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Biographies Authors Scarlett and Fatima
Niguel Angel Asturias Rosales
(October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) Was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan poet, novelist, playwright, journalist anddiplomat. Asturias helped establish Latin American literature's contribution to mainstream Western culture, and at the same time drew attention to the importance of indigenous cultures, especially those of his native Guatemala. Asturias was born and raised in Guatemala though he lived a significant part of his adult life abroad. He first lived in Paris in the 1920s where he studied anthropology and Indian mythology. Some scholars view him as the first Latin American novelist to show how the study of anthropology and linguistics could affect the writing of literature. While in Paris, Asturias also associated with the Surrealist movement, and he is credited with introducing many features of modernist style into Latin American letters. In this way, he is an important precursor of the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s. Writing Style Asturias was greatly inspired by the N aya culture of Central America. It is an overarching theme in many of his works and greatly influenced the style of this writing. Genres: Surrealism, dictator novel. Early life and education N iguel Ángel Asturias was born in Guatemala City on October 19, 1899, the first child of Ernesto Asturias Girón, a lawyer and judge, and N aría Rosales de Asturias, a schoolteacher. Asturias' parents were of Spanish descent, and reasonably distinguished. Following an incident in 1904 which, in his capacity as judge, Asturias Sr. set free some students arrested for causing a disturbance, he clashed directly with the dictator, lost his job, and he and his family were forced to move in 1905 to the town of Salamá, the departmental capital of Baja Verapaz, where N iguel Ángel Asturias lived on his grandparents' farm. It was here that Asturias first came into contact with Guatemala's indigenous people; his nanny, Lola Reyes, was a young indigenous woman who told him stories of their myths and legends that would later have a great influence on his work. In 1908, when Asturias was nine, his family returned to the suburbs of Guatemala City. Here they established a supply store where Asturias spent his adolescence. Asturias first attended Colegio del Padre Pedro and then, Colegio del Padre Solís. Asturias began writing as a student and wrote the first draft of a story that would later become his novel El Señor Presidente.
In 1922, Asturias and other students founded the Popular University, a community project whereby "the middle class was encouraged to contribute to the general welfare by teaching free courses to the underprivileged." Asturias spent a year studying medicine before switching to the faculty of law at the "Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala" in Guatemala City. He obtained his law degree in 1923 and received the Gálvez Prize for his thesis on Indian problems. Asturias was also awarded the Premio Falla for being the top student in his faculty. It was at this university that he founded the "Asociación de Estudiantes Universitariosand the "Asociación de estudiantes El Derecho, in addition to actively participating in "La Tribuna del Partido Unionista"). It was ultimately the latter group which derailed the dictatorship of Estrada Cabrera. Both of the associations he founded have been recognized as being positively associated with Guatemalan patriotism. In reference to literature, Asturias' involvement in all of these organizations influenced many of his scenes in El Señor Presidente. Asturias was thus involved in politics; working as a representative of the "Asociación General de Estudiantes Universitarios", and traveling to El Salvador and Honduras for his new job. In 1920, Asturias participated in the uprising against the dictator N anuel Estrada Cabrera. While enrolled in "El Instituto Nacional de Varones" he took an active role, such as organizing strikes in his high school, in the overthrow of the dictatorship of Estrada Cabrera. He and his classmates formed what is now known to be “La Generación del 20 . Asturias' university thesis, "The Social Problem of the Indian," was published in 1923. After receiving his law degree the same year, Asturias moved to Europe. He had originally planned to live in England and study political economy, but changed his mind. He soon transferred to Paris, where he studied ethnology at the Sorbonne (University of Paris) and became a dedicated surrealist under the influence of the French poet and literary theorist André Breton. While there, he was influenced by the gathering of writers and artists in N ontparnasse, an area of Paris, and began writing poetry and fiction. During this time, Asturias developed a deep concern for N ayan culture and in 1925 he worked to translate the N ayan sacred text, the Popol Vuh, into Spanish, a project which he spent 40 years on. He also founded a magazine while in Paris called Tiempos Nuevos or New Times. Asturias stayed in Paris for a total of ten years. In 1930, Asturias published his first novel "Leyendas de Guatemala". Two years later, in Paris, Asturias received the Sylla N onsegur Prize for the French translations of "Leyendas de Guatemala". On July 14, 1933, he returned to Guatemala after ten years in Paris.
he was born on N ay 6, 1919 in san N arcos, Guatemala In 1939 Carlos Solórzano moved to N exico. In 1945 he graduated from the "Universidad Nacional Autónoma de N éxico" as an architect, as a master and doctor of letters His first play, Espejo de Novelas, was penned in 1946. In 1948, a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation permitted him to study drama at Sorbonne, Paris, France. Solórzano returned to N exico City. He began writing a number of plays, some of which are important to N exican theatre today. Solorzano represented N exico in the first playwriting workshop in Puerto Rico in 1960 and in 1963 was representative of N exico's Festival of Theater of Nations in Paris. He attended the "XI Congreso de Literatura Iberoamericana" in Austin, Texas. Solórzano is a recipient of the N iguel Ángel Asturias Award given to those who excel in literature in Guatemala. He was awarded this honor in 1989. Solórzano was an active lecturer and director in the universities. He has served as the director of the "Teatro Universitario" as well as the director of the "N useo Nacional de Teatro". He has lectured in several universities in the United States including Columbia University, the University of Southern California, and the University of Kansas. He was currently a professor at the Autonomous University of Latin America, and an editor of the theatrical encyclopedia, "Enciclopedia N undial del Teatro Contemporaneo". Solórzano died in N exico City on N arch 30, 2011.
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/N iguel_Angel_Asturias es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Solorzano
Robert Koffler Jarvik, N .D. (born N ay 11, 1946) is an American scientist, researcher and entr epreneur known for his role in developing the Jarvik-7artificial heart. Robert Jarvik was born in N idland, N ichigan to Norman Eugene Jarvik and Edythe Koffler Jarvik, and raised in Stamford, Connecticut. He is the nephew of N urray Jarvik, a pharmacologist who was the coinventor of the nicotine patch. Jarvik is a graduate of Syracuse University. He earned a masterâ€™s degree in medical engineering from New York University.
An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart. Artificial hearts are typically used to bridge the time to heart transplantation, or to permanently replace the heart in case heart transplantation is impossible. Although other similar inventions preceded it going back to the late 1940s, the first artificial heart to be successfully implanted in a human was the Jarvik7, designed by Robert Jarvik and implemented in 1982. The first two patients to receive these hearts, Barney Clark and William Schroeder, survived 112 and 620 days beyond their surgeries, respectively. It's important because an artificial heart is distinct from a ventricular assist device designed to support a failing heart. It is also distinct from a cardiopulmonary bypassmachine, which is an external device used to provide the functions of both the heart and lungs and are only used for a few hours at a time, most commonly during cardiac surgery.
Steve Jobs was born on February 24 1955, in Los Altos California. During his high school years, Jobs worked summers at Hewlitt-Packard, it was there that he first met his future business partner Steve Wozniak. He studied as an undergraduate: physics, literature, and poetry, at Reed College, Oregon, an interesting combination of subjects. Steve Jobs formally only attended only one semester at Reed College, however, he remained at Reed crashing on friend's sofas and auditing courses including a calligraphy class, which he attributes as being the reason Apple computers had such elegant typefaces. After leaving Orefon in 1974 and returning to California, Steve Jobs started working for Atari, an early pioneer manufacturer of personal computers. Jobs' close personal friend Steve Wozniak was also working for Atari, and the future founders of Apple teamed together to design games for Atari computers. Jobs and Wozniak had learned enough to try their hand at building personal computers. Using Steve Job's family garage as a base of operation, the team produced fifty fully assembled computers that were sold to a local N ountain View electronics store called the Byte Shop. The sale encouraged the pair to found the Apple Corporation on April 1, 1979. The Apple Corporation was named after Steve Job's favorite fruit. The Apple logo was a representation of the fruit with a bite taken out of it. The bite represented a play on words - bite and byte. During the early 80's, Steve Jobs controlled the business side of the Apple Corporation and Steve Wozniak, the design side. However, in 1984 a power struggle with the board of directors caused Steve Jobs to leave Apple. After Steve Jobs return to Apple as CEO in 1997, Apple Computers has had a renaissance in product development with the iN ac, iPod, iPhone, iPad and more. Before his death, Steve Jobs was listed as the inventor and/or coinventor on 342 United States patents, with technologies ranging from computer and portable devices, user interfaces, speakers, keyboards, power adapters, staircases, clasps, sleeves, lanyards
and packages. His last patent was issued for the N ac OS X Dock user interface and was granted the day before his death. Steve Jobs co-invented the Apple I and Apple II computers together with Steve Wozniak (main designer) and others. The Apple II is noted as the first commercially successful line of personal computers. In 1984, Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs, and others co-invented the Apple N acintosh computer, the first successful home computer with a mouse-driven graphical user. His invention is important because now help us at work, school, and for communicate and its a revolution in technology.
Pope John Paul ii "As the family goes, so goes the nation, and so goes the whole world in which we live." â€“ John Paul II He was born in Karol JĂłzef Wojtyla on N ay 18, 1920, in Wadowice, Poland, Pope John Paul II's early life was marked by great loss. His mother died when he was 9 years old, and his older brother Edmund died when he was 12. He went to Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938 where he showed an interest in theater and poetry. The school was closed the next year by Nazi troops during the German occupation of Poland. Wanting to become a priest, John Paul began studying at a secret seminary run by the archbishop of Krakow. After World War II ended, he finished his religious studies at a Krakow seminary and was ordained in 1946. John Paul spent two years in Rome where he finished his doctorate in theology. He returned to Poland in 1948 and served in several parishes in and around Krakow. John Paul became the bishop of Ombi in 1958 and then the archbishop of Krakow six years later. Considered one of the Catholic Church's leading thinkers, he participated in the Second Vatican Council.As a member of the council, John Paul helped the church to examine its position in the world. Well regarded for his contributions to the church, John Paul was made a cardinal in 1967 by Pope Paul VI. In 1978, John Paul made history by becoming the first non-Italian pope in more than four hundred years. As the leader of the Catholic Church, he traveled the world, visiting more than 100 countries to spread his message of faith and peace. John Paul often spoke out about suffering in the world. He held strong positions on many topics, including his opposition to capital punishment. A charismatic figure, John Paul used his influence to bring about political change
In his later years, John Paul's health appeared to be failing. At public appearances, moved slowly and seemed unsteady on his feet.He also visibly trembled at times. While one of his doctors disclosed that John Paul had Parkinson's disease. John Paul II died on April 2, 2005, at the age of 84, at his Vatican City residence. Achievments: Pope John Paul II was the longest serving pope of the 20th century. Pope John Paul wrote five books that were published during his papacy. Pope John Paul II declared 482 saints during his papacy; more than the number declared by all the popes in the last 500 years combined.
"When the light fades or vanishes altogether, we no longer see things as they really are."â€“ John Paul II
Mother Teresa "Even the rich are hungry for love, for being cared for, for being wanted, for having someone to call their own." The Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, N .C., commonly known as N other Teresa (26 August 1910 â€“ 5 September 1997), was an Albanian born, IndianRoman Catholic Religious Sister. N other Teresa founded the N issionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries. They run hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; children's and family counseling programmes; orphanages; and schools. N embers of the order must adhere to the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience, and the fourth vow, to give "Wholehearted and Free service to the poorest of the poor". N other Teresa was the recipient of numerous honours including the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. In late 2003, she was beatified, the third step toward possible sainthood, giving her the title "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta. A second miracle credited to her intercession is required before she can be recognised as a saint by the Catholic Church. Admired and respected by many, she has also been accused of failing to provide medical care or painkillers, misusing charitable money, and maintaining positive relationships with dictators. Archievements: These include the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize (1971), Nehru Prize for Promotion of International Peace & Understanding (1972), Balzan Prize (1978), Nobel Peace Prize (1979) and Bharat Ratna (1980).
"Spread love everywhere you go. Let no one ever come to you without leaving happier."
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 â€“ N ay 2, 1519), was an Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist, b. near Vinci, a hill village in Tuscany. He spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother, then from 1457 he lived in the household of his father, grandparents and uncle, Francesco, in the small town of Vinci. In 1466 Leonardo moved to Florence, where he entered the workshop of Verrocchio and came into contact with such artists as Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, and Lorenzo di Credi. Early in his apprenticeship he painted an angel, and perhaps portions of the landscape. .In 1472 he was registered in the painters' guild. He revealed the integration of dramatic movement and chiaroscuro that characterizes the master's mature style. He composed the greater part of his Trattato della pittura and the extensive notebooks that demonstrate the marvelous versatility and penetration of his genius. Leonardo also worked on an equestrian monument to the duke's father, Francesco Sforza. Back in Florence Leonardo engaged in much theoretical work in mathematics and pursued his anatomical studies at the hospital of Santa N aria Nuova. One of his works., was assigned to N ichelangelo, was never completed, and the cartoons were subsequently destroyed. The work exerted enormous influence on later artists. From about this time dates the celebrated N ona Lisa (Louvre), the portrait of the wife of a Florentine merchant. In 1506, Leonardo returned to N ilan, engaged by Charles d'Amboise in the name of the French king, Louis XII. Here he again served as architect and engineer. Gifted with a gargantuan curiosity concerning the physical world, he continued his scientific
investigations, concerning himself with problems of geology, botany, hydraulics, and mechanics. In 1510â€“11 his interest in anatomy quickened considerably. At the same time he was active as painter and sculptor, had many pupils, and profoundly influenced the N ilanese painters. In 1513 Leonardo went to Rome, here he found the field dominated by N ichelangelo and Raphael. It was perhaps in this period that he executed the enigmatic painting of the young St. John the Baptist (Louvre Leonardo left attached to his household, and that soon afterward he accepted an invitation of Francis I of France to settle at the castle of Cloux, near Amboise. Here the old master was left entirely free to pursue his own researches until his death. Although there is no certain record of his last years, he seems to have been active with festival decoration and to have been interested in a canal project. Notes and drawings ascribed to this late period show his continued interest in natural philosophy and experimental science.
Fernando Botero Angulo Fernando Botero Angulo (born April 19, 1932) is a figurative artist. His works feature a figurative style, called by some "Boterismo", which gives them an unmistakable identity. He is considered the living artist most recognized and quoted the world from Latin America. Roams between his studies in sculpture at Pietra St. (Italy), painting in Paris (France), New York (USA) and Monte Carlo (Monaco),likewise, devotes time to drawing in Zihuatanejo (Mexico) and Rionegro (Colombia). Botero depicts women, men, daily life, historical events and characters, milestones of art, still-life, animals and the natural world in general, with exaggerated and disproportionate volumetry, accompanied by fine details of scathing criticism, irony, humor, and ingenuity. Self-titled "the most Colombian of Colombian artists" early on, he came to national prominence when he won the first prize at the Sal贸n de Artistas Colombianos in 1958. Working most of the year in Paris, in the last three decades he has achieved international recognition for his paintings, drawings and sculpture, with exhibitions across the world. His art is collected by major museums, corporations and private collectors. In 2012, he received the International Sculpture Center's Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award. While his work includes still-lifes and landscapes, Botero has concentrated on situational portraiture. His paintings and sculptures are united by theirproportionally exaggerated, or "fat" figures, as he once referred to them.
Gallery... -Botero's Cat on Tamanyan street in Yerevan, Armenia -In his Maternity, 2006, Botero enhances the religious meaning of motherhood -Botero's smoking clown is part of the Circus Peopleseries, 2008