary Young Elementary Milstead Middle Schneider Middle South Houston Intermediate Miller Intermediate (B.R.) South Houston High School Memorial High School

CCC A C+ DDCC-

C D C B CCD D+ C

D BCCCCF C B-

CA-

D+ B+

DC

2016

2017

2018

29


FEMA estimates that 1,684 homes flooded in the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood during Harvey, 22% of all homes.

Edgebrook Dr

on Rd

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ABOVE: Inundation Map HCFCD Estimated Inundation Housing Parcel Building Footprint Sources: Harris County Flood Control District Inundation Map, HCAD


Edgebrook, once a typical post-war suburb, has transformed over the years. Since 2000, the number of housing units have increased from 7,163 to 7,810 in 2016. During the same time period the number of vacant units doubled. In 2016, 13% of area housing was vacant. In 2016, single family homes made up more than half of area housing, while apartments in buildings with five or more units comprised 40%. In 2016, 45% of area households were homeowners, a number that has declined slightly since 2000. Homeownership varies widely across the neighborhood, with a number of Census block groups having near 90% homeowners, while others are over 90% renter households. In 2016, 47% of renters and 27% of homeowners living in the neighborhood spent 30% or more of their income on housing. In Houston 47% of renters and 23% of owners spent more than 30% of their income on housing. Additionally, the neighborhood has experienced an increase in the number of persons per household, from 3.2 in 2000 to 3.5 in 2016. In Houston the number of people per household is 2.7.

87%

91%

2%

87%

6% 47%

75% 66%

RIGHT: Percent Home Owners by Block Group, 2016 BELOW: Percent Home Owners, Persons Per Household, Percent Vacant Units, and Total Housing Units Over Time Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016

0%

61%

2% 73%

Percent Owners 48%

52%

45%

3.1

3.5

13%

13%

Persons per Household 3.2 Percent Vacant Housing Units 6%

Total Housing Units

7,810 7,675

FEMA estimated that 1,684 homes, or 22% of all homes, in the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood were damaged by flooding from Hurricane Harvey. 7,163 2000

2010

2016 31


Improved Drainage and Flood Protection Expanded Mobility Networks New Public Transportation

+ Expanded Economic Opportunity New Community Amenities Social Cohesion

= RESILIENCY

32


Opportunities At the time of publication it has been nearly a year since Hurricane Harvey began dumping rain at unprecedented rates and flooding much of Houston. City leaders report that over 150,000 homes were damaged by flood waters across the city. Lives, routines and resources were disrupted. Important questions are being asked about how do we prepare for, react to and recover from disasters of this magnitude, both now and in the future? Furthermore, what can we do collectively to identify the opportunities and challenges in our communities?

can develop strategies that create greater resiliency. The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood, bounded by the cities of Pasadena to the east and South Houston to the north, is an island within the Houston city limits. The neighborhood is without access to public transit, a community center, or a neighborhood library. Yet, Edgebrook is a family-oriented, young and dense community with great needs for these public amenities.

The opportunities identified here work together to expand economic opportunities, improve access to public transit and other alternative modes of transportation, create amenities for the community to meet and gather, further protect the neighborhood from future flood risks by improving the drainage system and strengthen the overall resiliency of the neighborhood.

New Community Amenities

It is critical to identify opportunities, across scales, that have the potential to reduce future risks, assist with recovery and lead to greater resiliency over time. By building on the assets of our communities, while understanding the challenges, we ABOVE: Concept Diagram (Concept Diagram by Gabriela Espinoza, Luis Garcia, Danielle Johnson-Hazelwood, Andy Rowell, and Jose Vazquez)

Expanded Economic Opportunity

New Public Transportation

Resiliency

Expanded Mobility Networks

Improved Drainage and Flood Protection

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Berry Bayou

Drainage Channel

Edgebrook Dr

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G on

Frey Rd

Rd

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ABOVE: Drainage Flow and Flood Plains Berry Bayou Berry Bayou Tributaries Ditch or Channel Detention Utility Easement

34

S.

S

v ha

St


Resilient Neighborhood

To Richey Bus Route

The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood is located in the Sims Bayou Watershed. The neighborhood drains north into Berry Bayou through a web-like system of tributaries, ditches and channels. This system represents approximately 11 miles of above ground drainage easements traversing the neighborhood. There are a number of locations where the drainage channels turn at 90 degree angles. Following Hurricane Harvey the Harris County Flood Control District removed debris at 17 separate locations, and identified 11 erosion problem areas. Residents note that Frey Road becomes a river during a flood event. Exploring how the drainage system could be improved, identifying where detention areas are possible, as well as understanding the choke points in the system, could reduce flooding risks in the long-term. Exploring how the easements could become amenities, such as bike routes or trails is also a priority. A key opportunity site is the primary northsouth drainage route, which is also a Centerpoint easement (see image below and maps).

To Sagemont Bus Route

ABOVE, Top: Map of Easement ABOVE: Section of Easement

35


na de ry sa ibra Pa c L To bli Pu

05

n tow wn Do To 40

73

76

n

sto

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Ga Rd

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S.

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36

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ABOVE: Transit Map METRO Bus Routes Proposed Harris County Transit Routes Potential Routes BELOW: Edgebrook Drive Photo

St

d iu

88

s

Proposed Edgebrook to Galveston Road Connector (Links to Routes 76 Hobby, 05 Southmore and 88 Sagemont)

Ra

Hobby Airport

To San Jacinto College

To Fairmont Plaza


New Transit

The Automobile Association of America reports that the cost of owning a car in 2017 was just under $8,5000 a year, which is approximately $700 a month. That same $700 would cover the majority of a mortgage payment on an affordable home in the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood. Yet, residents of Edgebrook have little choice on whether to drive or take transit to work as there are no public transit lines that serve the neighborhood. As a result, only 1% of workers over the age of 16 ride transit to work, while 95% drive. When you put Edgebrook sideby-side with the Montrose Super Neighborhood the inequities become clear. Montrose, for example, is served by seven transit lines, while Edgebrook has zero, even though the two neighborhoods cover roughly the same land area, and both have a high population density compared to Houston. Equitable access to transit should be a priority for transit agencies across the region. Harris County has recently completed a public transit plan which includes a series of Pasadena bus routes, but none of these will directly serve Edgebrook. Identifying both new and existing routes, such as the proposed Edgebrook Drive and Galveston Road connector (see map opposite page, left), to serve the Edgebrook neighborhood could ensure that residents and families have access to transit.

Bus Routes

0

Bus Routes

7

Edgebrook

Montrose

Population: 23,652

Population: 33,044

Population Density: 7,816 People/Per Square Mile

Population Density: 9,759 People/Per Square Mile

ABOVE, Left to Right: Edgebrook and Montrose Bus Routes, Population, and Density (Based on Graphics by Luis Garcia, Danielle Johnson-Hazelwood, Jose Vazquez, Andy Rowell, and Gabriela Espinoza) LEFT: Flooded Car, Edgebrook

37


Galveston Rd

38

Proposed Bike Lane

Drainage Easement


Alternative Networks

The Edgebrook Super Neighborhood, sandwiched between the cities of South Houston and Pasadena, is not served by METRO Transit nor does the neighborhood have a single bike lane. Combined, these facts have led to a community that is highly dependent on the automobile.

Drainage Easement

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G on

Dr

Rd

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Frey Rd

Theta St wy

fF

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The Houston Bike Plan includes proposals for seven separate routes in the small neighborhood of Edgebrook. The routes follow the north south drainage easement, Galveston Road, Frey Road, Theta Street, Edgebrook Drive and South Shaver Street. While bike infrastructure is badly needed, focusing public investment to make sure the routes provide access to opportunities, such as schools, parks and other amenities, is a priority, including identifying the safest routes.

st

In contrast, the area has a bike riding group, the South Houston Bike Riders, who meet regularly at the South Houston City Hall for an evening bike ride. The average trips are over ten miles and attract people of all ages, including families.

Theta St

er

av

h .S

S

Edgebrook Dr

Drainage Easement

TOP: Proposed Bike Lanes and Drainage Easements Programmed Bikeways Potential Short-Term Bike Routes Potential Long-Term Bike Routes Drainage Easements (Bike Route Opportunity) Parks Schools RIGHT: South Houston Bike Ride Photo OPPOSITE PAGE: Galveston Road Proposed Bike Lane Route (Based on Concept by Gabriela Espinoza, Luis Garcia, Danielle Johnson-Hazelwood, Andy Rowell, and Jose Vazquez)

39


The Freeway Manor Civic Club reports that 80 homes in the subdivision have to be elevated before being rebuilt. The cost of elevation averages $75 per square foot, and would change the character of the neighborhood significantly.

Freeway Manor Home Repair

Edgebrook Drive Flooding, 1979

Elevating flooded home

5’ +/-

40


Resilient Housing

In 2016, the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood had 7,810 housing units. FEMA estimated that 1,684 homes in Edgebrook flooded during Hurricane Harvey, or 22%. Inundation levels across the neighborhood varied, ranging from 18” to over 3’. According to area residents the neighborhood has flooded three times: In 1979 with Hurricane Claudette; In 2001 with Tropical Storm Allison; and, in 2017 with Harvey. Chapter 19, the City of Houston’s flood plain ordinance, was recently amended. The new code requires that structures in the 100- and 500year floodplain be elevated two feet above the 500-year flood elevation. In Edgebrook, this will require a 5’ elevation in most areas of the neighborhood, which would change the character of the community greatly. In addition, the Freeway Manor Civic Club reports that according to the City of Houston 80 homes in the subdivision have to be elevated before being rebuilt.

Each subdivision in the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood is unique, each has different challenges and assets. Developing flood and hazard mitigation strategies that are specific to each subdivision is a priority.

Repairing flooded home

Elevating flooded home

FREEWAY MANOR

ARLINGTON HEIGHTS

SUN VALLEY

GULFWAY TERRACE

GENOA ACRES

Not surprisingly, recovery from Harvey is moving slowly in the Edgebrook neighborhood. Many residents are only now returning to their homes, nearly a year after the storm. Developing resiliency strategies for the area’s existing housing, including elevating, buy outs, on-site detention, flood-proofing, and other mitigation strategies could work to ensure that future flood risks are minimized. Ensuring greater resiliency of area housing will help to protect the wealth and stability of area families.

Flooded home buyouts

ACRE HOMES

ABOVE: Mitigation Strategies and Area Subdivisions (Home Recovery Strategies Developed by Rocio Alonso, Canston Fitzwater, Shoaib Nizami, John Taylor) OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom Left: Conceptual Neighborhood Section

41


Globe St Elton St

St. Stephen Presbyterian Church

Freeway Manor Park

t

nee S

Shaw

Roper St Bronson St

Theta St

Berean Christian Church

Sulphur St Regal St

Freeman Elementary Edgebrook Dr

2 Miles

Community Centers

42

2 Miles

Libraries

2 Miles

Child Care Providers


IN BA S ON R

DE T

E NT

EN

CE

TI

Y

Edgebrook, without the public facilities and civic or non-profit associations many neighborhoods depend on, received very little attention following Hurricane Harvey. One of the major challenges was identifying local organizations and places to provide services.

IT

The Edgebrook neighborhood is home to many young families with children. In 2016, one of every three residents was under the age of 18 years, a much higher proportion than most Houston neighborhoods. Yet, community amenities and family services are scarce in the area, and the Edgebrook Super Neighborhood is without a library or a community center, in addition to not having access to public transportation. The closest public library is Harris County’s South Houston Library, north of the neighborhood. There are no public community centers within a two-mile radius of the neighborhood, however Harbach Ripley House is located to the east. Children at Risk has also identified the neighborhood as a childcare desert.

UN M M CO

New Community Center

NEIGHBORHOOD MARKET

LIBR

ARY

?

ABOVE: Freeway Manor Park Program Concept BELOW: Freeway Manor Park Photo OPPOSITE PAGE, Top: Freeway Manor Park Opportunity Site Aerial OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom: Neighborhood Amenities Map Child Care Desert Source: Children at Risk

DISASTER RECOVERY

CHIL

D CA

RE C

CENTER

ENT

ER

(Community Center Concept based on work by Joshua Garcia, Luis Garcia, Gabriela Espinoza, Danielle JohnsonHazelwood, Andy Rowell, and Jose Vazquez)

Freeway Manor Park, in the center of the neighborhood, has the potential to become home to a new community center. Programs could include a library, community center, market, recovery hub and other programs. In addition, identifying new uses for the church sites that adjoin the park to the north, such as additional park spaces or a community garden, would provide much needed amenities for families in the neighborhood. 43


Theta St

Taconmadre Campo Azul El Borrego

Ricky Riccon

Taqueria Castillo

E

ok

bro

e dg

El Jalapeño

Dr

La Borrega El Gallito Regio

wy

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G Prince of Peace Lutheran Church

?

ABOVE: Edgebrook Drive Food Truck Sites RIGHT: El Borrego Photo and Site BELOW: Edgebrook Drive Food Truck Section OPPOSITE PAGE, Top: Edgebrook Drive Commercial Corridor OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom: Program Interventions (Section and Concept by Luis Garcia, Danielle Johnson-Hazelwood, Jose Vazquez, Andy Rowell, and Gabriela Espinoza)

El Borrego

La Borrega

44

160 ft

El Jalapeño

140 ft Taqueria Castillo

e

riv

kD

o bro

ge

Ed

El Borrego


Theta St

Food Truck Spark

lf Gu

Edgebrook Drive, between the Gulf Freeway and Theta Street, is the most important commercial corridor in the neighborhood. Along this twothirds of a mile stretch of Edgebrook Drive there are eight taco trucks that draw patrons from both the local neighborhood and throughout the city. On a Friday night the parking lots adjacent to the taco trucks are full of people. In the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey, these food trucks provided much needed relief to area residents who had lost their appliances and cars in the flood.

ER MM CO

CIA

RESIDENTIAL

L

y Fw

The food trucks are an opportunity to expand economic activity in the neighborhood while also building places for people to come together. Interventions in the adjacent parking lots could include lighting, shade, seating or other elements.

Lighting

Riky Ricoon

551 ft

Shade

El Borrego

540 ft

Seating

Campo Azul

800 ft

Taconmadre

El Gallito Regio

45


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Participants and Sponsors Participants

Community Design Workshop University of Houston College of Architecture + Design Student Team, Spring 2018 Kaihan Chen Peter Eccles Yan Lu Caroline Smith Vilma Umanzor *This document includes research prepared by students in Spring 2018

Community Design Resource Center Susan Rogers, Director Adelle Main, Assistant Director Angelica Lastra, Design Strategist Jose Mario Lopez, Design Strategist Gabriela Degetau, Research Assistant Constanza PeĂąa, Research Assistant Honored Guests and Critics Kinder Baumgardner Antoine Bryant Margaret Wallace Brown Amanda Burden Robert Burrow Alan Cisneros Catherine Dietrich Keith Downey Dineta Frazier Niel Golightly Secunda Joseph Juli Jungwirth

Hiroko Kobayashi Kimberly Hatter Brandi Holmes Alex Lahti Elaine Morales Lauren Racusin Jeff Reichman Patricia Oliver Jasleen Sarai Preetal Shah Juan Antonio Sorto Christof Spieler Amanda Timm Jenifer Wagley Kenneth Williams Huey Wilson

Special Thanks

The Collaborative Community Design Initiative is supported through a generous gift from the Japan Business Association of Houston and a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. The initiative would not be possible without the generous commitment of time from community leaders and stakeholders and professionals across Houston. We would like to thank all of our partners and supporters. We would like to send a special thanks to Amanda Burden and Lauren Racusin of Bloomberg Associates.

47