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A good bank of knowledge ”The tests have given us a good bank of knowledge,” says Björn

Löfgren, head of testing at Skogforsk. “But we’re now going to focus more on examining how we can reduce the effect of the load on the ground instead. We’ve just built a test site for this.” But the track manufacturer Olofsfors, which participated in the autumn’s tests with three different tracks, does see a benefit in the current tests. ”For us, it adds weight to the argument,” says marketing manager Göran Nyberg. “And of course demand has increased – but perhaps particularly in Finland, where the authorities have now stipulated that track with a width of at least 900 mm must be used on ground with low bearing capacity.”


mills must have their wood and we must have smaller stocks.” Lennart Hult wants to know more about the distribution of pressure on a fully-loaded machine – how the distribution of the load affects the pressure under the wheels – ”really, it should always be specified”. And he also wants to know about the impact of the machines on the ground when they turn. ”We have to turn... but this has a screwing effect, which often causes deep ruts. How can we reduce that damage?”

Critical. Bertil Lidén wants PTS to improve checks on coverage.



As early as 1978 Skogforsk carried out its first tests of how wheels and tracks affect the ground. Recently, the latest test was concluded on a field outside Tierp. But are the results of these tests actually used by the forestry industry? VISION asked Lennart Hult, head of technical purchasing at Sveaskog: ”No, they’re of marginal importance. What’s more important is how the machines can be equipped, if there are good service sites around the machine team and what the operators think. At the same time, there’s much more to do on the issue – the wood must be extracted irrespective of rain and several thaws, because the

Reduced ground pressure. On the Rottne F13, the position of the front and back wheels can be adjusted so they run beside each other. The machine was one of those used in Skogforsk’s latest rut depth test.

The Swedish Post and Telecom Authority, PTS, monitors how much of the Swedish population has access to broadband, but does not check how much of the country’s area has mobile coverage. “It’s surprising that it’s not monitored,” says Bertil Lidén, expert on mobile data at Skogforsk. “It’s an important figure for agricultural enterprises.” And, rather surprisingly, the authority agrees with him: ”It’s perhaps something we must change,” says Oscar Holmström of the Swedish Post and Telecom Authority. ”I daren’t promise anything, but it could be relevant to include it in next year’s measurements.” The problem arose at Skogforsk’s ”On Line Off Road” conference, where forestry companies, teleoperators and researchers regularly meet and discuss how to develop mobile communication in rural areas.

MORE EXPENSIVE FOREST BIOFUEL The cost of extracting biofuel from forests is increasing, according to major producers of forest fuel in Skogforsk’s latest survey. In 2010, the overall cost of forest fuel increased from SEK 170


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to 173/m3s, an increase of approximately two percent. “The costs for branches, tops and small-dimensioned trees increased, while costs for fuel wood and stumps fell,” says Torbjörn

Brunberg of Skogforsk. “But this is only the second year the survey has been held, so it is too early to detect any trends.”

CONTACT: Torbjörn Brunberg, +46 18 18 85 63 READ MORE: Resultat 8/2011, order from



CHECKLIST FOR EFFICIENT LOGGING Skogforsk has produced a checklist that can help machine teams work more efficiently and more profitably. ”By answering questions about how they work, the machine teams can monitor the efficiency of their activities,” says method instructor Anders Mörk, who for many years has been helping forest machine operators and teams work more smartly. With the checklist, your team can identify areas where you want to improve. It can also serve as a base for discussions with clients on matters where you need to understand each other better.

CONTACT: Anders Mörk +46 18 18 85 41

WELL PREPARED Skogforsk’s strategy for forest tree breeding, with the aim of improving and adapting plant breeding material – while preserving the genetic diversity – is sustainable. This is shown in a new survey. ”The strategy is robust against changes in climate and markets. We can also introduce new breeding technology as it becomes available,” says Ola Rosvall, head of forest tree breeding at Skogforsk. The study, which examined the

results and experiences of tree breeding researchers, also examined their strategy in relation to external developments. “Compared with other growthenhancing measures, the planting of genetically improved seedlings is in a class of its own. They cost virtually nothing and can be used on the entire forest land area.” CONTACT: Ola Rosvall, +46 90 203 33 53 READ MORE: Resultat 11/2011 – order the report from



READ MORE: Order Checklist for more efficient logging (Resultat 7/2011) from

Many notes. Forestry processes are complicated.

IMPROVED INFORMATION EXCHANGE The forestry industry’s IT company, SDC, is currently leading an extensive project aimed at structuring information flows in the forestry sector. ”We’re mapping their processes and clarifying the concepts they use in order to help improve

information exchange,” says Bosse Eriksson (photo), head of the programme. Helping him, SDC has fifteen representatives from forestry, including Skogforsk. The sector is thought to benefit from common IT support. ShortCuts | 4 | 2011




Lars Wilhelmsson, Wood Utilisation Programme.

Gert Andersson, Logistics Programme.


GREATER VALUE IN THE VALUE CHAIN Gert Andersson is manager of Skogforsk’s logistics programme. His colleague Lars Wilhelmsson is manager of the wood utilisation programme. Both are deeply involved in developing the value chain from customer to forest – or from forest to customer, depending on how you look at it. Text & photo sverker johansson | ”There’s not just one value chain –

the entire sector is full of value chains,” says Gert Andersson. Every product has its own chain. And the chains can be both similar and very different. One saw mill requires a certain number of logs with the right top diameter, cut into certain lengths. Another saw mill accepts almost everything and cuts components between the knot clusters. And all mills have different requirements. Everything can be translated to the customer requirement and to how they affect the players throughout the value chain. 4

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”Our job is to find simple, objective and reliable ways for forestry and industry to communicate,” says Lars Wilhelmsson. “They must speak the same language and have confidence in each other. Ultimately it’s about carefully specifying customer requirements and evaluating them against what the forest can offer, by improving exchange prognoses.” According to Lars Wilhelmsson, it’s the communication around what is possible – what it really costs to satisfy all options and ensure accuracy in a delivery forecast – that is the key

to becoming a better but also more profitable supplier. “It’s about developing delivery forecasts that create value and are credible – and then living up to them,” says Lars Wilhelmsson. “The wood supplier and the industrial customer should together be able to check that the timber stocks and timber flows contain the products required. If this is to be achieved, the logging organisation must ensure that the harvesters measure accurately, that damage is avoided during production, and that the bucking instructions produce the RESEARCH FOR TOMORROW’S FORESTRY




Know the customer requirements and the raw material base, and thereby know all possible logging options. In dialogue between industry and forestry companies, develop business models that clarify which needs can be satisfied and the price of the delivery. Linking supply and demand to successful logistics, where good data and dynamic support for decisions allow consequences to be calculated in the event of change.

right types of logs – the right quantity at the right time.” ”If the information from the forest is uncertain, and the customers’ orders are unclear, misunderstandings easily happen. Consequently, one of Skogforsk’s most important tasks is to work with forestry companies on establishing standards – the machine and timber data language StanForD 2010 is one example, and the new standard for information about standing forest is another.” Strengthen the entire chain

“Another objective is to maximise the total value of the entire chain,” says Gert Andersson. “Not just its different parts. When we use our logistics tool to optimise timber transports, stocks for example are regarded as costs, since they bind up capital. But, as we know, stocks can be very valuable – for example to ensure the delivery of the right logs even when the ground is thawing. Those stocks must be allocated a value instead.” ”Exactly,” agrees Lars Wilhelmsson. “Even if we have a strong and basically positive culture of looking for ways to minimise costs, we must know how it affects the entire chain so that we don’t cut out activities that actually create value in the end.” Such an overview requires systeRESEARCH FOR TOMORROW’S FORESTRY

matic mapping of the activities, and knowledge about how they interact with each other. But according to Lars Wilhelmsson, the drive to reduce costs still dominates. ”It shows in how we express ourselves,” he says. ”We start talking about putting a value on the wood. But we also have another way of speaking when we talk about consumption instead of refinement. Does a saw mill or a forest industry ‘consume’ 500,000 cubic metres – or do they ‘refine’ the wood into IKEA shelves, DME diesel and packaging materials?” ”As Lasse said earlier, our job is also to help forestry companies price the delivery correctly,” says Gert Andersson. “They must be very familiar with both the forest and their customers’ needs, because they must be able to tell the customer what the right delivery will cost. But isn’t it negative bee to open about needs?

“It’s true that, in pricelists, you can’t always see the ability to pay for differences in many wood properties,” says Lars Wilhelmsson. “These can be business secrets and perhaps cannot be communicated to the market. But an industrial company that really wants to integrate with forestry companies should be able

to develop their value chains by expressing their wishes through variations in willingness to pay.” ”Ultimately, good business is achieved in collaboration with the suppliers. Value is successfully created when information is shared and planning is collaborative.” How will the value chains be developed in the future?

”Demand is growing for greater efficiency in the wood flows,” says Gert Andersson. “But ever-improving data and mobile broadband, soon available in the entire forest, is already in place. This means that we can now really produce smart data for use in decision making. It’s about improving the efficiency of the exchange between the companies, utilising the return transports, and finding tools for managing the transports at day level. This will enable us to cut transport costs by 5-10 percent but, perhaps above all, direct the right wood to the right customer, thereby utilising the value of the timber. One important project is the SDC project aimed at increasing standardisation and developing communication in the value chains.” ”The major revolution is more sophisticated production files from the harvesters – StanForD 2010 – and their future link to laser-scanned forest data,” explains Lars Wilhelmsson. “Together with new calculation tools, we will soon have access to a detailed description of what products can be extracted from the various forest stands. We can make better forecasts, we can plan the order of logging better, and we will be better at refining the desired product qualities.”


What we must do now, without compromise, is use the solutions that already exist

Use what is available

”When we put the puzzle together, we will have increased the value of one cubic metre by several tens of kronor,” adds Gert Andersson. “So, although the future is attractive, what we must do now, without compromise, is use the solutions that already exist.” ”And there’s a lot of them,” concludes Lars Wilhelmsson. “Utilise them – really successful companies are characterised by the way they implement current knowledge.”

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REVOLUTIONIZE THE VALUE CHAIN Calibrating laser data about the forest with harvester data gives very accurate yield calculations about the products in the stand – in principle the entire laser-scanned forest landscape is turned into a well-stocked woodshed! Text & photo sverker johansson | FLEXWOOD is an EU project in which many countries are working together to increase the value of the forest and improve wood flow management. In the project, a complete forest landscape of 16,000 hectares in northern Uppland has been laser scanned by Foran Remote Sensing AB. One hundred test sites for which there is a complete inventory have also been used to calibrate all data. Using this data, researchers are developing an estimation model for all laser-scanned trees in the forest landscape. Skogforsk’s Andreas Barth has examined how this data compares with the ‘key’ provided by well-calibrated harvester data for the stands in which they are operating. Korsnäs is now delivering HPR files with high-resolution production data from its harvesters in the scanned forest landscape. ”We’re evaluating the yield calculations from the laser data, where the ‘key’ is the harvester files,” explains Andreas Barth. “Then we can also use estimates of stem deficiency frequencies in order to fine-tune all the data. This is then scaled up to provide data for the entire laser-scanned area – a well-stocked ”woodshed” in which we know where the products are and how we can buck the products we need.” Andreas Barth also has a vision in which data about the forest holding is continually updated. After an ini6

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tial laser scan, the laser data is continually supplemented with harvester data from felled trees. Laser scan data is then constantly improved as the harvesters fell various types of stand in the area. When an update of forest data is needed, digital stereo photos can be purchased from the national orthophoto library. The forest holder then gets a new height model of the forest canopy and can use models to produce new tree data. SLU – the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences – is currently testing this. ”My vision is a virtually maintenance-free updating of forest data,” says Andreas Barth. How far are we from that vision?

”We’re quite close, but two things don’t work so well yet,” says Andreas Barth. “We need to know the exact positions of the trees that are felled – at present only the harvester’s landings are given coordinates during logging. We also need to learn how to distinguish between tree species – and that’s not so simple.” Andreas thinks the positioning problem will soon be solved, where a sensor on the harvester unit ‘checks’ the position against the GPS data in the machine cab. But species recognition is more difficult. ”In FLEXWOOD, hyperspectral analysis is currently being tested, where an airborne scanner analyses the wavelengths from different tree species, but the results vary.”

FLEXWOOD will increase the value in the value chain The EU-funded collaboration project FLEXWOOD – Flexible Wood Supply Chain – runs between 2009 and 2012. Fourteen companies, universities and research institutes from nine countries are developing a new logistics system that will increase the value throughout the wood supply chain. The system will be able to manage: ■ Laser-scanned forest data showing the forest’s

quality and volumes ■ Optimisation models for tactical and operative

planning ■ Improved information transfer between all links

in the supply chain, which will improve data for decision-making Read more:



My vision is a virtually maintenance-free updating of forest data

Cheap inventory. Height data models of the forest canopy (picture) from digital aerial photographs in stereo are run against a ground model from the laser scanning. The result is almost maintenance-free updating of the forest data.


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FROM CUSTOMER DEMAND TO DELIVERY PLAN Korsnäs AB is one of the hosts of the FLEXWOOD project and is working with Skogforsk to develop a system for efficient planning of production and delivery in the flow to its industrial customers.

Text & photo sverker johansson | Of the two million cubic met-

res Korsnäs fells every year, only seven percent goes to its own mills in Gävle, Frövi and Rockhammar. Consequently, much of its business activity involves supplying wood to a large number of external sawmills and mills. Göran Andersson, Forest Manager at Korsnäs, sees great potential for his logging managers when they are planning the order in which logging is to take place: - They can both save time and make better decisions by coordinating stands, yield calculations and machines. Today, the process is time consuming and there is much trial-anderror involved – we enter various bucking options for the applicable stands until they

UPPSALA (Head Office) Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden Phone: +46 18 188500 EKEBO Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden Phone: +46 418 471300 UMEÅ P.O. Box 3, SE-918 21 Sävar, Sweden. Phone: +46 90 2033350

match the customers’ orders, and this is then checked against the delivery plan. There are a lot of manual stages involved. Tested this winter

Mikael Frisk at Skogforsk works with optimising planning of the order in which logging takes place. “Our model chooses stands and machine teams to match the delivery plan, while minimising the costs of logging, transport, stocks and movement. The result is a proposed plan for the logging team, together Göran Andersson, Korsnäs.

RESEARCH PROGRAMMES WOOD UTILIZATION Lars Wilhelmsson Phone: +46 18 188555 FOREST TECHNOLOGY Magnus Thor Phone: +46 18 188596 LOGISTICS Gert Andersson, Phone: +46 18 188567

Optimised scheduling of production, where the machine teams in a district are allocated suitable stands for a period.

with a proposed delivery plan.” Data from the laser scanning is a layer in VSOP, Korsnäs’ system for operative planning and purchasing support. For every stand, a stem calculation length is produced. Using a calculation model, the stems are checked against current pricelists and generate yield calculations. The various product volumes are matched against Korsnäs’s delivery undertakings. “Then we link Korsnäs’s machine teams to the stands,” explains Mikael Frisk. “The machine types are matched to the forest types. Our geographical starting point is the machine teams’ home base,

FOREST BIOENERGY Rolf Björheden Phone: +46 18 188509 TREE BREEDING NORTH

Bengt Andersson Ph: +46 90 2033358 TREE BREEDING SOUTH Bo Karlsson Phone: +46 418 471305

to minimise transport costs. The analysis also includes data from the national road database in order to minimise transport costs and emissions.” At regional level

In a first step, the model is being tested in the Uppland district, and involves 8-10 machine teams. ”But we want the optimisations to be at regional level in order to maximise benefit from the system,” says Göran Andersson. “The outcome is a proposed delivery plan, which is broken down to the level of each logging manager.” ”It will be interesting to monitor this. You can imagine that some ingrained opinions about how we work will be turned completely on their heads!”


Lars-Göran Sundblad Ph: +46 90 2033369 ENVIRONMENT Jan-Olov Weslien Phone: +46 18 188505

Editor in chief: Jan Fryk | Form: Pagarango | Editor: Bitzer | ISSN: 2000-2726 | Photos: Sverker Johansson unless otherwise stated Translated by: Leslie Walke, CommunicAID | Printed by: Gävle Offset, 2011

ShortCuts nr 4-2011