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East Houston Super Neighborhood 49

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ALIEFSHARPSTOWN N MEADOWBROOK OM SOUTH UNIO D O AREA ND R MEYERLA T ALLENDALE ALIEFALIEF SHARPSTOWN MEYERLAND AREA AS MEADOWBROOK K R A P H T U O CENTRAL SOUTHWEST MEADOWBROOK S ALIEF Brays OaksCENTRALWILLOWSOUTHWESTCE MEADOWBROOK Brays Oaks MEADOWSCENTRAL SOUTHWEST Br a ys Oaks ALIEFALIEFBraysCENTRAL ELLINGTON CENTRAL SOUTHWEST OaksBrays OaksBraysSOUTHWEST Oaks SOUTH BELT SOUTH BELT CENTRAL SOUTHWEST CENTRAL SOUTHWESTCENTR DW AR

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FORT BEND

Briefing Book

Collaborative Community Design Initiative. No. 5 SPECIAL EDITION: HARVEY Community Design Resource Center 2018

CL EA CL R L EA A CL CLE CL K R L EA AR EA E AK R L LA R L

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G OBB ER H REAT

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CENTRAL SOUTHWEST

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FAIRBANKSFAIRBANKS ADDICKS ADDICKS

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CAR ACRESOHOMES CARVERFAIRBANKSFAIRBANKS D D ES ACRES OHOM TRINITY CAR VERD ALE GARDEN OAKS TRINITY ES M WESTBRANCH A V HO OAK FOREST S OAK FOREST RE E L AC RDA EFAIRBANKSFAIRBANKS WESTBRANCH N GARDEN OAKS TRINITY PARK TE LE WEST FAIRBANKS SPRING BRANCH OAK FORESTGARDEN OAKS OHUNTERWOOD TRINITY SPRING BRANCH WEST GARDEN OAKS AD S P RI N G S H ADOWS KASHMERE GARDENS SPRING BRANCH EAST SPRING BRANCH WEST L GARDEN OAKS OR ADODO KASHMERE GARDENS D SPRING BRANCH WEST SPRING BRANCH WEST LAAZ TRINITY N KASHMERE GARDENS EL DORORA BRANCH EAST BRANCH WESTSPRING SPRING BRANCH WEST Z Y B GREATERHEIGHTS PARK TESPRING D ORENORORETHSHORE SPRING BRANCH WEST GREATERHEIGHTSGREATERHEIGHTS KASHMERE GARDENS BRR ENLO ELRTHSHRENORTHSH SPRING BRANCH EAST YGREATERHEIGHTS OO O HO OK K HS GREATER FI F TH WARD RT NO SPRING BRANCH WEST


East Houston, Mesa and Fringewood Photo by Juan Antonio Sorto


Contents Introduction (Harvey)

5

East Houston (Harvey)

7

Context

13

Demographics

25

Opportunities

35

Participants and Sponsors

47

Aerial Figure Ground Land Use Parks and Drainage Transportation Environmental

Population and Age Race and Ethnicity Education Income Housing Poverty

Resilient Neighborhood Neighborhood Center Food Security Transit Hub Resilient Housing


Tropical Storm Allison Track, 2001

Hurricane Ike Track, 2008

2015-2016

AUG 24, 2017

A HISTORY OF FLOODING

HURRICANE HARVEY

Houston suffered two major flood events in the years preceding Harvey, the Memorial Day Flood in 2015 and the Tax Day Flood in 2016.

4

AUG 26, 2017

On Thursday Harvey is upgraded from a tropical storm to a hurricane. 30 inches of rain is forecast in isolated instances. Supermarket shelves empty as residents make preparations.

ABOVE: Harvey Timeline (Based on Analysis and Graphics by Matthew Nguyen, Constanza PeĂąa, Victor Romo, and Cristina Trejo)

Hurricane Harvey Track, 2017

On Saturday Harvey makes a second landfall and weakens to a tropical storm. Rain forecasts for Houston are measured in feet. Several cities implement curfews and roads begin closing. HISD cancels school for the next week.

AUG 25, 2017

On Friday Harvey is upgraded to a Category 4 storm and makes landfall at 10pm near Rockport. Several counties call for voluntary and mandatory evacuations. Tornado and flood warnings are issued. HISD closes schools.

AUG 27, 2017

Heavy rainfall begins Saturday night and by early Sunday morning neighborhoods begin flooding and high water rescues by boat and helicopter are being televised live.


Introduction At the time of this publication, it has been nearly a year since Hurricane Harvey made landfall and slowly circled around the greater Houston area for five days. Harvey left behind over 150,000 flooded homes and a maximum recorded rainfall of 47.4”. It took only one month before the city seemed to be functioning normally. But the tragedy unfolding for thousands of families continues behind the closed doors of flooded homes and temporary hotel rooms. While natural disasters are equal opportunity events, the resources to recover are not. As civic leader Keith Downey notes: “The storm hit many underserved communities long before the hurricane arrived.”

The slow motion flood disaster that inundated Houston is evidence of a new climate normal. In the wake of this new normal we must begin to define and build towards greater resiliency—not just in preparation for the next disaster, but to ensure everyday resiliency. The fifth biennial Collaborative Community Design Initiative, titled “Floods” is a partnership with four Houston neighborhoods that were severely impacted by Harvey: East Houston, Eastex/Jensen, Edgebrook, and Kashmere Gardens and Houston/Trinity Gardens. This Briefing Book is for the East Houston Super Neighborhood.

AUG 28, 2017

THE NEXT WEEK

AUG 29, 2017

THE AFTERMATH

In an unprecedented move, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers begins releasing water from reservoirs in west Houston. The release is to avoid a collapse that would inundate downtown Houston. The release floods thousands of homes near the reservoirs.

The rain from Hurricane Harvey begins to taper off, and by late Tuesday most neighborhoods would not see any more rain. The highest recorded rainfall in Harris County is 47.4”. An estimated 30,000 are in Houston shelters.

Professionals, volunteers, and communities begin cleaning up. Donation drives and distribution points are set up across the city. Individuals are prompted to contact insurance companies and apply for FEMA assistance. Some begin returning to work.

SIX MONTHS LATER

Some reconstruction efforts begin. Nearly 894,000 FEMA applications are filed by the November deadline. An estimated 150,000 structures flooded in Houston. Houston residents must now consider whether to rebuild or permanently relocate. Many still reside in temporary, sometimes makeshift, homes. FEMA hotel programs extended through June 2018.

East Houston Location Map

ONE YEAR LATER

Over $2 billion in Recovery Funding is finally allocated to the City of Houston and Harris County for rebuilding. Codes and policies are being rewritten to mitigate flood risks. Efforts are lagging to ensure residents are more informed and prepared for future disasters.

THE FUTURE

THE MONTH AFTER

Mucking, demolitions, and citywide cleaning continues. Some schools reopen. Displaced families relocated to temporary housing. Insurance and FEMA agents begin property inspections.

5


Greens Bayou Watershed

I-45 Halls Bayou Watershed

East Houston

I-10

I-69

ABOVE: Greens Bayou and Halls Bayou Watersheds and East Houston Super Neighborhood

6


East Houston The East Houston Super Neighborhood is located in northeast Houston at the edge of the Houston city limits. The neighborhood is located in the Halls Bayou Watershed, which is part of the larger Greens Bayou Watershed. Halls Bayou meanders through the heart of the community, and connects to Greens Bayou on the east. Harris County Flood Control District is currently finalizing recommendations for improvements along Halls Bayou as part of the “Halls Ahead� project. The Harris County Flood Control District data indicates that of the 154,170 homes flooded during Harvey 48,850 were within the 100-year floodplain and 34,970 within the 500-year floodplain. While 70,370 flooded homes were not in an identified floodplain hazard area. In East Houston the FEMA Flood Hazard maps indicate very little flooding risk, yet the area experienced significant flooding during Hurricane Harvey. In fact, flooding along Halls Bayou has been a persistent hazard for residents, businesses and property owners. Flooding has been documented at least 14 times since 1970. During Tropical Storm Allison in 2001, more than 13,000 homes in the Halls Bayou watershed flooded.

Halls Bayou

Greens Bayou

ABOVE: Flood Map Floodway 100-Year Floodplain 500-Year Floodplain BELOW: East Houston, Harvey Photo by Juan Antonio Sorto

Harris County Flood Control District estimates that 36% of flooded homes across the county were covered by flood insurance policies, while 64% were not.

7


ABOVE: Inundation Level Monday August 28, 2017 1 a.m.

ABOVE: Inundation Level Tuesday August 29, 2017 1 a.m.

6

6”

Wednesday

Tuesday

5

Monday

5.5

Sunday

Saturday

4.5

5” 4”

4 3.5

3”

3 2.5

2”

2 1.5

1”

1

8/30/2017 13:00

8/30/2017 1:00

8/29/2017 13:00

8/29/2017 1:00

8/28/2017 13:00

ABOVE: Hourly Rainfall Totals, Halls Bayou at Tidwell Road Harvey Event: August 26, 2017 - August 20, 2017

8/28/2017 1:00

8/27/2017 13:00

8/27/2017 1:00

8/26/2017 1:00

0

8/26/2017 13:00

0.5

0

Halls Bayou @ Tidwell Road Top of Bank Stream Elevation

46

Top of Bank

43 40 37

28’

28 25

10

08.26.2017

8.30.2017

13

8.29.2017

16

8.28.2017

19

8.27.2017

22

46’ 40’ 34’

34 31

8.26.2017

ON

ABOVE: Inundation Level Sunday August 27, 2017 1 a.m.

6.5

08.27.2017

08.28.2017

08.29.2017

08.30.2017

ABOVE: Stream Elevation, Halls Bayou at Tidwell Road Harvey Event: August 26, 2017 - August 30, 2017 Source: Harris County Flood Warning System

8

22’ 16’


The Harris County Flood Control District has compiled Hurricane Harvey rainfall data for gages across the county. The East Houston gage located at Tidwell Road and Halls Bayou was used to identify maximum rainfall in the East Houston Super Neighborhood. The total rainfall over the five-day event was 38.2”. However, 20.6” of rain was recorded in a single 24-hour period during Harvey, one of the highest recorded rainfalls in a single day. Halls Bayou topped its bank in the early morning hours of Sunday August 27, 2017 and remained over the top of bank until mid-day on Wednesday August 30, 2017. The maximum stream elevation peaked at 45.4’, roughly 1’ above the 500-year flood level of 44.4’. According to data from the Harris County Flood Control District, 10,164 homes were flooded in the Halls Bayou Watershed, roughly 7% of the 154,700 estimated flooded homes county wide. FEMA estimates from September 2017 reported 2,281 of these homes were in the East Houston Super Neighborhood, or roughly 22% of all flooded homes in the Halls Bayou Watershed, even though the population of East Houston is 13% of the total watershed population.

4 days

Harris County Maximum Recorded Rainfall Eastex/Jensen Rainfall Kashmere Gardens Rainfall Edgebrook Rainfall East Houston Rainfall

35.2” 36.2” 38.2”

26.7” 28.7”

2 days

29.5” 18.3” 18.8”

1 day

12.6” 14.2” 14.8”

Based on FEMA estimates 32% of all the homes in the East Houston Super Neighborhood flooded.

4.0” 5.3” 6.1” 6.8”

1 hour

34.6”

25.6”

2.4” 3.7” 6.0” 3.9”

20.9” 20.1”

17.0” 14.8”

5.9” 7.2”

14.2”

7.9”

2 hour

35.2”

18.9”

7.6” 9.4” 10.7”

3 hour

43.9”

23.2” 20.6”

12 hour

6 hour

47.4”

11.9” 10.5”

TOTAL RAINFALL =

38.2”

ABOVE: Harris County and Neighborhood Maximum Recorded Rainfall Source: Harris County Flood Control District

9


Tract 2310

Tract 2311

Tract 2312

Tract 2313

Socioeconomic Vulnerability Persons below poverty

Income and poverty impact a family’s capacity to prepare for, react to and recover from a disaster

Civilian (age 16+) unemployed Per capita income Persons (age 25+) with no H.S. diploma Household Vulnerability Persons aged 65 and older

Seniors, children and single parents are more vulnerable to a disaster than other population groups

Persons aged 17 and younger Civilian noninstitutionalized population with a disability Single parent household with children under 18 Minority Status and Language Vulnerability

Access to information can be a challenge for those with language barriers

Minority (all persons except white, non-Hispanic) Persons (age 5+) who speak English “less than well� Housing and Transportation Vulnerability Housing in structures with 10 or more units

Access to transportation and quality housing that is outside of designated risk zones reduces vulnerability

Mobile homes estimate At household level, more people than rooms Households with no vehicle available Persons in institutionalized group quarters

Overall Social Vulnerability Vulnerability ranking (75% and over indicates social vulnerability)

ABOVE: Social Vulnerability Index Tracts in the top 10%, or at the 90th percentile (Indicate high vulnerability) Tracts below the 90th percentile Source: Social Vulnerability Index (2014), https://svi.cdc.gov/map.aspx

10

94%

86%

99%

94%


The East Houston Super Neighborhood has a very high Social Vulnerability Index as developed by the ATDSR of the Centers for Disease Control utilizing 2014 Census data. Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, including natural or human-caused disasters. The social vulnerability index is the “degree to which a community exhibits certain social conditions, including high poverty, low percentage of vehicle access, or crowded households.” Each of these conditions can impact a community’s ability to recover. The East Houston Super Neighborhood includes four Census tracts: 2310, 2311, 2312 and 2313. An analysis of the specific social vulnerabilities are provided in the table to the left. Each of the four Census tracts that comprise the neighborhood are in the highest vulnerability category, averaging 93% compared to tracts across the United States.

2313

2312

2310

2311

ABOVE: East Houston Census Tract Map BELOW: Mesa Road, Harvey Photo by Juan Antonio Sorto

11


Tidwell Rd

John Ralston Rd

12

Mesa Dr

Wayside Dr

Ley Rd

y

Hw

au

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Be


Context The East Houston Super Neighborhood developed slowly and unevenly. The neighborhood is characterized by areas of dense residential subdivisions in the central portion of the community, industrial land uses on the south, and virtually untouched natural areas to the east. Houston is one of the most ecologically diverse urban areas in the United States. The forests, prairies, savannas, bayous, bottomlands, and coastlines in the region comprise ten different ecoregions. The East Houston Super Neighborhood is where the Piney Woods and prairie eco-regions meet. Towering pines perfume the air and blanket the ground with needles. Halls Bayou runs through the center of the East Houston neighborhood and Greens Bayou defines the eastern boundary. RIGHT: Figure Ground Map BELOW, Left to Right: East Houston 1944, 1978 and 2002 OPPOSITE PAGE: East Houston Aerial 2017

Mesa Dr

Mesa Dr

Mesa Dr Tidwell Rd

1944

1978

Tidwell Rd

2002

13


1

ABOVE, Right: Detailed Context Analysis Single Family Lot Multi-Family Lot Vacant Lot BELOW: Neighborhood Housing (Photo by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)

14

2

3


The East Houston neighborhood is a community of homes. In 2016, single family homes made up over 80% of all housing units, compared to 45% in Houston. Large apartments comprise just 3% of all housing in the East Houston neighborhood, compared to 22% in Houston. The median year that housing was constructed ranges from the late 1950s to the late 1970s, a time of rapid growth in the city of Houston.

2

There is substantial diversity in housing developments across the neighborhood. Several subdivisions are large and fully developed, with very little vacant land. In other subdivisions, vacant lots are scattered throughout the development creating a patchwork. Vacant lots are both an opportunity and a constraint, representing potential but also challenges. This patchwork of undeveloped land and subdivisions also occurs at the neighborhood scale. The diversity of the landscape is represented in the detailed context diagrams to the left.

3

1

81%

45%

ABOVE, Right: Residential Land Use Map Single Family Multi-Family RIGHT: Housing by Type East Houston Super Neighborhood Houston Source: ACS 2016

27% 2% Single-Family Detached

5%

Single-Family Attached

13% Small Apartments (2- 19 units)

22% 3% Large Apartments (20 or more units)

2%

1%

Other

15


ABOVE: Public and Non-Profit Land Ownership City of Houston Harris County Flood Control District Harris County FWSD Houston Habitat for Humanity Houston ISD Houston Parks Board ABOVE, Right: Vacant and Undeveloped Land Vacant Land PHOTOS BELOW, Left to Right: Undeveloped Area, McCarty Landfill, Fiesta Mart (Land Ownership Map Concept and Photos by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)

16


East Houston has an abundance of vacant and undeveloped land. A large amount of undeveloped land is owned by the Harris County Flood Control District, the Houston Parks Board, HISD or other public entities. Vacant land is concentrated on the eastern edges of the neighborhood. Yet, a patchwork of vacant lots are also scattered throughout the more developed sections of the neighborhood. The primary commercial corridors in the neighborhood are Tidwell Road and Mesa Drive. However, there is very little commercial development in the community overall. The primary commercial hub is located at the intersection of Tidwell Road and Mesa Drive, where the Fiesta Mart is located. Fiesta flooded during Hurricane Harvey and took several months to re-open. This is the only grocery store in the neighborhood. Industrial land uses, including a solid waste dumping facility, are located on the southern edges of the community adjacent to the Beaumont Highway.

ABOVE, Right: Commercial and Industrial Land Use Commercial Land Use Industrial Land Use

17


ABOVE: Map of Bayous and Drainage Easements

18


The East Houston Super Neighborhood has one Harris County park and six City parks, including the expansive 355-acre Brock Park and Golf Course. The Brock Park Golf Course has been closed since June 2016 after receiving flood damage. Nearly all of the parks are sited near Halls Bayou.

Even with the abundance of park area there are many portions of the neighborhood that do not have easy access to a park. Approximately 30% of people live more than a 10-minute walk of a park. The Lakewood Neighborhood Library, located in Lakewood Park, flooded during Harvey and is temporarily at the Northeast Multi-Service Center.

1

Tidwell Rd

6

4 3

7

5 2 Ley Rd

ABOVE: Park Map 1/2-mile radius 1 Halls Bayou Park 2 Lakewood Park 3 Lake Forest Park 4 East Tidwell Park 5 Grand River Park 6 Verde Forest Park 7 Brock Park and Golf Course

Mesa Dr

The combined park area for the neighborhood (not including Brock Park) is 51 acres. The City of Houston’s 2015 Parks and Recreation Master Plan recommended 2.5 acres of neighborhood, community and pocket parks per 1,000 people. Based on this standard the East Houston neighborhood has adequate parks.

nt mo

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Hw

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Drainage systems in the neighborhood scale down from Halls and Greens Bayou, to a series of gullies and ditches, to the street and lot drainage systems. Each of these systems must be understood independently and in total. PHOTOS, From Left to Right: Lakewood Park, Lake Forest Park, Halls Bayou Greenway (Lakewood Park and Halls Bayou Greenway Photos by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)

19


97 Settegast 520 78 Wayside 470 52 Hardy 2148 45 Tidwell 4222

East Houston Bus Route Ridership 45

75% Drove Alone

To Northline Transit Center

78

Ley Rd

Mesa Dr

12%

To Downtown

52 97

6% Public Transit

Tidwell Rd

TC

76% 13%

Carpooled

Tidwell Transit Center

4%

To Fifth Ward Transit Center

1% Bicycle/Walked

2% 5%

Other

6%

ABOVE: Means of Transportation to Work, 2016 East Houston Houston ABOVE, Right: Transit Map Mid-Frequency Bus Route (30 min) Low-Frequency Bus Route (60 min) Parks (Bus Ridership Data by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)

20

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To LBJ Hospital Kashmere Transit Center


The East Houston Super Neighborhood is served by four METRO bus routes: 97 Settegast; 78 Wayside; 52 Hardy; and 45 Tidwell. The 52 Hardy and 45 Tidwell are mid-frequency routes connecting to downtown and other major destinations. These routes run every 30 minutes and have the highest ridership. The 78 and 97 run every 60 minutes and have the lowest ridership. The Mesa Transit Center is a hub of activity, located adjacent to the Fiesta Mart near the intersection of Mesa Drive and Tidwell Road.

The Halls Bayou Greenways are currently under construction. When complete, four miles of hike and bike trails will link east and west across the community connecting to area parks, Greens Bayou, Brock Park and Forest Brook Middle School to the west. The neighborhood is currently without any on-street bike routes or lanes. The Houston Bike Plan proposes dedicated on-street routes along Mesa Drive, Wayside Drive, Little York Road and Ley Road. Off-street routes are proposed along Weedlyn Road and Guest, Hill and Haddlock Streets.

Ley Rd

Mesa Dr

In 2016, 75% of East Houston workers over the age of 16 years drove alone to get to work, which is just slightly lower than the 76% in Houston overall. 6% of workers used public transit to get to work, which is slightly higher than the 4% in the City of Houston. Very few East Houston workers walk or bike to work.

Tidwell Rd

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ABOVE: Proposed Bike Lanes and Bayou Greenways Off-Street Dedicated On-Street Shared On-Street Parks PHOTOS, Left to Right: Mesa Transit Center and Halls Bayou Greenway (Photos by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)

21


Tidwell Rd

Mesa Dr

Ley Rd

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ABOVE: Topography and Wetlands Map Wetlands Parks RIGHT: Whispering Pines Landfill Protest, 1978 OPPOSITE PAGE, Top Right: Map of Active and Closed Landfills (Source: HGAC Closed Landfill Inventory) OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom: McCarty Road Landfill

22


Whispering Pines Landfill (Closed)

The East Houston Super Neighborhood has a diverse ecology, located where the Piney Woods meet the prairie. Wetlands and forests define the northeast portion of the neighborhood. The area is also home to a number of environmental hazards, including two landfills—the Whispering Pines landfill (now closed) and the McCarty Road landfill.

In 1977, the McCarty road landfill opened on the south side of the neighborhood. In 2010,Constance Parten of CNBC reported that the landfill was the eighth largest in the United States. At this time, the site processed over 7,200 tons of garbage a day and was expected to remain open until 2048. Gas captured from the landfill is carried through a six-mile pipeline to the AnheuserBusch brewery to help generate steam energy for the brewery’s power plant. More than 55 percent of the brewery’s fuel demand is supplied by this alternative fuel source.

Closed Landfill

Ley Rd

Mesa Dr

In 1978, residents of the Northwood Manor subdivision began protesting plans for the Whispering Pines landfill (now closed). The landfill was located just northwest of the East Houston Super Neighborhood boundaries. Residents took the fight to court, and the case dragged on for years. The court case was lost in 1985 and the Whispering Pines landfill was built. Today, there are four closed landfills in the East Houston Super Neighborhood area, and one active landfill.

Tidwell Rd

McCarty Road Landfill (Active)

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Closed Landfill

Closed Landfill

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East Houston

Houston

2000

2010

2016

2000

2010

2016

19,748

20,338 3%

20,867 3%

1,953,631

2,068,026 6% Change

2,240,582 8% Change

1,503

1,556

1,596

3,372

3,449

3,737

Race/Ethnicity White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino Other

6% 70% 0% 23% 1%

2% 67% 0% 31% 0%

4% 61% 0% 34% 1%

31% 25% 5% 37% 2%

26% 23% 6% 44% 2%

26% 23% 6% 44% 1%

Age 17 Years or Younger 18 - 64 Years Old 65 Years or Older

35% 59% 6%

34% 58% 8%

28% 62% 10%

28% 64% 8%

26% 65% 9%

25% 65% 10%

Place of Birth Born Outside of the United States

12%

18%

14%

28%

29%

26%

Means of Transportation to Work Drove Alone Carpooled Public Transportation Bicycled and Walked Other

69% 21% 6% 1% 2%

74% 19% 6% 1% 2%

76% 19% 6% 1% 2%

72% 16% 6% 3% 1%

74% 14% 5% 3% 2%

76% 12% 4% 3% 2%

Educational Attainment 25 Years + Less Than High School High School Graduate (includes equivalency) Some college Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Other Professional School Degree

44% 32% 20% 4% 1% 1%

40% 33% 22% 3% 2% 0%

29% 39% 23% 5% 2% 1%

30% 20% 23% 17% 6% 4%

26% 23% 23% 18% 7% 4%

23% 23% 24% 19% 8% 4%

$26,012 71%

$32,824 74%

$32,801 70%

$36,616

$44,124

$47,010

Percent of Population Below Poverty

31%

25%

22%

19%

18%

19%

Housing Units Occupied Vacant Housing Units

94% 6%

87% 13%

87% 13%

92% 8%

86% 14%

89% 11%

Tenure Percent Owners Percent Renters

63% 37%

62% 38%

60% 40%

46% 54%

45% 55%

43% 57%

Households without access to a vehicle

16%

10%

13%

12%

10%

9%

3.4

3.3

3.2

2.7

2.7

2.7

Total Population Population Density (per Sq Mile)

Median Household Income Percent of Houston’s Median

Persons per Household Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016

24


Demographics The East Houston Super Neighborhood is 10.7 square miles in area and was home to just under 21,000 people in 2016. The population density is approximately 1,600 people per square mile, which is considerably lower than the Houston average density of 3,737 people per square mile. The low population density of East Houston is a factor of the large tracts of industrial, vacant and undeveloped land inside the neighborhood boundaries.

2313

2310 2311

Between 2000 and 2016 the population of the East Houston Super Neighborhood steadily increased, rising from 19,748 to 20,867.

ABOVE: East Houston Census Tract Map BELOW: Population by Age, 2000-2016 Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016

Since 2000, the number of residents under the age of 18 has declined and the number of seniors has increased. Specifically, the number of neighborhood children declined from 6,993 in 2000 to 5,920 in 2016, a 15% decrease. Over the same time period the number of residents over the age of 65 nearly doubled, from 1,185 in 2000 to 2,107 in 2016.

East Houston Population in 2016

20,867

11,570

18-64 Years

11,797

6,993

Under 18 Years

6,930

1,185 2000

Over 65 Years

2312

12,840

5,920

1,611

2010

2,107

2016

25


81%

72%

54%

23%

40% 30%

Percent Black/African American Population 2016

26

18%

1%

5%

2% 64%

Percent Hispanic/Latino Population 2016

6%

Percent White Population 2016


The East Houston Super Neighborhood is diverse. In the overall neighborhood the majority of residents (61%) are Black or African American, followed by 34% Hispanic or Latino, 4% White and 1% Asian or other race. Yet, the diversity of the neighborhood is complex, particularly when mapped by Census Tract (see maps to the left). Since 2000 the ethnic composition of the neighborhood has changed, with the percent of Black or African American residents declining and the percent of Hispanic or Latino residents increasing (see chart below). In 2016, 14% of residents were born outside of the United States, a number that has increased slightly since 2000. In Houston overall, 29% of residents were born outside of the United States in 2016. 70%

Black or African American

BELOW: Percent Population by Race and Ethnicity in East Houston Super Neighborhood, 2000-2016 OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom Left: East Houston Recovery Meeting (Photos by Houston Housing and Community Development Department)

67%

31% 23%

6% 1% 2000

61%

34%

o

Hispanic or Latin

4%

White

2%

Asian / Other Race

0%

1%

2010

2016 27


Bachelor's Degree or Higher, 7%

1

Some College, 23%

Less Than High School, 29%

2 3

Tidwell Rd

High School Graduate, 39% East Houston Super Neighborhood

4 Less Than High School, 23%

Some College, 24%

High School Graduate, 23%

Houston ABOVE: Educational Attainment (25 Yrs +) 2016 ABOVE, Right: School Map 1 North Forest High School 2 Kirby Middle School 3 KIPP Legacy Prep, Voyage Academy for Girls, Polaris Academy for Boys, Northeast College Preparatory 4 Hilliard Elementary School 5 Varnett School (Charter) RIGHT: Hilliard ES (Photo Houston Chronicle)

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Ley Rd

Hilliard Elementary School was severely damaged during Harvey and is temporarily housed at the former Fonwood Elementary School over four miles away

Mesa Dr

Bachelor's Degree or Higher, 31%

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In 2016 the median household income in the East Houston Super Neighborhood was $32,081, compared to $47,010 in Houston. Income remains very similar across Census Tracts in the East Houston neighborhood.

$27K $35K

In 2016, 22% of families living in East Houston had incomes below the federal poverty level. The percent of families living below poverty has declined since 2000, when 31% of families lived below poverty. In 2016 the Houston poverty rate was 19%. The East Houston Super Neighborhood has four public charter schools and three HISD public schools. HISD’s Hilliard Elementary School was severely flooded during Harvey. Educational attainment in the East Houston Super Neighborhood has improved substantially since 2000 when 44% of residents over the age of 25 had not completed high school. By 2016, only 29% did not graduate from high school, a number still higher than 23% in Houston overall. $36,616

$32K

$34K

ABOVE: Median Household Income by Census Tract, 2016 BELOW: Median Household Income Over Time, Houston and East Houston Super Neighborhood Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016

$42,962

$47,010

ian Income

Houston Med

on Median

East Houst

Income

$32,824

$32,801

2010

2016

$26,012

2000

29


FEMA estimates that 2,281 homes flooded in the East Houston Super Neighborhood during Harvey, 32% of all homes.

ABOVE: Inundation Map Legend HCFCD Estimated Inundation Housing Parcel Building Footprint Source: Harris County Flood Control District Inundation Map, HCAD

30


The East Houston Super Neighborhood is growing. Between 2000 and 2016 there was an 18% increase in the number of housing units, rising from 6,125 to 7,204. Vacancy rates for housing doubled between 2000 and 2010 from 6% to 12%, and then began to decline by 2016. In 2016, 81% of all housing units were single-family detached homes. In the same year only 10% of all homes were in apartment buildings with five or more units. Not surprisingly, the home ownership rate in the neighborhood is very high, at 60%. In Houston 43% of households are homeowners. The median age of homes in the neighborhood is approximately fifty years, with many structures built in the 1970s. FEMA estimated that 32% of all homes in the East Houston Super Neighborhood were damaged by flooding from Hurricane Harvey.

Renters 57%

Renters 40%

Home Owners 43%

Home Owners 60%

HOUSTON

EAST HOUSTON

BELOW: Persons per Household, Percent Vacant Housing Units, and Total Housing Units Over Time BOTTOM, Left: Tenure, Houston and East Houston Super Neighborhood, 2016 BOTTOM, Right: Flooded Home (Photo by Caroline Smith) Sources: Census 2000, ACS 2010, ACS 2016

Persons per Household

3.4

3.3

3.2

12%

10%

Percent Vacant Housing Units 6%

7,204 6,965

Total Housing Units 6,125

2000

2010

2016

31


Housing cost burdens are a challenge for many families in Houston. In 2016, 38% of all households in the East Houston Super Neighborhood spent more than 30% of their income on housing. Renters in the neighborhood had a higher housing cost burden than owners, with 55% spending more than 30%. Housing cost burdens by tenure and Census Tract are illustrated in the maps below.

71%

50%

27%

27%

28% 71%

Percent of Renters Spending > 30% of Income on Housing, 2016

32

29%

46%

38%

28% 23%

Percent of Home Owners Spending > 30% of Income on Housing, 2016

39%

Percent of All Households Spending > 30% of Income on Housing, 2016


In addition to high housing costs the East Houston Super Neighborhood has a number of vulnerable populations, this includes children, seniors and single mothers. For example, 1,087 families in East Houston (22% of the total) live on incomes below the federal poverty level. However, 672 of these families are female headed households with children, representing 62% of all families living below poverty. The poverty rate for the East Houston population under the age of 18 years is 39%, higher than Houston where 34% of children live in households with incomes below the poverty level. In addition, 21% of seniors in East Houston live in poverty, compared to 14% in Houston overall. In 2016, 75% of residents were covered by health insurance, which is equal to the coverage rate in Houston. BELOW, Photos Left to Right: East Houston Recovery Meeting and Harvey Flooding Photos by HCCD and Juan Antonio Sorto

47%

46%

17%

28%

16%

25% 32%

Percent of Children Living Below Poverty, 2016

13%

Percent of Seniors Living Below Poverty, 2016

33


Tidwell Rd

Ley Rd

Mesa Dr

ABOVE: Opportunity Map OPPOSITE PAGE, Right: Neighborhood Photos and Opportunities (Photos by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)

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Opportunities At the time of publication it has been nearly a year since Hurricane Harvey began dumping rain at unprecedented rates and flooding much of Houston. City leaders report that over 150,000 homes were damaged by flood waters across the city. Lives, routines and resources were disrupted.

It is critical to identify opportunities, across scales, that have the potential to reduce future risks, assist with recovery and lead to greater resiliency over time. By building on the assets of our communities, while understanding the challenges, we can develop strategies that create greater resiliency.

Important questions are being asked about how do we prepare for, react to and recover from disasters of this magnitude, both now and in the future? Furthermore, what can we do collectively to identify the opportunities and challenges in our communities?

The East Houston Super Neighborhood, at the intersection of the Piney Woods and the prairie, is one of the few places in Houston with large tracts of pristine wilderness. Halls and Greens Bayou define the structure of the community, along with the two major corridors of

NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

BLOCK SCALE

Tidwell Road and Mesa Drive. Neighborhoods of homes, schools, parks and commercial centers fill in the gaps. The opportunities identified here build on the natural landscape, the bayous and the civic strength of the neighborhood. The opportunities also seek to mitigate flooding risks, expand economic opportunity, improve community amenities and transit access, while looking forward to more resilient housing and neighborhood models.

BUILDING SCALE

35


N. Wayside Drive

Resilient Neighborhoods

The East Houston Super Neighborhood is bisected by Halls Bayou, and the eastern edge is defined by Greens Bayou. Halls Bayou has flooded 14 times since 1970. Currently, Harris County Flood Control District’s Halls Ahead project is identifying mitigation strategies for the watershed. Understanding the complex drainage system and the relationship of this system to the neighborhood and its resources could work to generate greater resiliency in the community. This includes understanding the opportunities inherent in the existing system of drainage ditches and easements and the surrounding context. Tidwell Rd

Mesa Dr

A natural drainage ditch that connects to Halls Bayou is enclosed within the property lines of adjacent homes (see parcel map to the left), preventing proper maintenance. PAGE: Map of Halls Bayou and Vacant and Undeveloped Land ABOVE: Detail of Subdivision Drainage

36


Greens Bayou

Halls Bayou

Brock Park Golf Course

37


4

Tidwell Rd

5 Mesa Dr

Wayside Dr

2 3

Ley Rd

1 ABOVE: Community Resources 1 East Houston Civic Club 2 Lakewood Neighborhood Library (closed due to flooding) 3 Lakewood Community Center 4 Northeast YMCA (closed due to flooding) 5 Northeast Multi-Service Center NRC

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Neighborhood Center

In the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey the City of Houston, in partnership with organizations across the city, opened twelve Neighborhood Restoration Centers (NRCs). The Centers provide for basic needs and connect people to recovery resources. The closest center to East Houston is at the Northeast Multi-Service Center, approximately 2.5 miles west on Tidwell Road.

2.5 Miles Northeast Multi-Service Center NRC

Inside the East Houston neighborhood, recovery has been championed by the East Houston Civic Club. Established in 1936, this active civic organization is located on East Houston Road just south of Ley Road. Since Hurricane Harvey the Civic Club has served as a distribution point for critical needs such as food and diapers, as well as hosting resource fairs and other events focused on recovery. While the efforts of the Civic Club are critical, an inventory of public facilities in the neighborhood that could be activated to assist families in the wake of future disaster is also imperative. A number of public facilities were flooded during the storm, including the Northeast Houston YMCA, the Lakewood Library and Hilliard Elementary School. All three remain closed at the time of this publication. Identifying other public buildings and facilities, such as schools, to serve as future disaster recovery sites will ensure a more coordinated relief effort in the future.

East Houston

ABOVE: City of Houston Neighborhood Recovery Centers (NRC) BELOW, Photos Left to Right: East Houston Civic Club Photos

Ensuring that every neighborhood has the physical, social and economic resources to recover will lead to greater resiliency. 39


Tidwell Rd Mesa Dr

Wayside Dr

Ley Rd

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ABOVE: Map of Proposed Farms and Markets Undeveloped Land Farm Market School ABOVE and LEFT: Proposed Market and Farm (Map, Concepts and Images by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)

40

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Food Security

Developing strategies to ensure greater access to fresh and nutritious food across the neighborhood, as well as preventing food insecurity, will create greater resiliency. This strategy might include supporting a locally owned co-operative grocery store, developing urban farms or large community gardens, farmers markets, or increasing the number of food pantries across the neighborhood.

Mesa Dr

There are two Houston Foodbank pantries in the neighborhood, one on Tidwell Road at Mesa Drive and the other at Wayside Drive and Ley Road. The closest community garden, supported by Urban Harvest, is at Fonwood Elementary School, outside the boundaries of the Super Neighborhood.

Tidwell Rd

Wayside Dr

The East Houston Super Neighborhood has one major grocery store, Fiesta Mart located on the southwest corner of Mesa Drive and Tidwell Road. The grocery store flooded during Harvey and took several months to re-open. The next closest grocery store is more than four miles away. According to the USDA Food Desert Atlas three of East Houston’s four Census tracts are defined as food deserts, where the tract is both low-income and has a high percentage of households without access to a vehicle. In these three tracts 543 households (12%) live more than a mile from a grocery store and do not own a vehicle.

Ley Rd

ABOVE: Food Map Grocery Store 1/2-mile radius Food Pantries BELOW: Vulnerable Populations Sources: ACS 2016, USDA Food Desert Map

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2,267

1,087

543

Children Living in Families with Incomes Below the Poverty Level

Families with Incomes Below the Poverty Level

Families With No Vehicle

41


Mesa Rd

Homestead

Tidwell Rd

Wayside Dr

2.4 Miles Shopping, Schools, Park, Community Center

Mesa Transit Center, Shopping, Groceries, Schools, Park

? 42

ABOVE: Tidwell Road Detail Map BELOW: Mesa Transit Center Photo OPPOSITE PAGE, Top: Tidwell Bus Route OPPOSITE PAGE, Bottom: Mesa Transit Center Aerial (Photo Below by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)


Tidwell Transit Center

Transit Center Hub

Mesa Rd / Transit Center

Homestead Rd

I-69

Red Line

New Housing Development

Kipp Legacy Campus Mesa Rd

There are two primary local destinations along the Tidwell bus route. The first is the Mesa Transit Center which is adjacent to Fiesta Mart the only major grocery store in the neighborhood, area retail, restaurants, a pharmacy, Lake Forest Park, and four area schools. The second destination is at Tidwell Road and Homestead Road. The Northeast Multi-Service Center, Tidwell Park, a pharmacy, retail, restaurants, and a number of neighborhood schools are located near this stop.

Northline Transit Center

To Downtown

All four of the area’s bus routes pass through the Mesa Transit Center. The Tidwell bus route is the busiest, each day over 4,000 people board the Tidwell bus. The route connects to many local and city destinations including the Red Line light rail at Northline Commons.

Tidwell Rd / Bus Line 5 I-4

The Mesa Transit Center is ripe for intervention. Currently, the Transit Center is simply a series of bus shelters in a parking lot. Re-imagining this site with a more formal Transit Center, farmers market, small business incubators, or other social and community gathering places, could enhance the importance of this central site, a hub in the neighborhood.

Tidwell Rd

? Mesa Transit Center

Fiesta

The Halls Bayou Greenway, once complete, runs roughly parallel to Tidwell Road and will provide an alternative means of transportation between these two destinations. Halls Bayou

Lake Forest Park

43


Living in garage of flooded home

Living on the second story of flooded home

Repairing flooded home

Elevating flooded home

Tidwell Rd Mesa Dr

Wayside Dr

Flooded home buyouts

Ley Rd

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Flooded Home Recovery Strategies LEFT: Planned Development (Plats) ABOVE: Strategies for Home Recovery OPPOSITE PAGE, Right: Conceptual Halls Bayou Section Sources: City of Houston Plat Tracker, Harrel Park photos by KPRC and San Antonio Express News (Home Recovery Strategies developed by Rocio Alonso, Canston Fitzwater, Shoaib Nizami, John Taylor; Halls Bayou Section Concept by Caroline Smith, Kaihan Chen, Peter Eccles, Vilma Umanzor, Yan Lu)


Resilient Housing

The East Houston Super Neighborhood has 7,204 housing units, of these 2,281 are estimated to have flooded during Hurricane Harvey, or 32%. The Harrel Park neighborhood, a subdivision of 45 homes recently constructed by Habitat for Humanity flooded during Harvey. The organization is working with homeowners to help rebuild the homes.

Even while the Halls Bayou watershed has experienced flooding on average every three and one-half years, new development continues to occur. Today, there are over a dozen new plats in the community. To combat the risk of flooding, the City of Houston recently amended the flood plain ordinance, Chapter 19. The new code requires the elevation of structures in the 100- and 500-year floodplains to be elevated two feet above the 500-year flood elevation.

Developing resiliency strategies for new housing, including elevating, on-site rainwater collection and detention, and other mitigation strategies could work to ensure that future flood risks are minimized, and that no negative impacts are created through new construction. Ensuring greater resiliency of area housing will help to protect the wealth and stability of area families.

Harrel Park, a Houston Habitat for Humanity development, flooded during Harvey. The organization is assisting residents with rebuilding. Ley Road

Halls Bayou

50’ 46’ 42’ 38’

Residential building

Halls Bayou

Ley Road

Residential building

Residential building

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46


Participants and Sponsors Participants

Community Design Workshop University of Houston College of Architecture + Design Student Team, Spring 2018 Kaihan Chen Peter Eccles Yan Lu Caroline Smith Vilma Umanzor *This document includes research prepared by students in Spring 2018

Community Design Resource Center Susan Rogers, Director Adelle Main, Assistant Director Angelica Lastra, Design Strategist Jose Mario Lopez, Design Strategist Gabriela Degetau, Research Assistant Constanza PeĂąa, Research Assistant Honored Guests and Critics Kinder Baumgardner Antoine Bryant Margaret Wallace Brown Amanda Burden Robert Burrow Alan Cisneros Keith Downey Dineta Frazier Niel Golightly Secunda Joseph Hiroko Kobayashi Kimberly Hatter

Brandi Holmes Alex Lahti Elaine Morales Lauren Racusin Jeff Reichman Patricia Oliver Jasleen Sarai Preetal Shah Juan Antonio Sorto Christof Spieler Amanda Timm Jenifer Wagley Kenneth Williams Huey Wilson

Special Thanks

The Collaborative Community Design Initiative is supported through a generous gift from the Japan Business Association of Houston and a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. The initiative would not be possible without the generous commitment of time from community leaders and stakeholders and professionals across Houston. We would like to thank all of our partners and supporters. We would like to send a special thanks to Amanda Burden and Lauren Racusin of Bloomberg Associates and to Juan Antonio Sorto for sharing his photographs of Harvey’s impact on East Houston.

47


Profile for SKRogers

East Houston Briefing Book  

Briefing Book for the fifth biennial Collaborative Community Design Initiative for the East Houston Super Neighborhood

East Houston Briefing Book  

Briefing Book for the fifth biennial Collaborative Community Design Initiative for the East Houston Super Neighborhood

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