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Contents Articles Bollywood

1

Aamir Khan

20

Aishwarya Rai

28

Amitabh Bachchan

41

Amrish Puri

54

Asha Bhosle

65

Asha Parekh

76

Ashok Kumar

82

Baldev Raj Chopra

85

Bimal Roy

88

Bipasha Basu

92

Dev Anand

97

Devika Rani

103

Dharmendra

106

Dilip Kumar

113

Gulzar

119

Guru Dutt

128

Helen (actress)

136

Hema Malini

140

Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay

146

Hrishikesh Mukherjee

152

Katrina Kaif

158

Kidar Sharma

166

Kishore Kumar

169

Kundan Lal Saigal

177

Lata Mangeshkar

180

Madan Mohan (music director)

187

Madhubala

191

Madhuri Dixit

200

Mahesh Bhatt

207

Mala Sinha

210

Manna Dey

216

Manoj Kumar

221

Meena Kumari

226


Mohammed Rafi

233

Mohammed Zahur Khayyam

244

Mukesh

248

Nargis

252

Naseeruddin Shah

256

Naushad

262

Nutan

278

O. P. Nayyar

283

Pran

290

Prithviraj Kapoor

296

Rahul Dev Burman

300

Raj Kapoor

308

Rajendra Kumar

314

Rajesh Khanna

319

Ram Gopal Varma

329

Rekha

338

Roshan (music director)

345

Sachin Dev Burman

347

Sadhana Shivdasani

354

Sahir Ludhianvi

357

Shabana Azmi

363

Shahrukh Khan

369

Shailendra

380

Shammi Kapoor

382

Shankar Jaikishan

390

Shreya Ghoshal

401

Smita Patil

407

Sohrab Modi

411

Suraiya

414

Talat Mahmood

416

V. Shantaram

419

Vyjayanthimala

422

Waheeda Rehman

430

Yash Chopra

436

References Article Sources and Contributors

441

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

443


Article Licenses License

445


Bollywood

1

Bollywood Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay), Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing films in regional languages.[1] Bollywood is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest centers of film production in the world.[2] [3] [4] Bollywood is formally referred to as Hindi cinema.[5] There has been a growing presence of Indian English in dialogue and songs as well. It is common to see films that feature dialogue with English words (also known as Hinglish), phrases, or even whole sentences.[6]

Etymology The name "Bollywood" is derived from Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry.[7] However, unlike Hollywood, Bollywood does not exist as a physical place. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood,[7] [8] it has its own entry in the Oxford English Dictionary. The term "Bollywood" has origins in the 1970s, when India overtook America as the world's largest film producer. Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people, including the lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna,[9] and the journalist Bevinda Collaco.[10] The naming scheme for "Bollywood" was inspired by "Tollywood", the name that was used to refer to the cinema of West Bengal. Dating back to 1932, "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name, referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge, whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the center of the cinema of India at the time.[11]

History Raja Harishchandra (1913), by Dadasaheb Phalke, was the first silent feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per annum.[12] The first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931), was a major commercial success.[13] There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, and the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots.[12] In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first colour film in Hindi, Kisan Kanya. The next year, he made another colour film, a version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema.

Film poster for first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara (1931)


Bollywood

Golden Age Following India's independence, the period from the late 1940s to the 1960s is regarded by film historians as the "Golden Age" of Hindi cinema.[14] [15] [16] Some of the most critically acclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this period. Examples include the Guru Dutt films Pyaasa (1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) and the Raj Kapoor films Awaara (1951) and Shree 420 (1955). These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life.[17] Some of the most famous epic films of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time, including Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film,[18] and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960).[19] Madhumati (1958), directed by Bimal Roy and written by Ritwik Ghatak, popularized the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture.[20] Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included Kamal Amrohi Guru Dutt (1925-1964) and Vijay Bhatt. Successful actors at the time included Dev Anand, Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor and Guru Dutt, while successful actresses included Nargis, Vyjayanthimala, Meena Kumari, Nutan, Madhubala, Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha.[21] While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving, the 1950s also saw the emergence of a new Parallel Cinema movement.[17] Though the movement was mainly led by Bengali cinema, it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. Early examples of Hindi films in this movement include Chetan Anand's Neecha Nagar (1946)[22] and Bimal Roy's Two Acres of Land (1953). Their critical acclaim, as well as the latter's commercial success, paved the way for Indian neorealism[23] and the Indian New Wave.[24] Some of the internationally acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani, Shyam Benegal and Vijaya Mehta.[17] Ever since the social realist film Neecha Nagar won the Grand Prize at the first Cannes Film Festival,[22] Hindi films were frequently in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, with some of them winning major prizes at the festival.[25] Guru Dutt, while overlooked in his own lifetime, had belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s.[25] [26] Dutt is now regarded as one of the greatest Asian filmmakers of all time, alongside the more famous Indian Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray. The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of greatest filmmakers ranked Dutt at #73 on the list.[27] Some of his films are now included among the greatest films of all time, with Pyaasa (1957) being featured in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list,[28] and with both Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) tied at #160 in the 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of all-time greatest films. Several other Hindi films from this era were also ranked in the Sight & Sound poll, including Raj Kapoor's Awaara (1951), Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra (1952), Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam (1960) all tied at #346 on the list.[29]

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Bollywood

Modern cinema In the late 1960s and early 1970s, romance movies and action films starred actors like Rajesh Khanna, Dharmendra, Sanjeev Kumar and Shashi Kapoor and actresses like Sharmila Tagore, Mumtaz and Asha Parekh. In the mid-1970s, romantic confections made way for gritty, violent films about gangsters (see Indian mafia) and bandits. Amitabh Bachchan, the star known for his "angry young man" roles, rode the crest of this trend with actors like Mithun Chakraborty and Anil Kapoor, which lasted into the early 1990s. Actresses from this era included Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan and Rekha.[21] Some Hindi filmmakers such as Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel Cinema throughout the 1970s,[30] alongside Mani Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani and Vijaya Mehta.[17] However, the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. The 1970s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as Sholay (1975), which solidified Amitabh Bachchan's position as a lead actor. The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma was also released in 1975.[30] Another important film from 1975 was Deewar, directed by Yash Chopra and written by Salim-Javed. A crime film pitting "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler Haji Mastan", portrayed by Amitabh Bachchan, it was described as being “absolutely key to Indian cinema� by Danny Boyle.[31] The most internationally acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was Mira Nair's Salaam Bombay! (1988), which won the Camera d'Or at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the pendulum swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals with the success of such films as Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), Maine Pyar Kiya (1989), Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995), making stars out of a new generation of actors (such as Aamir Khan, Salman Khan and Shahrukh Khan) and actresses (such as Sridevi, Madhuri Dixit, Juhi Chawla and Kajol).[21] In that point of time, action and comedy films were also successful, with actors like Govinda and actresses such as Raveena Tandon and Karisma Kapoor appearing in popular comedy films, and stunt actor Akshay Kumar gaining popularity for performing dangerous stunts in action films.[32] [33] Furthermore, this decade marked the entry of new performers in arthouse and independent films, some of which succeeded commercially, the most influential example being Satya (1998), directed by Ram Gopal Varma and written by Anurag Kashyap. The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as Mumbai noir,[34] urban films reflecting social problems in the city of Mumbai.[35] This led to a resurgence of Parallel Cinema by the end of the decade.[34] These films often featured actors like Nana Patekar, Manoj Bajpai, Manisha Koirala, Tabu and Urmila Matondkar, whose performances were usually critically acclaimed. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity in the world. This led the nation's filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects, animation, and so on.[36] Some of the largest production houses, among them Yash Raj Films and Dharma Productions were the producers of new modern films.[36] The opening up of the overseas market, more Bollywood releases abroad and the explosion of multiplexes in big cities, led to wider box office successes in India and abroad, including Lagaan (2001), Devdas (2002), Koi... Mil Gaya (2003), Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003), Veer-Zaara (2004), Rang De Basanti (2006), Lage Raho Munnabhai (2006), Krrish (2006), Dhoom 2 (2006), Om Shanti Om (2007), Chak De India (2007), Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi (2008), Ghajini (2008), 3 Idiots (2009), My Name is Khan (2010), and Dabangg (2010) delivering a new generation of popular actors (Hrithik Roshan, Abhishek Bachchan) and actresses (Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta, Rani Mukerji, Kareena Kapoor and Priyanka Chopra[37] [38] ), and keeping the popularity of actors of the previous decade. Among the mainstream films, Lagaan won the Audience Award at the Locarno International Film Festival and was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 74th Academy Awards, while Devdas and Rang De Basanti were both nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film.

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Bollywood The Hindi film industry has preferred films that appeal to all segments of the audience (see the discussion in Ganti, 2004, cited in references), and has resisted making films that target narrow audiences. It was believed that aiming for a broad spectrum would maximise box office receipts. However, filmmakers may be moving towards accepting some box-office segmentation, between films that appeal to rural Indians, and films that appeal to urban and overseas audiences.

Influences for Bollywood Gokulsing and Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema:[17] • The ancient Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema, particularly in its narratives. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story, back-story and story within a story. Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish.[17] • Ancient Sanskrit drama, with its highly stylized nature and emphasis on spectacle, where music, dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience." Sanskrit dramas were known as natya, derived from the root word nrit (dance), characterizing them as specacular dance-dramas which has continued Indian cinema.[17] The theory of rasa dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama is believed to be one of the most fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema, particularly Hindi cinema, from that of the Western world.[39] • The traditional folk theatre of India, which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre. These regional traditions include the Yatra of Bengal, the Ramlila of Uttar Pradesh, and the Terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu.[17] • The Parsi theatre, which "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic discourse of melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft."[17] • Hollywood, where musicals were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s, though Indian filmmakers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. "For example, the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy stories and so on through song and dance." In addition, "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways."[17] • Western musical television, particularly MTV, which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s, as can be seen in the pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music of 2000s Indian films. An early example of this approach was in Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995).[17]

Influence of Bollywood In the 2000s, Bollywood began influencing musical films in the Western world, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the American musical film genre. Baz Luhrmann stated that his musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals.[40] The film incorporated an Indian-themed play based on the ancient Sanskrit drama The Little Clay Cart and a Bollywood-style dance sequence with a song from the film China Gate. The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre, and subsequently films such as Chicago, The Producers, Rent, Dreamgirls, Hairspray,

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Bollywood Sweeney Todd, Across the Universe, The Phantom of the Opera, Enchanted and Mamma Mia! were produced, fueling a renaissance of the genre.[41] [42] A. R. Rahman, an Indian film composer, wrote the music for Andrew Lloyd Webber's Bombay Dreams, and a musical version of Hum Aapke Hain Koun has played in London's West End. The Bollywood musical Lagaan (2001) was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, and two other Bollywood films Devdas (2002) and Rang De Basanti (2006) were nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Danny Boyle's Slumdog Millionaire (2008), which has won four Golden Globes and eight Academy Awards, was also directly inspired by Bollywood films,[31] [43] and is considered to be a "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".[22] The theme of reincarnation was also popularized in Western popular culture through Bollywood films, with Madhumati (1958) inspiring the Hollywood film The Reincarnation of Peter Proud (1975),[20] which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Karz (1980), which in turn influenced another Hollywood film Chances Are (1989).[20] The 1975 film Chhoti Si Baat is believed to have inspired Hitch (2005), which in turn inspired the Bollywood film Partner (2007).[44] The influence of Bollywood filmi music can also be seen in popular music elsewhere in the world. In 1978, technopop pioneers Haruomi Hosono and Ryuichi Sakamoto of the Yellow Magic Orchestra produced an first electronic album Cochin Moon based on an experimental fusion between electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music.[45] Devo's 1988 hit song "Disco Dancer" was inspired by the song "I am a Disco Dancer" from the Bollywood film Disco Dancer (1982).[46] The 2002 song "Addictive", sung by Truth Hurts and produced by DJ Quik and Dr. Dre, was lifted from Lata Mangeshkar's "Thoda Resham Lagta Hai" from Jyoti (1981).[47] The Black Eyed Peas' Grammy Award winning 2005 song "Don't Phunk with My Heart" was inspired by two 1970s Bollywood songs: "Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana" from Don (1978) and "Ae Nujawan Hai Sub" from Apradh (1972).[48] Both songs were originally composed by Kalyanji Anandji, sung by Asha Bhosle, and featured the dancer Helen.[49] Also in 2005, the Kronos Quartet re-recorded several R. D. Burman compositions, with Asha Bhosle as the singer, into an album You've stolen my heart - Songs From R D Burman's Bollywood, which was nominated for "Best Contemporary World Music Album" at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Filmi music composed by A. R. Rahman (who would later win two Academy Awards for the Slumdog Millionaire soundtrack) has frequently been sampled by musicians elsewhere in the world, including the Singaporean artist Kelly Poon, the Uzbek artist Iroda Dilroz, the French rap group La Caution, the American artist Ciara, and the German band Lรถwenherz,[50] among others. Many Asian Underground artists, particularly those among the overseas Indian diaspora, have also been inspired by Bollywood music.

Genre conventions Bollywood films are mostly musicals, and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script. A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers.[51] Indeed, a film's music is often released before the movie itself and helps increase the audience. Indian audiences expect full value for their money, with a good entertainer generally referred to as paisa vasool, (literally, "money's worth").[52] Songs and dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills are all mixed up in a three-hour-long extravaganza with an intermission. Such movies are called masala films, after the Hindi word for a spice mixture. Like masalas, these movies are a mixture of many things such as action, comedy, romance and so on. Most films have heroes who are able to fight off villains all by themselves.

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Bollywood

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Bollywood plots have tended to be melodramatic. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, corrupt politicians, kidnappers, conniving villains, courtesans with hearts of gold, long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate, dramatic reversals of fortune, and convenient coincidences. There have always been Indian films with more artistic aims and more sophisticated stories, both inside and outside the Bollywood tradition (see Parallel Cinema). They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. Bollywood conventions are changing, however. A large Indian diaspora in English speaking countries, and increased Western influence at home, have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood models.[53]

Melodrama and romance are common ingredients to Bollywood films. Pictured Achhut Kanya (1936)

Film critic Lata Khubchandani writes,"..our earliest films...had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures."[54] Plots now tend to feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than centering on pre-arranged marriages. Though these changes can widely be seen in contemporary Bollywood, traditional conservative ways of Indian culture continue to exist in India outside the industry and an element of resistance by some to western-based influences.[53] Despite this, Bollywood continues to play a major role in fashion in India.[53] Indeed some studies into fashion in India have revealed that some people are unaware that the changing nature of fashion in Bollywood films which are presented to them are often influenced by globalisation and many consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian.[53]

Cast and crew for further details see Indian movie actors, Indian movie actresses, Indian film directors, Indian film music directors and Indian playback singers Bollywood employs people from all parts of India. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses, all hoping for a break in the industry. Models and beauty contestants, television actors, theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. Just as in Hollywood, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed too.[55] Stardom in the entertainment industry is very fickle, and Bollywood is no exception. The popularity of the stars can rise and fall rapidly. Directors compete to hire the most popular stars of the day, who are believed to guarantee the success of a movie (though this belief is not always supported by box-office results). Hence many stars make the most of their fame, once they become popular, by making several movies simultaneously. Only a very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, though many have tried from time to time. There have been some exceptions, one recent example is the hit film Rang De Basanti, where the lead actress is Alice Patten, an Englishwoman. Kisna, Lagaan, and The Rising: Ballad of Mangal Pandey also featured foreign actors. There is also Emma Brown Garett, an Australian born actress, who is starring in a few Indian films. Bollywood can be very clannish, and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles in films or being part of a film's crew. Industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office, their careers will falter. Some of the biggest stars, such as Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, and Shahrukh Khan have succeeded despite total lack of show business connections. For film clans, see List of Bollywood film clans.


Bollywood

Sound Sound in Bollywood films is rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). Therefore, the sound is usually created (or recreated) entirely in the studio,[56] with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as "looping in the sound" or ADR—with the foley and sound effects added later. This creates several problems, since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures.[56] The actors have to act twice: once on-location, once in the studio—and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to recreate. Commercial Indian films, not just the Hindi-language variety, are known for their lack of ambient sound, so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment. The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the Arriflex 3 camera, which required a blimp (cover) in order to shield the sound of the camera, for which it was notorious, from on-location filming. Commercial Indian filmmakers, known for their speed, never bothered to blimp the camera, and its excessive noise required that everything had to be recreated in the studio. Eventually, this became the standard for Indian films. The trend was bucked in 2001, after a 30-year hiatus of synchronized sound, with the film Lagaan, in which producer-star Aamir Khan insisted that the sound be done on location.[56] This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of on-location sound, and several Bollywood films have employed on-location sound since then.

Bollywood song and dance Further information: Hindi dance songs and Filmi Bollywood film music is called filmi music (from Hindi, meaning "of films"). Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then lip synching the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing. While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. One notable exception was Kishore Kumar, who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer. K. L. Saigal, Suraiyya, and Noor Jehan were also known as both singers and actors. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves; for a list, see Singing actors and actresses in Indian cinema. Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own fans who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood are Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Songs in Bollywood are sung by Bhosle, Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum and Alka Yagnik among female professional playback singers, rather than playback singers; and K. L. Saigal, Talat Mahmood, Mukesh, Mohammed actors, who lip-sync the lyrics. Pictured Rafi, Manna Dey, Hemant Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Kumar Sanu, Udit here is Mukesh, a famed playback singer. Narayan and Sonu Nigam among male playback singers. Mohammed Rafi is often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs,

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Bollywood

followed by Lata Mangeshkar, who, through the course of a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known. Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. Remixing of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today, and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums. The dancing in Bollywood films, especially older ones, is primarily Bollywood dances usually follow filmi songs modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (tawaif), or folk dances. In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals), though it is usual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film. The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings. This staging is referred to as a "picturisation". Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing. Other times, a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts, or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie. In this case, the event is often two characters falling in love. The songs are also often referred to as a "dream sequence", and anything can happen that would not normally happen in the real world. Previously song and dance scenes often used to be shot in Kashmir, but due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the 1980s,[57] those scenes have since then often been shot in Western Europe, particularly in Switzerland[58] and Austria.[59] Bollywood films have always used what are now called "item numbers". A physically attractive female character (the "item girl"), often completely unrelated to the main cast and plot of the film, performs a catchy song and dance number in the film. In older films, the "item number" may be performed by a courtesan (tawaif) dancing for a rich client or as part of a cabaret show. The actress Helen was famous for her cabaret numbers. In modern films, item numbers may be inserted as discotheque sequences, dancing at celebrations, or as stage shows. For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack, as tapes or CDs, before the main movie release, hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie. In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie.

Dialogues and lyrics The film script or lines of dialogue (called "dialogues" in Indian English) and the song lyrics are often written by different people. Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned Hindi that would be understood by the largest possible audience.[5] Some movies, however, have used regional dialects to evoke a village setting, or old-fashioned, courtly, Persian-influenced Urdu in Mughal era historical films. Jyotika Virdi, in her book The cinematic imagiNation (sic), wrote about the presence of Urdu in Hindi films: "Urdu is often used in film titles, screenplay, lyrics, the language of love, war, and martyrdom." However, she further discussed its decline over the years: "The extent of Urdu used in commercial Hindi cinema has not been stable... the decline of Urdu is mirrored in Hindi films... It is true that many

8


Bollywood Urdu words have survived and have become part of Hindi cinema's popular vocabulary. But that is as far as it goes."[60] Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English. According to Bollywood Audiences Editorial, "English has begun to challenge the ideological work done by Urdu."[61] Some movie scripts are first written in Roman alphabet.[62] Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere (for example, English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). Cinematic language, whether in dialogues or lyrics, is often melodramatic and invokes God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with many Persian loanwords.[63] Another source for love lyrics is the long Hindu tradition of poetry about the amours of Krishna, Radha, and the gopis, as referenced in films such as Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje and Lagaan. Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team. This phenomenon is compared to the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals.

Finances Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to 100 crores rupees (roughly USD 20 million). Sets, costumes, special effects, and cinematography were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s, although with some notable exceptions. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself, there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels, particularly in areas such as action and special effects. Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas, such as Krrish (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based Tony Ching. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw, so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, continental Europe and elsewhere. Nowadays, Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well, such as Lagaan, Devdas and other recent films. Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large studios. Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. However, this ban has now been lifted.[64] As finances are not regulated, some funding also comes from illegitimate sources, such as the Mumbai underworld. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for their patronisation of several prominent film personalities; On occasion, they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals. In January 2000, Mumbai mafia hitmen shot Rakesh Roshan, a film director and father of star Hrithik Roshan. In 2001, the Central Bureau of Investigation seized all prints of the movie Chori Chori Chupke Chupke after the movie was found to be funded by members of the Mumbai underworld.[65] Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread copyright infringement of its films. Often, bootleg DVD copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of South Asia and South East Asia. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $100 million annually in loss of revenue from pirated home videos and DVDs. Besides catering to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the Indian diaspora, too. (In fact, bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale, distribution and telecast). Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the U.S. and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance, while consumer

9


Bollywood copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the piracy problem. Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now fewer tend to do so. However, most Bollywood producers make money, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue, including selling ancillary rights. There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. For a comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures, see chart [66]. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates. Bollywood sold 3.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets, DVDs, television and so on.) of US$1.3 billion, whereas Hollywood films sold 2.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion.

Advertising Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters (The well-known artist M.F. Hussain used to paint film posters early in his career). This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material.[67] Now, a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. The old hand-painted posters, once regarded as ephemera, are becoming increasingly collectible as folk art.[67] Releasing the film music, or music videos, before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theaters.[68] Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites, where browsers can view trailers, stills, and information about the story, cast, and crew.[69] Bollywood is also used to advertise other products. Product placement, as used in Hollywood, is widely practiced in Bollywood.[70] Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products, such as watches or soap (see Celebrity endorsement). Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales.

Awards The Filmfare Awards ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India.[71] The Indian screen magazine Filmfare started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954, and awards were given to the best films of 1953. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, individuals may submit their votes in separate categories. A dual voting system was developed in 1956.[72] Like the Oscars, the Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit. As the Filmfare, the National Film Awards were introduced in 1954. Since 1973, the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards, awarded by the government run Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). The DFF screens not only Bollywood films, but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India. Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts.[73] Additional ceremonies held within India are: • Stardust Awards

10


Bollywood • Star Screen Awards Ceremonies held overseas are: • • • •

Bollywood Movie Awards - Long Island, New York, United States Global Indian Film Awards - (different country each year) International Indian Film Academy Awards (IIFA) - (different country each year) Zee Cine Awards- (different country each year)

Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles, featuring singing, dancing, and numerous celebrities.

Film education • Film and Television Institute of India • Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute • Asian Academy of Film & Television

Popularity and appeal Besides being popular among the India diaspora, such far off locations as Nigeria to Egypt to Senegal and to Russia generations of non-Indian fans have grown up with Bollywood during the years, bearing witness to the cross-cultural appeal of Indian movies.[74] Over the last years of the twentieth century and beyond, Bollywood progressed in its popularity as it entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers.[36] [75]

Africa Historically, Hindi films have been distributed to some parts of Africa, largely by Lebanese businessmen. Mother India (1957), for example, continued to be played in Nigeria decades after its release. Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of Hausa fashions, songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Northern Nigeria, while posters of Indian films adorn the walls of tailor shops and mechanics' garages in the country. Unlike in Europe and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland, in West Africa, as in many other parts of the world, such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience, where movies are about an alien culture, based on a religion wholly different, and, for the most part, a language that is unintelligible to the viewers. One such explanation for this lies in the similarities between the two cultures. Other similarities include wearing turbans; the presence of animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, chewing sugar cane; youths riding Bajaj motor scooters; wedding celebrations, and so forth. With the strict Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show "respect" toward women, where Hollywood movies were seen to have "no shame". In Indian movies women were modestly dressed, men and women rarely kiss, and there is no nudity, thus Indian movies are said to "have culture" that Hollywood films lack. The latter choice was a failure because "they don't base themselves on the problems of the people," where the former is based socialist values and on the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. Indian movies also allowed for a new youth culture to follow without such ideological baggage as "becoming western."[74] Bollywood is also popular among Somalis and the Somali diaspora, where the emerging Islamic Courts Union found a bête noire.[76] Chad and Ethiopia have also shown an interest in the movies.[77] Several Bollywood personalities have avenued to the continent for both shooting movies and off-camera projects. The film Padmashree Laloo Prasad Yadav (2005) was one of many movies shot in South Africa.[78] Dil Jo Bhi Kahey (2005) was shot almost entirely in Mauritius, which has a large ethnically Indian population. Ominously, however, the popularity of old Bollywood versus a new, changing Bollywood seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent. The changing style of Bollywood has begun to question such an acceptance. The

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12

new era features more sexually explicit and violent films. Nigerian viewers, for example, commented that older films of the 1950s and 1960s had culture to the newer, more westernized picturizations.[74] The old days of India avidly "advocating decolonization ... and India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories" were replaced by newer realities.[79] The emergence of Nollywood, Africa's local movie industry has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films. A greater globalised world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films, thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood and diminishing Indian soft power.

Asia Bollywood films are widely watched in South Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Many Pakistanis watch Bollywood films, as they understand Hindi (due to its linguistic similarity to Urdu).[80] Pakistan banned the legal import of Bollywood movies in 1965. However, a thriving trade in pirated DVDs[81] and illegal cable broadcasts ensured the continued popularity of Bollywood releases in Pakistan. Exceptions were made for a few films, such as the 2006 colorized re-release of the classic Mughal-e-Azam or the 2006 film Taj Mahal. Early in 2008, the Pakistani government eased the ban and allowed the import of even more movies; 16 were screened in 2008.[82] Continued easing followed in 2009 and 2010. The new policy is controversial in Pakistan. It is opposed by ardent nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry; it is embraced by cinema owners, who are booking large profits after years of poor receipts.[83] Bollywood movies are also popular in Afghanistan due to the country's proximity with the Indian subcontinent and certain other cultural perspectives present in the movies.[84] A number of Bollywood movies were filmed inside Afghanistan while some dealt with the country, including Dharmatma, Kabul Express, Khuda Gawah and Escape From Taliban.[85] [86] Hindi films have also been popular in numerous Arab countries, including Palestine, Jordan, Egypt and the Gulf countries.[87] Imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic upon the film's release. Since the early 2000s, Bollywood has progressed in Israel. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television.[88] Bollywood films are also popular across Southeast Asia (particularly the Malay Archipelago)[89] and Central Asia (particularly in Uzbekistan[90] and Tajikistan).[91] Some Hindi movies also became big successes in the People's Republic of China during the 1940s and 1950s. The most popular Hindi films in China were Dr. Kotnis Ki Amar Kahani (1946), Awaara (1951) and Two Acres of Land (1953). Raj Kapoor was a famous movie star in China, and the song "Awara Hoon" ("I am a Tramp") was popular in the country. Since then, Hindi films significantly declined in popularity in China, until the Academy Award nominated Lagaan (2001) became the first Indian film to have a nation-wide release there in decades.[92] The Chinese filmmaker He Ping was impressed by Lagaan, especially its soundtrack, and thus hired the film's music composer A. R. Rahman to score the soundtrack for his film Warriors of Heaven and Earth (2003).[93] Several older Hindi films also have a cult following in Japan, particularly the films directed by the late Guru Dutt.[94]

Europe The awareness of Hindi cinema is substantial in the United Kingdom,[95] where they frequently enter the UK top ten. Many films, such as Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) have been set in London. Bollywood is also appreciated in France, Germany, the Netherlands,[96] and the Scandinavian countries. Various Bollywood movies are dubbed in German and shown on the German television channel RTL II on a regular basis.[97] Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former Soviet Union. Bollywood films have been dubbed into Russian, and shown in prominent theatres such as Mosfilm and Lenfilm. Ashok Sharma, Indian Ambassador to Suriname, who has served three times in the Commonwealth of Independent States region during his diplomatic career said: The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from Hollywood and other Western countries were banned in the Soviet Union. As there was no means of other cheap


Bollywood

13 entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition, the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses. The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union.[98]

The film Mera Naam Joker (1970), sought to cater to such an appeal and the popularity of Raj Kapoor in Russia, when it recruited Russian actress Kseniya Ryabinkina for the movie. In the contemporary era, Lucky: No Time for Love (2005) was shot entirely in Russia. After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system, Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market. This made things difficult for Bollywood as it was losing market share to Hollywood. However, Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians.[99]

North America Bollywood has experienced a marked growth in revenue in North American markets, and is particularly popular amongst the South Asian communities in large cities as Chicago, Toronto and New York City.[36] Yash Raj Films, one of India's largest production houses and distributors, reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earn around $100 million a year through theater screenings, video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks.[36] In other words, films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country.[36] Numerous films in the mid-1990s and onwards have been largely, or entirely, shot in New York, Los Angeles, Vancouver and Toronto. Bollywood's immersion in the traditional Hollywood domain was further tied with such films as The Guru (2002) and Marigold: An Adventure in India (2007) trying to popularise the Bollywood-theme for Hollywood.

Oceania Bollywood is not as successful in the Oceanic countries and Pacific Islands such as New Guinea. However, it ranks second to Hollywood in countries such as Fiji, with its large Indian minority, Australia and New Zealand.[100] Australia is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian Diaspora. Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well.[100] Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films.[100] Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes, and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences, which demonstrated the contrast between the values.[100] However, nowadays, Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood films.[100] Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle. The Yash Raj Film Salaam Namaste (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 in the country.[101] This was followed by Heyy Babyy (2007) Chak De! India (2007) and Singh Is Kinng (2008) which turned out to be box office successes.[100] Following the release of Salaam Namaste, on a visit to India the then Prime Minister John Howard also sought, having seen the film, to have more Indian movies shooting in the country to boost tourism, where the Bollywood and cricket nexus, was further tightened with Steve Waugh's appointment as tourism ambassador to India.[102] Australian actress Tania Zaetta, who co-starred in Salaam Namaste, among other Bollywood films, expressed her keenness to expand her career in Bollywood.[103]


Bollywood

South America Bollywood movies are not influential in South America, though Bollywood culture and dance is recognised. In 2006, Dhoom 2 became the first Bollywood film to be shot in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[104]

Plagiarism Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to plagiarism. Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including Hollywood and other Asian films) without acknowledgement of the original source. This has led to criticism towards the film industry.[105] Before the 1990s, this could be done with impunity. Copyright enforcement was lax in India and few actors or directors ever saw an official contract.[106] The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (excluding the Soviet states), who would not even be aware that their material was being copied. Audiences may also not have been aware of the plagiarism since many audiences in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music.[105] While copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient, Bollywood and other film industries are much more aware of each other now and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music. Organizations like the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between film makers and industry professional between India and the EU.[105] One of the common justifications of plagiarism in Bollywood in the media is that producers often play a safer option by remaking popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. Screenwriters generally produce original scripts, but due to financial uncertainty and insecurity over the success of a film many were rejected.[105] Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters.[107] Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture, which is manifested, amongst other mediums, in Bollywood films.[107] Vikram Bhatt, director of films such as Raaz, a remake of What Lies Beneath, and Kasoor, a remake of Jagged Edge, has spoken about the strong influence of American culture and desire to produce box office hits based along the same lines in Bollywood. He said, "Financially, I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their Diet Cokes and also their attitude. The American way of life is creeping into our culture."[107] Mahesh Bhatt has said, "If you hide the source, you're a genius. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere".[107] There have been very few cases of film copyright violations taken to court because of serious delays in the legal process, and due to the long time they take to decide a case.[105] There have been some notable cases of conflict though. The makers of Partner (2007) and Zinda (2005) have been targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films, Hitch and Oldboy.[108] [109] American Studio Twentieth Century Fox brought the Mumbai-based B.R. Films to court over its forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai, allegedly an illegal remake of its 1992 film My Cousin Vinny. B.R. Films eventually settled out of court by paying the studio at a cost of about $200,000, paving the way for the film's release.[110] Some on the other hand do comply with copyright law, with Orion Pictures in 2008 securing the rights to remake the Hollywood film Wedding Crashers.[111]

14


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Wadhwani. "Bollywood Mania" Rising in United States (http:/ / www. america. gov/ st/ washfile-english/ 2006/ August/ 20060809124617nainawhdaw0. 8614466. html). US State Department. (9 August 2006. retrieved on 29 July 2010. [37] Tridevi, Tanvi (31 May 2008). "Who is the next Bollywood queen?" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ India_Buzz/ Who_is_the_next_Bollywood_queen/ articleshow/ 3085603. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2009-04-02. [38] "Top Actress" (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ cpages. php?pageName=top_actress). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 2008-01-08. [39] Matthew Jones (January 2010). "Bollywood, Rasa and Indian Cinema: Misconceptions, Meanings and Millionaire". Visual Anthropology 23 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1080/08949460903368895 [40] "Baz Luhrmann Talks Awards and "Moulin Rouge"" (http:/ / movies. about. com/ library/ weekly/ aa030902a. htm). . [41] "Guide Picks - Top Movie Musicals on Video/DVD" (http:/ / movies. about. com/ library/ weekly/ aatpmusicals. htm). About.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-15. [42] "Hollywood/Bollywood" (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ independentlens/ cosmopolitan/ bollywood. html). Public Broadcasting Service. . Retrieved 2010-02-12. [43] "Slumdog draws crowds, but not all like what they see" (http:/ / www. theage. com. au/ world/ slumdog-draws-crowds-but-not-all-like-what-they-see-20090124-7p33. html). Melbourne: The Age. 25 January 2009. . Retrieved 2008-01-24. [44] "Exploits of a date doc" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2005/ 04/ 15/ stories/ 2005041503170200. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. 15 April 2005. . Retrieved 2009-03-15. [45] Dominique Leone (July 19, 2005). "Hosono & Yokoo: Cochin Moon" (http:/ / pitchfork. com/ reviews/ albums/ 4016-cochin-moon/ ). Pitchfork Media. . Retrieved 2011-05-26. [46] DEVO - disco dancer with commentary (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=T-BGltttqaE) on YouTube [47] "Truth Hurts" (http:/ / www. vh1. com/ artists/ news/ 1457672/ 09192002/ truth_hurts. jhtml). VH1. 2002-09-19. . Retrieved 2009-05-18. [48] ae naujawan hai sub kuchh yahan - Apradh 1972 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=fWsSXjIDL3Q) on YouTube [49] Robin Denselow (2 May 2008). "Kalyanji Anandji, The Bollywood Brothers" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ music/ 2008/ may/ 02/ worldmusic1). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-03-01. [50] Löwenherz - Bis in die Ewigkeit (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=afpx7qJB_ag) on YouTube [51] Kalita, S. Mitra (2005). Suburban Sahibs: Three Immigrant Families And Their Passage from India to America. Rutgers University Press, p. 134. ISBN 0-8135-3318-X [52] Gangadhar, V. (April 13, 2007). "Moving with the times" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2007/ 04/ 13/ stories/ 2007041300860100. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. . Retrieved 2009-12-09. [53] Gupta, Suman; Omoniyi, Tope (2001). The Cultures of Economic Migration: International Perspectives (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=nr2724-bOfMC& pg=PA202& lpg=PA202& dq=bollywood+ western+ blue+ eyes+ resistance). Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 202. ISBN 9780754670704. . [54] Free Reeling, PLAY, Sunday Mid-day, 11 March 2007, Mumbai. MH/MR/WEST/66/2006-08 Khubchandani, Lata. "Memories of another day" (http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ smd/ play/ 2007/ march/ 153266. htm). mid-day.com. . [55] A. Chatterji, Shoma (30 June 2007). "Where East meets West" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2007/ 20070630/ saturday/ main1. htm). The Tribune. . Retrieved 2008-08-09. [56] "Lagaan used synchronized sound" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ News-Gossip/ Did-you-Know-/ Lagaan-used-synchronized-sound/ articleshow/ 3987370. cms). Indiatimes. January 16, 2009. . Retrieved 2009-12-29. [57] BBC News: Kashmir beckons Bollywood (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 2935951. stm) (10 April 2003). [58] BOLLYWOOD - The Indian Cinema and Switzerland (2002) (http:/ / www. museum-gestaltung. ch/ Htmls/ Ausstellungen/ Archiv/ 2002/ Bollywood/ E_Bollywood. html). [59] The Hindu: Bollywood boosts Austria’s tourism potential (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2008/ 02/ 14/ stories/ 2008021459770700. htm). (2008). [60] Virdi, Jyotika (2003). The cinematic imagiNation (sic): Indian popular films as social history (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=u8PKObcYMDIC& pg=PA19). Rutgers University Press. . [61] Desai, Jigna, Dudrah, Rajinder, Rai, Amit, Bollywood Audiences Editorial, South Asian Popular Culture; Oct 2005, Vol. 3 Issue 2, pages 79-82. [62] Us Salam, Ziya (August 12, 2007). "Assault of the mixed doubles" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mag/ 2007/ 08/ 12/ stories/ 2007081250070400. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. . Retrieved 2009-12-09.

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Bollywood [63] Tejaswini Ganti (2004). Bollywood: a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=GTEa93azj9EC). Psychology Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 9780415288545. . Retrieved 25 April 2011. [64] "Rediff: 'I & B Ministry will help film industry'" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2001/ mar/ 31sush. htm). . [65] Singh, Vijay (1 October 2003). "Bharat Shah sentenced, but won't have to spend time in prison" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 2003/ oct/ 01shah. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2008-02-14. [66] http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ / magazine/ content/ 02_48/ art02_48/ a48tab37. gif [67] Ramanan, Manju (21 February 2005). "A different canvas" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1027777. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2008-11-21. [68] Skelton, Tracey; Allen, Tim (1999). Culture and Global Change. Routledge. p. 269. ISBN 0415139171. [69] Ferrao, Dominic (31 January 2003). "Bollywood wakes up to the power of Web" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 36007765. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2008-11-21. [70] "Indian Television: Leo Entertainment capitalises on film placements" (http:/ / www. indiantelevision. com/ special/ y2k3/ valuecreation5. htm). . [71] "Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ msid-1367349,prtpage-1. cms). Movies.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. [72] "Diaspora News & Network Ltd" (http:/ / www. dnnworld. com/ filmfare. php). Dnnworld.com. 2005-03-04. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. [73] Filmfare Awards Complete Winners List - BollywoodSoundtracks.com (http:/ / www. bollywoodsoundtracks. com/ html/ filmfareawards. htm) [74] Larkin, Brian (2002-08-31). "Bollywood Comes To Nigeria" (http:/ / www. samarmagazine. org/ archive/ article. php?id=21). Samarmagazine.org. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. [75] Can new money create a world-class film industry in India? (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 02_48/ b3810013. htm). Business Week. [76] "Cinema clashes end in Mogadishu" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ africa/ 4435366. stm). BBC News. 2005-11-14. . Retrieved 2009-12-31. [77] "McClatchy blog: Somewhere in Africa" (http:/ / washingtonbureau. typepad. com/ nairobi/ 2008/ 08/ you-from-indian. html). Washingtonbureau.typepad.com. 2008-08-06. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. [78] Balchand, K. (September 26, 2004). "Lalu Prasad, at home" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2004/ 09/ 26/ stories/ 2004092600682000. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. . Retrieved 2009-12-09. [79] "Bollywood in Africa - Is it getting too Western? - How the World Works" (http:/ / www. salon. com/ tech/ htww/ 2007/ 06/ 13/ bollywood_in_africa/ ). Salon.com. 2007-06-13. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. [80] "Despite official ban, Hindi movies are a craze in Pakistan" (http:/ / www. newindpress. com/ NewsItems. asp?ID=IEE20051004061008& Page=E& Title=Startrek& Topic=0). . Retrieved 2008-02-05. [81] "Bollywood stumbles in Pak with Taj Mahal" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ fullstory. php?newsid=67664). The Indian Express. 14 May 2006. . Retrieved 2008-11-21. [82] "Will it be curtains for Indian films in Pakistan?" (http:/ / www. thaindian. com/ newsportal/ politics/ will-it-be-curtains-for-indian-films-in-pakistan_100137752. html). ThaIndian. 9 January 2009. . Retrieved 2010-02-23. [83] "The Mirror is Watching" (http:/ / www. outlookindia. com/ article. aspx?264316). Outlook India. 1 March 2010. . Retrieved 2009-02-23. [84] India, more so than Pakistan seems to share a similar style of music and musical instruments with Afghanistan. The Hindu Business Line: It's Bollywood all the way in Afghanistan (http:/ / www. thehindubusinessline. com/ 2005/ 05/ 09/ stories/ 2005050900561400. htm) [85] "CNN World: Kabul TV bans 'explicit' Indian films, soaps" (http:/ / archives. cnn. com/ 2002/ WORLD/ asiapcf/ central/ 08/ 29/ kabul. tv/ index. html). 2002-08-29. . Retrieved 2010-04-26. [86] "BBC: Bollywood eyes Afghan market" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ film/ 1679115. stm). BBC News. 2001-11-27. . Retrieved 2009-12-31. [87] PTI (8 October 2006). "Bollywood films gaining popularity in Gulf countries" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 2121632. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2008-11-21. [88] PTI (16 November 2004). "Indian films swamp Israel" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20041116/ world. htm). The Tribune. . Retrieved 2008-11-21. [89] Yogendra Singh (19 November 2008). "Bollywood in Southeast Asia" (http:/ / www. ipcs. org/ article_details. php?articleNo=2734). Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies. . Retrieved 2009-05-18. [90] Louise Hidalgo (24 October 1998). "Indian films are known for their all singing all dancing formula" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 200689. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2009-05-18. [91] Monica Whitlock & Rahim Rahimian (Wednesday, 23 June 2004). "Bollywood bowls Tajiks over" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 3834295. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2009-05-18. [92] Anil K. Joseph (20 November 2002). "Lagaan revives memories of Raj Kapoor in China" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ fullstory. php?newsid=16983). Press Trust of India. . Retrieved 2009-01-30. [93] "Rahman's 'Lagaan' cast a spell on me" (http:/ / sify. com/ peopleandplaces/ fullstory. php?id=13388284). Sify. 13 February 2004. . Retrieved 2009-02-24. [94] "Asian Film Series No.9 GURU DUTT Retorospective" (http:/ / www. jpf. go. jp/ e/ culture/ new/ old/ 0101/ 01_03. html). Japan Foundation. 2001. . Retrieved 2009-05-13.

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Bollywood [95] "Can new money create a world-class film industry in India?" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ magazine/ content/ 02_48/ b3810013. htm). . [96] Francis C. Assisi. Bollywood Culture Binds Global Indian Diaspora (http:/ / www. planetbollywood. com/ displayArticle. php?id=051806123941) [97] Lehmann, Ana (5 December 2004). "Bollywood in Germany" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20041205/ spectrum/ main3. htm). The Tribune. . Retrieved 2008-11-21. [98] Ashreena, Tanya. "Promoting Bollywood Abroad Will Help to Promote India" (http:/ / www. chillibreeze. com/ articles/ Indian-films. asp). . [99] RussiaToday : Features : Bollywood challenges Hollywood in Russia (http:/ / www. russiatoday. ru/ features/ news/ 11895) [100] IANS (15 September 2007). "Bollywood clubs popular among Australians" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080212095151/ http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ News/ News_By_Industry/ ET_Cetera/ Bollywood_clubs_popular_among_Australians/ articleshow/ 2372640. cms). The Times of India. Archived from the original (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ News/ News_By_Industry/ ET_Cetera/ Bollywood_clubs_popular_among_Australians/ articleshow/ 2372640. cms) on 12 February 2008. . Retrieved 2007-11-12. [101] Phillips, Mark (13 May 2005). "Bollywood on Bourke Street" (http:/ / www. theage. com. au/ news/ Film/ Bollywood-on-Bourke-Street/ 2005/ 05/ 12/ 1115843307939. html). Melbourne: The Age. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. [102] "Australian PM says Salaam Namaste to Bollywood" (http:/ / www. bonza. rmit. edu. au/ essays/ 2006/ Mithila Gupta/ CollectionofAnnotatedRef. html). bonza.rmit.edu.au. 7 March 2006. . Retrieved 2008-11-17. [103] Ramachandran, Arjun (23 May 2008). "Tania Zaetta's Bollywood career in doubt" (http:/ / www. smh. com. au/ news/ people/ tania-zaettas-bollywood-career-in-doubt/ 2008/ 05/ 23/ 1211183051898. html). The Sydney Morning Herald. . Retrieved 2008-11-17. [104] Firdaus Ashraf, Syed (15 September 2006). "Will Hrithik's Dhoom 2 prove lucky for Brazil?" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ sep/ 15sfa. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2008-03-05. [105] Shedde, Meenakshi (2003-05-18). "Plagiarism issue jolts Bollywood." (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ cms. dll/ html/ uncomp/ articleshow?msid=46715385). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 2007-10-17. [106] Ayres, Alyssa; Oldenburg, Philip (2005). India briefing: takeoff at last (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=gi7w-vTfELsC& pg=PA174& dq=bollywood+ plagiarism#PPA174,M1). M.E. Sharpe. p. 174. ISBN 9780765615930. . [107] "Cloning Hollywood" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ mag/ 2003/ 08/ 03/ stories/ 2003080300090400. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. 3 August 2003. . Retrieved 2009-04-14. [108] "Partner may face $30 mn Hitch" (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ Partner_may_face_30_mn_Hitch/ articleshow/ 2264000. cms/ ). The Times Of India. 2007-08-08. . [109] "Copycat filmmaker lacks creativity" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2006/ 01/ 20/ stories/ 2006012002530300. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. 20 January 2006. . Retrieved 2009-02-13. [110] Blakely, Rhys (2009-08-07). "Plagiarism case could stop Bollywood borrowing from Hollywood" (http:/ / entertainment. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ film/ bollywood/ article6742092. ece). London: Entertainment.timesonline.co.uk. . Retrieved 2010-11-12. [111] Orion Pictures produce official remake to Wedding Crashers (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2008/ 05/ 03/ 11326/ index. html), Bollywood Hungama

Further reading • Alter, Stephen. Fantasies of a Bollywood Love-Thief: Inside the World of Indian Moviemaking. (ISBN 0-15-603084-5) • Begum-Hossain, Momtaz. Bollywood Crafts: 20 Projects Inspired by Popular Indian Cinema, 2006. The Guild of Mastercraftsman Publications. (ISBN 1-86108-418-8) • Bose, Mihir, Bollywood. A History, New Delhi, Roli Books, 2008. (ISBN 978-81-7436-653-5) • Ganti, Tejaswini. Bollywood, Routledge, New York and London, 2004. • Bernard 'Bollywood' Gibson. Passing the Envelope, 1994. • Jolly, Gurbir, Zenia Wadhwani, and Deborah Barretto, eds. Once Upon a Time in Bollywood: The Global Swing in Hindi Cinema, TSAR Publications. 2007. (ISBN 978-1-894770-40-8) • Joshi, Lalit Mohan. Bollywood: Popular Indian Cinema. (ISBN 0-9537032-2-3) • Kabir, Nasreen Munni. Bollywood, Channel 4 Books, 2001. • Mehta, Suketu. Maximum City, Knopf, 2004. • Mishra, Vijay. Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire. (ISBN 0-415-93015-4) • Pendakur, Manjunath. Indian Popular Cinema: Industry, Ideology, and Consciousness. (ISBN 1-57273-500-5) • Prasad, Madhava. Ideology of the Hindi Film: A Historical Construction, Oxford University Press, 2000. (ISBN 0-19-565295-9) • Raheja, Dinesh and Kothari, Jitendra. Indian Cinema: The Bollywood Saga. (ISBN 81-7436-285-1)

18


Bollywood • Raj, Aditya (2007) "Bollywood Cinema and Indian Diaspora" in Media Literacy: A Reader edited by Donaldo Macedo and Shirley Steinberg New York: Peter Lang • Rajadhyaksa, Ashish (1996), "India: Filming the Nation", The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-811257-2. • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish and Willemen, Paul. Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, Oxford University Press, revised and expanded, 1999.

External links • IMDB - A database of top Hindi movies (http://www.imdb.com/search/title?languages=hi& title_type=feature&num_votes=10000,&sort=user_rating,desc) • Cinema India (http://www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/1153_cinema_india/1153_intro.htm) by Victoria and Albert Museum • National Geographic Magazine: Welcome to Bollywood (http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0502/ feature3) • Bollywood Fifty Films (http://www.bbc.co.uk/asiannetwork/bollywood/fiftyfilms/index.shtml) - by BBC Asian Network • Sexy Bollywood Stars (http://www.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/42772/sexy-bollywood-stars) - slideshow by Life magazine • Bollywood Cinema up to 1949 (http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A52491323|) by BBC

19


Aamir Khan

20

Aamir Khan Aamir Khan

Khan at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival. Born

Aamir Hussain Khan 14 March 1965 Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Film actor, producer, director and writer

Years active 1973–1974, 1984, 1988–2001, 2005–present Spouse

Reena Dutta (1986–2002) Kiran Rao (2005–present) Website http:/ / www. aamirkhan. com/

Aamir Khan (Hindi: आमिर ख़ान, pronounced [ˈaːmɪr ˈxaːn]); born Aamir Hussain Khan on 14 March 1965 is an Indian film actor, director and producer who has established himself as one of the leading actors of Hindi cinema.[1] [2] [3] Starting his career as a child actor in his uncle Nasir Hussain's film Yaadon Ki Baaraat (1973), Khan began his professional career eleven years later with Holi (1984) and had his first commercial success with Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988). He received his first National Film Award (Special Jury Award) for his roles in the films Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988) and Raakh (1989).[4] After eight previous nominations during the 1980s and 1990s, Khan received his first Filmfare Award for Best Actor for his performance in the major grosser Raja Hindustani (1996)[5] [6] and later earned his second Best Actor award for his performance in the Academy Award-nominated Lagaan, which also marked the debut of his own production company. Following a four-year break from acting, Khan made his comeback playing the title role in the historical Mangal Pandey: The Rising (2005), and later won a Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor for his role in Rang De Basanti (2006). The following year, he made his directorial debut with Taare Zameen Par, for which he received a Filmfare Award for Best Director. This was followed by Ghajini (2008), which became the highest grossing film of that year, and 3 Idiots (2009), which became the highest-grossing Bollywood film of all-time, unadjusted for inflation.[7] The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 2003 and the Padma Bhushan in 2010 for his contributions towards the arts.[8] [9] [10]


Aamir Khan

Early life Khan was born in Bandra's Holy Family Hospital, Mumbai, India, to a Muslim[11] family that has been actively involved in the Indian motion picture industry for several decades. His father, Tahir Hussain, was a film producer while his uncle, Nasir Hussain, was a film producer as well as a director and an actor. His family on his father´s side are originally from Herat, Afghanistan.[12] He is a descendant of the scholar and politician Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and a second cousin to former Chairperson of Rajya Sabha Dr Najma Heptulla.[13]

Film career Actor Khan began his film career as a child actor in a home production, made by Nasir Hussain, titled Yaadon Ki Baaraat (1973) and Madhosh (1974). Eleven years later, he made his adult acting debut in a role that went quite unnoticed in Ketan Mehta's Holi (1984). Khan's first notable leading role came in 1988 in the film Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak which was directed by his cousin and Nasir Hussain's son Mansoor Khan. This film was a breakthrough commercial success, effectively launching Khan's career as a leading actor. Having the typical 'chocolate hero' looks, he was publicised as a teen idol. He also starred in critically acclaimed film Raakh, for which Khan got his first National Award for Special Jury Award. After that, he went on to appear in several other films in the late '80s and early '90s: Dil (1990), which became the highest grossing film of the year,[14] Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin (1991), Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar (1992), Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke (1993) (for which he also wrote the screenplay), and Rangeela (1995). Most of these films were successful critically and commercially.[15] [16] [17] Other successes include Andaz Apna Apna, co-starring Salman Khan. At the time of its release the movie was reviewed unfavorably by critics, but over the years has gained a cult status.[18] Khan continued to act in just one or two films a year, an unusual trait for a mainstream Hindi cinema actor. His only release in 1996 was the Dharmesh Darshan directed commercial blockbuster Raja Hindustani in which he was paired opposite Karisma Kapoor. The film earned him his first Filmfare Best Actor Award, after seven previous nominations, and went on to become the biggest hit of the year, as well as the third highest grossing Indian film of the 1990s.[19] Khan's career had seemed to hit a plateau at this point of time, and most of the films to follow for the next few years were only partially successful. In 1997, he co-starred alongside Ajay Devgn, Kajol and Juhi Chawla in Ishq, which performed well at the box office. The following year, Khan appeared in the moderately successful Ghulam, for which he also did playback singing.[20] John Mathew Matthan's Sarfarosh (1999), Khan's first release in 1999, was also moderately successful, gaining an above average box office verdict.[21] The film was highly appreciated amongst the critics and Khan's role as a dedicated, honest and uncorrupted cop engaged in fighting border terrorism, was well received, as was his role in Deepa Mehta's art house film Earth. His first release for the new millennium, Mela, in which he acted alongside his real-life brother Faisal Khan, was both a box-office and critical bomb.[22] In 2001 he appeared in Lagaan. The film was a major critical and commercial success,[23] and received a nomination for Best Foreign Language Film at the 74th Academy Awards. Additionally, the film gathered critical acclaim at several international film festivals, in addition to winning numerous Indian awards, including the National Film Awards. Khan himself won his second Filmfare Best Actor Award. The film continues to be one of the most popular Hindi films in the west. The success of Lagaan was followed by Dil Chahta Hai later that year, in which Khan co-starred with Akshaye Khanna and Saif Ali Khan, with Preity Zinta playing his love interest. The film was written and directed by the then newcomer Farhan Akhtar. According to critics, the film broke new grounds by showing Indian urban youth as they

21


Aamir Khan

22

really are today. The characters depicted were modern, suave and cosmopolitan. The film did moderately well and was a success mostly in urban cities.[23] Khan then took a four year break citing personal problems, and returned in 2005 with Ketan Mehta's Mangal Pandey: The Rising playing the title role of a real-life sepoy and a martyr who helped spark the Indian Rebellion of 1857 or the 'First War of Indian Independence'. Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra's award-winning Rang De Basanti was Khan's first release in 2006. His role was critically acclaimed,[24] earning him a Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor and various nominations for Best Actor. The film went on to become one of the highest grossing films of the year,[25] and was selected as India's official entry to the Oscars. Although the film was not shortlisted as a nominee for the Oscar, it received a nomination for Best Foreign Film at the BAFTA Awards in England. Khan's work in his next movie, Fanaa (2006) co-starred with Kajol was also appreciated,[26] and the film went on to become one of the highest grossing Indian films of 2006.[25] His 2007 film, Taare Zameen Par was also produced by him and marked his directorial debut. The film, which was the second offering from Aamir Khan Productions, starred Khan in a supporting role as a teacher who befriends and helps a dyslexic child. It opened to excellent responses from critics and audiences alike. Khan's performance was well-received, although he was particularly applauded for his directing. In 2008, Khan appeared in the movie Ghajini. The film was a major commercial success[27] and became the highest grossing Bollywood movie of that year. For his performance in the film, Khan received several Best Actor nominations at various award ceremonies as well as his fifteenth Filmfare Best Actor nomination. In 2009, Khan appeared in the commercially and critically acclaimed film 3 Idiots as Ranchodas Chanchad which became Bollywood's highest grossing film[7] and won multiple Filmfare Awards including Best Picture.[28] Around August, 2011, Khan started talks with Siddhartha Basu's BIG Synergy, to host a talk show, similar to the Oprah Winfrey show.[29]

Producer In 2001 Khan set up a production company known as Aamir Khan Productions. Its first film was Lagaan. The movie was released in 2001, starring Khan as the lead actor. The film was selected as India's official entry to the 74th Academy Awards in the Best Foreign Language Film category. It was eventually chosen and nominated in that category but lost to No Man's Land. The film won numerous awards at several Indian award functions such as Filmfare and IIFA, and won the National Film Award for Most Popular Film, an award shared between Khan and the film's director, Ashutosh Gowariker.[30] Khan later commented on the loss of Lagaan at the Oscars: "Certainly we were disappointed. But the thing that really kept us in our spirits was that the entire country was behind us". In 2007 he produced the drama Taare Zameen Par which marked his directorial debut. Khan also played a supporting role in the film, sharing the screen with the debut of child actor Darsheel Safary. The film was initially conceived of and developed by the husband and wife team, Amole Gupte and Deepa Bhatia. It was a story of a young child who suffers in school until a teacher

Khan at a promotional event for Taare Zameen Par

identifies him as dyslexic. The movie was critically acclaimed,[31] as well as a box office success. Taare Zameen Par won the 2008 Filmfare Best Movie Award as well as a number of other Filmfare and Star Screen Awards. Khan's


Aamir Khan

23

work won him two awards at the Filmfare, the Best Movie and the Best Director awards, which established his status as a competent filmmaker in Bollywood. In 2008, Khan launched his nephew Imran Khan's debut in the film Jaane Tu... Ya Jaane Na under his production house. The film was a big hit in India, and eventually earned Khan another nomination for Best Movie at the Filmfare.[32] In 2011, Khan released his home production Dhobi Ghat.[33] which was directed by his wife Kiran Rao.

Personal life Khan married Reena Dutta, who had a small part in Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak, on April 18, 1986. They have two children, a son named Junaid and a daughter, Ira. Reena was involved briefly in Khan's career when she worked as a producer for Lagaan. In December 2002, Khan filed for divorce, ending the 15-year marriage. Reena took custody of both children.[34] On 28 December 2005, Khan married Kiran Rao who had been an assistant director to Ashutosh Gowariker during the filming of Lagaan.[35] Khan with United States Secretary of State

Though nominated many times, Khan does not attend any Indian film Hillary Rodham Clinton in 2009. [36] award ceremony as he feels "Indian film awards lack credibility". In 2007, Khan was invited to have a wax imitation of himself put on display at Madame Tussauds in London.[37] However, Khan declined stating that, "It's not important to me... people will see my films if they want to. Also, I cannot deal with so many things, I have bandwidth only for that much."[38] In 2007, Khan lost a custody battle for his younger brother Faisal to their father, Tahir Hussain.[39] His father passed away on 2 February 2010.[40] In a 2009 interview, Khan states that he tends to take an independent approach to the world of filmmaking, noting that he does not "do different things; I try to do it in a different manner. I think every person should follow his/her dream and try and make it possible to create an ability to achieve it backed by its practicality." He has also indicated that he is more interested in the process of filmmaking than in the end result: "For me, the process is more important, more joyful. I would like to have my entire concentration on the process right from the first step." When asked about his role model, he stated, "Gandhiji is one person who inspires me!"[41] Wikipedia:Stay_on_topic

Filmography Actor Year

Film

Role

1973 Yaadon Ki Baaraat

Young Ratan

1974 Madhosh

Child artist

1984 Holi

Madan Sharma

1988 Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak

Raj

Notes

National Film Special Jury Award (also for Raakh) Filmfare Award for Best Male Debut Nominated窶認ilmfare Award for Best Actor


Aamir Khan

1989

24

Raakh

Aamir Hussein

Love Love Love

Amit

Awwal Number

Sunny

Tum Mere Ho

Shiva

Dil

Raja

Deewana Mujh Sa Nahin

Ajay Sharma

Jawani Zindabad

Shashi

Afsana Pyaar Ka

Raj

Dil Hai Ke Manta Nahin

Raghu Jetley

Isi Ka Naam Zindagi

Chotu

Daulat Ki Jung

Rajesh Chaudhry

1992 Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar

Sanjaylal Sharma

1993

Parampara

Ranbir Prithvi Singh

Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke

Rahul Malhotra

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

1994 Andaz Apna Apna

Amar Manohar

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

1995

Baazi

Inspector Amar Damjee

Aatank Hi Aatank

Rohan

Rangeela

Munna

Akele Hum Akele Tum

Rohit

1990

1991

National Film Special Jury Award (also for Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak) Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

1996 Raja Hindustani

Raja Hindustani

Filmfare Award for Best Actor

1997 Ishq

Raja

1998 Ghulam

Siddharth Marathe

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Male Playback Singer

1999

Sarfarosh

Ajay Singh Rathod

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Mann

Dev Karan Singh

Earth (1947)

Dil Navaz

2000 Mela

Kishan Pyare

2001

Lagaan

Bhuvan

Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Dil Chahta Hai

Akash Malhotra

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

2005 Mangal Pandey: The Rising

Mangal Pandey

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

2006

Rang De Basanti

Daljit 'DJ' Singh

Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actor Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor

Fanaa

Rehan Quadri

2007 Taare Zameen Par

Ram Shankar Nikumbh Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor

2008 Ghajini

Sanjay Singhania

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actor


Aamir Khan

2009

2011

25

Luck by Chance

Himself

Special appearance

3 Idiots

Ranchhoddas Shamaldas Chanchad (Rancho)/ Phunsukh Wangdu

Nominated窶認ilmfare Award for Best Actor

Dhobi Ghat

Arun

Delhi Belly

Disco Fighter

Special appearance [42]

2012 Reema Kagti's Untitled Project

Filming

Producer Year

Film

Director

Notes

2001 Lagaan

Ashutosh Gowariker

National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment Filmfare Award for Best Movie

2007 Taare Zameen Par

Aamir Khan

National Film Award for Best Film on Family Welfare Filmfare Award for Best Movie

2008 Jaane Tu... Ya Jaane Na

Abbas Tyrewala

Nominated窶認ilmfare Award for Best Movie

2010 Peepli Live

Anusha Rizvi

Nominated窶認ilmfare Award for Best Movie

2011

Dhobi Ghat

Kiran Rao

Delhi Belly

Abhinay Deo

2012 Reema Kagti's Untitled Project

Reema Kagti

Filming

Writer/Director Year

Film

Notes

1988

Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak Story writer

1993

Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke

Screenwriter

2007

Taare Zameen Par

Director Filmfare Award for Best Director


Aamir Khan

References [1] "Readers' Picks: Top Bollywood Actors" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 17sd11. htm). Rediff. 17 August 2006. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [2] "Powerlist: Top Bollywood Actors" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 08sld11. htm). Rediff. 8 August 2006. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [3] "Box Office 2000s Decade in Review" (http:/ / www. ibosnetwork. com/ newsmanager/ templates/ template1. aspx?a=21931& z=9). IBOS. 19 January 2010. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [4] "36th National Film Award" (http:/ / dff. nic. in/ 2011/ 36th_nff_1989. pdf). . Retrieved 26 August 2011. [5] Press Trust India (30 November 2000). "'I become the audience'" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2000/ nov/ 30aamir. htm). Rediff. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [6] "The Aamir Khan Station" (http:/ / www. ibosnetwork. com/ asp/ clsActorDisplay. asp?actor=Aamir+ Khan& layout=filmography). IBOS Network. . Retrieved 16 January 2009. [7] Nama Ramachandran (6 January 2010). "'3 Idiots' nabs Bollywood B.O. crown" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118013378. html?categoryid=13& cs=1& ref=bd_film). Variety. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [8] http:/ / india. gov. in/ myindia/ padmashri_awards_list1. php?start=570 [9] http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2010-01-25/ india/ 28119839_1_padma-sri-badminton-star-cricketer-virendra-sehwag [10] http:/ / india. gov. in/ myindia/ padmabhushan_awards_list1. php [11] "Bollywood Gets Political" (http:/ / www. fpif. org/ articles/ bollywood_gets_political). Foreign Policy In Focus. 2008-10-24. . [12] "Afghan traces Bolly Khans' Pathan roots" (http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ news/ 2011/ may/ 180511-Kabul-Pathan-community-Hindi-films-Bolly-Khans. htm). MiD DAY. Agencies. 2011-05-18. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [13] Kidwai, Rasheed (31 May 2004). "Badshah at durbar and dinner - I am really proud of you, Shah Rukh tells Sonia" (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1040531/ asp/ frontpage/ story_3313328. asp). The Telegraph. . Retrieved 6 December 2008. [14] "Box Office 1990" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=196& catName=MTk5MA==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [15] "Box Office 1992" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=198& catName=MTk5Ng==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [16] "Box Office 1993" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=199& catName=MTk5Mw==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [17] "Box Office 1995" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=201& catName=MTk5NQ==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [18] Ashley Gujaadhur. "Andaz Apna Apna" (http:/ / www. planetbollywood. com/ Film/ AndazApnaApna/ ). Planet Bollywood. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [19] "Box Office 1996" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=202& catName=MTk5Ng==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [20] "Box Office 1998" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=204& catName=MTk5OA==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [21] "Box Office 1999" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=205& catName=MTk5OQ==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 31 August 2011. [22] "Box Office 2000" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=206& catName=MjAwMA==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [23] "Box Office 2001" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=207& catName=MjAwMQ==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [24] Taran Adarsh (26 January 2006). "Rang De Basanti" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ review/ 12493/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [25] "Box Office 2006" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=212& catName=MjAwNg==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 12 March 2007. [26] Taran Adarsh (26 May 2006). "Fanaa: Movie Review". Bollywood Hungama. [27] "Ghajini Opens To A Phenomenal Response All Over" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ boxdetail. php?page=shownews& articleid=671& nCat=box_office_report& PHPSESSID=0fc7ca1333fc137213d103000d2eac37). BoxOfficeIndia. 27 December 2008. . Retrieved 13 May 2009. [28] ‘3 Idiots’ Best Film; Big B, Vidya Best Actors at Filmfare Awards (http:/ / www. indiawest. com/ readmore. aspx?id=2061& sid=3) [29] "Dhoom 3 delayed further?" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ movie_story. aspx?section=Movies& Id=ENTEN20110182341& keyword=bollywood& subcatg=MOVIESINDIA& nid=127388). NDTV Movies. August 18, 2011. . [30] "Awards for Lagaan: Once Upon a Time in India" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0169102/ awards). Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 23 January 2009. [31] "Taare Zameen Par, Chak De top directors' pick in 2007" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080421200216/ http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ ET_Cetera/ Directors_pick_Taare_Zameen_Chak_De/ articleshow/ 2661102. cms). Economic Times. 29 December 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ ET_Cetera/ Directors_pick_Taare_Zameen_Chak_De/ articleshow/

26


Aamir Khan 2661102. cms) on 21 April 2008. . Retrieved 5 May 2008. [32] "Filmfare: 'Jodha...' bags 5, Priyanka, Hrithik shine" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ msid-4205152,prtpage-1. cms). Times of India. 1 March 2009. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [33] "Will Dhobi Ghat appeal to Indians?'" (http:/ / movies. rediff. com/ report/ 2010/ oct/ 19/ review-dhobi-ghat. htm). movies.rediff.com. . Retrieved 22 Oct 2010. [34] "Aamir Khan Kiran Rao Wedding Marriage Amir Wife Reena Dutta Divorce" (http:/ / celebrity. psyphil. com/ aamir-khan-kiran-rao-wedding-amir-khan-wife-reena-dutta-divorce/ ). . Retrieved 3 August 2010. [35] Press Trust of India (1 January 2006). "Grand reception for Aamir Khan-Kiran Rao wedding" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ fullstory. php?newsid=60745). Indian Express. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [36] Anil Sinanan (27 February 2008). "Aamir Khan's defiant stand against Bollywood awards" (http:/ / entertainment. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ film/ bollywood/ article3445727. ece). Times. London. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [37] "Aamir declines Madame Tussauds" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 2561771. cms). Indiatimes. 22 November 2007. . Retrieved 26 January 2009. [38] "Aamir Khan turns down Madam Tussauds" (http:/ / www. ibosnetwork. com/ newsmanager/ templates/ template1. aspx?a=21052& z=4). IBOS. 26 November 2007. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [39] Press Trust of India (2 November 2007). "Aamir's family supports him against father" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Aamirs_family_supports_him_against_father/ articleshow/ 2513131. cms). Times of India. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [40] "Aamir Khan's father Tahir Hussain passes away" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2010/ 02/ 02/ 13730/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. 2 February 2010. . Retrieved 3 February 2010. [41] Janki Dave (10 February 2009). "Gandhiji inspires me, says Aamir" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ India_Buzz/ Gandhiji_inspires_me_says_Aamir/ articleshow/ 4100924. cms). Times of India. . Retrieved 26 January 2010. [42] MiD DAY (2011-02-21). "Aamir, Kareena, Rani attend acting workshops" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ movie_story. aspx?ID=ENTEN20110169906& keyword=bollywood& subcatg=MOVIESINDIA& nid=86788). Prannoy Roy Publications. . Retrieved 2011-02-23.

Further reading • Crerar, Simon. " Aamir Khan on Making it in Bollywood (http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/ arts_and_entertainment/film/bollywood/article6988116.ece)." The Times, 15 January 2010.

External links • Official website (http://www.aamirkhan.com) • Aamir Khan (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0451148/) at the Internet Movie Database

27


Aishwarya Rai

28

Aishwarya Rai Aishwarya Rai

Aishwarya Rai in 2010 Born

Aishwarya Rai [1] 1 November 1973 Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Residence

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

[2]

Other names Aishwarya Rai Bachchan Occupation

actor, model

Years active

1991–present

Spouse

Abhishek Bachchan (2007–present)

Aishwarya Rai Bachchan[3] (née Aishwarya Rai, Tulu: ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯಾ ರೈ, Aiśvaryā Rai ?, pronounced [əjɕʋərjaː rəj]; born 1 November 1973) is an Indian film actress. She worked as a model before starting her acting career, and ultimately won the Miss World pageant in 1994. Rai has acted in over 40 films in Hindi, English, Tamil, Telugu, and Bengali. Often cited by the media as the "most beautiful woman in the world",[4] [5] [6] Rai made her acting debut in Mani Ratnam's Tamil film Iruvar (1997), and had her first commercial success in the Tamil movie Jeans (1998). She gained the attention of Bollywood through the film Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (1999), directed by Sanjay Leela Bhansali. Her performance won her the Filmfare Best Actress Award. In 2002 she appeared in Bhansali's Devdas, for which she won her second Filmfare Best Actress Award. After a setback in her career during 2003–2005, she appeared in Dhoom 2 (2006), which was her biggest commercial success in India. She later appeared in films like Guru (2007), Jodhaa Akbar (2008), and Enthiran (2010), which were commercially and critically successful. Rai has established herself as one of the leading actresses in Bollywood.[7] Rai's off-screen roles include duties as brand ambassador for various charity organisations and campaigns. She is married to fellow actor Abhishek Bachchan. In 2009 she was honoured with Padma Shri, the fourth-highest civilian award given by the Government of India.


Aishwarya Rai

Early life Rai was born into a Tulu-speaking Bunt family in Mangalore, Karnataka.[8] Her father, Krishnaraj, was a marine biologist, while her mother, Brindya, is a housewife.[1] She has one elder brother, Aditya Rai, who is an engineer in the merchant navy. He co-produced one of her movies, Dil Ka Rishta (2003).[9] The family moved to Mumbai, where Rai attended the Arya Vidya Mandir High School.[1] Rai did her intermediate schooling at Jai Hind College for a year,[10] and then joined DG Ruparel College[11] in Matunga, securing 90 percent in the HSC exams.[1] [12] She trained in classical dance and music for five years during her teens.[12] Her favourite subject was zoology, so she initially considered a career in medicine.[12] With plans to become an architect, she enrolled at Raheja College, but later gave up her education to pursue a career in modelling.[10]

Modelling career One of her earliest modelling assignment was, when she was in the ninth grade, for Camlin Pencils.[12] One of her professors at Jai Hind College took pictures of her which were published in a fashion magazine.[13] In 1991 Rai took part in the Ford Supermodel Contest and also appeared in Vogue Magazine.[11] She has been on the cover of Vogue three times.[14] Rai became popular after appearing in a Pepsi commercial with actor Aamir Khan.[12] She modelled for Longines watches, Coca-Cola,[15] Lakmé Cosmetics, Casio pager, Philips, Palmolive,[13] Lux, and Fuji films.[16] She continued to model while pursuing her studies in architecture.[1] [13] She was named the official brand ambassador for De Beers diamonds in India.[16] In the 1994 Miss India contest, she won second place, behind Sushmita Sen, and was crowned Miss India World.[17] She went on to win the Miss World[18] title the same year, where she also won the Miss Photogenic award.[19] After winning the pageant, she gave up her studies and spent one year reigning as Miss World in London.[17] Rai continued to pursue a career as a model until she became an actress.[20]

Film career Early career (1997–98) Rai made her acting debut in Mani Ratnam's Tamil biopic film Iruvar (1997), where she worked alongside Mohanlal.[21] The film was a critical success and won many awards, including Best Film award at the Belgrade International Film Festival,[22] and two National Film Awards.[22] Rai appeared in dual roles, one of which was a depiction of political leader and former actress J. Jayalalithaa.[23] Rai made her Bollywood debut in the film in Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya, opposite Bobby Deol, which released the same year; the film was unsuccessful at the box office.[24] Her third project, Jeans (1998), a high-budget Tamil film directed by S. Shankar, was a commercial success. The film included the song "Poovukkul", written by Vairamuthu, in which Rai's character is compared to the seven wonders of the world and described as the eighth.[25] [26] The film was India's official entry to the Academy Awards in that year.[27]

Career (1999–2002) In 1999 Rai starred in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam, opposite Salman Khan and Ajay Devgan.[28] The film had Rai playing Nandini, who is forced to marry Devgan despite being in love with another man (Khan). Her husband tries to help her locate her previous love, and his caring attention eventually wins her over. Rai's portrayal won her critical acclaim, with a review on Rediff.com stating, "Aishwarya looks beautiful as usual ... This film will most likely draw her accolades from all over, may be even get her recognised as an actress the way Manisha Koirala did in Khamoshi. In many scenes, there is no trace of makeup and she looks very fresh".[29] The film was her first box office success in Bollywood, and earned her a Filmfare Best Actress Award.[30]

29


Aishwarya Rai In the same year she appeared in Subhash Ghai's Taal,[31] in which she played Mansi, a young village woman who becomes a big pop star after being hurt by her lover, played by Akshay Khanna. The film was an average grosser in India but was a big success outside India, especially in the United States, where it became the first Indian film in the top 20 on Variety's box office list.[32] Her performance was praised, with a reviewer from Rediff.com writing, "After being praised for her looks and acting talent in Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam, Aishwarya has excelled in Taal. She looks ethereal and unlike the former film, has a very sober and soft role. Though she looks pained and tragic in most of the film, she does a good job of a woman who is very protective of her father and one who doesn't think twice before rejecting a lover who has insulted her father."[33] She received another Best Actress nomination from the Filmfare Awards for her work in the film.[34] In 2000 she appeared in Mansoor Khan's Josh alongside Shahrukh Khan and Chandrachur Singh, in which she plays a Catholic named Shirley who falls in love with the sibling of her brother's enemy.[35] The film was a commercial success.[36] Later that year she appeared in Satish Kaushik's Hamara Dil Aapke Paas Hai, opposite Anil Kapoor. It was a moderate success, and her performance earned her a Filmfare Best Actress Award nomination.[37] Later that year she played a supporting role in Aditya Chopra's Mohabbatein, alongside Amitabh Bachchan and Shahrukh Khan. The second-highest grosser of the year, the film was a major commercial success, and earned her a Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award nomination.[37] [38] Later that year, she starred in the Tamil film Kandukondain Kandukondain, alongside Mammooty, Ajith Kumar, and Tabu.[39] In 2002 Rai appeared alongside Shahrukh Khan and Madhuri Dixit in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Devdas, an adaptation of Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel of the same name.[40] She played the role of Paro (Parvati), the love interest of the protagonist, played by Khan. The film received a special screening at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival.[41] It became the highest-grossing film of the year in India and overseas, earning a revenue of Rs 390 million domestically.[42] [43] Devdas won numerous awards, including 10 Filmfare Awards, and Rai received her second Filmfare Best Actress Award for her performance.[44]

Professional setback (2003–05) In 2003 she acted in Rituparno Ghosh's Bengali film Chokher Bali, an adaptation of Rabindranath Tagore's novel of the same name.[45] She portrays the character of a young woman called Binodini,[46] who is left on her own when her sickly husband dies soon after they are married.[47] That year she appeared in the Bollywood film Dil Ka Rishta, with Arjun Rampal, and Rohan Sippy's Kuch Na Kaho, alongside Abhishek Bachchan,[48] neither of which fared well at the box office.[48] [49] In 2004 she appeared alongside Martin Henderson in Bride and Prejudice, Gurinder Chadha's Bollywood-style English adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. She played Lalita Bakshi, the film's version of Austen's character Elizabeth Bennet. Based on 131 reviews, the film has a rating of 64 percent at the review website Rotten Tomatoes.[50] She played a negative role for the first time in Rajkumar Santoshi's Khakee, which also featured Amitabh Bachchan, Akshay Kumar, Ajay Devgan, and Jayapradha. In the same year she worked with director Rituparno Ghosh for the second time, in Raincoat, where she starred alongside Ajay Devgan. The film was highly acclaimed by critics, with Rai receiving rave reviews for her performance.[51] In 2005 she appeared in Shabd, a film based on a love triangle, alongside Sanjay Dutt and Zayed Khan. The film was unsuccessful at the box office; it received average reviews from critics.[52] Her next release was Paul Mayeda Berges's The Mistress of Spices, based on the novel of the same name by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni,[53] in which she starred alongside Dylan McDermott.[54] The film received negative reviews from critics,[55] and was a commercial failure.[56] The same year she made a special appearance in a hugely popular seven-minute dance sequence for the song "Kajra Re", with Amitabh Bachchan and Abhishek Bachchan, in Shaad Ali's Bunty Aur Babli.[57]

30


Aishwarya Rai

Recent work (2006–present) In 2006 Rai portrayed the title role in J P Dutta's Umrao Jaan, the story of a courtesan and poetess from 19th-century Lucknow. The movie is the second adaptation of the Urdu novel Umrao Jaan Ada (1905), by Mirza Hadi Ruswa. Rai's work received mixed reviews, and the film was a critical and commercial failure. Critics particularly felt the new version is poor when compared to the acclaimed 1981 version by Rai costumed as an old dwarf in the movie Dhoom 2 Muzaffar Ali, which starred Rekha in the title role. BBC critic Poonam Joshi wrote, "While only Aishwarya could emulate the grace and poise of Rekha, she doesn't quite capture the intensity of Umrao's abiding melancholy", commenting that "her incandescent beauty and artistry... does indeed keep the audience watching, though not necessarily emotionally engaged."[58] Later that year she appeared as a master thief, Sunheri, in the Yash Raj Films production of Dhoom 2, directed by Sanjay Gadhvi. The ensemble cast included Hrithik Roshan, Abhishek Bachchan, Bipasha Basu, and Uday Chopra. The movie was a blockbuster, and became the highest grossing film of the year in India, earning revenues of over Rs 770 million domestically.[59] A controversy arose regarding a scene containing a kiss between her and Hrithik Roshan.[60] Rai's performance received mostly negative reviews, with a reviewer on Rediff.com writing, "Ash's character too is all gloss and no depth. You seldom feel any tension in her behaviour and expressions as she accompanies the master thief on potentially dangerous missions. Sunehri enters the film nearly 50 minutes after its opening in a disguise. In no time, she is wearing the flimsiest of clothes. Once she opens her mouth—and she does it two minutes after appearing in the film—she spoils the image. There is no sensuality any more, and half an hour later, one wonders what made the master thief fall for her."[61] Nonetheless, her performance earned her a sixth nomination for Filmfare Best Actress Award. In 2007 she appeared in Mani Ratnam's Guru as Sujata. Speculated to be based on the life of Indian businessman Dhirubhai Ambani, it is a rag to riches story about an ambitious small-town man who ends up as the owner of the biggest corporation in India. The film premièred at the Elgin Theatre in Toronto, Canada, the first Indian film to have a mainstream international premiere in that country.[62] [63] The film was critically acclaimed, and performed well at the box office.[64] Critical reception for Rai was mixed. While Nikhat Kazmi from The Times of India wrote that she is "just okay, and fails to register the growth in her character", Rediff.com's Raja Sen described it as "arguably her finest performance, visible especially when she takes over the film's climax."[65] [66] Rai received her seventh Filmfare nomination for Best Actress for her performance. In the same year she starred alongside Naveen Andrews and Miranda Richardson in Jag Mundhra's British film Provoked, as Kiranjit Ahluwalia, an Non-resident Indian woman who kills her abusive husband after facing severe domestic violence. Rai received mostly positive reviews for her portrayal. It was screened in the Marché du Film Cannes Film Market during the 2006 Cannes Film Festival. Ahluwalia sat next to Rai during the screening, reportedly holding her hand and sobbing during the most violent scenes.[67] In the same year Rai appeared as a warrior from Kerala named Mira in Doug Lefler's epic film The Last Legion, alongside Sir Ben Kingsley, Colin Firth, and Thomas Sangster. The film was a critical failure.[68]

31


Aishwarya Rai

Rai at the Cannes Film Festival (2008)

32 In 2008 Rai starred alongside Hrithik Roshan in Ashutosh Gowariker's historical drama Jodhaa Akbar. The story is a partly-fictionalised account of the life of Muslim Mughal emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar, played by Roshan, and his Hindu wife Jodha Bai, played by Rai. The film was a critical and commercial success, earning revenues of over Rs 590 million domestically. Rai's performance in the film was praised by critics, with Rajeev Masand writing, "Aishwarya Rai is wonderfully restrained and uses her eyes expertly to communicate so much, making this one of her finest outings on screen".[69] She earned her eighth nomination for Best Actress at the Filmfare Awards for her performance. Later that year she co-starred with husband Abhishek Bachchan and father-in-law Amitabh Bachchan in Ram Gopal Verma's Sarkar Raj, a sequel to his previous film, Sarkar.[70] She plays the CEO of a major power company that is proposing a new power plant in rural Maharashtra. The film was a critical and commercial success.[71] [72]

In 2009 she appeared in Harald Zwart's spy comedy film The Pink Panther 2, playing the role of criminology expert Sonia Solandres. Like its predecessor, the sequel received negative reviews from critics,[73] and did a moderate business of $34,590,360 at the U.S box office.[74] In 2010 she collaborated with Mani Ratnam for a bilingual project, two films featuring Rai portraying a character based on the goddess Sita. The films were shot simultaneously, with Rai's role being one of the only roles which were played by the same performer in both versions. Upon release, the project received mixed reviews. Though both her portrayals of Ragini were praised, the Hindi version—Raavan, alongside Abhishek Bachchan—failed commercially, whilst the Tamil version—Raavanan—was successful. The Hindi version of the film got decent reviews in various US media, including the New York Times and Los Angeles Times, with the former saying, "Raavan has Bollywood glamour aplenty, with the lovely if occasionally dramatically challenged Aishwarya Rai Bachchan", and the latter describing Rai as a scene-stealer.[75] Rai paired with Rajinikanth in the science fiction Tamil film Enthiran (2010), directed by S. Shankar.[76] The film—the most expensive ever made in India—was released worldwide in 2010, and is the highest-grossing Indian film when all its versions are totalled.[77] [78] [79] She appeared in Vipul Shah's Action Replayy opposite Akshay Kumar, which received mixed reviews from critics. Rai's final release in 2010 was Guzaarish, her third collaboration with director Sanjay Leela Bhansali and actor Hrithik Roshan. The film tells the story of Ethan Mascarenhas (Roshan), a former magician who has been quadriplegic for twelve years; after years of struggle he files an appeal to the court for euthanasia. Rai played Ethan's strict, devoted, and supportive nurse Sophie D'Souza. The film opened to positive reviews, and Rai's portrayal was praised. According to Nikhat Kazmi, "Aishwarya is a stunning picture of fire and grace, walking away with certain scenes by her sheer vitality."[80] [81] In 2011 she received her ninth nomination for the Filmfare Award for Best Actress. As of May 2011, she is set to appear in Rajkumar Santoshi's next film, Ladies and Gentlemen, along with Abhishek Bachchan,[82] and in Madhur Bhandarkar's next directorial venture, Heroine.[83] The shooting of both films was postponed, due to Rai's pregnancy.[84] [85]

Social work In 1999 Rai participated in a world tour called the Magnificent Five, along with Aamir Khan, Rani Mukerji, Akshaye Khanna, and Twinkle Khanna.[86] In the same year, she was appointed as Longines Ambassador of Elegance.[87] In 2003 she became the first Indian actress to be a jury member at the Cannes Film Festival.[88] In 2003 she became a global brand ambassador of L'Oreal, alongside Andie Macdowell, Eva Longoria, and Penelope Cruz.[89] [90] Rai is the brand ambassador for The Eye Bank Association of India's nationwide campaign to promote eye donation in India.[91] In 2005 she became a brand ambassador for Pulse Polio, a campaign established by the Government of India in 1994 to eradicate polio in India.[92] In the same year, Rai was appointed spokesperson for the International


Aishwarya Rai

33

Year of Microcredit, raising awareness of the main goals and priorities of the United Nations' poverty alleviation efforts.[93] [94] In February 2005 Rai performed alongside other Bollywood stars at the HELP! Telethon Concert, an event to raise money for the victims of the 2004 tsunami earthquake.[95] Along with other members of the Bachchan family, she laid the foundation of a special school for underprivileged girls in Daulatpur village in Uttar Pradesh in 2008. Construction is being funded by the Bachchan family, and the school will be named after Rai.[96] She appeared along with various other Bollywood actors at the closing ceremony of the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne. The performance showcased Indian culture as a lead-up to India hosting the 2010 Commonwealth Games.[97] In 2009 Rai was appointed as the first Goodwill Ambassador of Smile Train, an international charity that provides free Cleft lip and palate surgery to children in need. Her work with Smile Train will focus not only on India, but on 76 different developing countries around the world.[98] [99]

Personal life In 1999 Aishwarya began dating Bollywood actor Salman Khan; their relationship was often reported in the media until the couple separated in 2001. Rai cited "abuse (verbal, physical and emotional), infidelity and indignity" on the part of Khan as reasons for ending the relationship.[100] In a 2009 Times of India article, Khan denied ever beating her: "It's not true that I hit a woman."[101] Rai is married to actor Abhishek Bachchan, they met in 1997.[14] Their engagement was announced on 14 January 2007 and later confirmed by his father, Amitabh Bachchan.[102] The couple married on 20 April Hindu wedding of Aishwarya Rai and Abhishek Bachchan in 2007 2007 according to traditional Hindu rites of the Bunt community, to which she belongs.[103] Token North Indian and Bengali ceremonies were also performed. The wedding took place in a private ceremony at the Bachchan residence, "Prateeksha", in Juhu, Mumbai.[103] They have been described as a supercouple in the Indian media.[104] [105] Rai is very close to her family and lived with them in Bandra, Mumbai, until her marriage.[106] [107] Rai is Hindu and deeply religious.[4] It was revealed on 21 June 2011 by her father-in-law Amitabh Bachchan, through his blog, that she is pregnant.[108] It has since been revealed that the baby is due in November 2011.[85]

Awards and honours Aishwarya Rai is a two-time winner of the Filmfare Best Actress Award, and has been nominated for Filmfare Awards eleven times.[37] [109] She has won numerous times at the International Indian Film Academy Awards, Star Screen Awards, Zee Cine Awards, and others. In 2009 Rai was awarded the Padma Shri, the fourth-highest Indian civilian award, for her contributions to Indian cinema.[110] In 2001 Forbes named Rai among the top five Indian movie stars.[111] In a reader poll conducted by UK's Hello! magazine, she was voted "the most attractive woman of 2003".[112] In the same year, Rai appeared in Rolling Stone magazine's annual "Hot List".[113] In 2004 she was chosen by TIME magazine as one of the world's most influential people, and appeared on the cover of its 2003 Asia edition.[114] [115] [116] In October 2004 a wax figure of Rai was put on display in London's Madame Tussaud's wax museum.[117] She was the sixth Indian and the second Bollywood personality—after her father-in-law, Amitabh Bachchan—to get this honour. In 2007 the same figure was displayed at Madame Tussaud's Museum in Times Square in New York.[118]


Aishwarya Rai

34 In 2005 she was the subject of a 60 Minutes profile on 2 January, which said that "at least according to thousands of Web sites, Internet polls and even Julia Roberts", she was "the world's most beautiful woman".[4] The same year, a tulip in the Netherlands was named "Aishwarya Rai" after her.[119] Also in 2005, Mattel released a limited edition of Barbie dolls of Aishwarya Rai in the United Kingdom.[120] The British magazine Maxim ranked Rai first on their list of "Hottest Women of India".[121]

Rai appeared on such shows as Late Show with David Letterman, and was the first Bollywood personality to appear on Oprah's "Women Aishwarya Rai with her husband, Abhishek Across the Globe" segment. In 2005 Harpers and Queen's list of "Most Bachchan, at the IIFA Awards (2007) Beautiful Women in The World" ranked her ninth.[122] In May 2006 Aishwarya was featured in People Magazine as one of the "World's Most Beautiful People".[123] The UK magazine Eastern Eye ranked her third in the list of "Asia's Sexiest Women" in 2006,[124] and she was ranked eighth in 2009.[125] In 2008 American television channel E!: Entertainment listed Aishwarya's eyes as the sexiest on their Sexiest Body Parts list.[126] In 2009 she made appearances on Martha Stewart's show Martha and on the The Tyra Banks Show.[127] [128] In the same year Forbes listed Rai at 387th out of 1,411 actors on their list of the most bankable stars in Hollywood. She is the highest-ranked Indian actor on the list.[129] [130] In 2009, Rai refused to accept the second-highest Order Of France, Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, as her father was suffering from a serious illness, and she wanted her whole family to attend the award ceremony.[131] She is the fourth Indian actor—after Sivaji Ganesan, Nandita Das, and Shahrukh Khan—to be chosen for the award. Amitabh Bachchan was chosen for another Order Of France, the Legion of Honour.[132] In June 2009 she was declared the Female Star of The Decade at the tenth International Indian Film Academy Awards, held in Macau.[133] In December 2010 she was declared the "Actress of the Decade" at the BIG Star Entertainment Awards.[134] In March 2011 Rai was honoured by Karnataka Chief Minister B. S. Yeddyurappa at World Kannada Meet (Vishwa Kannada Sammelana) for her contributions to the arts.[135] Later that month she was presented with the "Decade of Global Achievement Honour" by FICCI.[136] She attended the 83rd Academy Awards, along with her husband, Abhishek.[137]

Filmography Year

Title

Language

Role

Notes

1997

Iruvar

Tamil

Pushpa / Kalpana

Dubbed into Telugu as Iddaru

1997

Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya

Hindi

Ashi Kapoor

1998

Jeans

Tamil

Madhumita

1999

Aa Ab Laut Chalen

Hindi

Pooja

1999

Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam

Hindi

Nandini

1999

Ravoyi Chandamama

Telugu

1999

Taal

Hindi

Mansi

Nominated—Filmfare Best Actress Award Dubbed into Tamil as Thaalam

2000

Mela

Hindi

Champakali

Guest appearance

2000

Kandukondain Kandukondain Tamil

Meenakshi Bala

Dubbed into Telugu as Priyuralu Pilichindi

2000

Josh

Hindi

Shirley

2000

Hamara Dil Aapke Paas Hai

Hindi

Preeti Virat

Dubbed into Telugu and Hindi with the same title

Filmfare Best Actress Award Special appearance

Nominated—Filmfare Best Actress Award


Aishwarya Rai

35

2000

Dhaai Akshar Prem Ke

Hindi

Sahiba Grewal

2000

Mohabbatein

Hindi

Megha

2001

Albela

Hindi

Sonia

2002

Hum Tumhare Hain Sanam

Hindi

Suman

2002

Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin

Hindi

Komal Rastogi

2002

23 March 1931: Shaheed

Hindi

2002

Devdas

Hindi

Parvati (Paro)

Filmfare Best Actress Award

2002

Shakti: The Power

Hindi

Herself

Special appearance in song "Ishq Kamina"

2003

Chokher Bali

Bengali

Binodhini

2003

Dil Ka Rishta

Hindi

Tia Sharma

2003

Kuch Naa Kaho

Hindi

Namrata Shrivastav

2004

Bride & Prejudice

English

Lalita Bakshi

2004

Khakee

Hindi

Mahalakshmi

2004

Kyun...! Ho Gaya Na

Hindi

Diya Malhotra

2004

Raincoat

Hindi

Neerja

2005

Shabd

Hindi

Antara Vashist/Tammana

2005

Bunty Aur Babli

Hindi

2005

Mistress of Spices

English

Tilo

2006

Umrao Jaan

Hindi

Umrao Jaan

2006

Dhoom 2

Hindi

Sunehri

Nominated—Filmfare Best Actress Award

2007

Guru

Hindi

Sujata

Nominated—Filmfare Best Actress Award Dubbed into Tamil as Guru and Telugu as Gurukanth

2007

Provoked

English

Kiranjit Ahluwalia

Dubbed into Hindi with the same title

2007

The Last Legion

English

Mira

2008

Jodhaa Akbar

Hindi

Jodhaa Bai

2008

Sarkar Raj

Hindi

Anita Rajan

2009

The Pink Panther 2

English

Sonia Solandres

2010

Raavan

Hindi

Ragini Sharma

2010

Raavanan

Tamil

Ragini Subramaniam

Dubbed into Telugu as Villain

2010

Enthiran

Tamil

Sana

Dubbed into Telugu as Robo and Hindi as Robot

2010

Action Replayy

Hindi

Mala

2010

Guzaarish

Hindi

Sofia D'Souza

2012

Ladies and Gentlemen

Hindi

2012

Heroine

Hindi

Nominated—Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award

Guest appearance

Special appearance

Dubbed into Hindi as Balle Balle Amritsar to LA

Nominated—Filmfare Best Actress Award

Special appearance in the song "Kajra Re"

Mahi Khanna

Nominated—Filmfare Best Actress Award Dubbed into Tamil and Telugu with the same title

Dubbed into French as La Pantera Rosa 2

Nominated—Filmfare Best Actress Award


Aishwarya Rai

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[59] "All Time Earners Inflation Adjusted" (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ cpages. php?pageName=all_time_earners). . Retrieved 4 March 2009. [60] "Obscenity case filed against Aishwarya and Hrithik" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080118030315/ http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200612021925. htm). The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2 December 2006. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200612021925. htm) on 18 January 2008. . Retrieved 20 November 2008. [61] Arthur J Pais. "Dhoom: 2 falls short of expectations" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ nov/ 24slide4. htm). Rediff.com. . [62] Canadian Press (11 January 2007). "Thousands attend 'Guru' premiere" (http:/ / www. thestar. com/ News/ article/ 170274). Toronto Star. . Retrieved 15 August 2008. [63] "Canada mayor invites 'Guru' crew for world premiere" (http:/ / mangalorean. com/ news. php?newstype=local& newsid=37940). Indo-Asian News Service. . Retrieved 10 January 2007.

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Aishwarya Rai [64] "Aishwarya highest paid Bollywood actress" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Aishwarya-highest-paid-Bollywood-actress/ Article1-282983. aspx). The Hindustan Times. 18 March 2008. . Retrieved 15 June 2011. [65] Kazmi, Nikhat (13 January 2007). "Guru" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ ENTERTAINMENT/ Movie-Reviews/ Hindi/ Guru-/ articleshow/ 1162401. cms). The Times Of India. . [66] Sen, Raja (12 January 2007). "Watch Guru for the actors" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ jan/ 12guru. htm). . [67] Staff Writer (4 April 2007). "I wanted him to stop hurting me" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ gender/ story/ 0,,2049522,00. html). The Guardian (UK). . Retrieved 23 February 2011. [68] "'Superbad' delivers super debut with $31.2 million debut" (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ ap/ 2007/ 08/ 19/ arts/ NA-A-E-MOV-US-Box-Office. php). International Herald Tribune. 19 September 2007. . Retrieved 5 January 2009. [69] "Masand's Verdict: Jodha Akbar" (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ masands-verdict-jodhaa-akbar/ 59060-8-p1. html). CNN-IBN. 15 February 2008. . Retrieved 18 August 2009. [70] Kunal M. Shah (9 May 2008). "Why Raj wants to see Sarkar..." (http:/ / mumbaimirror. com/ index. aspx?Page=article& contentid=20080509200805090206278538342fe46& sectid=30& sectname=Entertainment - Bollywood). Mumbai Mirror. . Retrieved 1 June 2011. [71] "Bachchan mania grips denizens" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2008/ 06/ 16/ stories/ 2008061658780300. htm). The Hindu. 16 June 2008. . Retrieved 15 June 2011. [72] "Beyond prisms of prejudice" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mag/ 2008/ 08/ 24/ stories/ 2008082450010100. htm). The Hindu. 14 August 2008. . Retrieved 15 June 2011. [73] "Pink Panther 2 trashed by critics" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Pink-Panther-2-trashed-by-critics/ Article1-375112. aspx). The Hindustan Times. 5 February 2009. . Retrieved 15 June 2011. [74] "U.S. and Canada Box Office" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ indexes/ 2009/ 03/ 13/ movies/ boxoffice/ weekend_us/ index. html). The New York Times. 8 March 2009. . Retrieved 15 June 2011. [75] "Raavan in US: Good reviews, poor box office performance" (http:/ / movies. rediff. com/ report/ 2010/ jun/ 21/ us-box-office-raavan. htm). rediff.com. 21 June 2010. . Retrieved 15 June 2011. [76] "Robot confirmed!" (http:/ / sify. com/ movies/ tamil/ fullstory. php?id=14585005). Sify. 2008. . Retrieved 5 January 2008. [77] "Highest grossing Indian film" (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ news/ news-by-industry/ media/ entertainment-/ entertainment/ rajini-adds-30-to-maran-cos-revenue/ articleshow/ 7394423. cms). The Economic Times (India). . Retrieved 5 March 2011. [78] "Rajini's Endhiran: A sell out in Chennai" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ Ndtv-Show-Special-Story. aspx?from=bottomrelated& ID=538& StoryID=ENTEN20100154445). NDTV Movies. . Retrieved 26 September 2010. [79] "Ground Zero" (http:/ / headlinestoday. intoday. in/ site/ headlines_today/ ProgrammesShow?catName=Ground Zero& video=0& contentId=117426& catId=45& p=0). intoday.in. . Retrieved 5 March 2011. "Superstar Rajinikanth becomes the official king of Indian cinema as Endhiran tops 250 crore in box office collection." •

"Robot or Endhiran box office collection tops Rs 250 crore, highest in India" (http:/ / www. ndchronicle. com/ news/ Robot_or_Endhiran_box_office_collection_tops_Rs_250_crore__highest_in_India_1287645315). New Delhi Chronicle. 21 October 2010. . "Robot or Endhiran box office collection tops Rs 250 crore, highest in India. Rajnikanth’s Robot is garnering immense success in foreign countries including UK, US and South Africa. It is the biggest hit which has grossed a total of Rs 250 crore rupees at box office collection." • "Boxofficeindia.com" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ boxnewsdetail. php?page=shownews& articleid=2171& nCat=box_office_news). Boxofficeindia.com. 1 November 2010. . Retrieved 4 January 2011. [80] Kazmi, Nikhat (18 November 2010). "Guzaarish" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ movie-reviews/ hindi/ Guzaarish/ moviereview/ 6947922. cms). The Times Of India. . [81] "'Aishwarya is very special to me'" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200812301566. htm). The Hindu (Chennai, India). 30 December 2008. . Retrieved 5 January 2009. [82] "Abhi-Ash project sold at 28 crore – Times Of India" (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2011-05-14/ news-interviews/ 29540522_1_abhishek-bachchan-ash-rajkumar-santoshi). Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2011-05-14. . Retrieved 2011-06-15. [83] "Ash ready to be a Heroine" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Ash-ready-to-be-a-Heroine/ Article1-695705. aspx). Hindustan Times. 10 May 2009. . Retrieved 23 April 2011. [84] "Priyanka not replacing Ash in Heroine" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ News-Feed/ bollywood/ Priyanka-not-replacing-Ash-in-Heroine/ Article1-714751. aspx). Hindustan Times. . Retrieved June 28, 2011. [85] "It’s a November baby: Abhishek Bachchan" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ It-s-a-November-baby-Abhishek-Bachchan/ Article1-714593. aspx). Hindustan Times. . Retrieved June 28, 2011. [86] "Magnificent Five" (http:/ / www. bollywoodconcerts. com/ preshowdetails. php?preshow=16). Elite Entertainment (bollywoodconcerts.com). . Retrieved 14 April 2007. [87] "Aishwarya Rai Bachchan" (http:/ / www. longines. com/ personalities/ ambassadors/ aishwarya-rai-bachchan). Longines. 1 November 1973. . Retrieved 9 April 2011. [88] "Aishwarya Bachchan Rai" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 1013233/ Aishwarya-Bachchan). . Retrieved 14 February 2009. [89] "Aishwarya Rai to promote Cinema Verite event" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200905131980. htm). The Hindu. 13 May 2009. . Retrieved 18 June 2011.

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Aishwarya Rai [90] S. Shankar (16 February 2004). Almost White (http:/ / www. outlookindia. com/ article. aspx?222938). Outlook. . Retrieved 18 June 2011. [91] "Ash appeal fails to boost eye donation drive" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 145221. cms). The Times Of India. 24 August 2003. . Retrieved 19 September 2009. [92] "Actress Rai backs polio campaign" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 4172970. stm). BBC News. 22 August 2005. . Retrieved 14 February 2009. [93] "Whosinvolved" (http:/ / www. yearofmicrocredit. org/ pages/ whosinvolved/ whosinvolved_patronsgroup_aishwarya. asp). yearofmicrocredit. . [94] "Bollywood Star Aishwarya Rai to Serve as Spokesperson for the International Year of Microcredit" (http:/ / www. uncdf. org/ english/ microfinance/ pubs/ newsletter/ pages/ 2005_06/ year_update. php#a6). United Nations Capital Development Fund. . Retrieved 13 June 2005. [95] "Bollywood unites to present caring face" (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1050208/ asp/ nation/ story_4351693. asp). The Telegraph. Kolkota, India. 8 February 2005. . Retrieved 8 February 2006. [96] "Bachchans to build girls school in name of Aishwarya Rai Bachchan" (http:/ / www. ibosnetwork. com/ newsmanager/ templates/ template1. aspx?a=21101& z=4). . Retrieved 20 February 2009. [97] "Bollywood's taste of Delhi 2010" (http:/ / www. melbourne2006. com. au/ M2006/ Homepage+ News/ 20060326+ Bollywood+ taste+ of+ Delhi+ 2010. htm). melbourne2006.com. 26 March 2006. . Retrieved 22 April 2006. [98] "Aishwarya appointed 'Smile Train' ambassador" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ Aishwarya-appointed--Smile-Train--ambassador/ 535870/ ). The Indian Express. India. . Retrieved 1 November 2009. [99] "Aishwarya lends her support to Smile Train" (http:/ / www. smiletrainindia. org/ aishwarya_cares. php). SmileTrainIndia. . [100] "Salman Khan chapter was a nightmare in my life: Aishwarya Rai" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ fullstory. php?newsid=20315). . Retrieved 19 September 2009. [101] "Salman didn’t hit Ash!" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Salman-didnt-hit-Ash/ articleshow/ 4991138. cms). The Times Of India. 10 Sep 2009. . Retrieved 25 July 2010. [102] Singh, Harneet (16 January 2007). "It was sudden...but this is the 21st century, one must be prepared" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ it-was-sudden. . . but-this-is-the-21st-centur/ 21032/ ). The Indian Express. . Retrieved 16 June 2011. [103] "Abhishek arrives on horseback for wedding" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ apr/ 20wed. htm). rediff.com. . Retrieved 16 June 2011. [104] "It's London in spring time!" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1858526. cms). The Times Of India. 4 April 2007. . Retrieved 19 September 2009. [105] "I didn't chicken out of Dostana, says Saif Ali Khan" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ holnus/ 009200908011821. htm). The Hindu (Chennai, India). 1 August 2009. . Retrieved 19 September 2009. [106] "Why did Aishwarya dump Vivek?" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ News-Gossip/ News/ Why-did-Aishwarya-dump-Vivek/ articleshow/ msid-1395761,curpg-6. cms). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 19 August 2009. [107] "The buzz outside Ash's house" (http:/ / us. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ apr/ 18ash. htm). . Retrieved 19 September 2009. [108] "DAY 1159" (http:/ / bigb. bigadda. com/ ?p=8145). bigb.bigadda.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-21. [109] "The 51st Filmfare Awards" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ ). Filmfareawards.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 1 June 2011. [110] "Aishwarya, Akshay, Helen in Padma Shri list" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200901260321. htm). The Hindu (Chennai, India). 26 January 2009. . Retrieved 26 January 2009. [111] "India's Celebrity Film Stars" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2001/ 03/ 09/ 0309bollywood. html). Forbes. . Retrieved 3 September 2001. [112] "Aishwarya Rai" (http:/ / www. hellomagazine. com/ celebrities/ specials/ women03/ pagina_1_1. html). Hello!. . Retrieved 9 April 2011. [113] "Introducing Aishwarya Rai" (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2005/ 02/ 10/ earlyshow/ leisure/ celebspot/ main672996. shtml). CBS News. 10 February 2005. . [114] Perry, Alex (20 October 2003). "The Leading Lady" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ asia/ covers/ 501031027/ int_rai. html). Time Asia. . Retrieved 5 January 2009. [115] Perry, Alex (18 April 2004). "Aishwarya Rai" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ subscriber/ 2004/ time100/ artists/ 100rai. html). TIME. . Retrieved 5 January 2009. [116] "Aishwarya Rai is 100 most influential people" (http:/ / www. aishwarya-rai-pictures. com/ aishwarya-rai-is-100-most-influential. html). Aishwarya-rai-pictures.com. . Retrieved 14 February 2011. [117] Arun, Neil (1 October 2004). "Bollywood goddess waxes beautiful" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 3706834. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 27 October 2008. [118] "Ash stops traffic in Times Square" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ aug/ 16slide1. htm). rediff.com. . Retrieved 15 June 2011. [119] "Holland tulip named after Aishwarya" (http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ scoop/ bollywood/ 20050610-4. html). . Retrieved 12 February 2009. [120] "World's 50 Most Desirable Women – DNA" (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ entertainment/ slideshow_world-s-50-most-desirable-women_1224380-48#top). Dnaindia.com. 23 January 2009. . Retrieved 22 April 2011. [121] "Hottest Women of India" (http:/ / m. maxim. com/ amg/ GIRLS/ Slideshows/ Hottest+ Women+ of+ India). Maxim. . [122] "The most beautiful women?" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ uk/ article528553. ece). . Retrieved 12 June 2011. [123] "Beauties Around the Globe" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ archive/ article/ 0,,20059622,00. html). People. 8 May 2006. . Retrieved 9 April 2011.

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Aishwarya Rai [124] "rediff.com: Asia's sexiest women" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ sep/ 20sld3. htm). Specials.rediff.com. 20 September 2006. . Retrieved 9 April 2011. [125] "world's sexiest Asian woman" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Katrina-Kaif-is-world-s-sexiest-Asian-woman/ Article1-485483. aspx). Hindustan Times. . Retrieved 11 December 2009. [126] "Aishwarya Rai’s eyes voted the ‘sexiest’" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Aishwarya-Rai-s-eyes-voted-the-sexiest/ Article1-346621. aspx). Hindustan Times (India). . Retrieved 23 October 2008. [127] "Martha" (http:/ / www. theinsider. com/ news/ 1633771_Aishwarya_Rai_Do_Martha_Stewart). . Retrieved 19 September 2009. [128] "Tyra Banks Show" (http:/ / www. locatetv. com/ tv/ tyra-banks-show/ season-1/ 6081355). . Retrieved 19 September 2009. [129] "Aishwarya Rai Bachchan : Star Currency - Forbes.com" (http:/ / star-currency. forbes. com/ celebrity/ aishwarya-rai-bachchan). Star-currency.forbes.com. 1973-11-01. . Retrieved 2011-08-10. [130] "Ash beats the Khans" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ gallerydetails. aspx?id=3513& category=Movies& picno=1& section=Bollywood). Movies.ndtv.com. . Retrieved 9 April 2011. [131] "Ash won't accept award without Dad" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ India_Buzz/ Ash_wont_accept_award_without_Dad/ articleshow/ 4059637. cms). The Times of India (India). 2 February 2009. . Retrieved 12 February 2009. [132] "Ash refuses French award" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ newstory. asp?section=Movies& id=ENTEN20090083244). . Retrieved 13 February 2009. [133] "Golden Decade Honours to be given at IIFA 2009" (http:/ / www. thaindian. com/ newsportal/ entertainment/ golden-decade-honours-to-be-given-at-iifa-2009_100196278. html). Thaindian.com. 24 May 2009. . Retrieved 1 June 2011. [134] "Dabangg bags 5 Big Star Entertainment Awards – Times Of India" (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2010-12-22/ news-interviews/ 28262372_1_film-actor-dabangg-munni-badnaam-hui). Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 22 December 2010. . Retrieved 2 June 2011. [135] "Ash Honoured At World Kannada Meet" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ movie_story. aspx?ID=ENTEN20110171260& keyword=Bollywood& subcatg=MOVIESINDIA). NDTV. . Retrieved 12 March 2011. [136] "Other States / Maharashtra News : Hollywood, Bollywood share top honours at FICCI Frames awards" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2011/ 03/ 27/ stories/ 2011032761030900. htm). The Hindu. 27 March 2011. . Retrieved 1 June 2011. [137] Prabhakar, Jyothi (2 February 2011). "Ash's dress over Mallika at Oscars" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Ashs-dress-over-Mallika-at-Oscars/ articleshow/ 7601413. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2 February 2011.

Further reading • Ghosh, Biswadeep (2004). Hall of Fame: Aishwarya Rai (http://books.google.co.in/ books?id=tChlAAAAMAAJ&q=aishwarya+rai&dq=aishwarya+rai&hl=en& ei=GC3nTae4HoKiuQOrwbz_DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAQ). Mumbai: Magna Books. ISBN 9788178092447. Retrieved 2 June 2011.

External links • Aishwarya Rai (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0706787/) at the Internet Movie Database

40


Amitabh Bachchan

41

Amitabh Bachchan Amitabh Bachchan

Amitabh Bachchan in 2009 by Studio Harcourt Born

Amitabh Harivansh Bachchan 11 October 1942 Allahabad, United Province, British India

Residence

Prateeksha, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Actor, producer, singer, television presenter

Years active 1969–present Spouse

Jaya Bhaduri (1973–present) Website [bigb.bigadda.com bigb.bigadda.com]

Amitabh Bachchan (Hindi: अमिताभ बच्चन Hindustani pronunciation: [əmɪtaːbʱ bəttʃən] ( listen), born Amitabh Harivansh Bachchan on 11 October 1942) is an Indian film actor. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s as the "angry young man" of Hindi cinema, and has since become one of the most prominent figures in the history of Indian cinema.[1] [2] Bachchan has won numerous major awards in his career, including four National Film Awards, three of which are in the Best Actor category, and fourteen Filmfare Awards. He is the most-nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 36 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter, and was an elected member of the Indian Parliament from 1984 to 1987.

Early life Born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, Amitabh Bachchan hails from a Hindu Kayastha family.[3] [4] His father, Dr. Harivansh Rai Bachchan was a well-known Hindi poet, while his mother, Teji Bachchan was a Sikh-Punjabi from Faisalabad (now in Pakistan).[5] Bachchan was initially named Inquilaab, inspired from the famous phrase Inquilab Zindabad, during the Indian independence struggle. However, at the suggestion of fellow poet Sumitranandan Pant, Harivansh Rai changed the name to Amitabh which means, "the light that would never go off." Though his surname was Shrivastava, his father had adopted the pen-name Bachchan (meaning child-like in colloquial Hindi), under which he published all his works. It is with this last name that Amitabh debuted in films, and, for all public purposes, it has become the surname of all members of his family. Bachchan's father died in 2003, and his mother in 2007.[6] Amitabh is the eldest of Harivansh Rai Bachchan's two sons, the second being Ajitabh. His mother had a keen interest in theatre and had been offered a role in a film, but preferred her domestic duties. She had some degree of influence in Bachchan's choice of career because she always insisted that he should take the centre stage.[7] He


Amitabh Bachchan attended Allahabad's Jnana Prabodhini and Boys' High School (BHS), followed by Nainital's Sherwood College, where he majored in the art stream. He later went on to study at Kirori Mal College of the University of Delhi and completed a Bachelor of Science degree. In his twenties, Bachchan gave up a job as freight broker for the shipping firm, Bird and Co., based in Calcutta now known as Kolkata, to pursue a career in acting.

Career Early work: 1969–1972 Bachchan made his film debut in 1969 as a voice narrator in Mrinal Sen's National Award winning film Bhuvan Shome. Thereafter he got his first acting role as one of the seven protagonists in Saat Hindustani, a film directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and featuring Utpal Dutt, Madhu and Jalal Agha. Though the film was not a financial success, Bachchan won his first National Film Award for Best Newcomer.[8] Anand (1971) followed, where he starred alongside Rajesh Khanna. Bachchan's role as a doctor with a cynical view of life garned him his first Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. Amitabh then played his first negative role as an infatuated lover-turned-murderer in Parwaana (1971). This was followed by several films including Reshma Aur Shera (1971). During this time, he made a guest appearance in the film Guddi which starred his future wife Jaya Bhaduri. He narrated part of the film Bawarchi. In 1972, he made an appearance in the road action comedy Bombay to Goa, directed by S. Ramanathan.

Rise to stardom: 1973–1983 Director Prakash Mehra cast him in the leading role for the film Zanjeer (1973) as Inspector Vijay Khanna. The film was a sharp contrast to the romantically themed films that had generally preceded it and established Amitabh in a new persona—the "angry young man" of Bollywood cinema,.[2] He earned a Filmfare Nomination for Best Actor. 1973 was also the year he married Jaya and around this time they appeared in several films together, not only in Zanjeer but in films such as Abhimaan which followed and was released only a month after their marriage. Later, Bachchan played the role of Vikram in the film Namak Haraam, a social drama directed by Hrishikesh Mukherjee and scripted by Biresh Chatterjee addressing themes of friendship. His supporting role won him his second Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. In 1974, Bachchan made several guest appearances in films such as Kunwara Baap and Dost, before playing a supporting role in Roti Kapda Aur Makaan. The film, directed and written by Manoj Kumar, addressed themes of honesty in the face of oppression and financial and emotional hardship. Bachchan then played the leading role in film Majboor, released on 6 December 1974, which was a remake of the Hollywood film Zigzag. The film was only a moderate success at the box office.[9] In 1975, he starred in a variety of film genres from the comedy Chupke Chupke, the crime drama Faraar to the romantic drama Mili. 1975 was the year when he appeared in two films which are regarded as important in Hindi cinematic history. He starred in the Yash Chopra directed film Deewar, opposite Shashi Kapoor, Nirupa Roy, and Neetu Singh, which earned him a Filmfare Nomination for Best Actor. The film became a major hit at the box office in 1975, ranking in at number 4.[10] Indiatimes Movies ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[11] Released on 15 August 1975 was Sholay (meaning flames), which became the highest grossing film of all time in India, earning INR 2,36,45,00,000 equivalent to US$ 60 million, after adjusting for inflation.[12] Bachchan played the role of Jaidev. In 1999, BBC India declared it the "Film of the Millennium" and like Deewar, has been cited by Indiatimes movies as amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[11] In that same year, the judges of the 50th annual Filmfare awards awarded it with the special distinction award called Filmfare Best Film of 50 Years. Bachchan starred in comedies such as Chupke Chupke (1975) and Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) and in films such as Kabhie Kabhie (1976). In 1976, he was once again cast by director Yash Chopra in his second film, Kabhi Kabhie, a romantic tale in which Bachchan starred as a young poet named Amit Malhotra who falls deeply in love with a

42


Amitabh Bachchan beautiful young girl named Pooja played by actress Rakhee Gulzar. The film saw him again nominated for the Filmfare Best Actor Award. In 1977, he won his first Filmfare Best Actor Award for his performance in Amar Akbar Anthony where he played the third lead opposite Vinod Khanna and Rishi Kapoor as Anthony Gonsalves. In 1978 he starred in all four of the highest grossing films of India in that year.[13] He once again resumed double roles in films such as Kasme Vaade as Amit and Shankar and Don playing the characters of Don, a leader of an underworld gang and his look alike Vijay. His performance won him his second Filmfare Best Actor Award. He also performed in Trishul and Muqaddar Ka Sikander which both earned him further Filmfare Best Actor nominations. He was billed a "one-man industry" by the French director François Truffaut.[14] In 1979, for the first time, Amitabh was required to use his singing voice for the film Mr. Natwarlal in which he starred alongside Rekha. His performance in the film saw him nominated for both the Filmfare Best Actor Award and the Filmfare Best Male Playback Awards. In 1979, he also received Best Actor nomination for Kaala Patthar (1979) and then went on to be nominated again in 1980 for the Raj Khosla directed film Dostana, in which he starred opposite Shatrughan Sinha and Zeenat Aman. Dostana proved to be the top grossing film of 1980.[15] In 1981, he starred in Yash Chopra's melodrama film Silsila, where he starred alongside his wife Jaya and rumoured lover Rekha. Other films of this period include Ram Balram (1980), Shaan (1980), Lawaaris (1981), and Shakti (1982) which pitted him against legendary actor Dilip Kumar.[16]

1982 injury while filming Coolie On 26 July 1982, while filming Coolie in the University Campus in Bangalore, Bachchan suffered a near fatal intestinal injury during the filming of a fight scene with co-actor Puneet Issar.[17] Bachchan was performing his own stunts in the film and one scene required him to fall onto a table and then on the ground. However as he jumped towards the table, the corner of the table struck his abdomen, resulting in a splenic rupture from which he lost a significant amount of blood. He required an emergency splenectomy and remained critically ill in hospital for many months, at times close to death. The public response included prayers in temples and offers to sacrifice limbs to save him, while later, there were long queues of well-wishing fans outside the hospital where he was recuperating.[18] Nevertheless, he spent many months recovering and resumed filming later that year after a long period of recuperation. The film was released in 1983, and partly due to the huge publicity of Bachchan's accident, the film was a box office success.[19] The director, Manmohan Desai, altered the ending of Coolie after Bachchan's accident. Bachchan's character was originally intended to have been killed off but after the change of script, the character lived in the end. It would have been inappropriate, said Desai, for the man who had just fended off death in real life to be killed on screen. Also, in the released film the footage of the fight scene is frozen at the critical moment, and a caption appears onscreen marking this as the instant of the actor's injury and the ensuing publicity of the accident.[18] Later, he was diagnosed with Myasthenia gravis. His illness made him feel weak both mentally and physically and he decided to quit films and venture into politics. At this time he became pessimistic, expressing concern with how a new film would be received. Before every release he would negatively state, "Yeh film to flop hogi!" ("This film will flop").[20]

Politics: 1984–87 In 1984, Bachchan took a break from acting and briefly entered politics in support of long-time family friend, Rajiv Gandhi. He contested Allahabad's seat of 8th Lok Sabha against H. N. Bahuguna, former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and won by one of the highest victory margins in general election history (68.2% of the vote).[21] His political career, however, was short-lived: he resigned after three years, calling politics a cesspool. The resignation followed the implication of Bachchan and his brother in the "Bofors scandal" by a newspaper, which he vowed to take to court. Bachchan was eventually found not guilty of involvement in the ordeal.[22]

43


Amitabh Bachchan His old friend, Amar Singh, helped him during a financial crisis due to the failure of his company ABCL. Therefore Bachchan started to support Amar Singh's political party, the Samajwadi party. Jaya Bachchan joined the Samajwadi Party and became a Rajya Sabha member.[23] Bachchan has continued to do favors for the Samajwadi party, including advertisements and political campaigns. These activities have recently gotten him into trouble again in the Indian courts for false claims after a previous incident of submission of legal papers by him, stating that he is a farmer.[24] A 15 year press ban against Bachchan was imposed during his peak acting years by Stardust and some of the other film magazines. In his own defense, Bachchan claimed to have banned the press from entering his sets until late 1989.[25]

Slump and retirement: 1988–1992 In 1988, Bachchan returned to films, playing the title role in Shahenshah, which was a box office success due to the hype of Bachchan's comeback.[26] After the success of his comeback film however, his star power began to wane as all of his subsequent films failed at the box office. The 1991 hit film, Hum, for which he won his third Filmfare Best Actor Award, looked like it might reverse this trend, but the momentum was short-lived as his string of box office failures continued. Notably, despite the lack of hits, it was during this period that Bachchan won his first National Film Award for Best Actor, for his performance as a Mafia don in the 1990 film Agneepath. These years would be the last he would be seen on screen for some time. After the release of Khuda Gawah in 1992, Bachchan went into semi-retirement for five years. In 1994, one of his delayed films Insaniyat was released but was also a box office failure.[27]

Producer and acting comeback 1996–99 Bachchan turned producer during his temporary retirement period, setting up Amitabh Bachchan Corporation, Ltd. (A.B.C.L.) in 1996, with the vision of becoming a 10 billion rupees (approx 250 million $US) premier entertainment company by the year 2000. ABCL's strategy was to introduce products and services covering the entire section of the India's entertainment industry. Its operations were mainstream commercial film production and distribution, audio cassettes and video discs, production and marketing of television software, celebrity and event management. Soon after the company was launched in 1996, the first film was produced by the company. Tere Mere Sapne failed to do well at the box office but launched the careers of actors such as Arshad Warsi and South films star Simran. ABCL produced a few other films, none of which did well. In 1997, Bachchan attempted to make his acting comeback with the film Mrityudaata, produced by ABCL. Though Mrityudaata attempted to reprise Bachchan's earlier success as an action hero, the film was a failure both financially and critically. ABCL was the main sponsor of the 1996 Miss World beauty pageant, Bangalore but lost millions. The fiasco and the consequent legal battles surrounding ABCL and various entities after the event, coupled with the fact that ABCL was reported to have overpaid most of its top level managers, eventually led to its financial and operational collapse in 1997. The company went into administration and was later declared a failed company by Indian Industries board. The Bombay high court, in April 1999, restrained Bachchan from selling off his Bombay bungalow 'Prateeksha' and two flats till the pending loan recovery cases of Canara Bank were disposed of. Bachchan had, however, pleaded that he had mortgaged his bungalow to Sahara India Finance for raising funds for his company.[28] Bachchan attempted to revive his acting career and had average success with Bade Miyan Chote Miyan (1998),[27] and received positive reviews for Sooryavansham (1999)[29] but other films such as Lal Baadshah (1999) and Hindustan Ki Kasam (1999) were box office failures.

44


Amitabh Bachchan

Television career In the year 2000, Bachchan stepped up to host India's adaptation of the British television game show, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? entitled, Kaun Banega Crorepati. As it did in most other countries where it was adopted, the program found immediate success. Canara Bank withdrew its law suit against Bachchan in November 2000. Bachchan hosted KBC till November 2005, and its success set the stage for his return to film popularity. In 2009 Oscar winning movie Slumdog Millionaire in the first question of Who Wants to be a Millionaire? contest "Amitabh Bachchan" was the correct answer to the question "Who was the star of Zanjeer? Feroz Abbas Khan performed as Amitabh Bachchan in a scene in the movie while Anil Kapoor performed as the host of the contest. Bachchan hosted the third season of the reality show Bigg Boss in 2009.[30]

Return to prominence: 2000–present In 2000, Amitabh Bachchan appeared in Yash Chopra's box-office hit, Mohabbatein, directed by Aditya Chopra. He played a stern, older figure that rivalled the character of Shahrukh Khan. His role won him his third Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. Other hits followed, with Bachchan appearing as an older family patriarch in Ek Rishtaa: The Bond of Love (2001), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) and Baghban (2003). As an actor, he continued to perform in a range of characters, receiving critical praise for his performances in Aks (2001), Aankhen (2002), Khakee (2004) and Dev (2004). One project that did particularly well for Bachchan was Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Black (2005). The film starred Bachchan as an aging teacher of a deaf-blind girl and followed their relationship. His performance was unanimously praised by critics and audiences and won him his second National Film Award for Best Actor and fourth Filmfare Best Actor Award. Taking advantage of this resurgence, Amitabh began endorsing a variety of products and services, appearing in many television and billboard advertisements. In 2005 and 2006, he starred with his son Abhishek in the hit films Bunty Aur Babli (2005), the Godfather tribute Sarkar (2005), and Kabhi Alvida Na Kehna (2006). All of them were successful at the box office.[31] [32] His later releases in 2006 and early 2007 were Baabul (2006),[33] Eklavya and Nishabd (2007), which failed to do well at the box office but his performances in each of them were praised by critics.[34] In May 2007, two of his films Cheeni Kum and the multi-starrer Shootout at Lokhandwala were released. Shootout at Lokhandwala did very well at the box office and was declared a hit in India, while Cheeni Kum picked up after a slow start and was declared an overall average hit.[35] A remake of his biggest hit, Sholay (1975), entitled Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag, released in August of that same year and proved to be a major commercial failure in addition to its poor critical reception.[35] The year also marked Bachchan's first appearance in an English-language film, Rituparno Ghosh's The Last Lear. The film premiered at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival on 9 September 2007. He received positive reviews from critics who hailed his performance as his best ever since Black.[36] Bachchan was slated to play a supporting role in his first international film, Shantaram, directed by Mira Nair and starring Hollywood actor Johnny Depp in the lead. The film was due to begin filming in February 2008 but due to the writer's strike, was pushed to September 2008.[37] The film is currently "shelved" indefinitely.[38] Vivek Sharma's Bhoothnath, in which he plays the title role as a ghost, was released on 9 May 2008. Sarkar Raj, the sequel of the 2005 film Sarkar, released in June 2008 and received a positive response at the box-office. His latest movie was Paa, which released at the end of 2009. Paa was a highly anticipated project as it saw him playing his own son Abhishek's Progeria-affected 13-year-old son, and it opened to favourable reviews, particularly towards Bachchan's performance. It won him his third National Film Award for Best Actor and fifth Filmfare Best Actor Award. In 2010, he debuted in Malayalam film through Kandahar, directed by Major Ravi and co-starring Mohanlal.[39] The film was based on the hijacking incident of the Indian Airlines Flight 814.[40] Bachchan did not receive any remuneration for this film.[41]

45


Amitabh Bachchan

Health 2005 hospitalisation In November 2005, Amitabh Bachchan was admitted to Lilavati Hospital's ICU once more, to undergo surgery for diverticulitis of the small intestine.[42] This occurred after Bachchan complained of pains in his abdomen some days prior. During the period and that following his recovery, most of his projects were put on hold, including the television show he was in the process of hosting, Kaun Banega Crorepati. Amitabh returned to work in March 2006.[43]

Voice Bachchan is known for his deep, baritone voice. He has been a narrator, a playback singer and presenter for numerous programmes. Renowned film director Satyajit Ray was so impressed with Bachchan's voice, that he decided to use his voice as commentary in Shatranj Ke Khiladi since he could not find a suitable role for him.[44] In 2005, Bachchan has lent his voice to the Oscar-winning French documentary March of the Penguins, directed by Luc Jacquet.[45]

Controversies and criticism Barabanki land case In the runup to the Uttar Pradesh state assembly elections, 2007, Bachchan made a film extolling the virtues of the Mulayam Singh government. His Samajwadi Party was routed, and Mayawati came to power. On 2 June 2007 a Faizabad court ruled that he had legally acquired agricultural land designated specifically for landless Dalit farmers.[46] It was speculated that he might be investigated on related charges of forgery, as he has allegedly claimed he was a farmer.[47] On 19 July 2007, after the scandal broke out, Bachchan surrendered the land acquired in Barabanki in Uttar Pradesh and Pune. He wrote to the chief minister of Maharashtra, Vilasrao Deshmukh, to donate the lands that were allegedly acquired illegally in Pune.[48] However, the Lucknow Court has put a stay on the land donation and said that the status quo on the land be maintained. On 12 October 2007, Bachchan abandoned his claim in respect of the land at Daulatpur village in Barabanki district.[49] On 11 December 2007, the Lucknow bench of the Allahabad High Court gave a clean chit to Bachchan in a case pertaining to alleged fraudulent allotment of government land to him in Barabanki district. A single Lucknow bench of Justice said there was no finding that the actor "himself committed any fraud or manipulated any surreptitious entry in the revenue records".[50] [51] After receiving a positive verdict in Barabanki case, Amitabh Bachchan intimated to Maharashtra government that he did not wish to surrender his land in Maval tehsil of Pune district.[52]

46


Amitabh Bachchan

Raj Thackeray's criticism In January 2008 at political rallies, Raj Thackeray, the chief of Maharashtra Navnirman Sena, targeted Amitabh Bachchan, asserting that the actor was "more inclined" towards his native state than Maharashtra. He expressed his disapproval of Amitabh's inaugurating a girls' school named after his daughter-in-law, actress Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, at Barabanki in Uttar Pradesh, rather than in Maharashtra.[53] According to media reports, Raj's censure of Amitabh, whom he admires, stemmed out of his disappointment of not being invited to Amitabh's son Abhishek's marriage to Aishwarya, despite invitations to his estranged uncle Bal and cousin Uddhav.[54] [55] Responding to Raj's accusations, the actor's wife, SP MP Jaya Bachchan, said that the Bachchans were willing to start a school in Mumbai, provided the MNS leader donated the land to build it. She told the media, "I heard that Raj Thackeray owns huge properties in Maharashtra, in Mumbai—Kohinoor Mills. If he is willing to donate Bachchan featured on an advert in shopping mall land, we can start a school in the name of Aishwarya here."[56] Raj in India responded to it saying, "Jaya bachchan claims she does not know me then how come she knows how much property I own?". Amitabh abstained from commenting on the issue. However, he apologized to Raj for controversial remarks from Jaya in some other incidence. "[57] Bal Thackeray refuted the allegations, stating, "Amitabh Bachchan is an open-minded person, he has great love for Maharashtra, and this is evident on many occasions. The actor has often said that Maharashtra and specially Mumbai has given him great fame and affection. He has also said that what he is today is because of the love people have given him. The people of Mumbai have always acknowledged him as an artiste. It was utter foolishness to make these parochial allegations against him. Amitabh is a global superstar. People all over the world respect him. This cannot be forgotten by anyone. Amitabh should ignore these silly accusations and concentrate on his acting."[58] On 23 March 2008, more than a month and half after Raj's remarks, Amitabh finally spoke out in an interview to a local tabloid saying, "Random charges are random; they do not deserve the kind of attention you wish me to give."[59] Later, on 28 March at a press conference for the International Indian Film Academy, when asked what his take was on the anti-migrant issue, Amitabh said that it is one's fundamental right to live anywhere in the country and the constitution entitles so.[60] He also stated that he was not affected by Raj's comments.[61]

Awards, honours and recognitions Apart from National Film Awards, Filmfare Awards and other competitive awards which Bachchan won for his performances throughout the years, he has been awarded several honours for his achievements in the Indian film industry. In 1991, he became the first artist to receive the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award, which was established in the name of Raj Kapoor. Bachchan was crowned as Superstar of the Millennium in 2000 at the Filmfare Awards. The Government of India awarded him with the Padma Shri in 1984 and the Padma Bhushan in 2001. France's highest civilian honour, the Knight of the Legion of Honour, was conferred upon him by the French Government in 2007, for his "exceptional career in the world of cinema and beyond".[62] In 1999, Bachchan was voted the Greatest Star of stage or screen of the Millennium by BBC online poll where he defeated many Hollywood legends.[63] In 2001, he was honoured with the Actor of the Century award at the Alexandria International Film Festival in Egypt in recognition of his contribution to the world of cinema.[64] Many other honours for his achievements were conferred upon him at several International Film Festivals, including the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2010 Asian Film Awards.[65]

47


Amitabh Bachchan

48

In June 2000, he became the first living Asian to have been immortalised in wax at London's prestigious Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.[66] Another statue was installed at New York [67] and Hong Kong in 2009.[68] In 2003, he was conferred with the Honorary Citizenship of the French town of Deauville.[69] He was honoured with an Honorary Doctorate by the Jhansi University in 2004,[70] the Delhi University in 2006,[71] the De Montfort University in Leicester, UK in 2006,[72] the University Brandan Foster by the Leeds Metropolitan University in Yorkshire in 2007.[73] Another an Honorary Doctorate was conferred by the Queensland University of Technology in Australia in 2009. But he turns down the honour as mark of protest to racial attacks on Indian students.[74] Severals books have been written about Bachchan. Amitabh Bachchan: the Legend was published in 1999,[75] To be or not to be: Amitabh Bachchan in 2004,[76] AB: The Legend: (A Photographer's Tribute) in 2006 [77] /, Amitabh Bachchan: Ek Jeevit Kimvadanti in 2006,[78] Amitabh: The Making of a Superstar in 2006,[79] Looking for the Big B: Bollywood, Bachchan and Me in 2007 [80] and Bachchanalia in 2009.[81] Bachchan himself has also written a book in 2002: Soul Curry for you and me – An Empowering Philosophy That Can Enrich Your Life.[82]

Personal life Bachchan is married to actress Jaya Bhaduri. They have two children, Shweta Nanda and Abhishek Bachchan. Abhishek is also an actor and is married to actress Aishwarya Rai.

Filmography Latest films Year 2006

2007

2008

2009

Film

Role

Notes

Family - Ties of Blood

Viren Sahi

Darna Zaroori Hai

Professor

Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna

Samarjit Singh Talwar (aka. Sexy Sam) Nominated, Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award

Baabul

Balraj Kapoor

Eklavya: The Royal Guard

Eklavya

Nishabd

Vijay

Cheeni Kum

Buddhadev Gupta/Ghaspus

Shootout at Lokhandwala

Special appearance, Dingra

Jhoom Barabar Jhoom

Special appearance, Sutradhar

Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag

Babban Singh

Om Shanti Om

Special appearance, Himself

Jodhaa Akbar

Narrator

Bhoothnath

Bhoothnath (Kailash Nath)

Sarkar Raj

Subhash Nagre aka Sarkar

God Tussi Great Ho

God Almighty

The Last Lear

Harish 'Harry' Mishra

Delhi-6

Special appearance, Dadaji

Aladin

Genius the Gennie

Paa

Auro

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award Winner, National Film Award for Best Actor


Amitabh Bachchan

2010

2011

2012

49

Rann

Vijay Harshvardhan Malik

Teen Patti

Venkat

Kandahar

Lokanathan Sharma

Department

A Ram Gopal Varma production and direction

Bbuddah... Hoga Tera Baap

Directed by Poori jagannath

Aarakshan

Prabhakar Anand

Shoebite

John Periera

Post-production

Taalismaan

Filming

Producer Year

Film

1996

Tere Mere Sapne

1997

Ullaasam Mrityudaata

1998

Major Saab

2001

Aks

2005

Viruddh

2006

Family - Ties of Blood

Playback singer Year 1979

Film The Great Gambler Mr. Natwarlal

1981

Lawaaris Naseeb Silsila

1983

Mahaan Pukar

1984

Sharaabi

1989

Toofan Jaadugar

1992

Khuda Gawah

1998

Major Saab

1999

Sooryavansham

2001

Aks Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham

2002

Aankhen


Amitabh Bachchan

50 2003

Armaan Baghban

2004

Dev Aetbaar

2006

Baabul

2007

Nishabd Cheeni Kum

2008

Bhoothnath

2009

Aladin Paa

2011

Bbuddah... Hoga Terra Baap

Further reading • Dwyer, Rachel. "Amitabh Bachchan: the Angry Young Man [83]." British Academy of Film and Television Arts, 16 November 2007. • Mazumdar, Ranjani. Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

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Amitabh Bachchan [17] "Bachchan injured whilst shooting scene" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2001/ oct/ 11amit. htm). rediff.com. . Retrieved 11 March 2007. [18] "Footage of fight scene in Coolie released to the public" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0085361/ trivia). IMDB. . Retrieved 11 March 2007. [19] "Coolie a success" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=125& catName=MTk4MC0xOTg5). boxofficeindia.com. . Retrieved 11 March 2007. [20] Mohamed, Khalid. "Reviews on: To Be or Not To Be Amitabh Bachchan" (http:/ / www. mouthshut. com/ review/ To_Be_or_Not_To_Be_Amitabh_Bachchan_-_Khalid_Mohamed-72513-1. html). mouthshut.com. . Retrieved 11 March 2007. [21] "Amitabh Bachchan: Stint in Politics" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ news/ specials/ amitabh/ politics. htm). HindustanTimes.com. . Retrieved 2005-12-05. [22] "Interview with Amitabh Bachchan" (http:/ / www. sathnam. com/ Features/ 17/ interview-with-amitabh-bachchan). sathnam.com. . 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[30] "Amitabh Bachchan will host 3rd edition of 'Big Boss 3'" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ amitabh-bachchan-will-host-3rd-edition-of-b/ 512958/ ). Indian Express. 4 September 2009. . Retrieved 2010-12-28. [31] "Amitabh and Abhishek rule the box office" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=211& catName=MjAwNQ==). Box Office India. . Retrieved 11 March 2007. [32] "Box Office 2006" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=212& catName=MjAwNg==). Box Office India. . Retrieved 11 March 2007. [33] "Films fail at the BO" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=212& catName=MjAwNg==). Box Office India. . [34] Adarsh, Taran. "Top 5: 'Nishabd', 'N.P.D.' are disasters" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ trade/ top5/ 326. html). Bollywood Hungma. . Retrieved 26 March 2007. [35] "Box Office India" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com). . [36] "This is Amitabh's best performance after Black" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2007/ 09/ 11/ 3020). . [37] "Amitabh Bachchan to star with Johnny Depp" (http:/ / www. ourbollywood. com/ 2007/ 02/ amitabh_bachchan_will_star_opp. html). ourbollywood.com. . Retrieved 11 March 2007. [38] Akbar, Arifa (November 13, 2009). "Underworld tale won't see light of day" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ arts-entertainment/ books/ features/ the-diary-shantaram-film--lumiere-festival-tom-atkinson-hans-holbein-harold-evans-1819450. html). The Independent (London). . Retrieved May 23, 2010. [39] "Major Ravi gets ready to shoot Kandahar: Rediff.com Movies" (http:/ / movies. rediff. com/ interview/ 2010/ jun/ 08/ south-major-ravi-on-kandahar. htm). Movies.rediff.com. 2010-06-08. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [40] "Big B in 'Kandahaar' along with Sunil Shetty" (http:/ / www. indiaglitz. com/ channels/ hindi/ article/ 56171. html). indiaglitz.com. April 14, 2010. . [41] "Amitabh to forego fee for sharing screen with Mohanlal" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ amitabh-to-forego-fee-for-sharing-screen-with-mohanlal/ 607690/ 0). Indian Express. 2010-04-17. . [42] "Amitabh better today" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2005/ dec/ 01ab1. htm). Rediff. 1 December 2005. . Retrieved 2008-04-27. [43] Us Salam, Ziya (9 December 2005). "Waiting for Mr. Bachchan" (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ thehindu/ fr/ 2005/ 12/ 09/ stories/ 2005120903020100. htm). The Hindu. . Retrieved 2008-04-27. [44] hindustantimes.in "Amitabh voice for Shatranj Ke Khiladi." (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. in/ news/ specials/ amitabh/ trivia. htm) Hindustan Times. [45] "Amitabh to get France's highest civilian honour : Bollywood News" (http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ scoop/ bollywood/ 20061012-1. html). ApunKaChoice.Com. 2006-10-12. . Retrieved 2011-02-14. [46] Sanket Upadhyay (2007-06-01 (Faizabad)). "Land row: Setback for Bachchan" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ convergence/ ndtv/ story. aspx?id=NEWEN20070014139). NDTV. . Retrieved 2007-06-03. [47] "Amitabh's land records look forged" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Cities/ Pune/ Amitabhs_land_records_look_forged/ articleshow/ 2093299. cms). Times of India. 2 Jun, 2007. . [48] "Amitabh Bachchan is not a farmer: UP court" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 2007/ jun/ 01farm. htm). Rediff.com. 1 June 2007. . Retrieved 2008-04-27. [49] "Big B abandons claim on farmland" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Big_B_abandons_claim_on_farmland/ articleshow/ 2453216. cms). Times of India. 12 October 2007. . [50] "HC gives clean chit to Amitabh Bachchan in land dispute case." (http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ happenings/ 20071212-0. html) Happenings News : ApunKaChoice.Com. 12 December 2007.

51


Amitabh Bachchan [51] "Amitabh Bachchan gets clean chit in UP land scam." (http:/ / www. allbollywood. com/ v2/ bd/ stc/ nws/ 2007/ 12/ 11/ 28051. shtml) AllBollywood.com. 11 December 2007. [52] "No question of proceeding further on Amitabh's land: Rane" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 002200803251965. htm). hindu.com (Chennai, India). 25 March 2008. . [53] "Big B draws Raj Thakeray's ire over 'UP interests'" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Big_B_draws_Raj_Thackerays_ire_over_his_UP_interests/ articleshow/ 2750611. cms). The Times of India. 2 February 2008. . Retrieved 2008-05-30. [54] "Rift between Raj and Big B over a wedding invite" (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ report. asp?newsid=1149212). Daily News & Analysis. . Retrieved 2008-04-04. [55] "Rift between Raj and Big B over a wedding invite" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080312103245/ http:/ / news. in. msn. com/ national/ article. aspx?cp-documentid=1226808). MSN. 2008-02-05. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. in. msn. com/ national/ article. aspx?cp-documentid=1226808) on 2008-03-12. . Retrieved 2008-04-04. [56] "I don't know who Raj Thackeray is: Jaya Bachchan" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ latest-news/ I-dont-know-who-Raj-Thackeray-is-Jaya-Bachchan/ 268548/ ). The Indian Express. . Retrieved 2008-05-30. [57] . http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ raj-accepts-amitabh-apology-turns-guns-on/ 360441/ . [58] "Bal Thackeray: Amitabh loves Maharashtra" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2008/ 02/ 07/ stories/ 2008020759011200. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2008-02-07. . Retrieved 2008-04-04. [59] "Amitabh breaks silence, dismisses Raj's charges against him" (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ report. asp?newsid=1157267). Daily News & Analysis. . Retrieved 2008-04-04. [60] "The Indian Constitution allows me to live anywhere: Amitabh Bachchan" (http:/ / www. thaindian. com/ newsportal/ world-news/ indian-constitution-allows-me-to-live-anywhere-in-the-country-amitabh-bachchan_10032279. html). The Indian. . Retrieved 2008-04-04. [61] "Everyone has the right to freedom of expression: Bachchan" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 002200803281441. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2008-03-28. . Retrieved 2008-04-04. [62] Pandey, Geeta (2007-01-27). "South Asia | French honour for Bollywood star" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 6306201. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [63] "ENTERTAINMENT | Bollywood star tops the poll" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 381017. stm). BBC News. 1999-07-01. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [64] "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – World" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2001/ 20010904/ world. htm#8). Tribuneindia.com. 2001-09-04. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [65] "Actor Amitabh Bachchan | Lifetime Achievement Award | 4th Asian Awards | Film Paa – Oneindia Entertainment" (http:/ / entertainment. oneindia. in/ bollywood/ news/ 2010/ amitabh-asian-awards-250310. html). Entertainment.oneindia.in. 2010-03-25. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [66] "Art of cinema is a small contribution: Amitabh Bachchan" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ art-of-cinema-is-a-small-contribution-amitabh-bachchan/ 441709/ ). Screenindia.com. 2009-04-01. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [67] Amitabh’s Wax Figure in New York. "Amitabh Wax figure in New York" (http:/ / whatslatest. com/ blog/ ?tag=amitabh-wax-figure-in-new-york). Whatslatest.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [68] "First Bollywood Star in Asia" (http:/ / www. madametussauds. com/ HongKong/ NewsAndEvents/ Amitabh_BachchanDefault. aspx). Madametussauds.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [69] "'Shahenshah' of Bollywood" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ fr/ 2003/ 07/ 04/ stories/ 2003070400980100. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2003-07-04. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [70] Subhash K Jha, TNN, Jul 11, 2006, 10.09pm IST (2006-07-11). "Meet Dr Amitabh Bachchan! – The Times of India" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1733064. cms). Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [71] "A doctorate for Big B: Rediff.com movies" (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ nov/ 04look. htm). In.rediff.com. 2006-11-04. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [72] "Dr Amitabh Bachchan takes Leicester by storm – bollywood news" (http:/ / www. glamsham. com/ movies/ scoops/ 06/ jul/ 20amitabh. asp). glamsham.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [73] "Leeds University honours Bollywood icons : Bollywood News" (http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ scoop/ bollywood/ 20070610-0. html). ApunKaChoice.Com. 2007-06-10. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [74] "Bachchan turns down Australian doctorate as mark of protest" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ StoryPage/ StoryPage. aspx?sectionName=& id=680ca069-e410-411b-a294-722b667e9bfe& Headline=Bachchan+ turns+ down+ Australian+ doctorate+ as+ mark+ of+ protest). Hindustan Times. 2009-05-30. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [75] "Amitabh Bachchan – The Legend by Bhawana Somaaya" (http:/ / www. indiaclub. com/ shop/ SearchResults. asp?ProdStock=3161). Indiaclub.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [76] Original Author: Khalid Mohamed. "To Be or Not to Be Amitabh Bachchan" (http:/ / www. shvoong. com/ entertainment/ movies/ 1843754-amitabh-bachchan/ ). Shvoong.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [77] "AB: The Legend (A Photographer's Tribute)" (http:/ / www. exoticindiaart. com/ book/ details/ IDF390). Exoticindiaart.com. 2008-10-02. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [78] "Amitabh Bachchan: Ek Jeevit Kimvadanti – ISBN 978-1-4039-3160-3 – Author: Somaaya – Macmillan India" (http:/ / www. autsun. com/ amitabh-bachchan-ek-jeevit-kimvadanti/ p/ 5070. html). Autsun.Com. 2009-10-20. . Retrieved 2010-10-02.

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Amitabh Bachchan [79] "Amitabh: The Making of a Superstar by Susmita Dasgupta" (http:/ / www. indiaclub. com/ shop/ searchresults. asp?ProdStock=19211). Indiaclub.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [80] "Looking for the Big B: Bollywood, Bachchan and Me: Amazon.co.uk: Jessica Hines: Books" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ Looking-Big-Bollywood-Bachchan-Me/ dp/ 0747560412). Amazon.co.uk. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [81] "Amitabh Bacchan: A book on Amitabh Bachchan launched ‘Bachchanalia’" (http:/ / amitabbacchan. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 01/ book-on-amitabh-bachchan-launched. html). Amitabbacchan.blogspot.com. 2009-01-05. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [82] "Soul Curry for you and me – An Empowering Philosophy That Can Enrich Your Life by Amitabh Bachchan" (http:/ / www. indiaclub. com/ shop/ SearchResults. asp?ProdStock=11203). Indiaclub.com. 1942-10-11. . Retrieved 2010-10-02. [83] http:/ / www. bafta. org/ learning/ amitabh-bachchan-a-bollywood-life,172,BA. html

External links • Amitabh Bachchan's official blog (http://bigb.bigadda.com/) • Amitabh Bachchan (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000821/) at the Internet Movie Database • Amitabh Bachchan Documentary, Classic BBC Archive video and exclusive interview conducted in Amitabh's own house for BBC Asian Network (http://www.bbc.co.uk/asiannetwork/bollywood/bachchanweek//)

53


Amrish Puri

54

Amrish Puri Amrish Puri

Amrish Puri at the premiere for The Hero: Love Story of a Spy Born

Amrish Singh Puri June 22, 1932 Jalandhar, Punjab, India

Died

January 12, 2005 (aged 72) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Other names

Mogambo

Occupation

Film actor

Years active

1970–2005

Spouse

Urmila Diveker (1957-2005) (his death)

Children

Rajiv

Amrish Singh Puri (Punjabi: ਅਮਰੀਸ਼ ਪੁਰੀ), (Hindi: अमरीश पुरी); June 22, 1932 - January 12, 2005) was an iconic theater and film actor from India, who was a key player in the Indian theater movement that picked up steam in the 1960s. He worked with notable playwrights of the time, such as Satyadev Dubey and Girish Karnad. However, he is primarily remembered for essaying iconic negative roles in Hindi cinema as well as other Indian and international film industries. To South Asian audiences he is most remembered for his role as Mogambo in Shekhar Kapur's Hindi film Mr. India (1987), and to Western audiences he is best known as Mola Ram in Steven Spielberg's Hollywood film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984).

Early life and background Amrish Puri was born in Nawanshahr (former Tehsil of District Jalandhar), Punjab to Sri Nihal Singh Puri and Ved Kaur as the third of five children. His siblings include elder brothers Chaman Puri and Madan Puri (both actors) and elder sister Chandrakanta and younger Harish Puri. He later moved to Shimla and graduated from B.M. College, Himachal Pradesh. Amrish Puri came to Mumbai in the footsteps of his elder brothers Chaman Puri and Madan Puri (both actors), who was already an established actor known for playing negative roles. He failed his first screen test, and found a job with the Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC). At the same time, he started performing at the Prithvi Theatre, in plays written by Satyadev Dubey. He eventually became well-known as stage actor and won the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1979.[1] This theatre recognition soon led to work in television ads and eventually to films at the late age of 40.


Amrish Puri He went on to work in Hindi, Kannada, Hollywood, Punjabi, Malayalam, Telugu and Tamil films. Though he was successful in all of these industries, he is best known for his work in Bollywood cinema. He has appeared in over four hundred films. His dominating screen presence and baritone voice made him stand out amongst the other villains of the day. He is best known for his role as Mogambo in the 1987 blockbuster, Mr. India and for his portrayal of Mola Ram, the antagonist in Steven Spielberg's Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom.

National Cinema Hindi In 1971 he appeared in his first film, Prem Pujari although the first film he had signed for was Reshma Aur Sheraaa which was released in 1971. This was followed by many villain or supporting roles in numerous art films such as Shyam Benegal's Nishant, Manthan, and Bhumika and Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda. He also appeared in Govind Nihalani's film, Party in 1984. Amrish Puri grew to became a staple of Hindi films in the 1980s playing mostly villainous roles, and attracting the most acclaim for his work in the 1987 hit film Mr. India, directed by Shekhar Kapur. He played an egotistical international super-villain, Mogambo, who frequently refers to himself in the third-person, expressing satisfaction at the actions of his underlings with the phrase, Mogambo khush hua (Mogambo is pleased). Since then the Mogambo catchphrase has become one of the best recognized lines in Hindi Cinema. He also went on to play many positive supporting roles, including his famous role as Baldev Singh, the conservative father who eventually lets his daughter marry her love instead of being forced into an arranged marriage, in the Bollywood blockbuster Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995). Other positive roles include Group Captain Varghese, a Malayali officer in the Indian Air Force based film Vijeta, an ailing idealistic father in Ghatak: Lethal. He was a kind-hearted American businessman in Pardes (1997) and a genial grandfather in the films Chori Chori Chupke Chupke and Mujhe Kuch Kehna Hai. He is also known to play a strict old man in comedy films like Jhooth Bole Kauwa Kaate, where he played a retired cop and Muskurahat where he played a retired judge. His last films included Kisna: The Warrior Poet and Kachchi Sadak, which were released some time after his death. Kannada He acted in some Kannada films during the early days of his career. He played the protagonist role in a black & white off beat Kannada film Kaadu directed by Girish Karnad.He also acted in some other mainstream films. Malayalam He starred as the sadistic jailor in Kalapani in which co-acted Padmashri Mohanlal. Punjabi He is best known in Punjabi cinema for his role as the landlord villain Joginder Singh in the legendary film Chan Pardesi (1980). He also starred as the villain Zalam Singh in the religious Punjabi film Sat Sri Akal (1977). After twenty years, he returned to Punjabi cinema to make a brief appearance as the Sufi Saint in the acclaimed film Shaheed Uddham Singh (2000). Telugu He also appeared in Telugu films such as Jagadeka Veerudu Athiloka Sundari, Major Chandrakanth, Aditya 369, Kondaveeti Donga, Aswamedham, Aakhari Poratam etc. Tamil He appeared in the Tamil film Dalapathi (1991), directed by Mani Ratnam, opposite Rajnikanth and Mammootty, Tamil and Malayalam superstars respectively. After Dalapathi, Amrish Puri made his second and last appearance in the Rajinkanth's film "Baba" (2002) in which he played the role of an evil tantrik who helps politicians and other evil elements to succeed in their hideous schemes.

55


Amrish Puri

56

International He is known to international audiences for his roles as Khan in Richard Attenborough's Gandhi (1982) and as the main antagonist Mola Ram in the Steven Spielberg's Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984). He shaved his head for the role, and it created such an impression that he kept his head shaved and became one of the most popular villains in Hindi Cinema. Amrish and Spielberg shared a great rapport and Spielberg often said in interviews that, "Amrish is my favorite villain- The best the world has ever produced and ever will!"

Death He died on 12 January 2005, due to brain haemorrhage, in Mumbai, Maharashtra at the age of 72.

Awards • • • • •

1968: won: Maharashtra State Drama Competition 1979: won: Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for Theatre 1990: Nominated: Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award-Tridev 1986:won:Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award, Meri Jung 1991:won:Maharashtra State Gaurav Puraskar

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

1994:won:Sydney Film Festival, Best Actor Award – Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda 1994:won:Singapore International Film Festival, Best Actor Award – Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda 1996:Nominated:Filmfare Best Villain Award forKaran Arjun 1996:Nominated:Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award-Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge 1993:Nominated:Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award Muskurahat 1994:Nominated:Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award-Gardish 1997:won:Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award-Ghatak 1997:won:Star Screen Award for Best Supporting Actor-Ghatak 1999:Nominated:Filmfare Best Villain Award forKoyla 1998:won:Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award-Virasat 1998:won:Star Screen Award for Best Supporting Actor-Virasat 2000:Nominated:Filmfare Best Villain Award forBaadshah 2002:Nominated:Filmfare Best Villain Award for Gadar: Ek Prem Katha

Filmography Amrish Puri acted in more than 400 films between 1967 - 2005. Some of them are listed below. Year

Film

1970 Prem Pujari

Role henchman in church

1971 Shantata! Court Chalu Aahe Reshma Aur Shera

Rehmat Khan

Hulchul

Public Prosecutor

1973 Kaadu (Kannada)

Chandra Gowda

Hindustan Ki Kasam 1975 Salaakhen Nishant 1976 Manthan

Master Eldest Zamindar Mishraji


Amrish Puri

57 1977 Paapi

voice(uncredited)...Michael

Alibaba Marjinaa

Jabbar

Immaan Dharam

Dharam Dhayal

Bhumika

Vinayak Kale

1978 Kondura

Konduraswamy

1979 Sawan Ko Aane Do

Chandrika's dad

Lakhan Jaani Dushman

Man in Ghost train reading horror story

Hamare Tumhare

General MAnager

1980 Patthar Se Takkar Maan Abhiman

Madhuraprasad Chowdhary

Kalyug

Kishan Chand

Chan Pardesi

Joginder Singh

Aakrosh

Dushane, Public Prosecutor

Qurbani

Rakka

Gehrayee

Tantric magician

Dostana

Balwant Singh

Hum Paanch

Veer Pratap Singh

1981 Krodhi Naseeb 1982 Vijeta Vidhatha

Madhavan Don Chief Instructor Varghese Jagavar Chowdhary

Johny I Love You Ashanti

Ranvir

Aadat Se Majboor

Agnihotri (aka Johinder Singh)

Apna Bana Lo

Mr.Joshi

Shakti

J.K.Verma

Gandhi

Khan

1983 Mandi Hero

Darvish Pasha

Haadsa Ardh Satya

Anant's Father

Andha Kanoon

Mr.Ram Gupta

Coolie

John D'Costa

Nishaan


Amrish Puri

58 1984 Zakhmi Sher

Swami Kashinath Singh

Yeh Desh

Dhulia

Party

Doctor

Jagir

Lakhan

Duniya

Balwant Singh Kalra

Awaaz

Moolchand

Mashaal

S.K.Vardhan

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Mola Ram Gangva

Special Appearance

Jhootha Sach Kasam Paida Karne Wale Ki

Udaybhan

1985 Zabardast Teri Meherbaniyan

Thakur Vijay Singh

Phaansi Ke Baad

Damodar Seth

Patthar Dil

Rana Surajbhan Singh

Paisa Yeh Paisa

Jugal

Ek Aur Sikander

Sher Khan

Mohabbat

Choudhary

Karmayudh

Sohanlal Puri

Aaj Ke Sholay

Balbir Gupta

Meri Jung

G.D. Thakral

1986 Ricky Pyar Ho Gaya Naseeb Apna Apna Nagina Mera Dharam Kaanch Ki Deewar Aap Ke Saath

Persha

Sultanat

Razoulli Al-Jabber Al-Nasser

Janbaaz

Rana Vikram Singh

Samundar

Raiszada Narsingh

Asli Naqli

Durjan Singh


Amrish Puri

59 1987 Tamas (mini TV series) Sher Shivaji Jawab Hum Denge

Dhanraj

Inaam Dus Hazaar

Captain S.P.Singh

Dance Dance

A.M.Singh

Dadagiri

Bhanupratap

Loha

Sher 'Shera' Singh

Pyar Karke Dekho Madadgar Mr. India

Mogambo

Hawalaat

Seth Dharam Das

Sadak Chhap

Dharamdas, MP

Pharam Dharam

Shamshera

1988 Yateem

Dacoit Porkhiya

Saazish

Diwan

Mohabbat Ke Dushman

Shahbaaz Khan

Mar Mitenge

Ajit Singh

Hamara Khandaan

Chandraprakash Singh (Vishal's dad)

Ganga Jamuna Saraswathi

Thakur Hansaj Singh

Aakhari Poratam

Anantananda Swamy

Hun Farishte Nahin

Pashrutam Das/Din Dayal

Shahenshah

J.K.Verma

Waris (TV series)

Dulla

Commando

Marcelloni

Rukhsat Dayavan

Inspector Ratan Singh

1989 Tujhe Nahin Chhodunga Suryaa : An Awakening

Gangadhar Chowdhary

Ram Lakhan

Bhisambar Nath

Nigahen : Nagina Part II

Bhairon Nath - voice (uncredited)

Nafrat Ki Aandhi

Chandidas Khurana

Mujrim

Khan

Do Qaidi

K.K

Mil Gayee Manzil Mujhe


Amrish Puri

60 Farz Ki Jung

Jai Kishan (JK)

Ilaaka

Nagar

Daata

Gopal Das

Tridev

Bhujang/Bhairav Singh

Naa-Insaafi Batwara

Hanumant Singh

Jaadugar

Mahaprabhu Janak Sagar Jagat Narayan Chintamani

Aag Se Khelenge

Zakha

1990 Tejaa

Jarahwar

Muqaddar Ka Badshaah

Vikral Singh

Kishen Kanhaiya

Lala Gendamal

Jeene Do

Thakur Sher Bahadur Singh

Hatimtai Ghayal

Balwant Rai

Kondaveeti Donga

Gadra

Jagadeka Veerudu Athiloka Sundari

Mahadrashta

Aaj Ka Arjun

Thakur Bhupendra Singh

Doodh Ka Karz

Raghuvir Singh

1991 Shikari : The Hunter

Nahar Singh

Trinetra

Singhania

Numbri Aadmi

Rana

Mast Kalandar Kohraam Aadmi Aur Apsara

Mahadrashta

Jigarwala

Dhurjan Singh

Iraada Benaam Badsha

Jaikal

Ajooba

Vazir-e-Ala (aka Vazir)

Saudagar

Chuniya

Aditya 369

Antique Collector

Dharam Sankat

Jagira

Phool Aur Kaante

Nageshwar "Don"


Amrish Puri

61 1992 Thalapathi

Kalivardhan

Vansh Time Machine (Incomplete film) Tehelka

Dong

Ashwamedham Vishwatma

Azghar Jurhad

Zindagi Ek Jua

Bhalla

Deewana

Dhirend (Ravi's uncle)

Muskurahat

Gopichand Verma (Former Justice)

1993 Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda Sangram

Mehesar Dalal Raja's father

Kundan Divya Shakti

Tau (Mafia Don)

Damini

Barrister Indrajit Chaddha (Scheming Lawyer)

Gardish

Purushottam Sathe

1994 Tejaswini

Lala Khurana

Pramaatma Maha Shaktishali Elaan

Ramakant Chaudhry

Pehla Pehla Pyaar

Hukam Singh

Droh Kaal

I.G.P Pathak

1995 Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India!

Don Quixote

Kartavya

Thakur Ugranarayan Singh

Karan Arjun

Thakur Durjan Singh

Jai Vikraanta

Thakur Jaswant Singh

Hulchul

Shobraj

Maidan-E-Jung

Thakur Ranvir Singh 'Daata Guru'

Prem

Vanraja

Gundaraj

Police Inspector

Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge

Chaudhry Baldev Singh

Haqeeqat

ACP. Shivcharan


Amrish Puri

62 1996 Sardari Begum

Hemraj

Kala Pani

Mirza Khan

Jaan

Surya Dev Singh

Diljale

Dara

Vijeta

Wing Commander Varghese

Tu Chor Main Sipahi

Thakur Gajendra Singh

Jeet

Gajraj Choudhary (Underworld Don)

Beqabu

ACP Amritlal Bakshi

Ghatak

Shambu Nath

1997 Virasat Pardes

Raja Thakur (Best Supporting Actor- Filmfare award) Kishorilal

Nimayak Itihaas Himalay Putra

Malhotra, Seema's father (special appearance)

Dhaal: The Battle of Law Against Law

Pilot Baba

Koyla

Raja Saab

Mahaanta

Seth. Kedar Nath

Tarazu

Appa Rao

1998 Sham Ghansham

Collector Bhim Singh

Doli Saja Ke Rakhna

Jojo Pinto

Dhoondte Reh Jaaoge

Voice on the phone with Tiger

China Gate

Col. Kewal Krishan Puri

Chachi 420

Durgaprasad Bhardwaj

Barood

Mr.Singhal

Jhooth Bole Kauwa Kaate

Abhayankar (Police officer)

1999 Kaala Samrajya

Kaalkeshwar Singh

Lal Baadshah

Thakur Dhayal Singh

Aarzoo

Dayashankar

Zulmi

Balraj Dutt

Jai Hind Taal

Jagmohan Mehta

Baadshah

Suraj Singh Thaper

Gair

C.K Oberoi

Thakshak

Nahar Singh (Ishaan's father)

2000 Shaheed Uddham Singh

The Sufi Saint

Badal

ACP Ranjeet Singh

Dhaai Akshar Prem Ke

Yagvender Gareval


Amrish Puri

63 2001 Mohabbatein

General Khanna (special appearance)

On Wings Of Fire

Nihavand ruler

Zubeidaa

Suleiman Seth

Censor

Pandit Shiv Prasad (Censor Board Member)

Chori Chori Chupke Chupke

Kailashnath Malhotra

Mujhe Kucch Kehna Hai

Balram Singh (Tau of Karan)

Gadar: Ek Prem Katha

Mayor Ashraf Ali (Sakina's father)

Yaadein

Jagdish Kumar Malhotra (Ronit's uncle)

Nayak: The Real Hero

Chief Minister Balraj Chauhan

2002 Badhaai Ho Badhaai

Mr. Chaddha

Shararat

Prajapati

Baba

Tantrik

Jaani Dushman: Ek Anokhi Kahani

Sadhu (sage)

Rishtey

Yashpal Chaudhary

2003 Surya

Thakur

Khushi

Vir Bhadra Singh

The Hero: Love Story of a Spy

I.S.I Chief Ishak Khan

Jaal: The Trap

Major Amrish Kaul

Out of Control

Jatta Singh Bedi (Jaswinder's father)

Dil Pardesi Ho Gayaa

Brigadier Sarfaroz Khan

2004 Woh Tera Naam Tha

Ustad Samad Khan

Police Force: An Inside Story

Mr. Pandey

Dev

Chief Minister Bhandarker

Lakshya

Brigadier Gautam Puri (Sp. App.)

Garv: Pride and Honour

Inspector Samar Singh

Mujhse Shaadi Karogi

Colonel Dugraj Singh

Taarzan: The Wonder Car

Kartar Singh/Baa Ji

Aitraaz

Mr.Ranjit Roy

Hulchul

Angar Chand

2005 Ab Tumhare Hawale Watan Saathiyo Kisna: The Warrior Poet

Narrator Bhairo Singh


Amrish Puri

Further reading • The Act of Life - An Autobiography by Amrish Puri with Jyoti Sabharwal.

References [1] Amrish Puri at gatewayofindia (http:/ / www. gatewayforindia. com/ entertainment/ amrishpuri. htm)

External links • Amrish Puri (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0700869/) at the Internet Movie Database • Obituary from rediff (http://in.rediff.com/movies/2005/jan/12puri.htm) • Obituary from Times of India (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/988252.cms)

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Asha Bhosle

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Asha Bhosle Asha Bhosle

Bhosle in 2008 Background information Birth name

Asha Mangeshkar

Born

September 8, 1933 Sangli, Bombay Presidency, British India

Genres

Pop, folk, Indian classical music

Occupations Singer, playback singer Years active 1943–present

Asha Bhosle[1] (Marathi: आशा भोसले) (born September 8, 1933) is an Indian singer. She is one of the best-known and most highly-regarded Hindi playback singers in India, although she has a wider repertoire.[2] [3] [4] Bhosle's career started in 1943 and has spanned over six decades. She has done playback singing for over a thousand Bollywood movies. In addition, she has recorded several private albums and participated in numerous solo concerts in India and abroad.[5] [6] Bhosle is the sister of playback singer Lata Mangeshkar. Renowned for her voice range and often credited for her versatility,[2] [7] [8] Bhosle's work includes film music, pop, ghazals, bhajans, traditional Indian classical music, folk songs, qawwalis, Rabindra Sangeets and Nazrul Geetis. Apart from Hindi, she has sung in over 18 Indian and foreign languages.[9] In 2006, Asha Bhosle stated that she had sung over 12,000 songs,[10] a figure repeated by several other sources.[9] [11] The World Records Academy, an international organization which certifies world records, recognized her as the "Most Recorded Artist" in the world, in September 2009.[12] The Government of India honoured her with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2000 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2008.


Asha Bhosle

Biography Asha Bhosle was born in the small hamlet of Goar in Sangli, Bombay Presidency (now in Maharashtra), into the musical family of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar, who belongs to Gomantak Maratha Samaj. Her father was a theater actor and classical singer. When she was nine years old, her father died. The family moved from Pune to Kolhapur and then to Mumbai. She and her elder sister Lata Mangeshkar began singing and acting in films to support their family. She sang her first film song Chala Chala Nav Bala for the Marathi movie Majha Bal (1943). The music for the film was composed by Datta Dawjekar. She made her Hindi film debut when she sang the song Saawan Aaya for Hansraj Behl's Chunariya (1948).[13] Her first solo Hindi film song was for the movie Raat Ki Raani (1949). At the age of 16, she eloped with 31-year-old Ganpatrao Bhosle, marrying him against her family's wishes. Ganpatrao was Lata's personal secretary. The marriage failed miserably. Her husband and in-laws mistreated her. After a few years of marriage, Asha was turned out (around 1960) by a suspicious Ganpatrao[14] and she went to her maternal home with two children and pregnant with her third child. She continued to sing in films to earn money. At that time, prominent playback singers like Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum and Lata Mangeshkar monopolized the singing for the female lead and the big films, whilst Asha used to get the assignments they refused: singing for the bad girls and vamps, or songs in the second-grade movies. In the 1950s, she sang more songs than most playback singers in Bollywood (not counting Lata). Most of these were in low budget B or C-grade films. Her earliest songs were composed by A R Qureshi, Sajjad Hussain and Ghulam Mohammed, most of which failed to do well.[13] Singing in Sangdil (1952), composed by Sajjad Hussain, she got reasonable recognition. Consequently, film director Bimal Roy gave her a chance to sing in Parineeta (1953). Raj Kapoor signed her to sing "Nanhe Munne Bachche" with Mohammed Rafi in Boot Polish (1954), which gained popularity. O. P. Nayyar gave Asha a break in C.I.D. (1956). She first achieved success in B. R. Chopra's Naya Daur (1957), composed by him. Her duets with Rafi like "Maang Ke Saath Tumhara", "Saathi Haath Badhana" and "Uden Jab Jab Zulfein Teri", penned by Sahir Ludhianvi, earned her recognition. It was the first time she sang all the songs for a film's leading actress. Chopra approached her for several of his later prosuctions, including Gumraah (1963), Waqt (1965), Hamraaz (1965), Aadmi Aur Insaan (1966) and Dhund (1972). Nayyar's future collaboration with Bhosle also resulted in success. Gradually, she established her status and received the patronage of such composers as Sachin Dev Burman and Ravi. Bhosle and Nayyar had a professional and personal parting of ways in the 1970s. In 1966, Bhosle's performances in the duets from one of music director R.D. Burman's first soundtracks, for the movie Teesri Manzil, won popular acclaim. Reportdly, when she first heard the dance number "Aaja Aaja", she felt she would not be able to sing this westernised tune. While Burman offered to change the music, she refused, taking it as a challenge. She completed the song after ten days of rehearsals, and "Aaja Aaja", along with such other songs as "O Haseena Zulfonwali" and "O Mere Sona Re" (all three duets with Rafi), became successful. Shammi Kapoor, the film's leading actor, was once quoted as saying– "If I did not have Mohammad Rafi to sing for me, I would have got Asha Bhosle to do the job". Bhosle's collaboration with Burman resulted in numerous hits and a marriage. During the 1960-70s, she was the voice of Bollywood's actress and dancer, Helen, on whom "O Haseena Zulfon Wali" was picturised. It is said that Helen would attend her recording sessions so that she could understand the song better and plan dance steps accordingly.[15] Some of their other popular numbers include "Piya Tu Ab To Aaja" (Caravan) and "Yeh Mera Dil" (Don), among others. By the 1980s, Bhosle, though highly regarded for her abilities and versatility, had sometimes been stereotyped as a "cabaret singer" and a "pop crooner". In 1981 she attempted a different genre by singing several ghazals for the Rekha-starrer Umrao Jaan, including "Dil Cheez Kya Hai", "In Aankhon Ki Masti Ke", "Yeh Kya Jagah Hai Doston" and "Justju Jiski Thi". The film's music director Khayyam, had lowered her pitch by half a note. Bhosle herself expressed surprise that she could sing so differently. The ghazals won her the first National Film Award of her career. A few years later, she won another National Award for the song "Mera Kuchh Saamaan" from Ijaazat (1987).

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Asha Bhosle In 1995, 62-year-old Bhosle sang for actress Urmila Matondkar in the movie Rangeela. The soundtrack featured songs like "Tanha Tanha" and "Rangeela Re" sung by her, and composed by music director A. R. Rahman, who would go on to record several songs with her. During the 2000s, several of Bhosle's numbers became chartbusters, including "Radha Kaise Na Jale" from Lagaan (2001), "Kambakht Ishq" from Pyaar Tune Kya Kiya (2001), ""Yeh Lamha" from Filhaal (2002), "Lucky Lips" from Lucky (2005). In October 2004, The Very Best of Asha Bhosle, The Queen of Bollywood, a compilation album of songs recorded by Bhosle for albums and Bollywood films that were released between 1966 and 2003, was released.

Partnership with music directors O.P. Nayyar Music director O. P. Nayyar's association with Asha is part of Bollywood lore. He was the composer who first gave Asha her own identity. Many people have speculated about a romantic relationship between the two. Nayyar first met Asha in 1952, at the music recording of Chham Chhama Chham.[16] He first called her for a film called Mangu (1954), and gave her a big break in CID (1956). However, it was the success of Naya Daur (1957), that made the duo very popular. After 1959, she was emotionally and professionally involved with Nayyar. The team of O.P. Nayyar and Asha Bhosle is best remembered for their breezy and sometimes sirenish songs. Some good examples of their sensuous numbers are Aaiye meherbaan picturised on Madhubala (Howrah Bridge, 1958) and Yeh hai reshmi zulfon ka andhera picturised on Mumtaz (Mere Sanam, 1965). They also recorded songs for many hit movies like Tumsa Nahin Dekha (1957), Howrah Bridge (1958), Ek Musafir Ek Hasina (1962), Kashmir Ki Kali (1964), Aao huzur tumko (Kismat) and Jaaiye aap kahan (Mere Sanam). O.P. Nayyar used the Asha Bhosle-Mohammad Rafi duo for his most popular duets such as Ude jab jab zulfein teri (Naya Daur), Main pyaar ka rahi hoon (Ek Musafir Ek Haseena), Deewana Hua Baadal and Ishaaron hi isharon mein (Kashmir Ki Kali). Asha recorded her last song for O.P. Nayyar in the movie Pran Jaye Par Vachan Na Jaye (1974). The solo number Chain se got many awards, but it was not included in the movie. They split on August 5, 1972. It is not clear what made them part their ways. On being asked the reason for their parting, O P Nayyar once said, "I know astrology very well. I knew that one day I had to part with her. Something also happened, that upset me, so I left her."[16] Nevertheless, he also said "...now that I am seventy-six, I can say that the most important person in my life was Asha Bhosle. She was the best person I ever met." The parting of Asha Bhosle and O.P. Nayyar was bitter, and probably therefore she has hesitated to give Nayyar his due. While talking about O.P. Nayyar in an interview with The Times of India, she once remarked - "Whichever composer gave me work, it was because my voice was suited to his music at that point. No one musician did me any favor by asking me to sing for him."[17] She gives the credit for her first big break to B. R. Chopra, the producer of Naya Daur. Khayyam Another music director who recognized Asha's talent early was Khayyam. Their partnership dates back to his first movie Biwi (1948). Khayyam gave her some good assignments in the 1950s, including Dard and Phir Subah Hogi. But the team is chiefly remembered for the songs of Umrao Jaan. Ravi Music composer Ravi considered Asha one of his favorite singers. She sang for his first movie Vachan (1955). The melodious lullaby from the movie, Chandamama door ke became an overnight hit among young mothers in India. Ravi got her to sing bhajans for the movies Gharana, Grihasti, Kajal and Phool Aur Patthar, at a time when most of the composers remembered her only when they needed to record B-grade songs picturized on the vamps or the side-heroines. Ravi and Asha recorded a variety of songs, including the popular funny duet with Kishore Kumar - C A T...Cat maane billi (Dilli Ka Thug). The bhajan Tora man darpan (Kajal) is considered one of Asha's best songs.

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Asha Bhosle They also recorded songs for many popular movies like Waqt, Chaudhvin Ka Chand, Gumrah, Bahu Beti, China Town, Aadmi Aur Insaan, Dhund and Humraaz. For Chaudhvin Ka Chand, Ravi wanted Geeta Dutt (the wife of actor and producer Guru Dutt) to sing the songs. But when she backed out, Guru Dutt insisted that Asha sing the songs.[13] Sachin Dev Burman One of Bollywood's most famous composers, Sachin Dev Burman and his favorite singer, Lata Mangeshkar, were not on good terms from 1957 to 1962.[18] During this period, S D Burman used Asha as his lead female voice. She and Burman gave many hit songs in movies such as Kaala Pani, Kaala Bazaar, Insaan Jaag Utha, Lajwanti, Sujata and Teen Deviyaan (1965). They recorded many songs together after 1962 as well. Most famous of these songs were Asha's duets with Mohammed Rafi and Kishore Kumar. The song Ab ke baras in Bimal Roy's Bandini (1963) consolidated her position as a lead singer. The seductive song Raat Akeli Hai from Jewel Thief (1967), picturised on Tanuja, became very popular. Rahul Dev Burman (Pancham) Asha first met Rahul Dev Burman (a.k.a. "Pancham") when she was the mother of two and he was in 10th grade having dropped out to pursue music. Their partnership was first noticed in Teesri Manzil (1966). She went on to record a variety of songs with him - cabarets, rock, disco, ghazals and Indian classical music. In the 1970s, Asha and Pancham's youthful Western songs took Bollywood music by storm - the raunchy cabaret Piya tu ab to aaja (Caravan, picturized on Helen), the rebellious Dum Maro Dum ( Hare Rama Hare Krishna, 1971), the sexy Duniya mein (Apna Desh, 1972) and the romantic Chura Liyaa Hai Tumne (Yaadon Ki Baaraat, 1973). Pancham also recorded many hit duets with Asha and Kishore Kumar such as Jaane jaan (Jawani Diwani) and Bhali bhali si ek soorat (Buddha Mil Gaya). In 1980s, Pancham and Asha recorded subtle numbers for films like Ijaazat (1987)- Mera kuch saaman, Khaali haath shaam aayi hai and Katra Katra. They also recorded the popular duet O Maria (Saagar). Asha used to call R D Burman "Bubs". She married him in 1980. Their partnership lasted until his death. R D Burman made her sing some of the most legendary songs in Bengali language as well, namely Mohuyae Jomechhe Aaj mou go,Chokhe Chokhe kotha bolo Chokhhe naame brishti(Bengali version of Jaane Kya Baat hai), Baanshi sune ki ghore thaka jaye,Sondhya Belae tumi aami and Aaj Gungun gun gunje amar (Bengali version of Pyaar Deewana hota hai). Ilaiyaraaja Prolific south Indian film composer Ilaiyaraaja began employing Asha's vocals in the early 1980s, their earliest collaboration being for the film Moondram Pirai (1982) (remade in Hindi as Sadma in 1983). Their association continued, mostly through the latter half of the 1980s and early 1990s. Another notable song from this period is Shenbagamae (Enga Ooru Paattukkaaran, 1987, Tamil). In 2000, Asha sung the theme song for Kamal Haasan's political film Hey Ram. The song, Nee Partha Parvai (Janmon Ki Jwala in Hindi) (or Aparna's Theme), was a duet with singer Hariharan. A. R. Rahman A. R. Rahman is credited with Asha's 'comeback' with Rangeela (1994). Songs like Tanha Tanha and Rangeela Re were chartbusters. She and Rahman went on to record more hits like Mujhe Rang De (Thakshak), Radha Kaise Na Jale (Lagaan, duet with Udit Narayan), Kahin Aag Lage (Taal), O Bhanware (Daud, duet with K. J. Yesudas), Venilla Venilla (Iruvar,1999) and Dhuan Dhuan (Meenaxi,2004).[13] Jaidev When S D Burman's assistant Jaidev started giving music independently, he got Asha to sing some of his songs as well. They worked in Hum Dono (1961), Mujhe Jeene Do (1963), Do Boond Pani (1971) and other movies. In 1971, the pair released an LP of eight non-film devotional songs and ghazals called An Unforgettable Treat. Asha

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Asha Bhosle considered Jaidev a close friend who stood by her when she was struggling personally and professionally. Upon his death in 1987, she released a compilation album of lesser-known songs he had composed for her, called Suranjali. Shankar-Jaikishan Shankar-Jaikishan worked relatively little with Asha. However, the trio produced quite a few hits including the seductive Parde mein rehne do (Shikar, 1968). Asha got her second Filmfare Award for the song. She also sang Zindagi ek safar hai suhaana (Andaz) for Shankar-Jaikishan, in which she tried to yodel like Kishore Kumar, whose version of the song is more better known. When Raj Kapoor was not on speaking terms with Lata Mangeshkar, Asha got to sing the songs of Mera Naam Joker (1970), composed by Shankar-Jaikishan. Anu Malik Composer Anu Malik and Asha have recorded many hit songs together, including songs for his first movie Sohni Mahiwal (1984). Their most popular songs include Filhaal (Filhaal) and Kitabein bahut si (Baazigar) among others. The four lines sung by Asha in Malik's Jab dil mile (Yaadein) stood out among voices of Sukhwinder Singh, Udit Narayan and Sunidhi Chauhan. Asha had also sung for Anu's father Sardar Malik in the 1950s and 1960s, most notably in Saranga (1960). Other Composers Madan Mohan recorded a number of songs with Asha, including the popular folk number Jhumka Gira Re from Mera Saaya (1966). In Chhoti Si Baat (1975), Asha sang the Jaaneman Jaaneman number with K. J. Yesudas for Salil Chowdhury. Salil's 1956 movie Jagte Raho also had a number recorded by Asha, Thandi Thandi Saawan ki Phuhaar. Another Asha patron is the young composer Sandeep Chowta, who got her to sing Kambakht Ishq, a duet with Sonu Nigam for the movie Pyaar Tune Kya Kiya(2001). The song gained major popularity among the Indian youth. Asha has worked with Lata-patrons like Laxmikant-Pyarelal, Naushad, Ravindra Jain, N Dutta and Hemant Kumar. When Naushad was asked to sum up the essential difference between Lata and Asha, he said that Asha "lacks certain something which Lata, and Lata alone has". Later he accepted in an interview, "May be I said it because I then had a closed ear on Asha".[19] Naushad, later in his life, also admitted that he has been unfair to Asha. Asha has also worked with other noted Bollywood composers like Jatin-Lalit, Bappi Lahiri, Kalyanji-Anandji, Usha Khanna, Chitragupt, and Roshan.

Non-Bollywood music Private albums In a rare feat, noted lyricist Gulzar, music director R.D. Burman and Asha Bhosle, came together in 1987, to create a double album, titled, Dil Padosi Hai, which was released on September 8, 1987.[20] In 1995, Asha underwent the gatha bandan (thread-tying) ceremony with Hindustani classical music maestro Ali Akbar Khan to learn a classical repertoire held within the Maihar gharana (stylistic school of Indian classical music), as handed down to Khan by his father Allauddin Khan (the guru of Ravi Shankar). Later, Asha and Ustad Ali Akbar Khan recorded eleven fixed compositions (or bandishes) in California for Legacy, a private album that earned them a Grammy Award nomination. In 1990s, Asha experimented with remixed R D Burman songs. She was criticized by many, including Khayyam for tampering with old melodies. Nevertheless, albums like Rahul And I became quite popular. In 1997, Asha did a private Indipop album Janam Samjha Karo with Leslie Lewis. The album was hugely popular and won her many awards including the 1997 MTV Award. Asha had been once asked by director B R Ishaara to compose music for one of his films, but she had politely declined. In 2002, she turned music composer with the album Aap Ki Asha, an eight-song music and video album. The lyrics were written by Majrooh Sultanpuri (his last lyrics). The album was released by Sachin Tendulkar on May

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Asha Bhosle 21, 2001 at a lavish party in Mumbai. The album received mixed reviews. Asha had spotted Pakistani singer Adnan Sami's talent when he was about 10 years old. At that time, she was performing in London, with R D Burman. It was she who had asked him to pursue his interests in music seriously. When Adnan grew up and became a professional musician, Asha sang the title duet with him for his best-selling album Kabhi to nazar milao. The two came together again in the album Barse Badal. The album comprises eight songs, based on Indian Classical music. She contributed the song Yun Na Thi to the recording Womad Talking Book Volume Four: An Introduction to Asia 1 on Womad Records. Asha has sung ghazals for many albums like Meraj-E-Ghazal, Aabshar-E-Ghazal and Kashish. In 2005, Asha released a self-titled album as a tribute to the four ghazal maestros - Mehdi Hassan, Ghulam Ali, Farida Khanum and Jagjit Singh. The album features eight of her favorite ghazals like Farida Khanum’s Aaj Jaane Ki Zid Na Karo, Ghulam Ali’s Chupke Chupke, Aawargi and Dil Mein Ek Lahar, Jagjit Singh’s Ahista Ahista and Mehdi Hassan’s Ranjish Hi Sahi, Rafta Rafta and Mujhe Tum Nazar Se. These classic ghazals were recreated with modern sounds by musician Pandit Somesh Mathur. The album was aimed at the younger generation, who, according to Asha, are "turned off" by the traditional sounds of tabla and sarangi. Numerous compilations of Asha's songs have been released as well. To commemorate her 60th birthday, EMI India released three cassettes: Bala Main Bairagan Hoongi (devotional songs), The Golden Collection: Memorable Ghazals (non-film ghazals by composers such as Ghulam Ali, R D Burman and Nazar Hussain), and The Golden Collection: The Ever Versatile Asha Bhosle (44 popular film songs). In 2006, she recorded an album Asha and Friends, singing duets, with film actors Sanjay Dutt and Urmila Matondkar and famous cricket player Brett Lee, with whom she sang, You're the One for Me (Haan Main Tumhara Hoon). All these songs composed by Shamir Tandon were shot on video by journalist turned director S Ramachandran.

Concerts and collaborations with foreign artists In 1980s and 1990s, Asha went globe-trotting, staging concerts in Canada, Dubai, UK, U.S. and many other countries. In 1989, during a world tour, she performed in 13 US cities in 20 days. Immediately after this, she had an already sold-out concert scheduled in Stockholm, Sweden. Due to the stressful schedule, Asha suffered a massive attack of colitis, together with fever, cough and weakness. In Stockholm, a pre-concert crisis meeting was called, attended by Asha's son (and manager) Anand and the sponsors. It was decided that the orchestra will play many instrumental tracks, the accompanying singers like Suresh Wadkar will shoulder the load, and Asha will make a small appearance. But Asha rejected all such proposals, and sang at the concert with great difficulty, in a not-so-good voice. Her first set of six Bollywood songs did not receive any response from the audience, which consisted mostly of Indian and Pakistani expats. Before the start of the second set of songs, a fan in the crowd requested her to sing a Marathi song. Asha obliged and sang Naach-naachuni ati mi damale ("I'm very tired of this endless dancing"). When the song ended, the auditorium erupted with claps and the encores started. After the concert, Asha was in bed for a month, recuperating from overexertion. In October 2002, she did a concert with Sudesh Bhosle and others, in London, for "Help the Aged" to help raise funds for the elderly in India. In 2007 she toured the USA, Canada, and West Indies in a tour called "The Incredibles". In this tour, she was accompanied by singers Sonu Nigam, Kunal Ganjawala and Kailash Kher. This tour, originally scheduled for only 12 concerts, went on to hold more than 20. In the mid-1980s, Asha sang with Boy George (Bow down mister) and Stephen Lauscombe. In 1997, she sang a love song with the boy band Code Red, at the age of 64. She also recorded the song The Way you Dream (One Giant Leap, [21]) with Michael Stipe that was used in the English movie, Bulletproof Monk. The song was also released on the album 1 Giant Leap for 2002. In 1997, the British band Cornershop paid tribute to Asha with their song Brimful of Asha, an international hit which was later remixed by Fatboy Slim. In 2001, the CD single of Nelly Furtado's "I'm Like A Bird" included a "Nellie vs. Asha Remix" created by Digital Cutup Lounge.

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Asha Bhosle In 2003, British opera pop singer Sarah Brightman sampled her song "Dil Cheez Kya Hai" on her album Harem. It was used as the intro for her song "You Take My Breath Away". In 2005, American string quartet Kronos Quartet re-recorded R D Burman compositions like Chura Liya, Piya Tu, Mera Kuchh Saaman among others and got Asha to sing them. Despite her age, she recorded three to four songs in a day, leaving the quartet members stupefied. On August 23, 2005, You've stolen my heart - Songs From R D Burman's Bollywood was released in US. The album was nominated for Grammy Awards 2006 in the category of "Best Contemporary World Music Album". In the 1990s, a friend had introduced David Harrington of Kronos Quartet to the song Aaj ki raat. Harrington was mesmerised, and the song ended up on the album Kronos Caravan. Also in 2005, The Black Eyed Peas sampled her songs "Ae Naujawan Sab Kuchh Yahan" (Apradh, 1972) and "Yeh Mera Dil Pyaar Ka Diwana" (Don, 1978) in their hit single "Don't Phunk with My Heart". In late 2006, Asha collaborated with Australian test cricket star, Brett Lee. The single, You're the One for Me, debuted at number 4 on the charts and reached a peak position of number 2. In 2006 Asha recorded one song for the soundtrack of Pakistani movie Mein Ek Din Laut Kay Aaaonga. She sang the song, titled Dil Key Taar Bajey, with famous Pakistani pop singer Jawad Ahmed. It was aired as part of the film's promotional campaign and became very popular, featuring on top music charts.

Personal life Asha's house is situated in Prabhukunj Apt on Peddar Road area of South Mumbai. She has three children and five grandchildren. The eldest of her three children, Hemant Bhosle (named after Hemant Kumar), spent most of his early years as a pilot and quit to have a brief career as a music director. Asha's daughter Varsha worked as a columnist for The Sunday Observer and Rediff. Asha's youngest child, Anand Bhosle, has studied business and film direction. He manages Asha's career. Her grandson, Chaitanya (Chintu) Bhosle (Hemant's son) is a part of the world of music. He is a member of India's first & only boy band, "A Band of Boys". Her sisters Lata and Usha Mangeshkar are playback singers. Her other, sister Meena Mangeshkar and brother Hridayanath Mangeshkar are music directors. Asha is an excellent cook and cooking is her favorite hobby. She often gets flooded with requests by Bollywood celebrities for kadai ghosht and biryani dishes and has rarely turned down a request. In fact, her paya curry, Goan fish curry and dal are very popular with the Kapoor family of Bollywood. Once, when asked in a Times of India interview, what if her singing career had not taken off, she said "I would have become a cook. I'd have cooked in four houses and made money." Asha is a successful restaurateur and runs restaurants in Dubai and Kuwait, called Asha's. Asha's offers traditional north-western Indian cuisine. It has a presence in the Wafi City development in Dubai, as well as three restaurants in Kuwait, at The Avenues Mall, the Marina Mall and a brand new third outlet at the Spoons Complex. Other restaurants can be found in Abu Dhabi's Khaldiya Mall, Doha's Villagio and Bahrain's City Center Mall, with future outposts planned for Dubai's Mall of the Emirates and Cairo, Egypt. Asha Bhosle has a 20% stake in the business. Asha is not involved in day-to-day running of the restaurant which is looked after by the Wafi Group. She takes care of the kitchen and the dĂŠcor. She personally trained the chefs for almost six months. According to a December 2004 report in the Menu Magazine,[22] Russell Scott, a former head of Harry Ramsden's (the fish and chips chain), secured the UK rights to the Asha's brand and planned to open up to 40 restaurants over the next five years. As part of her chain of restaurants, Asha has recently opened a new restaurant in Birmingham, UK. Asha's fashion statement is white saree with sparkling embroidery, pearls around her neck and a touch of diamonds. Harrington said "The first time I met Ashaji she was dressed in the most beautiful sari with diamonds and looked very regal. Then I looked down and saw that she was wearing tennis shoes! I thought I love this woman." Asha is a good mimicry artist as well. At a concert at World Trade Center in Dubai on April 22, 2004, she mimicked the song Kabhi To Nazar Milaao in the voices of Noor Jehan, Lata Mangeshkar and Ghulam Ali. Nowadays, apart from singing and her restaurant, Asha is also working on her autobiography.

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Asha Bhosle

Rivalry with Lata Mangeshkar Asha's sibling rivalry with Lata Mangeshkar is often talked about, in spite of their insistence that these are just tales.[17] As young children, they were very close. As a child, Lata used to carry Asha all the time. They were so inseparable that when Lata went to school she would take Asha with her. One day the teacher protested and said that they cannot have two students on one fee. Lata refused to return to school without Asha and quit her studies.[23] Lata considered Asha's act of eloping with her lover as irresponsible, leaving her alone to sing and earn for the family. This led to tensions between them. Asha herself accepted in an interview[23] — "It was a love marriage and Lata didi did not speak to me for a long time. She disapproved of the alliance." At one time, their relationship was very adversarial and there have been periods of non-communication. In her initial days in the industry, Asha always played second fiddle to her elder sister. Some say that Lata had once criticised Asha's relationship with O. P. Nayyar. This widened the rift between the two sisters and O P Nayyar also decided that he would never work with Lata. O.P. Nayyar had once revealed "Asha and Lata, staying in opposite flats at Bombay's Peddar Road, had a common maidservant. Now this maidservant had merely to come and tell the younger sister that Lata had just recorded something wonderful for Asha to lose her vocal poise. Such was her Lata phobia that it took me some months to convince Asha that she had a voice individualistic enough to evolve a singing style all of her own."[19] Asha once said that she has worked for years to create a voice and a style that was different from Lata, so that she could carve her own niche and not be banished to live in her sister's shadow.[23] Asha and Lata have also sung together. Their first duet was for the film Daman (1951).[19] Some of their songs include Man Bhawan Ke Ghar aye (Chori Chori, 1956), Sakhi ri sun bole papihaa us paar (Miss Mary, 1957), O chaand jahaan woh jaaye (Sharada, 1957), Mere Mehboob Mein Kya Nahi (Mere Mehboob, 1963), Ai kash kisi deewane ko (Aaye Din Bahar Ke, 1966), Main Chali Main Chali (Padosan, 1968), Chhap tilak sab (Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki, 1978), and Man kyun behka (Utsav, 1984). While singing, Lata used to hold her notebook in her right hand, while Asha held hers in the left hand. This meant Lata had her face away from Asha, making it difficult for them to "anticipate" each other.[23] The movie Saaz, was supposedly based on Lata and Asha's rivalry.[24] Asha said about the movie — "To have two women in long plaits, take a couple of incidents and exaggerate them into a 3-hour film is such a waste of time."[23] In the last few years, Asha and Lata have often been seen in public, enjoying each other's company. In an interview with The Times of India, Asha once said - "I remember, sometimes both of us would be at a function and some industry types would ignore me and interact only with her, as if to prove their loyalty. Later, didi and I would have a good laugh!"

Awards Filmfare awards Asha Bhosle has won seven Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards of 18 nominations.[25] She won her first two awards in 1967 and 1968. (Mangeshkar asked not to be considered for the award nominations after 1969 to promote new talent). After receiving the award in 1979, Bhosle emulated her elder sister and requested that her name not be considered for the nominations hereafter. Despite this, Bhosle is the most frequent winner of this award to date, tying with Alka Yagnik. She was later given a Special Award for Rangeela in 1996, and the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001. Following is the list of her Filmfare Awards: Filmfare Best Female Playback Award: • 1968: "Garibon ki Suno" (Dus Lakh, 1966) • 1969: "Parde Mein Rehne Do" (Shikar, 1968) • 1972: "Piya Tu Ab To Aaja" (Caravan, 1971) • 1973: "Dum Maro Dum" (Hare Rama Hare Krishna, 1972) • 1974: "Hone Lagi Hain Raat" (Naina, 1973)

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Asha Bhosle • 1975: "Chain Se Humko Kabhi" (Pran Jaye Par Vachan Na Jaye, 1974) • 1979: "Yeh Mera Dil" (Don, 1978) Other Awards: • 1996 - Special Award (Rangeela, 1995) • 2001 - Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award National Film Awards Asha has won the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer twice: • 1981: Dil Cheez Kya Hai (Umrao Jaan) • 1986: Mera Kuch Samaan (Ijaazat) Other awards Asha has won numerous other awards, including: • • • • •

1987: Nightingale Of Asia Award (from the Indo–Pak Association, UK).[25] 1989: Lata Mangeshkar Award (Government of Madhya Pradesh).[25] 1997: Screen Videocon Award (for the album Jaanam Samajha Karo).[25] 1997: MTV Award (for the album Jaanam Samajha Karo).[25] 1997: Channel V Award (for the album Jaanam Samjha Karo).[25]

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1998: Dayawati Modi Award.[26] 1999: Lata Mangeshkar Award (Government of Maharashtra) 2000: Singer of the Millennium (Dubai). 2000: Zee Gold Bollywood Award (for Mujhe Rang De from Thakshak). 2001: MTV Award (for Kambakht Ishq). 2002: BBC Lifetime Achievement Award (presented by the UK Prime Minister Tony Blair). 2002: Zee Cine Award for Best Playback Singer - Female (for Radha Kaise Na Jale from Lagaan). 2002: Zee Cine Special Award for Hall of Fame. 2002: Screen Videocon Award (for Radha Kaise Na Jale from Lagaan). 2002: Sansui Movie Award (for Radha Kaise Na Jale from Lagaan). 2003: Swaralaya Yesudas Award for outstanding contributions to Indian music.[25] 2004: Living Legend Award by the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry.[27] 2005: MTV Immies, Best Female Pop Act for Aaj Jaane Ki Zid Na Karo.[28] 2005: Most Stylish People in Music.[29]

Honours and recognitions • In 1997, Asha became the first Indian singer to be nominated for the Grammy Award, for Legacy, an album with Ustad Ali Akbar Khan. • She has received seventeen Maharashtra State Awards. • She received the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2000 for her outstanding contribution to Indian cinema.[25] • She holds honorary doctorates from the University of Amravati and University of Jalgaon in Literature. • She has received The Freddie Mercury Award for Outstanding Achievement in Arts. • The Birmingham Film Festival paid her a special tribute in November 2002. • She was honoured with the Padma Vibhushan by the Government of India.[30] • She was among top 20 music icons of the past 50 years.[31] [32]

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Asha Bhosle

Footnotes and references [1] Asha Bhosle has been credited variously as Asha, Asha Bhosle, Asha Bhonsale, Asha Bhonsle, Asha Bhonsley, Asha Bhosale and Asha Bhosley (See her IMDB entry (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0080427/ ) for details). She is often referred to as Ashaji — the Hindi suffix ji denotes respect. [2] Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterji, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Popular Prakashan. pp. 532–533. ISBN 8179910660. [3] Gangadhar, v. (18 May 2001). "Only the best preferred" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2001/ 05/ 18/ stories/ 09180701. htm). The Hindu. . Retrieved 2009-07-22. [4] Arnold, Alison (2000). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. pp. 420–421. ISBN 0824049462. [5] "IMDB entry" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0080427/ ). IMDB. . Retrieved 2009-03-28. [6] "An evergreen voice" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2003/ 09/ 26/ stories/ 2003092602000700. htm). The Hindu. September 26, 2003. . Retrieved 2010-08-12. [7] V.L (June 7, 2008). "Chords & Notes" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mp/ 2008/ 06/ 07/ stories/ 2008060752910500. htm). The Hindu. . Retrieved 2010-08-11. [8] World Music: Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific; By Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham, Richard Trillo; Rough Guides, 2000 [9] The International Who's Who. 2004. Europa Publications. Routledge. [10] (Jyothi Venkatesh. "Asha Bhosle: Sa Re Ga Ma…" (http:/ / www. vashi2panvel. com/ Navi-Mumbai-News/ item/ 196/ catid/ 26). Vashi2Panvel.com. . Retrieved 2006-05-03. "I would like to state humbly that I am the only singer who has sung the maximum number of songs — 12,000. If you sing one song a day, you can humanly sing 365 songs a year and 3650 songs in ten years. In around 60 years of my career I could sing 12,000 songs because there were times I had sung even four songs a day." [11] Raju Bharatan (2006-08-23). "How fair were they to Mohammed Rafi?: Page 7" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 23sld7. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2007-04-28. "Asha Bhosle, in fact, occupies pride of place --- she is all set to complete 13,000 songs. And that must rate as the highest in Indian cinema -- Guinness or no Guinness." [12] "Most Recorded Artist-world record set by Asha Bhonsle" (http:/ / www. worldrecordsacademy. org/ entertainment/ most_recorded_artist-world_record_set_by_Asha_Bhonsle_90336. htm). 3 September 2009. . Retrieved 4 January 2010. [13] "Asha, 70 years, 70 landmarks" (http:/ / ia. rediff. com/ movies/ 2003/ sep/ 05ms1. htm). 2003-09-08. . Retrieved 2006-11-11. [14] "Only Asha: Asha Bhosle" (http:/ / www. harmonyindia. org/ hportal/ VirtualPageView. jsp?page_id=950). . [15] Malani, Gaurav (September 8, 2008). "Asha Unplugged over the years" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ msid-3457219,prtpage-1. cms). Indiatimes. . Retrieved 2009-07-22. [16] "Asha Bhosle was the best person I ever met, An interview with O.P. Nayyar" (http:/ / music. indya. com/ features/ index. html). Indya.com. . Retrieved 2005-11-11. [17] Jitesh Pillaai (2005-07-31). "Notes to Myself (An interview with Asha Bhosle)" (http:/ / epaperdaily. timesofindia. com/ Repository/ ml. asp?Ref=VE9JTS8yMDA1LzA3LzMxI0FyMDQzMDA=& Mode=HTML& Locale=english-skin-custom). Times Life, The Times of India, Mumbai (The Times Group): p. 43. . Retrieved 2007-09-08. [18] Khubchandani, Lata (2003). Gulzar, Govind Nihalani, Saibal Chatterjee. ed. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Popular Prakashan. pp. 486–487. ISBN 8179910660. [19] "Articles on Asha Bhosle — A voice for all seasons: Taken from Girija Rajendran's article for the Hindu" (http:/ / www. musicalnirvana. com/ ghazal/ asha_articles. html). . Retrieved 2006-05-03. [20] Dil Padosi Hai, release (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=uwTBsElMeuw) [21] http:/ / www. 1giantleap. tv/ [22] "Yet Another 'First' National Chain Planned" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20051023164800/ http:/ / www. menumagazine. co. uk/ archive/ dec04/ asha_bhosle. html). Menu magazine. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. menumagazine. co. uk/ archive/ dec04/ asha_bhosle. html) on 2005-10-23. . Retrieved 2005-11-11. [23] Chhibber, Kavita. "Kavita Chhibber's interview with Asha Bhosle" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20051227124536/ http:/ / www. kavitachhibber. com/ asha_bhosle. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. kavitachhibber. com/ asha_bhosle. html) on 2005-12-27. . Retrieved 2006-05-03. [24] Archana Masih. Women of Substance (http:/ / im. rediff. com/ entertai/ may/ 15saaz. htm) [25] Asha Bhosle Awards (http:/ / www. asha-bhonsle. com/ awards/ ). Asha-Bhosle.com. Accessed October 18, 2007 [26] Abdul Waheed Khan being presented Dayawati Modi Award (http:/ / portal. unesco. org/ ci/ photos/ showphoto. php/ photo/ 3770). portal.unesco.org. November 17, 2006. Accessed October 18, 2007. [27] Bhayani, Viral. Bachchan, Hema Honoured as Living Legends (http:/ / www. redhotcurry. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ march_2004/ living_legends. htm). redhotcurry.com. March 16, 2004. Accessed October 18, 2007. [28] 2005 Winners (http:/ / www. mtvindia. com/ immies/ 05/ index. html). MTV India. Accessed October 18, 2007. [29] History: Most Stylish People in Music (http:/ / www. mtvindia. com/ styleawards2006/ stylehistory. php). MTV India. Accessed October 18, 2007. [30] Tendulkar, Tata get top civilian honour (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ News-Feed/ india/ Tendulkar-Tata-get-top-civilian-honour/ Article1-271807. aspx), Hindustan Times, 25 January 2008.

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Asha Bhosle [31] Asha Bhosle on top 20 music icons list (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ asha-bhosle-on-top-20-music-icons-list/ 657007/ ), Indian Express, 6 August 2010 [32] Asha Bhosle among top 20 music icons (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Asha-Bhosle-among-top-20-music-icons/ H1-Article1-583088. aspx), Hindustan Times, 7 August 2010

Further reading • Cakrabarti, Atanu (1999) (in Bengali). Āśā Bhom̐śale, jībana o gāna. Kolkata: Madela Publishing House. ISBN 978-8176160407. OCLC 42764343. • Ciṭakārā, Mukeśa (2006) (in Hindi). Āśā Bhoṃsale : gāne, kôrḍsa, aura svaralipi. Delhi: Music Books. ISBN 978-8189511005. OCLC 71351425.

External links • Asha Bhosle (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0080427/) at the Internet Movie Database • Asha Bhosle: The Voice Of Bollywood And More (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story. php?storyId=124110521) - audio report by NPR

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Asha Parekh

76

Asha Parekh Asha Parekh Born

2 October 1942 Mahuva, Bhavnagar District, Gujrat, India

Occupation

Actress, Producer, Dancer

Years active 1952–present

Asha Parekh (born 2 October 1942) is a Bollywood actress, director, and producer. She was one of the top stars in Hindi films from 1959 to 1973.[1]

Biography Early life Asha Parekh was born into a middle-class Gujarati family on 2 October 1942 in Mahuva, Gujarat, India[2] to a Hindu father who was from Paldi near Pirana, Ahmedabad, Gujarat and Muslim mother,[3] and her religious upbringing involved worshipping Sai Baba.[4] [5] Her mother enrolled her in Indian classical dance classes at an early age.

Career Parekh started her career as a child artist under the screen name Baby Asha Parekh in the film Aasmaan (1952). Famed film director Bimal Roy saw her dance at a stage function and cast her at the tender age of twelve in Baap Beti (1954). The film's failure disappointed her and even though she did a couple more child roles, she quit to resume her schooling.[6] At sixteen she decided to try acting again and make her debut as a heroine, but she was rejected from Vijay Bhatt's Goonj Uthi Shehnai (1959) in favor of actress Ameeta, because the filmmaker claimed she was not star material. The very next day, film producer Subodh Mukherjee and writer-director Nasir Hussain cast her as the heroine in Dil Deke Dekho (1959) opposite Shammi Kapoor which made her a huge star.[7] The film also led to a long and fruitful association with Hussain. He went on to cast her as the heroine in six more of his films: Jab Pyar Kisi Se Hota Hai (1961), Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon (1963), Teesri Manzil (1966), Baharon Ke Sapne (1967), Pyar Ka Mausam (1969), and Caravan (1971). She also did a cameo role for his film Manzil Manzil (1984). He also got her involved in distribution of films for 21 years, starting with Baharon Ke Sapne (1967). She was primarily known as a glamour girl/excellent dancer/tomboy in most of her films, until director Raj Khosla gave her a serious image by casting her in tragedienne roles in three of her favorite films: Do Badan (1966), Chirag (1969), and Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (1978). Director Shakti Samanta gave her more dramatic roles in her other favorite films, Pagla Kahin Ka (1970), and Kati Patang (1970), the latter earned her the Filmfare Best Actress Award. Many important directors repeated her several times in their films, such as Vijay Anand, Mohan Segal and J.P. Dutta. Asha acted in her mother tongue Gujarati by starring in three films at the height of her fame in Hindi films, the first film being Akhand Saubhagyavati (1963), which became a huge hit.[8] She also acted in some Punjabi films and a Kannada film Sharavegada Saradara released in 1989.[9] After her days as a leading lady ended, she took on supporting roles as bhabhi (sister-in-law) and mother, but she called this the "awkward phase" of her career. So she stopped acting in films, and her friends recommended that she become a television director.[10] She took their advice and became a television director in the early 1990s with a Gujarati serial Jyoti. She formed a production company Akruti and produced serials like Palash ke Phool, Baaje Payal, Kora Kagaz and a comedy Dal Mein Kaala.[11] She was the president of the Cine Artistes' Association from


Asha Parekh 1994 to 2000. Asha was the first female chairperson of the Central Board of Film Certification (Censor Board) of India. She held the post from 1998 to 2001 for which she received no salary but plenty of controversy for censoring films and for not giving clearance to Shekhar Kapur's Elizabeth. Later, she became the treasurer of the Cine and Television Artists Association (CINTAA) and also was later elected to be one of its officebearers.[12] Asha stopped acting in 1995 to pursue directing and producing television serials, but her acting accomplishments were not forgotten as she received the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002.[13] And she has continued to receive other Lifetime Achievement Awards: Kalakar Award in 2004;[14] International Indian Film Academy Awards in 2006;[15] Pune International Film Festival Award (2007);[16] Ninth Annual Bollywood Award (2007) in Long Island, New York.[17] She received the Living Legend Award from the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry(FICCI).[18] In 2008, she was a judge on a reality show Tyohaar Dhamaaka on the Indian entertainment channel 9X.[19]

Personal life Asha has remained unmarried, claiming that her reputation of being unapproachable made people hesitate in asking for her hand in marriage. There were rumors that she was romantically involved with her married director Nasir Hussain.[20] [21] In her later years, Asha said that she had a longtime boyfriend but declined to elaborate on the relationship, only stating that "it was nice while it lasted."[22] She said she hadn't seen Nasir Hussain the last year of his life, as he became reclusive because of his wife's death,[23] but she did speak to him on the phone the day before he died in 2002.[24] Today, she concentrates on her dance academy Kara Bhavan. The Asha Parekh Hospital in Santa Cruz, Mumbai is named after her because of her many contributions.[4]

Filmography Asha Parekh has acted in over 50 films. ]] (1957) .... Child Artiste • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aasha (1957) (uncredited) Dil Deke Dekho (1959) .... Neeta Narayan Hum Hindustani (1960) .... Sudha Ghunghat (1960) ....Laxmi Jab Pyar Kisise Hota Hai (1961) .... Nisha R. Singh Gharana (1961) ....Usha Gupta Chhaya (1961) .... Sarita J. Choudhary Apna Banake Dekho (1962) Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon (1963) .... Mona Meri Surat Teri Ankhen (1963) .... Kavita Bin Badal Barsaat (1963) .... Sandhya Gupta Bharosa (1963) ....Gomti Akhand Saubhagyavati (1963) .... Usha Ziddi (1964 film) (1964) .... Asha Singh Mere Sanam (1965) .... Neena Mehra Teesri Manzil (1966) .... Sunita Love in Tokyo (1966) .... Asha Do Badan (1966) .... Asha Aaye Din Bahar Ke (1966) .... Kanchan

• Upkar (1967) .... Kavita • Baharon Ke Sapne (1967) .... Geeta

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Asha Parekh • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Shikar (1968) .... Kiran Kahin Aur Chal (1968) Sajan (1969 film) (1969) .... Rajni Pyar Ka Mausam (1969) .... Seema Kumar Mahal (1969) ....Roopa Devi Kanyadan (film) (1969) .... Rekha Chirag (1969) .... Asha Chibber Aya Sawan Jhoom Ke (1969) .... Aarti Pagla Kahin Ka (1970) ....Dr. Shalini ("Shalu") Naya Raasta (1970) .... Shallo Kati Patang (1970) .... Madhavi ("Madhu") Kankan De Ole (Punjabi) (1970) Bhai-Bhai (1970) .... Taaj Aan Milo Sajna (1970) .... Varsha/Deepali Nadaan (1971) .... Seema Mera Gaon Mera Desh (1971) .... Anju Jwala (1971) (as Ashaparekh)....Ranjana

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Jawan Mohabbat (1971) .... Komal Mathur Caravan (1971) .... Sunita/Soni Samadhi (1972) .... Champa Rakhi Aur Hathkadi (1972) .... Janki/Kiran Heera (film) (1973) .... Asha Anjaan Raahen (1974) .... Geeta Rani Aur Lalpari (1975) .... Kamla Zakhmee (1975) .... Asha Udhar Ka Sindur (1976) .... Shanta Kulvadhu (1977) .... Chandan Adha Din Adhi Raat (1977) Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (1978) .... Tulsi Chouhan Prem Vivah (1979) Bin Phere Hum Tere (1979) .... Jamuna Sau Din Saas Ke (1980) .... Sheela Bulundi (1980) Khel Muqaddar Ka (1981) Kaalia (1981) .... Shanti Pakhandi (1984) Dharam Aur Kanoon (1984) Manzil Manzil (1984) .... Vijay's mom Lava (film) (1985) .... Amar's mom Car Thief (film) (1986) .... Mrs. Mehera Sagar Sangam (1988) Main Tere Liye (1988) .... Priti Hamara Khandaan (1988) .... Sharda Singh (Vishal's mom) Hum To Chale Pardes (1988) Hathyar (1989 film) (1989) .... Avinash's mother

• Batwara (1989) .... Bade Thakur's wife • Professor Ki Padosan (1993) .... Shobha (Prof's Wife)

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Asha Parekh • • • •

Bhagyawan (1994) .... Savitri Ghar Ki Izzat (1994) .... Seeta Andolan (1995) Sar Aankhon Par (1999)....Herself[25]

Awards and nominations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Filmfare Award Nomination as Best Actress for Chirag(1969) Filmfare Best Actress Award for Kati Patang(1970) Filmfare Award Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Udhar Ka Sindoor(1976) Filmfare Award Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (1978) Padma Shri awarded in the Arts (1992)[26] [27] Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award (2002) Indian Motion Picture Producers' Association(IMPPA) felicitated Asha for her outstanding contribution to the Indian film industry (2003)[28] 8. Kalakar Award--Lifetime Achievement Award (2004) 9. International Indian Film Academy Awards for outstanding achievement in Indian cinema (2006) 10. Saptarang Ke Saptashee Award (2006)[29] 11. Gujarati Association of North America (GANA)'s First International Gujarati Convention-Lifetime Achievement Award (2006)[30] 12. Pune International Film Festival—Lifetime Achievement Award (2007) 13. Bollywood Award—Lifetime Achievement Award (2007) 14. Living Legend Award from the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry(FICCI).[18] 15. Film Federation of India honored Asha at its Golden Jubilee celebration ceremony-(2008)[31] 16. Sahyadri Navratna Award given to Asha for being a "woman of substance" (2008)[32] 17. Solitaire for Life Award from the ABN Amro Solitaire Design Awards show (2008)[33] 18. Nashik International Film Festival-Lifetime Achievement Award (2009)[34] 19. 'Lachchu Mahraj Puraskar' Award for Asha's contribution to dance and acting (2009)[2] 20. 40th International Film Festival of India felicitated Asha for completing 50 years in Hindi cinema (2009)[35] 21. 'Legends Live Forever Award' from the Immortal Memories Event (2009)[36] 22. Golden Laurel Award—Ninth Gr8 Women Achievers Awards (2010)[37] 23. Prakarti Ratan Award (2010)[38] 24. Jaipur International Film Festival—Lifetime Achievement Award (2011)[39] 25. Legendary Icon Cine Artist Award-Dadasaheb Phalke Academy Awards (2011)[40]

References [1] "Screen The Business Of Entertainment-Films-Happenigs" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ 20021011/ fhap. html). Screenindia.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [2] "Asha Parekh honoured with Lachchu Mahraj award" (http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ content/ 22959/ asha-parekh-honoured-lachchu-mahraj. html). Deccanherald.com. 2009-09-02. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [3] "Asha Parekh – Memories" (http:/ / cineplot. com/ asha-parekh-memories/ ). Cineplot.com. 2011-03-28. . Retrieved 2011-09-11. [4] "Asha ParekhSpirituality - Indiatimes" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080611091012/ http:/ / spirituality. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 128309. cms). Spirituality.indiatimes.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / spirituality. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 128309. cms) on June 11, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [5] The Times Of India. http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ life/ spirituality/ mind-over-matter/ I-AM-Asha-Parekh/ articleshow/ 5734640. cms. [6] "The Hindu : Poise and pearly smiles" (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ thehindu/ mp/ 2003/ 08/ 12/ stories/ 2003081200010400. htm). Hinduonnet.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [7] "Interview" (http:/ / www. thirtymm. com/ interview/ details_86. html). Thirtymm.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-11.

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Asha Parekh [8] "Indiantelevision.com > Box Populi by Subhash K Jha > 'Sa Re Ga Ma' still challenges new kids on the block" (http:/ / www. indiantelevision. com/ special/ boxpopuli/ y2k5/ nov/ boxpopuli44. htm). Indiantelevision.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [9] "Spice" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ spice/ 428465/ ). Screenindia.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [10] "Screen The Business Of Entertainment-Television-Cover Story" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ 20010824/ tvcov. html). Screenindia.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [11] Chaya Unnikrishnan. "Printer Friendly Version" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ print. php?content_id=3650). Screenindia.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [12] "Asha Parekh wins CINTAA elections" (http:/ / news. webindia123. com/ news/ articles/ India/ 20061114/ 507147. html). News.webindia123.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [13] "Filmfare - Print Edition" (http:/ / downloads. movies. indiatimes. com/ site/ april2002/ ivw15. html). Downloads.movies.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [14] "Kalakar Awards" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080220004457/ http:/ / www. kalakarawards. com/ adver/ 105937cinema-awardee. htm). Web.archive.org. 2008-02-20. . Retrieved 2011-09-11. [15] APA Staff. "Asia Pacific Arts: 8 June 2006: News From Abroad" (http:/ / www. asiaarts. ucla. edu/ article. asp?parentid=47387). Asiaarts.ucla.edu. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [16] Article which contains a picture of her receiving the award alongside her former leadingman [[Dharmendra (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071010105906/ http:/ / www. puneinternationalfilmfestival. com/ news_2006)], who also received his own Lifetime Achievement Award] [17] "Yahoo! News Photos" (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ photo/ 070527/ 482/ 60024e3d22c344ffbe8d1831657a4543). News.yahoo.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [18] (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050918235409/ http:/ / in. news. yahoo. com/ 050405/ 139/ 2kkn7. html) [19] "'I had lost interest in TV’" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ i-had-lost-interest-in-tv/ 374173/ ). Screenindia.com. 2008-10-17. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [20] "Bollywood Divas" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ news/ specials/ slideshows/ 60s/ 60-4. htm). Hindustantimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [21] http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ query?url=http:/ / www. geocities. com/ fareeha7/ intthr3. html& date=2009-10-25+ 22:03:38 [ Sadhana (actress) referred to a relationship between Asha and Nasir Hussain, but also acknowledged that she did not know the extent of their relationship] [22] "Asha Parekh: "No hero made passes at me… My male co-stars were intimidated by me!"- Interviews-News & Gossip-Indiatimes - Movies" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ msid-3077619,prtpage-1. cms). Movies.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [23] indiavarta.com - Startrek (http:/ / www. indiavarta. com/ Startrek/ Archives. asp?Page=& ID=IEE20020314053551& dt=3/ 14/ 2002) [24] "Express India" (http:/ / cities. expressindia. com/ fullstory. php?newsid=12071). Cities.expressindia.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [25] (http:/ / tvguide. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1225700. cms,http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 1999/ oct/ 16par. htm) [26] "Search Awardees - Padma Awards - My India, My Pride - Know India: National Portal of India" (http:/ / india. gov. in/ myindia/ advsearch_awards. php). India.gov.in. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [27] "Asha Parekh: Recall value" (http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ content/ 8858/ asha-parekh-recall-value. html). Deccanherald.com. 2009-06-20. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [28] "IMPPA awards" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ fullstory. php?content_id=5629). Screenindia.com. 2003-08-22. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [29] "Bollywood | Veteran Stars | Felicitation | Saptarang Ke Saptashee" (http:/ / entertainment. oneindia. in/ bollywood/ news/ veteran-stars-291206. html). Entertainment.oneindia.in. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [30] "by_emR3 SaVSaK.CoMIndia4u News Online" (http:/ / www. india4u. com/ india4unews/ newsview. asp?ID=7654). India4u.com. 2006-07-13. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [31] "FFI Golden Jubilee Celebration" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080205175407/ http:/ / www. pyramid-saimira. com/ ffireport. html). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. pyramid-saimira. com/ ffireport. html) on 5 February 2008. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [32] "Asha Parekh receives Sahyadri Navratna Award" (http:/ / sify. com/ movies/ fullstory. php?id=14657042). Sify.com. 2008-04-27. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [33] "@ NewKerala.Com News, India" (http:/ / www. newkerala. com/ photo-news. php?action=fullnews& id=220). Newkerala.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-27. [34] (http:/ / www. niffindia. com/ newsDesc. aspx?cid=8& sdhsdf89dfsdfsjdfsd7s8dfsdhsdjfsd7) [35] Ramachandran, Naman (24 November 2009). "'Wheat' opens India film festival" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118011783. html?categoryId=1442& cs=1). Variety. . [36] "Events - Immortal Memories – An Award Nite" (http:/ / www. indiaglitz. com/ channels/ hindi/ gallery/ events/ 20538. html). IndiaGlitz. 2009-12-26. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [37] "Aishwarya Rai Bachchan at the Ninth GR8 Women Achievers Awards 2010 – Photos" (http:/ / www. zorsebol. com/ parties-events/ aishwarya-rai-bachchan-at-the-ninth-gr8-women-achievers-awards-2010-photos/ ). Zorsebol.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [38] "Asha Parekh, Entertainment Photo, Veteran actress Asha Parekh, w" (http:/ / www. timescontent. com/ syndication-photos/ reprint/ entertainment/ 193916/ asha-parekh-dinesh-sharma. html). Timescontent.com. 2010-07-30. . Retrieved 2011-03-27.

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Asha Parekh [39] "> All About Cinema... > Red Alert bags 2 awards, Asha Parekh gets Lifetime at Jaipur film fest" (http:/ / www. indiantelevision. com/ aac/ y2k11/ aac108. php). Indiantelevision.com. 2011-02-03. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [40] Kalyani Prasad Keshri (2011-05-04). "Young talent graced by Dadasaheb Phalke award" (http:/ / entertainment. oneindia. in/ bollywood/ features/ 2011/ dadasaheb-phalke-academy-award-040511-aid0097. html). Entertainment.oneindia.in. . Retrieved 2011-09-11.

External links • • • • • • •

Asha Parekh (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0661239/) at the Internet Movie Database http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/jun/10dinesh.htm * http://www.musicindiaonline.com/n/i/hindi/694/ http://sify.com/movies/bollywood/fullstory.php?id=14123471 http://sify.com/movies/bollywood/interview.php?id=13541479&cid=2398 http://www.indiantelevision.com/interviews/y2k3/producer/ashaparekh.htm http://www.mid-day.com/smd/play/2004/june/85008.htm (Asha Parekh's recipe and the kind of food she likes.) • http://www.screenindia.com/jan28/tele3.htm (interview and photograph of Asha Parekh talking about directing her television serials.)

81


Ashok Kumar

82

Ashok Kumar Ashok

Born

Kumudlal Kunjilal Ganguly 13 October 1911 Bhagalpur, Bengal Presidency, British India

Died

10 December 2001 (aged 90) Mumbai, Maharastra, India

Other names Sanjay Ashok Kumar Occupation

Actor, Painter

Years active

1936–1997

Ashok Kumar (Bengali: অশোক কুমার; 13 October 1911 – 10 December 2001) was an Indian film actor. Born Kumudlal Ganguly (Bengali: কুমুদলাল গাঙ্গুলী) in Bhagalpur, Bengal Presidency he attained iconic status in Indian cinema. He broke from the theatrical style then common in Indian film towards a more naturalistic method. Given his versatility and proven brilliance over five decades, he is considered by many to be one of the finest ever Indian actors. The Government of India honoured him with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1988 and the Padma Bhushan in 1998 for his contributions towards Indian cinema.

Family His father Kunjalal Ganguly was a lawyer and his mother Gouri Devi came from a wealthy Bengali family. His family was based in Khandwa, Madhya Pradesh. His brothers Anoop Kumar and Kishore Kumar also acted in films. Three brothers worked together in the comedies Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi, Badhti Ka Naam Dadhi and Chalti Ka Naam Zindagi. Ashok, though the eldest of the three by quite a margin, survived them both. In fact, he stopped celebrating his birthday after the youngest brother, Kishore, died on that day in 1987. His sister, Sati Devi, was married to Sashadhar Mukherjee of the Mukherjee-Samarth family. Ashok Kumar married Shobha. They had a troubled marriage due to his wife being an alcoholic. [1]

Early career Reverently called Dadamoni (affectionate term for elder brother), he was born in Bhagalpur and educated at Presidency College of the University of Calcutta (now Presidency University, Kolkata). He started his career in Bombay (Mumbai), albeit accidentally, with the Bombay Talkies production Jeevan Naiya in 1936. The male lead, Najam-ul-Hussain, went absconding with the heroine Devika Rani, the director's wife who returned later on. The director and studio head, Himanshu Rai, in retaliation dismissed the hero and called upon his laboratory assistant Ashok Kumar to take the part and thus began a six-decade-long acting career. However, it was his subsequent


Ashok Kumar

83

venture with Devika Rani in Achhut Kanya in the same year that set him up for the big league. The movie itself stands out as one of the heralding social dramas of pre-independence Indian film. It was the story of a Brahmin boy falling in love with a girl from the so-called untouchables in Indian society. It was a big hit and started the trend of socially committed films. Devika Rani and Ashok Kumar did a string of films after this including Izzat (1937), Savitri (1937) and Nirmala (1938). But she was the bigger star and Ashok Kumar was definitely in her shadow. He came into his own with three films opposite Leela Chitnis: KanGan (1939), Bandhan (1940), Jhoola (1941), singing his own songs as was the custom then. He acquitted himself creditably and came away with several hits including most famously Main Ban ka Panchhi. Traditional theatrical acting style had developed his own more natural style. He was also not afraid to take risks and was one of the first anti-heroes of Indian Cinema with his role in Kismet in 1943. This movie went on to create a record for the highest grossing film in India at the time of its release. Devika Rani and Ashok Kumar in Achhut Kanya, 1936

He produced several films for Bombay Talkies during the final years of the company including the famous Mahal in 1949 in which he co-starred with Madhubala. In the 1950s, he played the suave cigarette-smoking criminal or police officer in several films of what was the Indian film-noir movement. In the late 1960s he switched to character roles playing the parent, grandparent, dirty old man and suave criminal, being careful never to be typecast. He paired up 20 times with the popularly known as 'queen of tragedy' Meena Kumari, in films such as Parineeta, Bahu Begum, Pakeezah, Ek Hi Raasta, Bandish, Aarti and more.

Later career and death He acted in fewer films in the 1980s and 1990s and occasionally appeared on television, most famously anchoring the first Indian soap opera Hum Log and appearing as the title character in the unforgettable Bahadur Shah Zafar. His last film role was in Aankhon Mein Tum Ho in 1997. Besides acting, he was an avid painter and a practitioner of homeopathy. Altogether, he starred in over 275 films. He has done more than 30 Bengali dramas in Dhakuria. Ashok Kumar died at the age of 90 in Mumbai on 10 December 2001 of heart failure at his residence in central Mumbai suburbs of Chembur. The then Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee described him as "an inspiration... for many generations of aspiring actors." [2] .

Awards and recognition • • • • • • • • • •

1959 - Sangeet Natak Akademi Award 1962 - Filmfare Best Actor Award, Rakhi 1963 - Bengal Film Journalists' Association - Best Actor Award (Hindi), Gumrah [3] 1966 - Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award, Afsana 1969 - Filmfare Best Actor Award, Aashirwaad 1969 - National Film Awards for Best Actor, Aashirwaad 1969 - Bengal Film Journalists' Association - Best Actor Award (Hindi), Aashirwaad [4] 1988 - Dadasaheb Phalke Award, India's highest award for cinematic excellence 1994 - Star Screen Lifetime Achievement Award 1995 - Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award

• 1998 - Padma Bhushan • 2001 - Awadh Samman by the Government of Uttar Pradesh


Ashok Kumar • 2007 - "Special Award" by Star Screen Awards [5]

Filmography Some of his most remembered films include: • • • • • • • • •

Achhut Kanya (1936) Kismet (1943) Parineeta (1953) Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958) Hatey Bazarey (1967) Aashirwad (1968) Khoobsurat (1980) Khatta Meetha (1981) Mr. India (1987)

References [1] "Home alone: Ashok Kumar" (http:/ / downloads. movies. indiatimes. com/ site/ feb2001/ tunen2. html). Home alone: Ashok Kumar. . [2] [3] [4] [5]

http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 1701925. stm BBC news (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196427. htm) (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197033. htm) (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ fullstory. php?content_id=14558)

External links • Ashok Kumar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006369/) at the Internet Movie Database • A Good article by Anuradha Choudhary (http://downloads.movies.indiatimes.com/site/feb2001/tunen2. html) • Complete list of Ashok Kumar Movies (over 250) (http://www.bollango.com/cgi-bin/akf_search. tcl?key=movie&actor=ashok+kumar)

84


Baldev Raj Chopra

Baldev Raj Chopra Baldev Raj Chopra (B.R. Chopra) (21 April 1924 – 5 November 2008)[1] was an Indian director and producer of Bollywood movies and television serials. Most known for Hindi films like Naya Daur (1957), Kanoon (1961), Gumrah (1963) and Humrāz (1967) and the TV Series, Mahabharat in the late 1980s,[2] he was awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1998.[3] His younger brother Yash Chopra, son Ravi Chopra and nephew Aditya Chopra are also directors in the Bollywood industry. His nephew, Uday Chopra, is an actor.

Biography Born in Ludhiana, "B.R." received an M.A. in English literature from University of the Punjab in Lahore. He started his career in 1944 as a film journalist with Cine Herald, a film-monthly published in Lahore, he later took over the magazine and ran it until 1947.[4] In the same year, he launched a film with a story by I. S. Johar, Chandni Chowk. Naeem Hashmi was hero of this movie and Erika Rukhshi was the heroine. Just as the production of film was to start, riots broke out in Lahore and he and his family had to flee from the city. After the partition of India into India and Pakistan in 1947, he moved to Delhi. He later moved to Bombay (Mumbai), where his first production, Karwat, began in 1948, though it turned out to be a flop. His first film as a director, Afsana, was released in 1951 and featured Ashok Kumar in a double role - the film was a hit and established his name in Bollywood. Chopra made Chandni Chowk, with Meena Kumari as a lead, in 1954. In 1955, B.R. formed his own production house, B.R Films. His first movie for this production house was the highly successful Naya Daur (1957) starring Dilip Kumar and Vyjayantimala Bali, the film became a golden jubilee hit. In 1963 he was a member of the jury at the 13th Berlin International Film Festival.[5] B.R. was instrumental in developing the career of singer Mahendra Kapoor whom he employed in most of his movies. (Director-producer Yash Chopra cast Mahendra Kapoor's son in Fasle.) B.R.'s forayed into television with Mahabharat, one of the most successful TV serials in Indian television history. Another of his memorable TV dramas is Bahadur Shah Zafar. He died in Mumbai at the age of 84 on 5 November 2008,[6] survived by his son, Ravi Chopra and two daughters.[7]

Awards • • • •

1962: Filmfare Best Director Award: Kanoon 1998: Dadasaheb Phalke Award 2003: Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award 2008: Phalke Ratna Award by the Dadasaheb Phalke Academy [8]

Filmography Actor • Ghar (1978)

85


Baldev Raj Chopra

Story Writer • Baghban (2003) • Bābul (2006)

Director-Producer • • • • • • • • • • • •

Naya Daur (1957) Sadhana (1958) Kanoon (1961) Gumrah (1963) Humrāz (1967) Dastān (1972) Dhund (1973) Karm (1977) Pati Patni Aur Woh (1978) Insāf Kā Tarāzoo (1980) Nikaah (1982) Awām (1987)

• Kal Ki Awaz (1992)

Director • • • •

Afsānā (1951) Chāndni Chowk (1954) Ek Hi Raasta (1956) Tawaif (1985)

Producer • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Dhool Kā Phool (1959) Dharm Putra (1962) Waqt (1965) Ittefaq (1969) Ādmi Aur Insān (1970) Zameer (1975) Chhoti Si Bāt (1976) The Burning Train (1980) Agnee Pareeksha (1982) Mazdoor (1983) Aaj Ki Awaaz (1984) Kirayedār (1986) Dahleez (1986) Pratigyābadh (1991) Baghban (2003) Bābul (2006)

86


Baldev Raj Chopra

References [1] NDTV (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ convergence/ ndtv/ story. aspx?id=NEWEN20080071395) [2] B.R.Chopra made socially relevant films (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200811060323. htm) The Hindu, 6 November 2008. [3] B.R. CHOPRA - Purposeful Film Maker - 30th Recipient - 1998 (http:/ / www. ultraindia. com/ movies/ awards/ brchopra. htm) Dadasaheb Phalke Award. [4] Films transformed Chopra's destiny and vice-versa (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Mumbai/ Films_transformed_Chopras_destiny_and_vice-versa/ articleshow/ 3678768. cms) The Times of India, 6 November 2008. [5] "Berlinale: Juries" (http:/ / www. berlinale. de/ en/ archiv/ jahresarchive/ 1963/ 04_jury_1963/ 04_Jury_1963. html). berlinale.de. . Retrieved 2010-02-13. [6] Filmmaker B.R. Chopra dead (http:/ / www. thaindian. com/ newsportal/ uncategorized/ filmmaker-br-chopra-dead_100115182. html) [7] Bollywood producer BR Chopra dies (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 7710210. stm) BBC News, 5 November 2008. [8] Apunkachoice (http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ happenings/ 20080403-0. html)

External links • Baldev Raj Chopra (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0159148/) at the Internet Movie Database • B R Chopra's unforgettable movies (http://specials.rediff.com/movies/2008/nov/05sd1.htm) Rediff.com

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Bimal Roy

88

Bimal Roy Bimal Roy Born July 12, 1909 Suapur, Bengal Presidency, Indian Empire Died January 7, 1966 (aged 56) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Website www.bimalroy.org

[1]

Bimal Roy (Bengali: বিমল রায়) (12 July 1909–7 January 1966) was one of the most acclaimed Indian film directors of all time. He is particularly noted for his realistic and socialistic films like Do Bigha Zamin, Parineeta, Biraj Bahu, Madhumati, Sujata, and Bandini, making him an important director of Hindi cinema. Inspired by Italian neo-realistic cinema, he made Do Bigha Zameen after watching, Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves (1948).[2] His work is particularly known for his mise en scène, which he employed to portray realism.[2] He won a number of awards throughout his career, including eleven Filmfare Awards, two National Film Awards, and the International Prize of the Cannes Film Festival.[3] Madhumati won 9 Filmfare Awards in 1958, a record held for 37 years.

Biography Bimal Roy was born on 12 July 1909, to a zamindar family in Suapur, then part of the Bengal province of British India and now part of Bangladesh. Bimal Roy moved to the Calcutta and entered the field of cinema as a camera assistant with New Theatres Pvt. Ltd. During this time, he assisted director P.C. Barua on the hit 1935 movie Devdas, starring K.L. Saigal. In the 1940s and 1950s Roy was part of the parallel cinema movement in post-war India. He was famous for his romantic-realist melodramas that took on important social issues while still being entertaining. He was a filmmaker of great and in-depth understanding of human strengths and weaknesses. He died of cancer at the age of 56. A detailed biography by his daughter, Rinki Roy Bhattacharya, can be found here www.bimalroy.org/home.html [4].

Awards[3] Filmfare Awards Won seven Filmfare Best Director Awards: • • • • • • •

1953 for Do Bigha Zamin (Two Acres of Land) 1954 for Parineeta 1955 for Biraj Bahu 1958 for Madhumati 1959 for Sujata 1960 for Parakh 1963 for Bandini

Won four Filmfare Best Movie Awards: • 1953 for Do Bigha Zamin • 1958 for Madhumati • 1959 for Sujata


Bimal Roy • 1963 for Bandini

National Film Awards • • • • • •

1954: Certificate of Merit: Do Bigha Zamin[5] 1955: All-India Certificate of Merit: Biraj Bahu[6] 1956: Certificate of Merit: Devdas[7] 1959: Best Feature Film in Hindi: Madhumati[8] 1960: All-India Certificate of Merit: Sujata[9] 1963: Best Feature Film in Hindi: Bandini

Cannes Film Festival Won International Prize:[10] • 1953 for Do Bigha Zamin Nominated for Grand Prize of the Festival: • 1953 for Do Bigha Zamin Nominated for Palme d'Or: • 1955 for Biraj Bahu • 1960 for Sujata

Music Bimal Roy usually alternated between music directors Salil Chowdhury and S.D. Burman. His films featured beautiful and memorable songs, rendered by all the top playback singers of the day. Some of the notable songs from Roy's films include: • • • • • • • • • • • •

"Jalte Hain Jiske Liye" from Sujata (1959), sung by Talat Mahmood "Chali Radhe Rani" from Parineeta (1953), sung by Manna Dey "Aa Ri Aa Nindiya" from Do Bigha Zamin (1953), music by Salil Chowdhury, sung by Lata Mangeshkar "Ab Aage Teri Marzi" from Devdas (1955), music by S.D. Burman, sung by Lata Mangeshkar "Dil Tadap Tadap Ke Keh Raha" from Madhumati (1958), music by Mukesh, Lata Mangeshkar "Suhana Safar Aur Yeh Mausam Haseen" from Madhumati (1958), music by Salil Chowdhury, sung by Mukesh "Aaja Re Pardesi" from Madhumati (1958), music by Salil Chowdhury, sung by Lata Mangeshkar "Ghadi Ghadi Mora Dil Dhadake" from Madhumati (1958), music by Salil Chowdhury, sung by Lata Mangeshkar and Mukesh "Zulmi Sang Aankh Ladi" from Madhumati (1958), music by Salil Chowdhury, sung by Lata Mangeshkar "O Sajana Barkha Bahaar" from Parakh (1960), music by Salil Chowdhury, sung by Lata Mangeshkar "Mora Gora Ang Lai Le" from Bandini (1963), music by S.D. Burman, sung by Lata Mangeshkar "O Jaanewale Ho Sake To Laut Ke Aana" from Bandini (1963), music by S.D. Burman, sung by Mukesh

Legacy Bimal Roy's influence was far-reaching, both in Indian cinema and world cinema. In Indian cinema, his influence extended to both mainstream commercial Hindi cinema and the emerging Parallel Cinema. His film Two Acres of Land (1953) was the first film to successfully stradle art and commercial cinema. It was a commercial and critical success, winning the International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival. The film's success paved the way for the Indian New Wave as a result.[11] [12] [13]

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Bimal Roy

90

In commercial cinema, the most influential film he directed was perhaps Madhumati (1958), his first and only collaboration with Ritwik Ghatak (who wrote the screenplay) and one of the earliest films to deal with reincarnation. It is believed to have been the source of inspiration for many later works dealing with the theme of reincarnation in Indian cinema, Indian television, and perhaps world cinema. It may have been the source of inspiration for the American film The Reincarnation of Peter Proud (1975) and the Hindi film Karz (1980), both of which dealt with reincarnation and have been influential in their respective cultures.[14] Karz in particular was remade several times: as the Kannada film Yuga Purusha (1989), the Tamil film Enakkul Oruvan (1984), and more recently the Bollywood film Karzzzz (2008). Karz may have also inspired the American film Chances Are (1989).[14] The most recent film to be directly inspired by Madhumati is the hit Bollywood film Om Shanti Om (2007), which led to Roy's daughter Rinki Bhattacharya accusing the film of plagiarism and threatening legal action against its producers. Bimal Roy's films continue to be screened at major national and international film festivals in India, Europe and North America. His films are currently being restored and digitized by the National Film Archives of India (NFAI) at Pune. Bimal Roy's four children have recently launched a website, www.bimalroy.org much valuable and previously unavailable material on their father's life and career.

[1]

, that will eventually contain

Admirers of Bimal Roy and his films should join the Facebook Group Bimal Roy Productions [15] which contains a wealth of articles, interviews, essays, videos, pictures and news on the director, his films and his children's work to keep his legacy alive.

Filmography Director • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Bengal Famine (1943) Udayer Pathey (1944) Hamrahi (1944) Anjangarh (1948) Mantramugdhu (1949) Pehla Aadmi (1950) Maa (1952) Parineeta (1953) Do Bigha Zamin (1953) Naukari (1954 ) Biraj Bahu (1954) Baap Beti (1954) Devdas (1955) Yahudi (1958) Madhumati (1958) Sujata (1959) Parakh (1960) Immortal Stupa (1961) Prem Patra (1962) Bandini (1963) Life and Message of Swami Vivekananda (1964) Benazir (1964)

• Gautama the Buddha (1967)


Bimal Roy

Bibliography The Man Who Spoke in Pictures: Bimal Roy, ed. by Rinki Roy Bhattacharya. Penguin Books India, 2009.

References [1] http:/ / www. bimalroy. org [2] Anwar Huda (2004). The Art and science of Cinema (http:/ / books. google. co. in/ books?id=HiA3X6RLLnYC& pg=PA100& dq=Bandini+ (1963+ film)#v=onepage& q=Bandini (1963 film)& f=false). Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 100. ISBN 8126903481. . [3] "Awards for Bimal Roy (I)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0746950/ awards). Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 2009-01-30. [4] http:/ / www. bimalroy. org/ home. html [5] 1st National Film Award (http:/ / iffi. nic. in/ Dff2011/ Frm1stNFAAward. aspx?PdfName=1NFA. pdf) [6] 2nd National Film Awards (http:/ / iffi. nic. in/ Dff2011/ Frm2ndNFAAward. aspx?PdfName=2NFA. pdf) [7] 3rd National Film Awards (http:/ / iffi. nic. in/ Dff2011/ Frm3rdNFAAward. aspx?PdfName=3NFA. pdf) [8] 6th National Film Awards (http:/ / iffi. nic. in/ Dff2011/ Frm6thNFAAward. aspx?PdfName=6NFA. pdf) [9] 7th National Film Awards (http:/ / iffi. nic. in/ Dff2011/ Frm7thNFAAward. aspx?PdfName=7NFA. pdf) [10] "Festival de Cannes: Two Acres of Land" (http:/ / www. festival-cannes. com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/ id/ 3829/ year/ 1954. html). festival-cannes.com. . Retrieved 2009-01-25. [11] Srikanth Srinivasan (4 August 2008). "Do Bigha Zamin: Seeds of the Indian New Wave" (http:/ / dearcinema. com/ review-do-bigha-zamin-bimal-roy). Dear Cinema. . Retrieved 2009-04-13. [12] Do Bigha Zamin at filmreference (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ Films-De-Dr/ Do-Bigha-Zamin. html) [13] Trends and genres (http:/ / www. filmreference. com/ encyclopedia/ Independent-Film-Road-Movies/ India-TRENDS-AND-GENRES. html) [14] Doniger, Wendy (2005). "Chapter 6: Reincarnation". The woman who pretended to be who she was: myths of self-imitation. Oxford University Press. pp. 112–136 [135]. ISBN 0195160169. [15] http:/ / www. facebook. com/ home. php?sk=group_182789331744288& ap=1

External links • www.bimalroy.org (http://www.bimalroy.org) Bimal Roy Online Museum

91


Bipasha Basu

92

Bipasha Basu Bipasha Basu

Bipasha Basu at the launch of Filmfare cover issue in April 2009. Born

[1] 7 January 1979 New Delhi, Delhi, India

Occupation

Film actress, model

Years active

2001–present

Partner

Dino Morea (1995–2001) John Abraham (2002–2011) Website BipashaBasunet.com

[2]

Bipasha Basu (Hindi: बिपाशा बसु , Bengali: বিপাশা বসু; born 7 January 1979)[1] is an Indian actress who mainly appears in Bollywood films. A former model, she was the winner of the Ford's Godrej Cinthol Supermodel contest in 1996.

Early life Basu was born on 7 January 1979[3] in New Delhi to a Bengali Hindu family. She is the middle child of three daughters: she has an elder sister named Bidisha and a younger named Vijayeta. Basu's family later moved to Kolkata shortly before she entered middle school. In an interview, she has stated that she had initially planned to study medicine, but entered modelling and acting by accident.[4] Basu studied science till the 12th standard at Bhavan's Gangabux Kanoria Vidyamandir and then studied commerce at The Bhawanipur Gujarati Education Society College, an undergraduate college affiliated with the University of Calcutta. In Kolkata, she did modelling and ramp shows part-time.[5] When she was 17, she met model Mehr Jessia in Kolkata; the latter suggested that Basu take part in the Godrej Cinthol Supermodel contest. Basu participated, and eventually won the contest.[4]


Bipasha Basu

93

Career After winning the Ford Godrej Cinthol contest, Basu was flown to New York by the Ford Company, where she had a successful modelling career at the age of 17.[4] Basu made her film debut in Abbas Mustan's Ajnabee, with Akshay Kumar, Bobby Deol and Kareena Kapoor. She played a married woman who goes all out to woo her husband’s married friend; she won the Filmfare Best Female Debut Award for her performance. In 2002, Basu starred in Telugu movie Takkari Donga and Vikram Bhatt's thriller Raaz. Raaz was a big commercial success and surfaced as the biggest hit of that year.[6] For her performance in the film, she received her first Best Actress nomination at the Filmfare. One review in The Tribune noted, "...it is Bipasha Basu who steals the show with her fine performance."[7] She appeared as Sonia Khanna in the 2003 hit movie Jism alongside John Abraham. The movie earned her a Filmfare Best Villain Award nomination. Besides acting, Basu did the video "Tu" for Sonu Nigam's album, Kismat. She made a guest appearance in Jay Sean's music video "Stolen."[8] In 2006, she performed an item number "Beedi" in the film Omkara for which Rediff noted Basu's picturisation.[9] In 2008 Basu starred in Race, her second collaboration with Abbas-Mustan. Co-starring Saif Ali Khan, Akshaye Khanna, Anil Kapoor and Katrina Kaif, the film performed well at the box office, and Basu's performance was appreciated by critics. Taran Adarsh of indiaFM described her performance as "her best work so far. She’s superb".[10] She also received good reviews for her role in Bachna Ae Haseeno opposite Ranbir Kapoor. She completed the year by appearing in Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi in the song "Phir Milenge Chalte Chalte." In 2005 Bipasha and John Abraham did a fitness video with Eros called Bollywood Bodies.[11] In 2010 she launched her own line of videos with Shemaroo under the banner BB – Love Yourself. The first release is called "Fit and Fabulous You."[12] [13] She is an inductee to the Brampton Walk of Fame in Ontario, Canada.

Personal life Basu was in a relationship with actor John Abraham from 2002 to 2011.[14] [15] While together, the two were often referred to as a supercouple in the Indian media.[16] She previously dated Bollywood actor Dino Morea.[17] In 2006, Basu claimed to have been harassed by certain organizers of the India Day Parade in Edison, New Jersey. Basu was initially scheduled to lead the parade on 13 August 2006. She eventually appeared on stage late, according to her, because of the harassment. She said, "I wanted to attend the parade, but I could not." She explained that she was harassed physically and mentally in the car by two people who were taking her to the parade.[18] In 2005 and 2007, UK magazine Eastern Eye named Basu the "Sexiest Woman in Asia".[19]

Basu with ex-boyfriend John Abraham at the launch of the Filmfare magazine (2007).


Bipasha Basu

94

Filmography Year

Film

Role

Notes

2001

Ajnabee

Sonia/Neeta

Winner, Filmfare Best Female Debut Award

2002

Takkari Donga

Panasa

Telugu film

Raaz

Sanjana Dhanraj

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Aankhen

Raina

Mere Yaar Ki Shaadi Hai

Ria

Chor Machaaye Shor

Ranjita

Gunaah

Prabha Narayan

Jism

Sonia Khanna

Footpath

Sanjana Rai Shingla Khan

2003

Rules: Pyaar Ka Superhit Formula

2004

Nominated, Filmfare Best Villain Award

Special appearance

Zameen

Nandini

Ishq Hai Tumse

Kushboo

Aetbaar

Ria Malhotra

Rudraksh

Gayetri

Rakht: What If You Can See the Future Drishti

2005

Madhoshi

Anupama Kaul

Chehraa

Megha

Sachein

Manju

Viruddh

2006

Special appearance

Barsaat

Anna

No Entry

Bobby

Apaharan

Megha

Shikhar

Natasha

Hum Ko Deewana Kar Gaye

Sonia Berry

Darna Zaroori Hai

Varsha

Phir Hera Pheri

Anuradha

Alag

2007

Tamil film

Nominated, Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award

Special appearance in song "Sabse Alag"

Corporate

Nishigandha Dasgupta

Omkara

Billo Chamanbahar

Jaane Hoga Kya

Aditi

Dhoom 2

ACP Shonali Bose/ Monali Bose

Nehlle Pe Dehlla

Pooja

No Smoking

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Special appearance in song "Phoonk De"

Om Shanti Om

Herself

Dhan Dhana Dhan Goal

Rumana

Special appearance


Bipasha Basu

2008

95

Race

Sonia

Bachna Ae Haseeno

Radhika/Shreya Rathod

Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi 2009

2010

2011

Special appearance in song "Phir Milenge Chalte Chalte"

Aa Dekhen Zara

Simi Chatterjee

All The Best: Fun Begins

Jhanvi Chopra, Princess of Lushoto

Sob Choritro Kalponik

Radhika

Pankh

Nandini (Alter-ego)

Lamhaa

Aziza

Aakrosh

Geeta

Dum Maro Dum

Zoey

Players Singularity

Nominated, Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award

Bengali film

Post-production Tulaja Naik

Post-production

References [1] "Why John didn't attend Bips birthday?" (http:/ / www. indiaglitz. com/ channels/ tamil/ article/ 53494. html). Indiaglitz. . Retrieved 13 June 2011. [2] http:/ / bipashabasunet. com [3] "John's Gift to Bipasha" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ slide-show/ slide-show-1-bollywood-daily-tweet-diary/ 20110107. htm). . Retrieved 10 January 2011. [4] Verma, Sukanya (23 September 1999). "'Once you enter films, your private life becomes a joke'" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 1999/ sep/ 23bipa. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 29 December 2007. [5] Verma, Sukanya; Bhattacharya, Priyanka (17 May 2002). "Desperately seeking Bipasha" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ may/ 17bip. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 29 December 2007. [6] "Box Office 2002" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=208& catName=MjAwMg==). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 19 April 2008. [7] D.P. (3 February 2002). "A fast-paced psycho-thriller" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2002/ 20020203/ cth2. htm#11). The Tribune. India. . Retrieved 5 June 2008. [8] "Powerlist: Top Bollywood Actresses (2006)" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 25sd5. htm). Rediff Top Bollywood Actresses of 2006. . Retrieved 25 August 2006. [9] "Nach Bipasha, nach!" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ nov/ 20sl1. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 17 July 2008. [10] Adarsh, Taran (21 March 2008). "Movie review – Race" (http:/ / www. indiafm. com/ movies/ review/ 13399/ index. html). indiafm.com. . Retrieved 5 June 2008. [11] "Bollywood Bodies" (http:/ / store. nehaflix. com/ bobobbadvd. html). . [12] "Bipasha Basu's new fitness mantra 'Love Yourself'" (http:/ / www. glamsham. com/ movies/ scoops/ 10/ feb/ 06-bipasha-basus-new-fitness-mantra-love-yourself-021002. asp). . [13] "Love Yourself" (http:/ / store. nehaflix. com/ loveyourselffi. html). . [14] Iyer, Meena (30 August 2009). "Yes, I'm hot & sexy: Bipasha" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 4948174. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 3 September 2009. [15] Udasi, Harshikaa (27 March 2009). "Just come, sizzle" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ cp/ 2009/ 03/ 27/ stories/ 2009032750010100. htm). The Hindu. India. . Retrieved 3 September 2009. [16] TNN (4 April 2007). "It's London in spring time!" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1858526. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 3 September 2009. [17] "Bipasha & Dino share warm vibes" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ News-Gossip/ News/ Bipasha-Dino-share-warm-vibes/ articleshow/ 4335677. cms). Indiatimes Movies. 1 April 2009. . Retrieved 3 September 2009. [18] "I was harassed in US, says Bipasha Basu" (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 14bipasha. htm). In.rediff.com. 14 August 2006. . Retrieved 9 June 2011. [19] Press Trust of India (PTI) (16 November 2007). "Bipasha is the Sexiest Asian Woman in the World: Eastern Eye" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ World/ Bipasha_is_the_Sexiest_Asian_Woman_in_the_World_Eastern_Eye/ articleshow/ 2544772. cms). Indiatimes. . Retrieved 19 November 2007.


Bipasha Basu

External links • • • • •

Official website (http://bipashabasunet.com/) Bipasha Basu (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0060607/) at the Internet Movie Database Bipasha Basu (http://www.fashionmodeldirectory.com/models/Bipasha_Basu) at Fashion Model Directory Bipasha Basu (http://www.facebook.com/BipashaBasu) on Facebook Bipasha Basu (http://twitter.com/#!/bipsluvurself) on Twitter

96


Dev Anand

97

Dev Anand Dev Anand Born

Dharmadev Anand September 26, 1923 Shakargarh, Gurdaspur, Punjab, [1] British India (now in Narowal District, Pakistan)

Residence

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Nationality

Indian

Other names Dev Sahaab Dev Anand Bhai Occupation

Actor, Producer, Director

Years active

1946–present

Spouse

Kalpana Kartik (1954–present)

Dharam Dev Anand (Hindi: धर्मदेव आनन्द) (born 26 September, 1923), better known as Dev Anand (Hindi: देव आनन्द), is an Indian Hindi Cinema actor, director and film producer. Dev is the second of three brothers who were active in Hindi Cinema. His brothers are Chetan Anand and Vijay Anand. Their sister, Sheel Kanta Kapur, is the mother of renowned Hindi and English film director Shekhar Kapur. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2002 for his contributions towards Indian cinema.

Early life Dev was born Dharam Dev Anand on 26 September, 1923 [2] in Shakargarh Tehsil of Gurudaspur district (now in Narowal District, Pakistan) in undivided Punjab, British India to well-to-do advocate Kishorimal Anand. Dev is the second of three brothers born to Kishorimal Anand. Dev's younger sister is Sheela Kanta Kapur, who is mother of Shekhar Kapur. His older brother was Chetan Anand and younger one was Vijay Anand. Dev graduated in English literature from the Government College, Lahore, (now in Pakistan).

Career Dev Anand, after graduating in English Literature from the Government College, Lahore, British India left his hometown and came to Mumbai in the early 1940s. He began his career in the military censor office at Churchgate, Mumbai, for a salary of Rs.200. He joined his older brother Chetan as a member of the Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA). He was soon offered a debut as an actor by Prabhat Talkies to star in their film Hum Ek Hain(1946). While shooting for the film in Pune, Dev struck a friendship with another fellow legendary actor Guru Dutt. They had decided between themselves that if one of the two becomes successful first in film industry then they would help the other to be successful. It was a mutual understanding between them that when Dev Anand produced a film , Guru Dutt would direct it and when Guru Dutt directed a film, Dev Anand would act in it.[3] In the late forties Dev Anand got few offers to star opposite singer-actress Suraiya in woman oriented films, as the male lead. Dev Anand considered himself to be lucky to get a chance to star opposite such an established actress and accepted the offers. While shooting these films, he became romantically involved with Suraiya. The two of them were paired in six films together - Vidya(1948), Jeet(1949), Shair(1949), Afsar(1950), Nili (1950), Do Sitare(1951) and Sanam(1951), which were all successful at the box office and in these films Suraiya was always first billed in credits to imply she was a bigger star than Dev Anand. She fell in love with him during the shooting of the song


Dev Anand -Kinare Kinare Chale Jayenge from the film Vidya — where unfortunately during shooting, a boat capsized and Dev Anand saved Suraiya from drowning.[4] The entire affair was conducted in a clandestine manner with friends like Durga Khote and Kamini Kaushal going out of their way to engineer secret rendezvous. On the sets of the film Jeet, Dev Anand finally proposed to Suraiya and gave her a diamond ring worth Rs 3,000. Her maternal grandmother opposed the relationship as they were Muslim and Dev Anand Hindu, and so, Suraiya remained unmarried all her life. They stopped acting together after her grandmother opposed and Do Sitare was the last film of the pair to release.[5] [6] Although Dev had tasted success in the films he starred in with Suraiya, the producers and directors attributed the success of these films to the acting prowess and screen presence of Suraiya. Dev was looking for opportunity to play the main male lead in a film where his acting skills could be displayed as people were skeptic about Dev's acting abilities, . Dev was offered his first big break by Ashok Kumar. He spotted Dev hanging around in the studios and picked him as the hero for the Bombay Talkies production, Ziddi, costarring Kamini Kaushal (1948) which became an instant success. After Ziddi's success Dev had decided that he would start producing films. So in 1949, Dev turned producer and launched his own company Navketan(which mean newness), which till 2011 has produced 31 films and continues to produce movies even today. Dev chose Guru Dutt as director for the crime thriller, Baazi (1951). The film starring Dev Anand, Geeta Bali and Kalpana Kartik was a trendsetter regarded as the forerunner of the spate of urban crime films that followed in Bollywood in the 1950s. The film Baazi saw debut of Kalpana Kartik aka Mona Singh as the lead female actress and Guru Dutt as a director. The collaboration was a success at the box office and the pair Dev Anand - Kalpana Kartik were offered many films to star in together. They signed all the film offers and subsequently the movies Aandhiyan, 1954 Film, House No. 44 and Nau Do Gyarah went on to become big hits too. During the making of film Taxi Driver, the couple fell in love and Dev proposed marriage to his heroine Kalpana. In 1954, Taxi Driver was declared a hit and the two decided to marry in a quiet ceremony. The couple had a son, Suneil Anand in 1956. After her marriage Kalpana decided not to pursue her acting career further. A rapid-fire style of dialogue delivery and a penchant for nodding while speaking became Dev's style in films like House No. 44, Pocket Maar, Munimji, Funtoosh, C.I.D. and Paying Guest. In the fifties his films were based on mystery genre or light comedy love stories or were films with social relevance like ‘’Ek Ke Baad Ek’’ and Funtoosh.[7] His style was lapped up by the audience and was widely imitated. He starred in a string of box office successes for the remainder of the 1950s opposite newcomer Waheeda Rehman in C.I.D. (1956), Solva Saal, Kala Pani, Kala Bazar and Baat Ek Raat Ki. Waheeda first became a star with C.I.D becoming a hit.[8] In 1955 he also co-starred with Dilip Kumar in Insaniyat. With his acting in Kala Pani (1958), as the son who is willing to go to any lengths to clear his framed father's name, he won his first Filmfare award for Best Actor for the film.[9] He attempted films of tragic genre occasionally like Pocketmaar(1956), Kala Pani (1958), Bombai Ka Babu(1960) and Sharabi (1964) and tasted success in them. Dev also played a few characters with a negative shade, like in Jaal(1952). Apart from his pair with Suraiya and Kalpana Kartik, his pair with Nutan and Waheeda Rehman was popular among the audiences in late 50’s and 60’s. His films Rahee and Aandhiyaan, were screened along with Raj Kapoor's Awaara. From the early fifties till mid sixties, the trio of Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor and Dev Anand ruled the roost. In the sixties, Dev Anand acquired romantic image with films like Manzil and Tere Ghar Ke Samne with Nutan, Kinaare Kinaare with Meena Kumari, Maya with Mala Sinha , Asli-Naqli with Sadhana Shivdasani, Jab Pyar Kisise Hota Hai and Mahal with Asha Parekh and Teen Deviyaan opposite three heroines Kalpana, Simi Garewal and Nanda. In the film Teen Deviyaan, Dev Anand played a playboy.Raj Kapoor though younger than Dev nand, started gaining weight and this affected his career and even Dilip Kumar's films started flopping in the late sixties. But Dev Anand,being slim and fit, continued to look much younger even in the late sixties and seventies. He gave many popular films till 1990 as the leading man. His first colour film, Guide with Waheeda Rehman was based on the novel of the same name by R. K. Narayan. Dev Anand himself was the impetus for making the film version of the book. He met and persuaded Narayan to give his

98


Dev Anand assent to the project.[10] Dev Anand tapped his friends in Hollywood to launch an Indo-US co-production that was shot in Hindi and English simultaneously and was released in 1965. Guide, directed by younger brother Vijay Anand, was an acclaimed movie. Dev played Raju, a voluble guide, who supports Rosy (Waheeda) in her bid for freedom. He is not above thoughtlessly exploiting her for personal gains. Combining style with substance, he gave an affecting performance as a man grappling with his emotions in his passage through love, shame and salvation. He reunited with Vijay Anand for the movie Jewel Thief, based on thriller genre which featured Vaijayantimala, Tanuja, Anju Mahendru, Faryal and Helen. Their next collaboration, Johny Mera Naam (1970), again a thriller, where Dev was paired opposite Hema Malini was a big hit.[11] It was Johnny Mera Naam which made Hema Malini a big star.[12] His directorial debut, the espionage drama Prem Pujaari, was a flop but has developed a cult following over the years. He tasted success with his 1971 directorial effort, Hare Rama Hare Krishna which talked about the prevalent hippie culture. His find Zeenat Aman, who played the mini-skirt sporting, pot-smoking Janice, became an overnight sensation. Dev also became known as a filmmaker of trenchantly topical themes. This same year, he starred with Mumtaz in Tere Mere Sapne, an adaptation of A. J. Cronin's novel, The Citadel. The film was directed by Dev's brother, Vijay and was also successful. In the 1970s, Raj Kapoor started playing roles of father in films like Kal Aaj Aur Kal in 1971 and Dharam Karam in 1974 and films with Dilip Kumar as lead hero were failures at box office. Some of the hurriedly made films with Dev Anand as the leading man – three each opposite Hema Malini and Zeenat Aman and Yeh Gulistaan Hamara with Sharmila Tagore became flops and posed a threat to his career as leading man. But he delivered hits again and romanced young heroines Yogita Bali and Rakhee in Banarasi Babu(1973), Hema Malini in Chhupa Rustam(1973) and Amir Ghareeb(1974)[13] , Zeenat Aman in Heera Panna(1973), Warrant(1975)[14] and Darling Darling(1977). In 1976, his brother directed a mystery flick named Bullet which though critically acclaimed was not successful at box office. The presence of his 'discoveries' in the 70’s— the Zeenat and later, the Tina Munim in films and his good chemistry with beautiful young stars like Rakhee, Parveen Babi, Hema Malini, Zeenat Aman in various films boosted Dev's image as the evergreen star even though he was well into his fifties. Dev Anand has also been politically active. He led a group of film personalities who stood up against the Internal Emergency imposed by the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi. He actively campaigned against her with his supporters in Indian parliamentary elections in 1977. He also formed a party called the National Party of India, which he later disbanded. The 1978 hit Des Pardes, directed by Dev Anand was the debut was actress Tina Munim and this film’s success gave him the tag of evergreen hero. He was 55 but he shared very good chemistry with the 20 year old Tina Munim. Dev Anand was offered lead role in Man Pasand by director Basu Chatterjee. Dev Anand’s successful run at the box office continued in the 1980’s with Man Pasand, Lootmaar(both opposite Tina Munim), Swami Dada(1982) being both critically acclaimed and box office hits. Though Dev Anand’s demand as the lead hero had not decreased even in the 1980s, he decided that it was the right time to introduce his son Suneil Anand in films as the hero. He launched his son in the Kramer vs. Kramer inspired Anand Aur Anand (1984), which was produced and directed by Dev Anand himself and had music by R.D.Burman. He expected the film to do well but the film was a box office disaster and Suneil Anand decided to not act in films any more. But the of films with Dev Anand as the lead hero Hum Naujawan (1985), Lashkar (1989) and Awwal Number(1990) , where Dev Anand costarred with Aamir Khan were average grossers and appreciated by critics. He was already sixty year old in 1983 when he acted with Padmini Kolhapuri in Swami Dada but did not look old. In 1989, his directorial venture the critically acclaimed Sachché Ka Bolbala was released but it was a commercial failure.

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Dev Anand Since the 1990s except for Awwal Number, rest of the eight films directed by him were box office failures. But Sau Crore (1991) and Censor (2000) were critically acclaimed. Dev Anand has directed 19 films and produced 31 films of which 7 directorial ventures and 18 films respectively were commercially successful at the box office. He wrote the story for 13 of his films. Critics say his directorial ventures have always been ahead of its time. Dev Anand's films are well known for their hit songs. He is known to have been an active participant in the music sessions of a number of his films. His association with music composers Shankar-Jaikishen, O. P. Nayyar, Kalyanji-Anandji, Sachin Dev Burman and his son Rahul Dev Burman, lyricists Hasrat Jaipuri, Majrooh Sultanpuri, Neeraj, Shailendra, Anand Bakshi, and playback singers Mohammad Rafi and Kishore Kumar produced some very popular songs. S.D Burman, R.D Burman, Rafi and Kishore Kumar were his special friends.[15] In September 2007, Dev's own autobiography "Romancing with Life" was released at a birthday party with the Indian Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. [16] In February 2011, his 1961 black and white film Hum Dono was digitised and colourised and released. Dev Anand is credited with giving actors like Jackie Shroff in Swami Dada, Tabu in Hum Naujawan and Richa Sharma a break into the film industry and encouraging music composer Rajesh Roshan. Amit Khanna started his career with Navketan as executive producer in 1971 and had been secretary to Dev Anand in 70's.[17]

Awards, honours and recognitions Filmfare Awards • • • • • • •

1955 - Nominated Best Actor for Munimji[18] 1958 - Winner Best Actor for Kalapani[19] 1959 - Nominated Best Actor for Love Marriage[20] 1960 - Nominated Best Actor for Kala Bazar 1961 - Nominated Best Actor for Hum Dono[21] 1966 - Winner Best Film for Guide[22] 1991 - Winner Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award[23]

National honours and recognitions • 1996 - Star Screen Lifetime Achievement Award • 1997 - "Mumbai Academy of Moving Images Award" for his Outstanding Services to the Indian Film Industry. [24] • 1998 - "Lifetime Achievement Award" by the Ujala Anandlok Film Awards Committee in Calcutta. [24] • 1999 - Sansui "Lifetime Achievement Award" for his 'Immense Contribution to Indian Cinema' in New Delhi. [24] • 2000 - Film Goers' "Mega Movie Maestro of the Millennium" Award in Mumbai. [24] • 2001 - Padma Bhushan Award (India's third highest civilian award from the Government of India). [25] • 2001 - "Special Screen Award" for his contribution to Indian cinema. [26] • 2001 - "Evergreen Star of the Millennium" Award at the Zee Gold Bollywood Awards [27] • 2002 - Dadasaheb Phalke Award, India's highest award for cinematic excellence • 2003 - "Lifetime Achievement Award" for ‘Outstanding Achievement in Indian Cinema’ at IIFA Award [28] in Johannesburg, South Africa. [24] • 2004 - "Legend of Indian Cinema" Award at Atlantic City (United States). [29] • 2004 - "Living Legend Award" by the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in recognition of his contribution to the Indian entertainment industry. [30] • 2005 - "Sony Golden Glory Award" [31]

100


Dev Anand • 2006 - "ANR Award" by the Akkineni International Foundation. [32] • 2006 - "Glory of India Award" by IIAF, London. [33] • 2007 - "Punjab Ratan" (Jewel of Punjab) Award by the World Punjabi Organisation (European Division) for his outstanding contribution in the field of art and entertainment. [34] • 2008 - "Lifetime Achievement Award" by Ramya Cultural Academy in association with Vinmusiclub [35] • 2008 - "Lifetime Achievement Award" by Rotary Club of Bombay [36] • 2008 - Awarded at the IIJS Solitaire Awards [37] • 2009 - Outstanding contribution to Indian cinema at the Max Stardust Awards [38] [39] • 2010 - "Phalke Ratna Award" by Dadasaheb Phalke Academy. [40] [41] • He is also a recipient of the Rashtriya Gaurav Award [42]

International honors and recognitions • In July 2000, in New York City, he was honoured by an Award at the hands of the then First Lady of the United States of America - Mrs. Hillary Rodham Clinton - for his 'Outstanding Contribution to Indian Cinema'. [24] • In 2000, he was awarded the Indo-American Association "Star of the Millennium" Award in the Silicon Valley, California. [24] • Donna Ferrar, Member New York State Assembly, honoured him with a "New York State Assembly Citation" for his 'Outstanding Contribution to the Cinematic Arts Worthy of the Esteem and Gratitude of the Great State of New York' on 1 May 2001. [24] • In 2005, he was honoured with a "Special National Film Award" by the Government of Nepal at Nepal’s first NationIndian film festival in Stockholm. • In 2008 he was guest of honour at a dinner hosted by the Provost of Highland Council in Inverness, Scotland to celebrate 10 years since he first worked in the Scottish Highlands. He spent several days in the area, en route to Cannes, as a guest of the Highlands and Islands Film Commission. [43].

References [1] Hindus Contribution Towards Making Of Pakistan (http:/ / www. modernghana. com/ blogs/ 268394/ 31/ hindus-contribution-towards-making-of-pakistan. html) 22 May 2010 Retrieved 28 January 2011 [2] Page 1, Romancing with Life - an autobiography by Dev Anand, Penguin books India 2007 [3] http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ guru-dutt [4] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ ie/ daily/ 19980130/ 03051004. html [5] http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ suraiya [6] http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2008/ 20080309/ spectrum/ main7. htm [7] http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ gallerydetails. aspx?category=Movies& id=2574& picno=12& section=Bollywood& ShowID=0#BD [8] http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ slide-show/ slide-show-1-dev-anand-on-his-actresses/ 20110203. htm [9] http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ gallerydetails. aspx?category=Movies& id=2574& picno=7& section=Bollywood& ShowID=0#BD [10] http:/ / articles. economictimes. indiatimes. com/ 2008-01-20/ news/ 28410009_1_lifetime-achievement-award-dev-anand-silicon-city [11] http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ slide-show/ slide-show-1-dev-anand-on-his-actresses/ 20110203. htm [12] http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ hema-malini [13] http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=180& catName=MTk3NA== [14] http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=181& catName=MTk3NQ== [15] http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ gallerydetails. aspx?category=Movies& id=2574& picno=13& section=Bollywood& ShowID=0#BD [16] http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ sep/ 27look. htm [17] http:/ / articles. economictimes. indiatimes. com/ 2009-08-30/ news/ 27641581_1_dev-saab-des-pardes-hare-rama-hare-krishna [18] "The Nominations - 1955" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ articleshow/ 366347. cms). Filmfare Awards. . Retrieved 15 December 2010. [19] "The Winners 1958" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 366376. cms). Filmfare Awards. . Retrieved 15 December 2010. [20] "The Nominations - 1959" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ articleshow/ 366382. cms). Filmfare Awards. . Retrieved 15 December 2010. [21] "The Nominations - 1960" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ articleshow/ 366400. cms). Filmfare Awards. . Retrieved 15 December 2010.

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Dev Anand [22] "The Winners - 1966" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 366585. cms). Filmfare Awards. . Retrieved 15 December 2010. [23] "Lifetime Achievement (Popular)" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ cms. dll/ articleshow?artid=33782146). Filmfare Awards. . Retrieved 15 December 2010. [24] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0007147/ bio [25] http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 2001/ jan/ 25josy. htm [26] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0007147/ awards [27] http:/ / www. bollywoodawards. com [28] http:/ / www. iifa. com [29] http:/ / movies. indiainfo. com/ newsbytes/ devanand_112204. html [30] http:/ / www. redhotcurry. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ march_2004/ living_legends. htm [31] http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2005/ 02/ 28/ stories/ 2005022809430300. htm [32] http:/ / www. idlebrain. com/ news/ functions/ announcement-anraward2006. html [33] http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1070525/ asp/ jamshedpur/ story_7742079. asp [34] http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ happenings/ 20071020-0. html [35] http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ happenings/ 20080122-0. html [36] http:/ / www. radiosargam. com/ films/ archives/ 12873/ dev-anand-honoured-by-roatary-club-of-bombay. html [37] http:/ / www. radiosargam. com/ films/ archives/ 14887/ dev-anand-sunil-shetty-and-asha-parekh-awarded-at-iijs-solitaire-awards. html [38] http:/ / bollywoodlens. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 02/ stardust-awards-2009. html [39] http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2009/ 02/ 16/ 4855/ index. html [40] http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ entertainment/ 2010/ may/ 010410-dadasaheb-phalke-awards. htm [41] http:/ / indiatoday. intoday. in/ site/ PhotoGallery?gId=0& photocat=2 [42] http:/ / www. i-newswire. com/ environmentalist-ajay-jain-awarded/ 18301 [43] http:/ / entertainment. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ film/ bollywood/ article3754037. ece

External links • Dev Anand (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0007147/) at the Internet Movie Database • Dev Anand (http://twitter.com/#!/itsmedevanand) on Twitter • List of Dev Anand songs (http://www.bollango.com/cgi-bin/akf_search.tcl?key=song&actor=dev+anand)

102


Devika Rani

103

Devika Rani Devika Rani

Born

Devika Rani Chaudhuri March 30, 1908 Visakhapatnam, British India

Died

March 9, 1994 (aged 85) Bangalore, India

Other names The Dragon Lady Years active

1925 - 1943 ( As An Actress)

Spouse

Himanshu Rai (1929 - 1940 His Death) Svetoslav Roerich (1945 - 1993 His Death)

Devika Rani Chaudhuri Roerich (Bengali: দেবিকা রাণী) (Telugu: దేవికా రాణి) (30 March 1908 – 9 March 1994) was an early Indian movie star.

Career Born in Waltair (now Visakhapatnam), Devika Rani came from a distinguished background: she was the great-grandniece of the Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore and her father, Col. M. N. Chaudhuri, was the first Indian Surgeon-General of Madras. Her mother's name was Leela. She completed her early schooling in the early 1920s. She then studied drama at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) and the Royal Academy of Music in London, UK, where she won scholarships. She also studied architecture, textile and decor design, and apprenticed under Elizabeth Arden. Here, through her Brahmo connections, she met with scriptwriter Niranjan Pal who would eventually write many of her most successful screen roles. Devika Rani married Indian producer and actor Himanshu Rai in 1929. Together they starred in Karma (1933). They soon founded the Bombay Talkies film studio, along with retainers Niranjan Pal and Franz Osten, whose films challenged the caste system. In addition to Devika Rani, other notable actors to work for Bombay Talkies at one point or another included Ashok Kumar and Madhubala.


Devika Rani

104 In 1936, Devika Rani eloped with her lover actor Najam-ul-Hassan. Himanshu Rai somehow managed to bring her back but her paramour did not return. And the studio head Himanshu Rai called upon his laboratory assistant Ashok Kumar to take the leading man's part and thus began a six-decade-long acting career for that actor. Ashok Kumar later starred with the actress in Achhut Kanya (1936). This, her most notable film, is the story of a relationship between an untouchable girl (played by herself) and a Brahmin boy (played by Ashok Kumar).

Devika Rani and Ashok Kumar in Achhut Kanya, 1936.

Devika Rani is also accredited for having acted in the longest kissing scene in the movie world with her husband Himanshu Rai in Karma (1933). It was 4 minutes long and very controversial in the then culturally orthodox India.[1]

Later life Widowed in 1940, she fought for control of her husband's studio Bombay Talkies, she had to share control with Sashadhar Mukherjee, but in 1943 Sashadhar, Ashok Kumar and a lot of Bombay talkies veterans left and formed a new studio - Filmistan. After that Bombay Talkies started to fade and she married Russian painter Svetoslav Roerich in 1945. She left films and joined her husband in Bangalore [2] in their sprawling estate 'Tataguni' on Kanakpura Road, where she lived till her death in 1994, though maintained her link with the film industry... In 1958, the President of India honoured Devika Rani with a Padma Shri. In 1970, she became the first recipient of the prestigious film prize, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award. At her funeral, Devika Rani was given full state honors. The Tataguni estate became famous for the dispute that ensued over it after her death as the Indian and Russian governments and relatives went to court over its control.

Trivia • Devika Rani is best remembered for her discovery of Dilip Kumar. • Despite being an actress of the Thirties, she was most accomplished and modern in every sense. • She was a student of architecture in London and met Himanshu Rai there, where she had agreed to design the sets for his film production.... • Mr.Rai was the only Indian producer with the famous German film concern U.F.A. in Berlin. At the U.F.A. Studios, Devika Rani learnt costumes designing, make-up, decor and other different branches of film production with special training in acting. • At the time, Devika Rani also acted with Himansu Rai in a play for U.F.A. which took them to Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries, where they were received with the highest honours. • It was in "KARMA" that Devika Rani established herself as a "star" of first magnitude. During the screening of "KARMA", Devika Rani was honoured by an invitation of the B.B.C. at London to act in the first television broadcast in Britain which was relayed throughout the country. She was also chosen to inaugurate the first B.B.C. broadcast on the short wave length to India. • She was a member of the Central Government Audio Visual Education Board. • She was also nominated to the National Academy of Dance, Drama, Music and Films, the Sangeet Natak Akademi, Delhi, as a nominee of the Central Government. • She was a member of the Executive Board of the National Academy, Member of the Lalit Kala Akademi and the National Handicrafts Board and Member of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations. • Equally invaluable is the prestigious Soviet Land Nehru award conferred on her in 1989.


Devika Rani

Family background Devika Rani was the great grandniece of Rabindranath Tagore. Devika Rani's maternal grandmother Indumati Devi was the daughter of Tagore's elder sister Saudamini Devi; she thus is related matrilineally to Tagore. Her father M N Chaudhuri also belonged to an illustrious family of Bengal. Her uncles, i.e. her father's brothers, were famous men, like Justice Sir Ashutosh Chaudhuri, Barrister Jogesh Chandra Chaudhuri, and author Pramatha Chaudhuri.

References [1] Plot summary of Karma (1933) in IMDb page (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0155799/ plotsummary) [2] http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ 20020503/ fspe. html

External links • The Roerich & Devika Rani estate board, Karnataka Govt, India (http://www.roerich.kar.nic.in/ svetoslav_roerich.htm) • http://www.screenindia.com/20020503/fspe.html • http://www.tribuneindia.com/2001/20011215/windows/main1.htm • Devika Rani (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0710151/) at the Internet Movie Database

105


Dharmendra

106

Dharmendra Dharmendra

Dharmendra at IIFA press conference Personal details Born

December 8, 1935 Phagwara, Punjab, India

Spouse(s)

Prakash Kaur (1954–present) Hema Malini (1980–present)

Children

Sunny Deol (Ajay Singh Deol) Bobby Deol (Vijay Singh Deol) Esha Deol Ahana Deol Ajeita Deol Vijeta Deol

Residence

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Actor, Producer, Politician

As of October 8, 2010 [1] Source: Link

Dharmendra Singh Deol (Hindi: धर्मेंद्र सिंह देओल, Punjabi: ਧਰਮਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਦਿਉਲ, born 8 December 1935 in Punjab), better known as Dharmendra, is an award-winning Hindi film actor who has appeared in more than 247 Hindi-language films up to 2011. In 1997, he received the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award for his contribution to Hindi cinema. He is often referred to as the "Action King" of Hindi cinema having starred in numerous action films and is considered a living legend. He is father of notable actors Sunny Deol, Bobby Deol and Esha Deol. He was the main lead of the all-time blockbuster film, Sholay (1975) and also went on to star in numerous successful Bollywood films cutting across five decades. Dharmendra has thus established himself as one of the most prominent figures of the Hindi film industry.[2]


Dharmendra

Early life He was born into a Punjabi Jatt Sikh family[3] in Punjab state to Kewal Kishan Singh Deol[4] and Satwant Kaur. He spent his early life at village Sahnewal, Ludhiana. His father was a school headmaster in the village of Lalton Ludhiana where the family later moved.[5] At the peak of his film career he was considered the most handsome actor in Bollywood and a matinĂŠe idol. He was a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India representing Bikaner constituency in Rajasthan from Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). He was awarded the Lifetime achievement award for his contribution to Hindi cinema at the 2007 IIFA Awards.[6]

Film career Dharmendra won the Filmfare new talent award and came to Mumbai from Punjab looking for work.[7] Starting with Arjun Hingorani's Dil Bhi Tera Hum Bhi Tere (1960),[8] he worked in several romantic black and white films in the early 1960s, hitting solo hero stardom with Phool Aur Patthar (1966). At the start of his career, he was usually cast as a romantic hero and later in the period from 1974 onwards as an action hero.[9] He starred with several leading actresses at the beginning of his career. He worked with Nutan in Soorat Aur Seerat (1962) and Bandini (1963), Mala Sinha in Anpadh (1962) and Pooja Ke Phool (1964), Saira Banu in Shaadi (1962) and Ayee Milan Ki Bela (1964) and with Meena Kumari in Main Bhi Ladki Hoon (1964), Kaajal (1965), Poornima (1965) and Phool Aur Paththar (1966). Phool Aur Paththar became the highest grossing film of 1966 and Dharmendra received his first Filmfare nomination for Best Actor.[10] He formed a very successful pairing with actresses like Meena Kumari, Saira Banu, Sharmila Tagore, Mumtaz, Asha Parekh, Rekha, Zeenat Aman and Hema Malini. His most successful pairing was with Hema Malini, who went on to become his future wife.[8] They formed a hit pair delivering phenomenal hits like, Raja Jani, Seeta Aur Geeta, Sharafat, Tum Haseen Main Jawaan, Jugnu, Dost, Charas, Maa, Chacha Bhatija, Azaad, Teesri Aankh and Sholay. The 1980 film, The Burning Train also saw the Dharam-Hema chemistry in full flight. His most notable acting performance was Satyakam with Hrishikesh Mukherjee[11] and Sholay, where he appeared as the inimitable Veeru.[9] Sholay went on to become one of the biggest hits in the history of Hindi cinema and is listed by Indiatimes as one of the "top 25 must see Bollywood films of all time".[12] Dharmendra went on to star in numerous successful Bollywood films in the 1970s and 80s like Pratigya, Dharam Veer, Charas, Azaad, Katilon Ke Kaatil, Ghazab, Bhagavat, Dharam Aur Kanoon, Hukumat, Raaj Tilak, Watan Ke Rakhwale, Aag Hi Aag, Ghulami, Hathyar and Loha. He has worked with various directors, each having different styles in their film-making, like Bimal Roy and Mohan Kumar in drama films, Yash Chopra and Raghunath Jhalani in romance films, Raj Khosla, Ramesh Sippy, Arjun Hingorani, Anil Sharma and Rajkumar Santoshi in action films and Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Basu Chatterji and Rajkumar Kohli in comedy films.[13] He also has the distinction of appearing in quite a few films opposite actresses who have also starred opposite his son Sunny Deol. Notable amongst those are Sridevi in Naaka Bandi, Jaya Prada in Elaan-E-Jung, Dimple Kapadia in Shehzaade, Amrita Singh in Sachai Ki Taaqat, Kimi Katkar in Humlaa and Poonam Dhillon in Sone Pe Suhaaga.[14] He has also periodically done films in his native tongue of Punjabi, starring in Do Sher (1974), Dukh Bhanjan Tera Naam (1974), Teri Meri Ik Jindri (1975), Putt Jattan De (1982) and Qurbani Jatt Di (1990). Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, he continued to appear in many more films playing leading roles or supporting roles. In 1997, he received the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award. While receiving the award from Dilip Kumar and his wife Saira Banu, Dharmendra became emotional and remarked that he never received any Filmfare award in the Best Actor category despite having worked in so many successful films and nearly a hundred popular movies. He was glad that his contributions had finally been recognized.[15] Speaking on the occasion Dilip Kumar commented, "Whenever I get to meet with God Almighty I will set before Him my only complaint-why did You not make me as handsome as

107


Dharmendra

108

Dharmendra?".[16] He has also experimented with film production; he launched both of his sons in films: Sunny Deol in Betaab (1983) and Bobby Deol in Barsaat (1995) as well as his nephew Abhay Deol in Socha Na Tha (2005).[17] In one of her interviews, actress Priety Zinta has been quoted as saying that Dharmendra is her favourite actor. She has gone on to recommend him to play her father's role in Har Pal (2008).[18] After a few years hiatus from acting since the early 2000s, he is reappearing in films as a character actor. His 2007 films Life in a Metro and Apne were both successful at the box office. In the latter, he appears with both his sons, Sunny and Bobby for the first time.[19] His other release was Johnny Gaddaar, where he played a villainous role. His latest film Yamla Pagla Deewana co-starring his sons Sunny and Bobby was released on January 14, 2011.[20]

Television In 2011, Dharmendra replaced Sajid Khan as the male judge of the third series of popular reality show India's Got Talent.[21] On 29 July 2011, India's Got Talent aired on Colors with Dharmendra as the new judge and surpassed the opening ratings of the previous two seasons.[22]

Political career Dharmendra has also been active in politics. He was elected as a Member of the Parliament in the 2004 general elections, from Bikaner in Rajasthan, on a Bharatiya Janata Party ticket. During his election campaign, he made an ironic remark that he should be elected Dictator Perpetuus[23] to teach "basic etiquette that democracy requires" for which he was severely criticized.[24] Dharmendra has rarely attended the Parliament when the house was in session, preferring to spend the time shooting for movies or doing farm-work at his farm house.[25] He has also not participated in any debates or raised any queries.[26] Along with actor Govinda, Dharmendra has been criticised for ignoring his duties as a Member of Parliament.[27]

All India Jat Mahasabha Centenary Celebrations 2007, Seen in the image are Dharmendra, Dara Singh and Kamal Patel

Personal life Dharmendra maintained two relationships at same time . His first marriage was to Prakash Kaur at the age of 19 in 1954. His second marriage took place with actress Hema Malini. They are said to have fallen in love on the set of Sholay (1975) although they had made films together before.[28] He married Hema while he was still married to his first wife Prakash Kaur.[29] [30] [31] According to some reports, he converted to Islam before marrying her.[32] From his first marriage, he has two sons, Sunny Deol and Bobby Deol who are also successful actors, and two daughters named Vijeeta and Ajeeta. From his second marriage to Hema Malini, Dharmendra has two daughters Esha Deol, who is an actress and Ahana Deol. Dharmendra was also romantically involved with his Phool Aur Patthar co-star Meena Kumari.[33] Dharmendra has gone on record saying he does not believe that the Mumbai film industry is a place suitable for girls. He was unperturbed by his sons Sunny and Bobby joining the industry, but was vocal about his displeasure regarding his daughter Esha's choice of profession.[30]


Dharmendra

109

Awards Filmfare Awards Winner • 1991 – Filmfare Award For Best Film/Producer for Ghayal • 1997 – Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award for his contribution to Indian Cinema. Nominated • 1984 – Filmfare Best Comedian Award for Naukar Biwi Ka • 1965 – Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award for Ayee Milan Ki Bela • Filmfare Best Actor Award – Nominated 1967 Phool Aur Patthar – Shakti Singh/Shaaka 1972 Mera Gaon Mera Desh – Ajit 1974 Yaadon Ki Baaraat – Shankar 1975 Resham Ki Dori – Ajit Singh

Other Awards and recognitions • In the mid seventies, he was voted as one of the most handsome men in the world, a feat only repeated by Salman Khan (from Bollywood) in 2004.[34] • He has received the World Iron Man award.[35] • He has also received a Special Award for "contribution in Indian Cinema" at the Kalakar Awards. • He is a recipient of the prestigious "Living Legend Award" by the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the Indian entertainment industry.[36]

Dharmendra receiving his life achievement award 2007 from Swiss producer Johannes Boesiger

• In 2003 he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Sansui Viewers' Choice Movie Awards.[37] • In 2004, he was honoured for Best Contribution to Indian Cinema.[38] • • • • • • • • • • • •

In 2005, he received the Zee Cine Award for Lifetime Achievement. In 2007, he was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Pune International Film Festival (PIFF). In 2007, he received an IIFA Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2007, he received an award for Humanitarian Services to the Indian Nation.[39] In 2007, he was awarded a Lifetime Achievement award by DBR Entertainment.[40] In 2007, the Punjabi newspaper Quami Ekta honoured him for his contributions to the Indian cinema.[40] In 2008, he was named "Actor Par Excellence" at the Max Stardust Awards.[41] In 2008, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 10th Mumbai Academy of the Moving Image International Film (M.A.M.I).[42] In 2009, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Nashik International Film Festival (NIFF).[43] In 2010, he was honoured as the Big Star Entertainer for his 50 years of excellence at the Big Star Entertainment Awards.[44] In 2011, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Apsara Film and Television Producers Guild Awards.[45] In 2011, he received a "Salaaam Maharashtra Award" for completion of 50 years in the film industry.[46]

• In 2011, he was honoured with "Outstanding Performance For The Last 50 Years" award at the Global Indian Film & Television Honors.[47] • In 2011, he was honoured with the Dadasaheb Phalke Ratna award.[48]


Dharmendra

110

• In 2011, he was nominated for Bhaskar Bollywood Awards - Jodi number 1 for Yamla Pagla Deewana with Sunny Deol and Bobby Deol.[49]

Filmography Latest films Year

Title

2007 Metro

Role

Notes

Amol

Apne

Baldev Singh Chaudhary

Johnny Gaddaar

Sheshadri

Om Shanti Om

Himself

Himself in song Deewangi Deewangi

2011 Yamla Pagla Deewana Dharam Singh Tell Me O Kkhuda

Post Production

References [1] http:/ / 164. 100. 24. 209/ newls/ homepage. aspx?mpsno=4003 [2] "Top Box Office Draws of Indian Cinema" (http:/ / ibosnetwork. com/ asp/ topactors. asp?isactress=false). Ibosnetwork,com. . Retrieved 2010-11-20. [3] Chatterjee, Saibal; Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi cinema. Popular Prakashan. p. 547. ISBN 8179910660. "Born in Village sahnewal, Distt Kapurthala, Punjab, Dharmendra Deol was fascinated by cinema from an early age." [4] Sumbly, Vimal (4 January 2002). "Dharmendra walks down memory lane" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2002/ 20020104/ ldh1. htm). Ludhiana Tribune. . Retrieved 2009-04-08. [5] Sumbly, Vimal (2 May 2004). "From Ludhiana to Bikaner in support of Dharmendra" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20040503/ ldh1. htm#2). Ludhiana Tribune. . Retrieved 2009-04-08. [6] "Dharmendra - Awards" (http:/ / popcorn. oneindia. in/ artist-awards/ 1622/ 4/ dharmendra. html). One India. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [7] "Dharmendra - Action King: Humble Beginnings" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=1101& pg=0& view=0). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [8] "Dharmendra - Action King: Romantic hero" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=1101& pg=1& view=1). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [9] "Dharmendra - Action King: Action Hero" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=1101& pg=2& view=2). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [10] "Dharmendra charms the Big Apple" (http:/ / movies. rediff. com/ slide-show/ 2009/ sep/ 22/ slide-show-1-dharmendra-wows-new-york. htm). Rediff. 22 September 2009. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [11] Dinesh Raheja. "Satyakam: Dharmendra's career best role" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2003/ mar/ 15dinesh. htm). Rediff. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [12] Kanwar, Rachna (3 October 2005). "25 Must See Bollywood Movies" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080822132837/ http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ Special_Features/ 25_Must_See_Bollywood_Movies/ articleshow/ msid-1250837,curpg-10. cms). Indiatimes movies. Archived from the original (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ Special_Features/ 25_Must_See_Bollywood_Movies/ articleshow/ msid-1250837,curpg-10. cms) on 2008-08-22. . Retrieved 2010-11-08. [13] "Dharmendra - Action King: Comic learnings" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=1101& pg=3& view=3). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [14] "Dharmendra - Biography" (http:/ / in. movies. yahoo. com/ artists/ Dharmendra/ biography-3730. html). Yahoo! Movies. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [15] "The real stars of Bollywood" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ mar/ 11corner. htm). Rediff. 11 March 2004. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [16] "I was the Salman Khan of my days: Dharmendra" (http:/ / www. financialexpress. com/ news/ i-was-the-salman-khan-of-my-days-dharmendra/ 495016/ 0). Financial Express. 28 July 2009. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [17] "Initial roadblocks were blessing in disguise: Abhay Deol" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ initial-roadblocks-were-blessing-in-disguise-abhay-deol/ 654998/ 0). Indian Express. 2010-08-02. . Retrieved 2011-01-14. [18] Lambok Nongspung (2007-11-01). "Preity, Dharmendra in Shillong" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ nov/ 01shg. htm). Rediff. . Retrieved 2011-01-20.


Dharmendra [19] "'It's good that I did not get any award'" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ jun/ 01slid1. htm). Rediff. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [20] "Yamla Pagla Deewana highlights – Deol show" (http:/ / entertainment. oneindia. in/ bollywood/ features/ 2011/ yamla-pagla-deewana-highlight-deols-130111-aid0064. html). One India. . Retrieved 2011-01-14. [21] "Bollywood's lucky for TV" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ bollywoods-lucky-for-tv/ 827205/ ). Indian Express. . Retrieved 5 August 2011. [22] "Dharmendra fetches higher ratings for India's Got Talent-3" (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2011-08-04/ tv/ 29850204_1_reality-show-tvr-average-rating). Times of India. . Retrieved 6 August 2011. [23] "Dharmendra wants to be dictator" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 622339. cms). Times of India. 2004-04-17. . Retrieved 2 January 2009. [24] "Congress makes Dharam garam" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ election/ 2004/ apr/ 23dtake. htm). Rediff. 23 April 2004. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [25] "Dharmendra - Action King: Political career" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=1101& pg=6& view=6). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [26] Lok Sabha Home Page (http:/ / 164. 100. 47. 134/ newls/ homepage. aspx?mpsno=4003) [27] "Celebrity MPs among top absentees from Parliament" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ India/ Celebrity-MPs-among-top-absentees/ articleshow/ 4367239. cms). Times of India [28] "Dharmendra - Action King: Personal life" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=1101& pg=4& view=4). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [29] Gupta, Suchandana (17 April 2004). "Plea against Dharmendra" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 621498. cms). Times of India. . Retrieved 2009-04-10. [30] "People" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ radio/ aod/ asiannetwork_aod. shtml?asiannet/ sonia_dharmendrarm). BBC Asian Network. . Retrieved 2006-09-18. [31] "Dharmendra walks down memory lane" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2002/ 20020104/ ldh1. htm). . Retrieved 23 December was to the Bollywood actress Hema Malini.. [32] "'Dharmendra embraced Islam to marry Hema'" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ fullstory. php?newsid=30538). Indian Express. 19 April 2004. . Retrieved 20 January 2011. [33] Zaveri, Hanif (2005). Mehmood, a Man of Many Moods. Popular Prakashan. pp. 81–84. ISBN 8179912132. [34] Koimoi.com Team. "Dacoit To Con Man: Dharmendra Posters On His Birthday!" (http:/ / www. koimoi. com/ bollywood-news/ bollywood-latest/ dacoit-to-con-man-dharmendra-posters-on-his-birthday/ ). Koimoi.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-12. [35] "Top ten action heroes of Bollywood" (http:/ / filmyworld. com/ 03/ top-ten-action-heroes-of-bollywood/ ). filmyworld.com. . Retrieved 6 August 2011. [36] Rangaraj, R (2007-03-14). "FICCI-Frames award for Kamal Haasan" (http:/ / archives. chennaionline. com/ film/ News/ 2007/ 03article09. asp). Channai Online. . Retrieved 2 January 2009. [37] "Devdas sweeps movie awards". The Statesman. 2003-03-29. [38] "Hrithik, Urmila win top honours at Zee awards". The Express. 2004-02-27. [39] TNN, Dec 16, 2007, 12.00am IST (2007-12-16). "Dharmendra gets an award – Sunday TOI – Home – The Times of India" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 2625065. cms). Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-12. [40] "'Garam Dharam' still a hit with fans in US, Canada" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200707060323. htm). The Hindu. 2007-07-06. . Retrieved 2 January 2009. [41] "Winners of Max Stardust Awards 2008" (http:/ / indiafm. com/ features/ 2008/ 01/ 26/ 3514/ index. html). IndiaFM. 2008-01-26. . Retrieved 2 January 2009. [42] "Dharmendra, Rishi Kapoor win at 10th M.A.M.I event" (http:/ / www. ibosnetwork. com/ newsmanager/ templates/ template1. aspx?articleid=21234& zoneid=4). IBOS. 2008-03-14. . Retrieved 2 January 2009. [43] "Dharamendra, Asha Parekh get lifetime achievement award" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ dharamendra-asha-parekh-get-lifetime-achievement-award/ 497393/ ). Indianexpress.com. 2009-08-03. . Retrieved 2010-07-12. [44] Kalyani Prasad Keshri. "Dabangg bags 5 Big Star Entertainment Awards" (http:/ / entertainment. oneindia. in/ bollywood/ news/ 2010/ dabangg-bigstar-entertainment-awards-221210. html). One India. . Retrieved 2010-12-22. [45] Bollywood Hungama News Network (January 11, 2011). "Winners of 6th Apsara Film & Television Producers Guild Awards" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2011/ 01/ 11/ 7008/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-12. [46] "Dharmendra Bags 'Salaam Maharashtra Award' For 50 Years In B'Town!" (http:/ / in. movies. yahoo. com/ news-detail/ 113210/ Dharmendra-Bags-Salaam-Maharashtra-Award-For-50-Years-In-BTown. html). Movietalkies (Yahoo! Movies). . Retrieved 2011-02-01. [47] Bollywood Hungama News Network (12 February 2011). "Winners of 1st Global Indian Film & Television Honors 2011" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2011/ 02/ 12/ 7095/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 2011-02-14. [48] "Dadasaheb Phalke awards 2011" (http:/ / www. breakingnewsonline. net/ entertainment/ 8384-dadasaheb-phalke-academy-awards-2011. html). breakingnewsonline. . Retrieved 6 August 2011. [49] "Bhaskar Bollywood Awards" (http:/ / www. bhaskar. com/ bollywood-awards). bhaskar.com. . Retrieved 6 August 2011.

• My first Break (http://www.thehindu.com/arts/cinema/article868667.ece) The Hindu

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Dharmendra

External links • • • •

Dharmendra (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004429/) at the Internet Movie Database Official Webcite (http://vijaytafilms.com/) Dharmendra at Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/TheDeols) Deols Official You Tube Channel (http://www.youtube.com/user/TheDeolsOfficial)

112


Dilip Kumar

113

Dilip Kumar Dilip Kumar

Dilip Kumar in 2006. Born

Yusuf Khan 11 December 1922 Peshawar, British India (now Pakistan)

Residence

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Other names

Dilip Sahaab

Occupation

Actor, Producer, Director, Politician

Years active

1944–1998 (retired)

Religion

Islam

Spouse

Saira Banu (1966–present)

Mohammed Yusuf Khan[1] (Urdu: ‫( )ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺧﺎﻥ‬Hindi: यूसुफ़ ख़ान) (born 11 December 1922)[2] , popularly known with nickname Dilip Kumar (Hindi: दिलीप कुमार), is an Indian actor and a former Member of Parliament. He lives in Pali Hill, Bandra in Mumbai, India. He is commonly known as "Tragedy King",[3] and is described as "the ultimate method actor" by Satyajit Ray.[4] Starting his career in 1944, Kumar's career has spanned five decades and over 60 films. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest actors in the history of Hindi Cinema.[5] [6] [7] Kumar was the first actor to receive a Filmfare Best Actor Award and holds the record for the most number of Filmfare Awards won for that category along with Shahrukh Khan; 8 wins.[8] He starred in a wide variety of roles such as the romantic Andaz (1949), the swashbuckling Aan (1952), the dramatic Devdas (1955), the comical Azaad (1955), the historical Mughal-e-Azam (1960) and the social Ganga Jamuna (1961). In 1976, Kumar had a five-year break from film performances. In 1981, he returned with a character role in the film Kranti and continued his career playing central character roles in films such as Shakti (1982), Karma (1986) and Saudagar (1991). His last film was Qila in 1998. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1991 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1994 for his contributions towards Indian cinema.


Dilip Kumar

Early life Dilip Kumar was born Muhammad Yusuf Khan at Mohallah Khudadad, in Qissa Khwani Bazaar in Peshawar, British India (now Pakistan). He was born to a Hindko-speaking Peshawari family with twelve children. His father, Lala Ghulam Sarwar, was a fruit merchant who owned large orchards in Peshawar and Deolali in Maharashtra near Nashik. The family relocated to Bombay (now Mumbai) in the 1930s and in the early 1940s Yusuf Khan moved to Pune and started a canteen business and supplying dried fruits.[9] In 1943, actress Devika Rani, who was also the wife of the founder of the Bombay Talkies film studio, Himanshu Rai, helped Khan's entry into the Bollywood film industry. Hindi Author Bhagwati Charan Varma gave him the screen name Dilip Kumar and gave him the leading role in his film Jwar Bhata (1944). Devika Rani and her husband Svetoslav Roerich spotted Khan in one of Pune's Aundh military canteens.[9]

Career His first film with Nisar Bhai and Hamed Bhai Jwar Bhata was released in 1944 which went unnoticed. His Dilip Kumar birth place at Mohallah Khudadad, Peshawar, Pakistan first major hit was the 1947 film Jugnu. He appeared in many hits thereafter including the romantic melodramas Mela (1948), Andaz (1949), Deedar (1951), Daag (1954), Devdas (1955), Yahudi (1958) and Madhumati (1958). These films established his screen image as the "Tragedy King".[10] He also played lighthearted roles in films such as Aan (1952), Azaad (1955) and Kohinoor (1960). In 1960 he portrayed Prince Salim in the historical film Mughal-e-Azam which as of 2008 was the second highest grossing film in Hindi film history.[11] In 1961 he produced and starred in Ganga Jamuna in which he and his real-life brother Nasir Khan played the title roles. This was the only film he produced. In 1962 British director David Lean offered him the role of Sherif Ali in his 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia, but Kumar declined the part.[12] The role eventually went to Omar Sharif, the Egyptian actor. His next film Leader (1964) was below average at the box office.[13] In 1967 Dilip Kumar played a dual role of twins separated at birth in the hit film Ram Aur Shyam. His career slumped in the 1970s with films like Dastaan (1970) and Bairaag (1976) where he played triple roles failing at the box office.[14] [15] He took a five year hiatus from films from 1976 to 1981.[9] In 1981 he returned with the multi-starrer Kranti which was the biggest hit of the year.[16] He went onto play character roles in hit films including Shakti (1982), Vidhaata (1982), Mashaal (1984) and Karma (1986).[16] In 1991 he starred alongside veteran actor Raaj Kumar in Saudagar which was his last successful film.[17] In 1993 he won the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award. In 1996 he was attached to make his directorial debut with a film titled Kalinga but the film was shelved. In 1998 he made his last film appearance in the unsuccessful film Qila where once again he played dual roles as an evil landowner and his twin brother investigating his death. His films Mughal-E-Azam and Naya Daur were fully colorized and re-released in 2004 and 2008 respectively.

114


Dilip Kumar

115

Public life Kumar has been active in efforts to bring the people of India and Pakistan closer together. He has been a member of the upper house of Parliament since 2000.[9] He was awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1994. In 1998 he was awarded the Nishan-e-Pakistan, the highest civilian award conferred by the government of Pakistan. He is the second Indian to receive the award. At the time of the Kargil War, Shiv Sena chief Bal Thackeray demanded Kumar return his Nishan-e-Pakistan, arguing that "He must return Nishan-e-Imtiaz following that country's blatant aggression on Indian soil."[18] Kumar refused, saying: "This award was given to me for the humane activities to which I have dedicated myself. I have worked for the poor, I have worked for many years to bridge the cultural and communal gaps between India and Pakistan. Politics and religion have created these boundaries. I have striven to bring the two people together in whatever way I could. Tell me, what does any of this have to do with the Kargil conflict?"

Personal life Kumar married actress and beauty queen Saira Banu in year 1966 when he was aged 44 and she was 22. His brothers are Nasir Khan, Ehsan Khan and Aslam Khan.[19] Kumar's younger brother Nasir Khan was also an actor and appeared opposite him in Ganga Jamuna (1961) and Bairaag (1976).

Ill health rumours Around September 10, 2011 it surfaced that the health of Dilip Kumar is going on worsening. Some incredible tweets even mistakenly spread news of his death.[20] Later Dilip's Kumar wife Saira Banu, made a public statement that the actor is good in health and in high spirits. She quoted in a public statement:

“

"I am releasing this statement with a tinge of displeasure because this is not the first time such a rumour has spread without any basis, reason or cause. I have been woken up from sleep at odd hours this time and on previous occasions by phone calls seeking to know the fact and my staff and close friends have also had to answer calls at odd hours just because some sadistic mind has been at work and has triggered a [21] distasteful rumour."

�

Legacy and awards Dilip Kumar is widely considered to be one of the greatest actors in the history of Hindi Cinema.[5] [6] [7] Kumar holds the Guinness World Record for having won the maximum number of awards by an Indian actor.[22] He has received many awards throughout his career, including 8 Filmfare Award for Best Actor awards and 19 nominations.[23] He was honoured with the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 1993.[24] The Government of India honoured him with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1994[1] - the highest award for cinematic excellence in India. In 1980, he was appointed Sheriff of Mumbai, an honorary position. In 1991, he was awarded Padma Bhushan from the Government of India.[25] In 1997, Kumar was awarded, Nishan-e-Imtiaz, Pakistan's highest civilian award. He received in 1997 the NTR National Award. He was also awarded CNN-IBN Indian of the Year - Lifetime Achievement Award in 2009.


Dilip Kumar

116

Filmography Year

Film

1944

Jwar Bhata

1945

Pratima

1947

Milan

Ramesh

Jugnu

Sooraj

Shaheed

Ram

1948

Role

Awards

Jagdish

Nadiya Ke Paar Mela

Mohan

Ghar Ki Izzat

Chanda

Anokha Pyar

Ashok

Shabnam

Manoj

Andaz

Dilip

Jogan

Vijay

Babul

Ashok

Arzoo

Badal

Tarana

Motilal

Hulchul

Kishore

Deedar

Shamu

Sangdil

Shankar

Daag

Shankar

Aan

Jai Tilak

Shikast

Dr. Ram Singh

Footpath

Noshu

1954

Amar

Amarnath

1955

Udan Khatola

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Insaniyat Devdas

Devdas

Azaad 1957

Naya Daur

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Shankar

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Musafir 1958

Yahudi

Prince Marcus

Madhumati

Anand/Deven

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

1959

Paigham

Ratan Lal

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

1960

Kohinoor

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Mughal-E-Azam

Prince Salim

1961

Gunga Jumna

Gunga

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

1964

Leader

Vijay Khanna

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award

1966

Dil Diya Dard Liya Shankar/Rajasaheb

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award


Dilip Kumar

117 1967

Ram Aur Shyam

1968

Sunghursh

Ram/ Shyam

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Sadhu aur Shatan Aadmi 1970

1972

Rajesh/ Raja Saheb

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Gopi

Gopi

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Dastaan

Anil/ Sunil

Sagina Mahato

Anokha Milan 1974

Sagina

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Phir Kab Milogi 1976

Bairaag

1981

Kranti

Sanga/Kranti

1982

Vidhaata

Shamsher Singh

Shakti

Ashvini Kumar

1983

Mazdoor

Dinanath Saxena

1984

Duniya

Mohan Kumar

Mashaal

Vinod Kumar

1986

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

Dharam Adhikari Karma

Vishwanath Pratap Singh, alias Rana

1989

Kanoon Apna Apna Collector Jagat Pratap Singh

1990

Izzatdaar

Brahma Dutt

Aag Ka Dariya 1991

Saudagar

Thakur Veer Singh

1998

Qila

Jaganath/Amarnath Singh

Nomination, Filmfare Best Actor Award

References [1] ANALYSIS: Dilip Kumar turns 88 (http:/ / www. dailytimes. com. pk/ default. asp?page=2010\12\28\story_28-12-2010_pg3_2). Daily Times. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [2] Video : Dilip Kumar's Birthday Party (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ broadband/ video/ Parties-and-Events/ H413js62/ 2/ Dilip-Kumar-s-Birthday-Party. html). Bollywood Hungama. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [3] Tragedy king Dilip Kumar turns 88 (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ tragedy-king-dilip-kumar-turns-88/ 723390/ ). Indian Express. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [4] Unmatched innings (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ arts/ magazine/ article597902. ece). The Hindu. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [5] Vishwamitra Sharma (2007), Famous Indians of the 21st Century, Pustak Mahal, ISBN 8-1223-0829-5, p.196. [6] Ramesh Dawar (2006), Bollywood: Yesterday, Today , Tomorrow, Star Publications, ISBN 1-9058-6301-2, p.8 [7] A documentary on the life of Dilip Kumar (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2008/ 07/ 08/ 11645/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. Retrieved 7 August 2011. [8] "Dilip Kumar turns 86" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ holnus/ 009200812111330. htm). The Hindu (Chennai, India). 11 December 2008. . Retrieved 14 December 2010. [9] Meghnad Desai, Baron Desai (2004), Nehru's hero Dilip Kumar in the life of India, Lotus Collection, Roli Books, ISBN 8-1743-6311-4. [10] Dinesh Raheja (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ may/ 27dinesh. htm). Rediff. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [11] All Time Grossers (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ cpages. php?pageName=all_time_earners& PHPSESSID=a483ad664617a18449e5edce9594ca91). Box Office India. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [12] "Dilip Kumar's Hollywood dis-connection" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ did-you-know-/ Dilip-Kumars-Hollywood-dis-connection/ articleshow/ 4138036. cms). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 2010-12-02.


Dilip Kumar [13] Box Office 1964 (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=170& catName=MTk2NA==). Box Office India. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [14] Box Office 1972 (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=178& catName=MTk3Mg==). Box Office India. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [15] Box Office 1976 (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=182& catName=MTk3Ng==). Box Office India. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [16] Top Earners 1980-1989 (Figures in Ind Rs) (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=125). Box Office India. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [17] Top Lifetime Grossers 1990-1994 (Figures in Ind Rs) (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=126& catName=MTk5MC0xOTk5). Box Office India. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [18] The Rediff Interview/ Dilip Kumar (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 1999/ jul/ 14dilip1. htm). Rediff. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [19] Dilip Kumar saw a psychoanalyst after acting as Devdas (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2002/ 20020707/ spectrum/ book3. htm). The Sunday Tribune. Retrieved 31 July, 2011. [20] https:/ / twitter. com/ #!/ shiekhspear/ status/ 112492760149409793 [21] http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Dilip-Kumars-in-good-health-Saira-Banu/ articleshow/ 9935141. cms [22] Dilip Kumar on TV show? (http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ entertainment/ 2011/ mar/ 010311-Dilip-Kumar-Guinness-World-Records-TV-show. htm). MiD DAY. [23] "Things that u don't know about Filmfare Awards...(Part IV)" (http:/ / www. sify. com/ movies/ things-that-u-don-t-know-about-filmfare-awards-part-iv-news-bollywood-kkfv7Sahcih. html). Sify Movies. 27 February 2007. . Retrieved 14 December 2010. [24] "Lifetime Achievement (Popular)" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ cms. dll/ articleshow?artid=33782146). Filmfare Awards. . Retrieved 14 December 2010. [25] "Padma Awards Directory (1954-2009)" (http:/ / www. mha. nic. in/ pdfs/ LST-PDAWD. pdf). Ministry of Home Affairs. . Retrieved 14 December 2010.

External links • Dilip Kumar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0474801/) at the Internet Movie Database • Excerpts from Dilip Kumar’s biography (http://www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20031221/spectrum/book5. htm)

118


Gulzar

119

Gulzar Gulzar

Gulzar at the launch of the album Chand Parosa Hai in 2008 Born

Sampooran Singh Kalra August 18, 1936 Dina, Jhelum District, Punjab, British India

Occupation

Film director, Lyricist, Screenwriter, Film producer, Poet

Years active 1961–present Spouse

Raakhee

Children

Meghna Gulzar

Sampooran Singh Kalra (Punjabi: ਸਮਪੂਰਨ ਸਿੰਘ ਕਾਲਰਾ, Hindi: संपूरण सिंह कालरा, Urdu: ‫( )ﺳﻤﭙﻮﺭﻥ ﺳﻨﮕﮫ ﮐﺎﻟﺮﺍ‬born 18 August 1936), known popularly by his pen name Gulzar (Punjabi: ਗੁਲਜ਼ਾਰ, Hindi: गुलज़ार, Urdu: ‫) ﮔُﻠﺰﺍﺭ‬, is an Indian poet, lyricist and director.[1] He primarily writes in Hindi-Urdu and has also written in Punjabi and several dialects of Hindi such as Braj Bhasha, Khariboli, Haryanvi and Marwari. Gulzar was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 2004 for his contribution to the arts and the Sahitya Akademi Award in 2002. He has won a number of National Film Awards and Filmfare Awards. In 2009, he won the Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Jai Ho" in the film Slumdog Millionaire (2008). On 31 January 2010, the same song won him a Grammy Award in the category of Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media. Gulzar's poetry is partly published in three compilations: Chand Pukhraaj Ka, Raat Pashminey Ki and Pandrah Paanch Pachattar (15-05-75). His short stories are published in Raavi-paar (Dustkhat in Pakistan) and "Dhuan" (smoke). As a lyricist, Gulzar is best known for his association with the music directors Rahul Dev Burman, A. R. Rahman and Vishal Bhardwaj and has worked with leading Bollywood music directors including Sachin Dev Burman, Salil Chowdhury, Hemant Kumar, Madan Mohan and Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy.


Gulzar

Early life Gulzar was born in a Kalra Arora Sikh family, to Makhan Singh Kalra and Sujan Kaur, in Dina, Jhelum District, British India, in what is now Pakistan. Before becoming an established writer, Sampooran worked in Delhi as a car mechanic in a garage.[2] He took the pen name Gulzar Deenvi after becoming an author.

Career Gulzar is best known in India as a lyricist for songs that form an integral part of Bollywood. He began his career under the directors Bimal Roy and Hrishikesh Mukherjee. His book Ravi Paar has a narrative of Bimal Roy and the agony of creation. Gulzar started his career as a songwriter with the music director Sachin Dev Burman for the movie Bandini (1963).[3] Shailendra who has penned rest of the songs of the movie urged Gulzar to write the song "Mora gora ang layle". This was picturised on Nutan. Gulzar's most successful songs as a lyricist came out from his association with Sachin Dev Burman's son Rahul Dev Burman, whom he once described as the anchor in his life.[4] R D Burman composed songs for almost all the movies directed by Gulzar in the 1970s and the 1980s, including Parichay (1972), Khushboo (1975), Aandhi (1975), Angoor (1982), Ijaazat (1987) and Libaas (1988). Many of their popular songs were sung by Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle. These include "Musafir hoon yaron" (Parichay), "Tera bina zindagi se koi" (Aandhi), "Mera Kuch Samaan" (Ijaazat), and "Tujhse naraz nahi zindagi" (Masoom). He adapted the Hollywood film The Sound of Music into Parichay. Gulzar has had award-winning associations with the music directors Salil Chowdhury (Anand, Mere Apne), Madan Mohan (Mausam) and more recently with Vishal Bhardwaj (Maachis, Omkara, Kaminey), A. R. Rahman (Dil Se, Guru, Slumdog Millionaire, Raavan) and Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy (Bunty aur Babli). Gulzar directed an eponymous television serial Mirza Ghalib starring Naseeruddin Shah shown on Indian television channel Doordarshan in 1988. Gulzar was a song writer or dialogue writer for several Doordarshan programs for kids such as Jungle Book, Alice in Wonderland, Guchche and Potli Baba Ki with Vishal Bhardwaj. He has more recently written and narrated for the children's audiobook series Karadi Tales.[5]

Personal life Gulzar is married to actress Raakhee.[6] They have a daughter, Meghna Gulzar, who is a film director. Gulzar and Raakhee separated (but never divorced) when Meghna was one year old. Meghna penned a biography of Gulzar, Because He Is....

Awards and nominations Gulzar holds the record of winning most number of Filmfare Award for Best Lyricist (10 in total) as well as Filmfare Award for Best Dialogue (4 in total).

120


Gulzar

121

Award

Category

Outcome

Capacity

Work

Notes

Year

1972 National Film Awards

Second Best Feature Film

Director

Mausam

1972 National Film Awards

Best Screenplay

Won

Screenplay writer

Koshish

1972 Filmfare Awards

Best Dialogue

Won

Dialogue writer

Anand

1974 Filmfare Awards

Best Dialogue

Won

Dialogue writer

Namak Haraam

1974 Filmfare Awards

Best Director

Nominated Director

Koshish

Won by Yash Chopra for Daag: A Poem of Love

1974 Filmfare Awards

Best Director

Nominated Director

Achanak

Won by Yash Chopra for Daag: A Poem of Love

1974 Filmfare Awards

Best Story

Nominated Story writer

Koshish

Won by Salim-Javed for film Zanjeer

1975 Filmfare Awards

Critics Award for Best Movie

1976 Filmfare Awards

Best Director

1976 Filmfare Awards

Best Director

Nominated Director

Aandhi

Won by Yash Chopra for Deewar

1976 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Nominated Lyricist

"Tere Bina Zindagi Se" from film Aandhi

Won by Indeevar for "Dil Aisa Kisi" from film Amanush

1977 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Lyricist

"Dil Dhoondta Hai" from film Mausam

Won by Sahir Ludhianvi for "Kabhi Kabhie Mere Dil Mein" from film Kabhi Kabhie

1978 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Lyricist

"Do Deewaane Shehar Mein" from film Gharaonda

1978 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Nominated Lyricist

"Naam Gum Jaayega" from film Kinara

Won by himself for "Do Deewaane Sheher Mein" from film Gharaonda

1978 Filmfare Awards

Best Director

Nominated Director

Kinara

Won by Basu Chatterjee for Swami

1980 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1981 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1982 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1984 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Won

Won

Won

Nominated

Director

Aandhi

Director

Mausam

Won

Lyricist

"Aanewala Pal Jaane Wala Hain" from film Gol Maal

Lyricist

"Hazaar Raahen Mud Ke Dekhi" from film Thodisi Bewafaii

Lyricist

"Jahaan Pe Savera" from Won by Anand Bakshi for "Tere film Baseraa Mere Beech Mein" from film Ek Duuje Ke Liye

Lyricist

"Tujhse Naraaz Nahin Zindagi" from film Masoom

Won

Won

Nominated

Won


Gulzar

122

1988 National Film Awards

Best Lyrics

1989 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1990 Filmfare Awards

Best Documentary

1991 National Film Awards

Best Lyrics

1992 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1994 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1996 National Film Awards

Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment

1996 Filmfare Awards

Best Dialogue

1996 Filmfare Awards

Best Story

1997 Filmfare Awards

Best Director

1997 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1999 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

1999 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

2001 Indian Institute Lifetime Honorary Fellowship of Adv. Studies 2001 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

2002 Sahitya Akademi Award

Won

Won

Won

Won

Won

Nominated

Won

Won

Won

Lyricist

"Mera Kuchh Saamaan" from film Ijaazat

Lyricist

"Mera Kuchh Saamaan" from film Ijaazat

Director

Ustad Amjad Ali Khan [7]

Lyricist

"Yaara Silli Silli" from film Lekin...

Lyricist

"Yaara Silli Silli" from film Lekin...

Lyricist

"Dil Hum Hum" from film Rudaali

Director

Maachis

Dialogue writer

Maachis

Story writer

Maachis

Nominated Director

Nominated

Won

Maachis

Won by Shekhar Kapoor for Bandit Queen

Lyricist

"Chappa Chappa Charkha Chale" from film Maachis

Won by Javed Akhtar for "Ghar Se Nikalte" from Papa Kehte Hai

Lyricist

"Chaiyya Chaiyya" from film Dil Se

Nominated Lyricist

--

Lifetime Achievement Award

2002 Filmfare Awards

Best Dialogue

2003 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

2004 Padma Bhushan

Nominated Lyricist

Won

Won

Won

Won

2006 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

2006 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

"Ae Ajnabi" from film Dil Se

Won by himself for "Chaiyya Chaiyya" from film Dil Se

--

Won

Won

"Aaja Mahiya" from film Fiza

Writer

"Dhuan" ("Smoke"; [8] short stories in Urdu

--

--

Dialogue writer

Saathiya

Lyricist

"Saathiya" from film Saathiya

--

--

Lyricist

"Kajra Re" from film Bunty Aur Babli

Won

2002 Filmfare Awards

Won by Sameer for "Ghungat Ke Aad Se" from Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke

Nominated Lyricist

"Chup Chup Ke" from film Bunty Aur Babli

Won by Javed Akhtar for "Panchchi Nadiyaan" from Refugee

India's third highest civilian award

Won by himself for "Kajra Re" from film Bunty Aur Babli


Gulzar

123

2006 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Nominated Lyricist

"Dheere Jalna" from film Paheli

Won by himself for "Kajra Re" from film Bunty Aur Babli

2007 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Nominated Lyricist

"Beedi" from film Omkara

Won by Prasoon Joshi for "Chand Sifarish" from Fanaa

2008 Academy Awards

Best Original Song

"Jai Ho" from film Slumdog Millionaire

Shared with Music Director A. R. Rahman

2008 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

"Tere Bina" from film Guru

Won by Prasoon Joshi for "Maa" from Taare Zameen Par

2009 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Lyricist

"Tu Meri Dost Hai" from film Yuvvraaj

Won by Javed Akhtar for "Jashn-E-Bahara" from Jodhaa Akbar

2010 Grammy Awards

Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media

Lyricist

"Jai Ho" from film Slumdog Millionaire

Shared with Music Director A. R. Rahman and Playback Singer Tanvi Shah

2010 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Nominated Lyricist

"Dhan Te Nan" from film Kaminey

Won by Irshad Kamil for "Aaj Din Chadheya" from Love Aaj Kal

2010 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Nominated Lyricist

"Kaminey" from film Kaminey

Won by Irshad Kamil for "Aaj Din Chadheya" from Love Aaj Kal

2011 Filmfare Awards

Best Lyricist

Won

Lyricist

Nominated Lyricist

Nominated

Won

Won

Lyricist

"Dil To Bachcha Hain Ji" from film Ishqiya

Filmography Title

Lyricist

Year

Dialogue writer

Screenplay writer

Story writer

Director Producer

Notes

Films 2011

Chala Mussaddi... Office Office

Yes

2011

Noukadubi / Kashmakash (Hindi dubbed version)

Yes

2011

7 Khoon Maaf

Yes

2010

Raavan

Yes

2010

Striker

Yes

2010

Ishqiya

Yes

2010

Veer

Yes

2010

Raajneeti

2010

Dus Tola

Yes

2009

Kaminey

Yes

2009

Firaaq

Yes

2009

Billu

Yes

2008

Slumdog Millionaire

Yes

2008

Yuvvraaj

Yes

2007

Dum Kaata

Yes

Yes

Lyricist for song "Yun Hua"

Lyricist for song "Dhan Dhan Dharti"


Gulzar

2007

124 No Smoking

Yes

Shafaq

Yes

2007

Just Married

Yes

2007

Jhoom Barabar Jhoom

Yes

2007

Guru

Yes

2007

The Blue Umbrella

Yes

2007

Dus Kahaniyaan

2006

Jaan-E-Mann

Yes

2006

Sabab*

Yes

2006

Omkara

Yes

2005

Yahaan

Yes

2005

Paheli

Yes

2005

Bunty Aur Babli

Yes

2004

Raincoat

Yes

2004

Chupke Se

Yes

2004

Maqbool

Yes

2003

Pinjar

Yes

2002

Saathiya

Yes

2002

Makdee

Yes

2002

Dil Vil Pyar Vyar

Yes

2002

Lal Salam

Yes

2002

Leela

Yes

2002

Filhaal...

Yes

2001

Asoka

Yes

2001

Aks

Yes

2000

Fiza

Yes

2000

Zindagi Zindabad

Yes

1999

Khubsoorat

Yes

1999

Hu Tu Tu

Yes

1999

Jahan Tum Le Chalo

Yes

1999

Rockford

1998

Dil Se

Yes

1998

Satya

Yes

1998

Chachi 420

Yes

1997

Aastha: In the Prison of Spring

Yes

1997

Daayraa

Yes

1996

Maachis

Yes

1994

Mammo

Yes

Yes

Story Pooranmashi writen by Gulzar

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Lyricist for song "Aasmanke Paar Shayad"

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes


Gulzar

125

1993

Rudaali

Yes

1993

Maya Memsaab

Yes

1990

Lekin...

Yes

1988

Libaas

Yes

1987

Ijaazat

Yes

Yes

Yes

1986

Ek Pal

Yes

Yes

Yes

1986

New Delhi Times

1986

Jeeva

Yes

1985

Ghulami

Yes

1985

Ek Akar

Yes

Yes

1984

Aika

Yes

Yes

1984

Suniye

Yes

Yes

1984

Sitam

Yes

Tarang

Yes

1983

Masoom

Yes

1983

Sadma

Yes

1982

Angoor

Yes

Yes

1982

Namkeen

Yes

Yes

1981

Naram Garam

Yes

1981

Baseraa

Yes

1981

Sannata

Yes

1980

Sitara

Yes

1980

Khubsoorat

Yes

1980

Sahira

Yes

Yes

1980

Chatran

Yes

Yes

Swayamvara

Yes

1979

Griha Pravesh

Yes

1979

Gol Maal

Yes

1979

Meera

Yes

1978

Thodisi Bewafaii

Yes

Ratnadeep

Yes

1978

Ghar

Yes

1978

Devata

Yes

1978

Khatta Meetha

Yes

1977

Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein

Yes

1977

Gharaonda

Yes

1977

Kinara

Yes

1977

Kitaab

Yes

1976

Shaque

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes


Gulzar

126

1975

Aandhi

Yes

1975

Khushboo

Yes

1975

Mausam

Yes

1975

Chupke Chupke

1975

Faraar

1974

Doosri Sita

1973

Namak Haraam

1972

Achanak

Yes

Yes

Yes

1972

Parichay

Yes

Yes

Yes

1972

Koshish

Yes

Yes

Yes

1972

Bawarchi

1971

Anubhav

Yes

1971

Guddi

Yes

1971

Mere Apne

Yes

1971

Seema

Yes

1971

Anand

Yes

Yes

1969

Khamoshi

Yes

Yes

Rahgir

Yes

1968

Aashirwad

Yes

1968

Sunghursh

1963

1957

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Do Dooni Chaar

Yes

Biwi Aur Makaan

Yes

Purnima

Yes

Bandini

Yes

Prem Patra

Yes

Kabuliwala

Yes

Shriman Satyawadi

Yes

Swami Vivekananda

Yes

Lyricist for "Mora Gora Aang"

Other works 1989

The Jungle Book

Yes

Title track of the Cartoon Series

1987

Dil Padosi Hai

Yes

Music album with Asha Bhosle and Rahul Dev Burman

Yes

Music album with Vishal Bhardwaj, Bhupinder and Chitra Singh

Yes

Music album with Amjad Ali Khan, Sadhana Sargam & Roop Kumar Rathod

Ishqa Ishqa

Yes

Music album with Vishal Bhardwaj

Main Aur Mera Saaya

Yes

Music album with Bhupen Hazarika

Udaas Pani

Yes

Music album with Abhishek Ray

Visaal

Yes

Music album with Ghulam Ali

Sunset Point

Vadaa


Gulzar

127 Koi Baat Chale

Yes

Music album with Jagjit Singh; songs written in Triveni

Marasim

Yes

Music album with Jagjit Singh

Raat Chand Aur Main

Yes

Music album with Abhishek Ray

Amrita Pritam

Yes

Recited in tribute to Amrita Pritam

Kabir By Abida Parween

Yes

Recited

Yes

Music album with Suresh Wadkar & Vishal Bhardwaj

Boodhe Pahadon Par

Biographies • Chatterjee, Saibal (2007). Echoes and Eloquences: The Life and Cinema of Gulzar. Rupa & Co.. ISBN 978-81-291-1235-4.. • Gulzar, Meghna (2004). Because He Is.... Rupa & Co.. ISBN 81-291-0364-8..

References [1] Amar Chandel (4 January 2004). "The poet as the father" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20040104/ spectrum/ book2. htm). Spectrum (The Tribune). . Retrieved 2008-03-03. [2] Meghna Gulzar (2004). Because he is. Rupa & Co.. p. 24. [3] "Gulzar: Man Of many seasons" (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2009-02-24/ india/ 28029446_1_bandini-gulzar-first-film). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 14/August/2011. [4] "Gulzar: Pancham was an anchor in my life" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ Gulzar--Pancham-was-an-anchor-in-my-life/ 638840/ ). Screen. 26 June 2010. . Retrieved 2010-06-26. [5] Karadi Tales (http:/ / www. karaditales. com/ AboutUs. aspx?From=Behind_the_scenes) [6] Gulzar, Govind Nihalani, Saibal Chatterjee, ed (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi cinema. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5. [7] Ustad Amjad Ali Khan (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0216329/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [8] "Gulzar, Sirpi among Sahitya Akademi Award winners" (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ 2002/ 12/ 22/ stories/ 2002122204321300. htm). The Hindu. 2002-12-21. . Retrieved 2009-02-23.

External links • • • •

Website dedicated to Gulzar (http://www.gulzaronline.com/) Another website dedicated to Gulzar (http://gulzar.org/) Gulzar at Kavita Kosh (http://www.kavitakosh.org/kk/index.php?title=गुलज़ार) (Hindi) Gulzar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0347899/) at the Internet Movie Database


Guru Dutt

128

Guru Dutt Guru Dutt

Born

Vasanth Kumar Shivashankar Padukone 9 July 1925 Bangalore, Kingdom of Mysore, British India

Died

October 10, 1964 (aged 39) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Actor, Producer, Director, Choreographer

Years active 1944–1964 Spouse

Geeta Dutt (1953–1964) (His Death)

Vasanth Kumar Shivashankar Padukone (Konkani: वसंत कुमार शिवशंकर पडुकोण}) (9 July 1925 – 10 October 1964), popularly known as Guru Dutt, was an Indian film director, producer and actor. He is often credited with ushering in the golden era of Hindi cinema. He made quintessential 1950s and 1960s classics such as Pyaasa (Thirsty), Kaagaz Ke Phool (Paper Flowers), Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (The King, the Queen and the Jack) and Chaudhvin Ka Chand (The Fourteenth Day Moon). In particular, Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool are now included among the greatest films of all time, both by Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies [1] and by the Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll,[2] where Dutt himself is included among the greatest film directors of all time.[3] He is sometimes referred to as "India's Orson Welles".[4] In 2010, he was included among CNN's "top 25 Asian actors of all time".[5] [6]

He is most famous for making lyrical and artistic films within the context of popular Hindi cinema of the 1950s, and expanding its commercial conventions, starting with his 1957 film, Pyaasa. Several of his later works have a cult following. His movies go full house when re-released; especially in Germany, France and Japan.[7] The latest book on him is Ten Years with Guru Dutt: Abrar Alvi's Journey by Sathya Saran based on the recollections of his chief scriptwriter and friend.[8]

Early life and background Guru Dutt was born to Shivashanker Rao Padukone and Vasanthi Padukone. His parents were Konkani speaking Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmins, originally settled at Panambur, a village in South Kanara district of present day state Karnataka (then Madras Province).[9] His father was initially a headmaster, and then a bank employee. His mother Vasanthi, while initially a housewife, later taught in a school, gave private tuition and also wrote short stories and translated Bengali novels into Kannada. Vasanthi was only 16 when Guru Dutt was born. Guru Dutt had a tough childhood with financial difficulties, and a strained relationship between his parents. As a child he had some bad experiences; the hostility from his maternal uncle's family, a frightening encounter with his insane maternal adopted uncle, and the death of his seven-month old brother (Shashidhar). Guru Dutt was initially named Vasanth Kumar at birth at the suggestion of his mother's elder brother, but after a childhood accident, he was renamed Guru Dutt, which was felt to be a more auspicious name. He was joined by


Guru Dutt three younger brothers, Atmaram, Devidas and Vijay and a younger sister, Lalitha. The Indian film director, Kalpana Lajmi, is his sister's daughter. He spent a great deal of time with his mother's cousin, Balakrishna B. Benegal (known to the family as Bakutmama) who was a painter of cinema posters. The Indian film director, Shyam Benegal, is the son of Sridhar B. Benegal, Balakrishna's younger brother.

Bengali connection Guru Dutt's father was initially a headmaster at Panambur and later a bank employee at Bangalore. He moved jobs to work as an administrative clerk at the Burmah Shell company and began living at Bhawanipore in Calcutta, where Guru Dutt finished his schooling. Hence, Guru Dutt spoke fluent Bengali, and carried a distinct stamp of Bengali culture in his work . Later, when he moved to Bombay (now called Mumbai) in the 1940s, he dropped the Shivashankar Padukone part of his name, and was known simply as Guru Dutt. Because Dutt is a common Bengali last name, many people assumed that he was a Bengali.

Early Inspirations His sister recalls that at age 14 Guru Dutt would use his fingers to shape images on a wall lit up by the flickering light of their grandmother’s diya (candle) as she performed the evening arathi (prayer). Though untrained, he could produce inspired movements as he did when he persuaded his uncle, Benegal, to photograph him performing a snake dance, based on a painting by the latter. The snake dance was later performed at a gathering of Saraswat Brahmins at Calcutta for which Guru Dutt was even given a cash prize of 5 Rupees. He was a good student, but never went to college, partly because of financial troubles at home. Instead, he joined the performing arts troupe of Uday Shankar, the older brother of the better-known Ravi Shankar. The Uday Shankar India Culture Center at Almora taught dance, drama, and music. It aimed at combining the best of the Gurukula system with a modern Arts University, and tried to turn out well-rounded students, at home in many disciplines. A young Guru Dutt joined the center at age 16 in 1941 on a five-year scholarship of Rs. 75 annually (a lot of money then), and studied at Almora until 1944, when the advancing World War II forced the closing of the center.

Career Early career Guru Dutt wired home to say he had got the job of a telephone operator at a Lever Brothers factory in Kolkata. But soon he disengaged himself from the job, and joined his parents in Mumbai in 1944. However, his uncle found him a job under a three-year contract with the Prabhat Film Company in Pune (then called Poona) in 1944. This once premier film producing centre had already seen the departure of its best talent, V. Shantaram, who had by then launched his own Kala Mandir. It is here that Guru Dutt met two people who would remain his good friends - actors Rehman and Dev Anand. Guru Dutt acted in a small role as Sri Krishna in Chand in 1944. In 1945, he acted as well as assisted director Vishram Bedekar in Lakhrani, and in 1946 he worked as an assistant director and choreographed dances for P. L. Santoshi’s film, Hum Ek Hain. This contract ended in 1947, but his mother got him a job as a freelance assistant with Baburao Pai, the CEO of the Prabhat Film Company and Studio. However, after that, for almost ten months, Guru Dutt was unemployed and stayed with his family at Matunga, Mumbai. During this time, Guru Dutt developed a flair for writing in English, and wrote short stories for The Illustrated Weekly of India, a local weekly English magazine.

129


Guru Dutt It is during this time that he is supposed to have written the script for the almost autobiographical Pyaasa (Hindi: the thirsty one). Its original name was Kashmakash (Hindi: struggle), which was changed later to Pyaasa and was written at his home in Matunga. It is in this phase of his life that Guru Dutt was almost married twice! The first time he eloped with a girl called Vijaya from Pune, and later his parents had him almost married to his maternal niece, Suvarna, from Hyderabad.

As choreographer, actor, assistant director While Guru Dutt was hired by Prabhat Film Company as a choreographer, he was soon pressed into service as an actor, and even as an assistant director. At Prabhat, he met Dev Anand and Rehman, who both became stars. These early friendships helped ease his way into the film world. After Prabhat failed in 1947, Dutt moved to Mumbai, where he worked with two leading directors of the time, with Amiya Chakravarty in Girl's School, and with Gyan Mukherjee in the Bombay Talkies film Sangram. Then, Dev Anand offered him a job as a director in his new company, Navketan, after the first movie had flopped. Thus, Guru Dutt's first film, Navketan's Baazi, was released in 1951 . It was a tribute to the Forties' Film Noir Hollywood with the morally ambiguous hero, the transgressing siren, and shadow lighting.

Dev Anand and Guru Dutt's promise There exists a very interesting anecdote behind this new job. Guru Dutt and Dev Anand used the services of the same laundry man when they were at Prabhat in Pune in 1945. One day Anand found that one of his shirts had been replaced with a different one. On arriving at work as the hero of Hum Ek Hain, he found the film's young choreographer (Guru Dutt) wearing his shirt. On being questioned, Guru Dutt admitted that it was not his shirt, but since he had no other, he was wearing the replacement. This developed into a great friendship, since they were of the same age. They promised each other that, if Guru Dutt were to turn filmmaker, he would hire Anand as his hero, and if Dev were to produce a film then he would use Guru Dutt as its director. Dev Anand fulfilled his end of the bargain with Baazi, but still regrets that his friend Guru Dutt did not. Guru Dutt indirectly did fulfill his promise. His studio, Guru Dutt Movies Pvt. Ltd., produced "C.I.D." which starred Dev, but the film was directed by Raj Khosla (an assistant director to Guru Dutt). Thus, technically, Guru Dutt never directed Dev Anand under his production company. Guru Dutt and Dev Anand would make two super-hit films together, Baazi, and Jaal. Creative differences between Guru Dutt, and Chetan Anand (Anand's elder brother), who was also a director, made future collaborations difficult. Remembering his old friend Guru Dutt, Anand quotes, “He was a young man he should not have made depressing pictures…”[10] Recently, Anand quotes, "my only true friend in the film industry. We got close to each other while working for Prabhat, one of the big banners of those days. I gave him his big break in Baazi and he cast me in some of his movies like C.I.D."[11]

Baazi's other contributions Baazi also highlights two early key technical developments in Indian movie-making that are attributed to Guru Dutt. The use of close-up shots with a 100 mm lens - there are over 14 in the movie - which became known in Indian movie-making as the "Guru Dutt shot", and the use of songs to further the narrative in the movie. Guru Dutt also introduced Zohra Sehgal (whom he met at Almora) as the choreographer in the movie, and he also met his future wife, Geeta Dutt during the making of the movie.

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As director Baazi was an immediate success. Guru Dutt followed it with Jaal and Baaz. Neither film did well at the box office, but they bring together the Guru Dutt team that performed so brilliantly in subsequent films. He discovered, and mentored, Johnny Walker (comedian), V.K. Murthy (cinematography), and Abrar Alvi (writing and directing), among others. He is also credited for introducing Waheeda Rehman to the Hindi cinema. Baaz was notable in that Guru Dutt both directed and starred, not having found a suitable actor for the principal character. Fortune smiled on Dutt's next film, the 1954 Aar Paar. This was followed by the 1955 hit, Mr. and Mrs. 55, then C.I.D., Sailaab, and in 1957, Pyaasa - the story of a poet, rejected by an uncaring world, who achieves success only after his apparent death. Guru Dutt played the lead role in three of these five films. His 1959 Kaagaz Ke Phool was an intense disappointment. He had invested a great deal of love, money, and energy in this film, which was a self-absorbed tale of a famous director (played by Guru Dutt) who falls in love with an actress (played by Waheeda Rehman, Dutt's real-life love interest). Kaagaz Ke Phool failed at the box office and Dutt was devastated. All subsequent films from his studio were, thereafter, officially helmed by other directors since Guru Dutt felt that his name was anathema to box office. Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam, a critically and commercially successful film, was directed by his protege, writer Abrar Alvi, which won him the Filmfare Best Director's award. The film's star Waheeda Rehman denied rumors that the film was ghost-directed by Guru Dutt himself.[12] Guru Dutt also has his influence on his last box office smash hit Chaudhvin Ka Chand.[13] His legacy to direction of Hindi cinema is unmistakable and accepted by many leading Hindi directors of the day, including another of his protege, Raj Khosla.

Guru Dutt's last productions In 1964 he acted in his last film Sanjh Aur Savera opposite Meena Kumari.

Death On 10 October 1964, Guru Dutt was found dead in his bed in his rented apartment at Pedder Road in Mumbai. He is said to have been mixing alcohol and sleeping pills. His death may have been suicide, or just an accidental overdose. It would have been his third suicide attempt [14]. Guru Dutt's son, Arun Dutt views this as an accident in an interview with India Abroad in October 2004 on the 40th anniversary of his father's death. Guru Dutt had scheduled appointments the next day with actress, Mala Sinha for his movie, Baharen Phir Bhi Aayengi, and Raj Kapoor to discuss making colour films. According to him, "my father had sleeping disorders and popped sleeping pills like any other person. That day he was drunk and had taken an overdose of pills, which culminated in his death. It was a lethal combination of excessive liquor and sleeping pills."[15] At the time of his death, Guru Dutt was involved in two other projects, Picnic starring actress, Sadhana and Director K. Asif's epic, Love and God. Picnic remained incomplete and Love and God was released two decades later with Sanjeev Kumar replacing Dutt in the leading role. The extra-feature on DVD of Kaagaz Ke Phool, has a 3 part Channel 4 produced documentary on life and works of Guru Dutt titled, In Search of Guru Dutt. Everyone, especially Abrar Alvi seem to suggest that it was a suicide. Abrar and Guru Dutt sat late that night discussing a movie and during conversation according to Alvi, Guru Dutt was very morbid in his thinking and conversation. He was, according to many, distressed by his then personal situation - his wife, Geeta Dutt; Waheeda Rehman had distanced herself from him. He had a sleeping disorder that made him take sleeping pills, and he had been drinking since 5:00 pm that evening.

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Personal life In 1953, Dutt married Geeta Dutt, a well-known playback singer. They had been engaged for three years and had to overcome a great deal of family opposition to marry. They had three children, Tarun, Arun, and Nina. Dutt had an unhappy marital life. According to his brother Atmaram, Guru Dutt was "a strict disciplinarian as far as work was concerned, but totally undisciplined in his personal life" (Kabir, 1997, p. 124). He smoked heavily, drank heavily, and kept odd hours. Guru Dutt's relationship with actress Waheeda Rehman also worked against their marriage. At the time of his death, he had separated from Geeta and was living alone. Geeta Dutt herself died in 1972 at age 41, after excessive drinking which resulted in liver damage. According to an interview with Abrar Alvi, one of Dutt's close friends and his assistant director in films, Dutt did not "open up" to discuss his thoughts and problems, even though they were spending many hours together.

Legacy Guru Dutt was at first mourned as a matinee idol but as the years passed, it became ever clearer that it was as a director that he would be remembered. Starting in 1973, his films were shown at film festivals throughout India and the rest of the world. Despite being a commercial director, he appealed to the same intelligentsia who made Satyajit Ray an international favorite. He also has a place in the hearts of many ordinary Indians for his song picturisations and the many vivid characters sketched in his films. Contrary to a general belief about the viability of his film projects, Guru Dutt more or less produced commercially successful films.[16] Over the years the commercial nature of his projects saw a trade-off with his creative aspirations. Movies like C.I.D., Baazi, Pyaasa, Kaagaz Ke Phool, Chaudhvin Ka Chand and Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam were rightfully the first of their kind in Hindi cinema. The only movie produced by Guru Dutt and termed a box-office disaster was Kaagaz Ke Phool, now a cult classic. He lost over 17 Lacs producing that movie, a large amount by the standards of the time, which was more than recovered by his next project, Chaudhvin Ka Chand. He never lost faith in his team or in the distributors of his films. Once a project was over, he would begin anew - with little concern about the commercial success of the previous project. He was part of an exclusive school of Indian film directors, including the likes of Raj Kapoor, Mehboob Khan and Bimal Roy, who were able to achieve a healthy blend of artistic and commercial success between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s. Pyaasa was rated as one of the best 100 films of all time by Time Magazine.[1] In the 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll, two of his films, Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool, were among the top 160 greatest films of all time.[2] The same 2002 Sight & Sound poll ranked Dutt at #73 in its list of all-time greatest directors, thus making him the eighth highest-ranking Asian filmmaker in the poll.[3]

Memorable quotes • On failure of Kaagaz Ke Phool and success of Chaudhvin Ka Chand : "Life mein, yaar, kya hai? Do hi toh cheezen hai – kamyaabi aur failure. There is nothing in between."[17] ("What is there in life, friend? There are only two things - success and failure. There is nothing in between.") • While scouting for locations in Baroda for Chaudhvin Ka Chand : "Dekho na, mujhe director banna tha, director ban gaya; actor bana tha, actor ban gaya; picture achche banane thay, achche banay. Paisa hai, sab kuch hai, par kuch bhi nahi raha."[18] ("See, I wanted to be a director, I became one. Wanted to be an actor, I became one. Wanted to make good pictures, I have done that too. Have money, have everything. But I have nothing left.")

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Guru Dutt

Selected filmography Actor • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Picnic (1964)-Incomplete Sanjh Aur Savera (1964) Suhagan (1964) Bahurani (1963) Bharosa (1963) Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962) Sautela Bhai (1962) Chaudhvin Ka Chand (1960) Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) 12 O'Clock (1958) Pyaasa (1957) Mr. & Mrs. '55 (1955) Aar Paar (1954) Baaz (1953)

• Hum Ek Hain (1946) • Lakha Rani (1945) • Chand (1944)

Director • • • • • • • •

Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) Pyaasa (1957) Sailaab (1956) Mr. & Mrs. '55 (1955) Aar Paar (1954) Baaz (1953) Jaal (1952) Baazi (1951)

Producer • • • • • • • •

Aar Paar (1955) C.I.D. (1956) Pyaasa (1957) Gauri (1957) Incomplete Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959) Chaudhvin Ka Chand (1960) Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962) Baharein Phir Bhi Aayengi (1966)

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Further reading • Guru Dutt, 1925-1965: A Monograph, Firoze Rangoonwalla, National Film Archive of India, Govt. of India, 1973. • My Son Gurudutt, Vasanti Padukone, India, serialised in The Imprint and Screen magazine, April 1979 & 2004. • Nanna maga Gurudatta, Vasanti Padukone, Kannada, Manōhara Granthamāle, Dharwad, India, 1976, 120pp. • Guru Dutt, un grand cinéaste encore pratiquement inconnu hors de l’Inde, Henri Micciollo, Films sans Frontières, 1984. • Profiles, Five Film-makers from India, Shampa Banerjee. Directorate of Film Festivals, National Film Development Corp., 1985. ISBN 81-201-0007-7. • Guru Dutt: A Life in Cinema, Nasreen Munni Kabir, Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-564274-0. • In Black and White: Hollywood and the Melodrama of Guru Dutt, Darius Cooper, Seagull Books, 2005. ISBN 81-7046-217-7. • Yours Guru Dutt: Intimate Letters of a Great Indian Filmmaker, Nasreen Munni Kabir, Lustre Press, Roli Books, 2006. ISBN 81-7436-388-2. • Ten Years with Guru Dutt: Abrar Alvi's journey, Sathya Saran. 2008, Penguin, ISBN 0-670-08221-X.

Notes [1] " The Complete List (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ 2005/ 100movies/ the_complete_list. html)." All-Time 100 Movies Time Magazine. 2005 [2] "2002 Sight & Sound Top Films Survey of 253 International Critics & Film Directors" (http:/ / www. cinemacom. com/ 2002-sight-sound. html). Cinemacom. 2002. . Retrieved 2009-04-19. [3] Kevin Lee (2002-09-05). "A Slanted Canon" (http:/ / www. asianamericanfilm. com/ archives/ 000026. html). Asian American Film Commentary. . Retrieved 2009-04-24. [4] Kavita Amarnani (14 March 2008). "Was Guru Dutt India's Orson Welles?" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ film/ filmblog/ 2008/ mar/ 14/ wasguruduttindiasorsonwel). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-05-09. [5] http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Big-B-in-CNN-s-top-25-Asian-actors-list/ H1-Article1-515456. aspx [6] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=768& pg=1& view=1 [7] "Asian Film Series No.9 GURU DUTT Retorospective" (http:/ / www. jpf. go. jp/ e/ culture/ new/ old/ 0101/ 01_03. html). Japan Foundation. 2001. . Retrieved 2009-05-13. [8] R. Rajesh Kumar (15 July 2008). "Review of Ten Years with Guru Dutt: Abrar Alvi's Journey" (http:/ / sify. com/ movies/ fullstory. php?id=14716533). . Retrieved 2009-05-10. [9] Biography from www.screenindia.com (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ fullstory. php?content_id=9091) [10] An interview of Dev Anand from www.dearcinema.com (http:/ / dearcinema. com/ interview/ dev-anand-remembers-guru-dutt/ 1824) [11] An article from Hindustan Times (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ StoryPage/ StoryPage. aspx?id=3c5f9505-ab14-4a97-afd4-240feb7c723d& & Headline='One+ should+ live+ the+ moment. . . look+ ahead') [12] 'Nobody really knows what happened on October 10' (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ oct/ 11guru. htm) [13] BoxOffice India.com (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=166& catName=MTk2MA==) [14] http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ oct/ 08spec1. htm [15] Ashraf, Syed Firdaus (October 15, 2004). "'I miss my father terribly'" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ oct/ 15dutt. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved July 5, 2010. [16] Top hit bollywood movies from www.boxofficeindia.com (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ cpages. php?pageName=top_hits) [17] Waheed Rehman's interview dated 04-10-2004 from rediff.com (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ oct/ 11guru. htm) [18] An article by V K Murthy from rediff.com (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ oct/ 08spec1. htm)

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References • Kabir, Nasreen Munni, Guru Dutt: A Life in Cinema, Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-564274-0 • Micciollo, Henri, Guru Dutt, un grand cinéaste encore pratiquement inconnu hors de l’Inde, Films sans Frontières, 1984

External links • Guru Dutt (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0244870/) at the Internet Movie Database • Website dedicated to Guru Dutt - Biography, Filmography & more (http://www.gurudutt.info) • Review of Ten Years with Guru Dutt: Abrar Alvi's journey (http://sify.com/movies/fullstory. php?id=14716533) • Interview with Dev Anand (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/mar/04dinesh.htm) • Interview with Guru Dutt's cameraman, V. K Murthy (http://in.rediff.com/movies/2004/oct/08spec1.htm) • Compilation of songs from Guru Dutt movies (http://www.bollango.com/cgi-bin/akf_search.tcl?key=song& actor=guru+dutt)

135


Helen (actress)

136

Helen (actress) Helen Born

Helen Richardson 21 October 1939 Burma

Occupation

actress, dancer

Years active 1951–present Spouse

Salim Khan (1980s–present)

Helen Jairag Richardson (born 21 October 1939 in Burma) is an Indian film actress and dancer of Anglo-Burmese descent, working in Hindi films.[1] She is often cited as the most popular dancer of the item number in her time.[2] [3] Helen was the subject of a short 1973 film by Merchant Ivory Productions, called Helen, Queen of the Nautch Girls.[4]

Early life and background Helen was born in Burma on 21 October 1939 to an Anglo-Indian father and Burmese mother.[1] She has a brother Roger and a sister Jennifer. Her father died during the Second World War. The family migrated to Mumbai in 1943 during World War II, but her mother's salary as a nurse was not enough, and Helen had to quit her schooling to support the family.[5]

Career Helen got her break when a family friend, an actress known as Cukoo, helped her find jobs as a chorus dancer in the films Shabistan and Awaara (1951). She was soon working regularly and was featured as a solo dancer in films such as Alif Laila (1954), Hoor-e-Arab (1953), and number "Mr. John O Baba Khan" in the film Baarish. In 1958, she performed in the song "Mera Naam Chin Chin Chu" in Shakti Samanta's film, Howrah Bridge, which was sung by Geeta Dutt. During her initial career, Dutt sang many songs for her.[6] The Bollywood playback singer Asha Bhosle also frequently sang for Helen, particularly during the 1960s and the early 70's. She was nominated for the Filmfare best supporting actress award in 1965 for her role in Gumnaam. She played dramatic roles such as the rape victim in Shakti Samanta's Pagla Kahin Ka (1970). Writer Salim Khan helped her get roles in some of the films he was co-scripting with Javed Akhtar: Imaam Dharam, Don, Dostana, and Sholay. This was followed by a role in Mahesh Bhatt's film Lahu Ke Do Rang (1979), for which she won a Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award. In 1999 Helen was given India's prestigious Filmfare lifetime achievement award. Helen retired from film work for a number of years, but appeared in a few guest roles in 1999 and 2000. She did a memorable role in the 1996 movie Khamoshi, directed by Sanjay Leela Bansali. In Mohabbatein, she plays the prim and proper head of a girls' school who is pulled out onto a dance floor and surprises everyone with her lively dancing. She also made a special appearance as the mother of real-life step-son Salman Khan's character in Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam. Helen was selected for the Padma Shri awards of 2009 along with Aishwarya Rai and Akshay Kumar.


Helen (actress)

Non-acting career Helen also performed numerous stage shows in London, Paris, and Hong Kong. In 1973, Helen, Queen of the Nautch Girls, a 30-minute documentary film from Merchant Ivory Films, was released. Anthony Korner directed and narrated the film. A book about Helen was published by Jerry Pinto in 2006, titled The Life and Times of an H-Bomb,[7] [8] which went on to win the National Film Award for Best Book on Cinema in 2007. Helen appeared as a Judge in the semi finals and finals of the 2009 Indian Dancing Queen(Dance Contest)

Personal life Helen married Salim Khan, and became his second wife in 1980 and they adopted a girl, Arpita. Salman Khan is her stepson and she has acted as his mother in the film Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam, as his grand mother-in-law in Khamoshi: The Musical and Dil Ne Jise Apna Kaha and as his grandmother in the film Marigold.

Popular songs performed by Helen • "Mera Naam Chin Chin Chu" - Howrah Bridge (1958) • • • • • • • • •

"Oyee Maa Oyee Maa Yeh Kya Ho Gaya" - Paras Mani (1963) "Gham Chhod ke Manao Rang Relly" - Gumnaam (1965) "O Haseena Zulfowali" - Teesri Manzil (1966) "Aa Jaane Jaan" - Intaqam (1969) "Piya Tu Ab To Aaja" - Caravan (1971) "Aaj Ki Raat Koi Aane Ko Hai" - Anamika (1973) "Mehbooba Mehbooba" - Sholay (1975) "Mungda Main Gud Ki Dali" - Inkaar (1978) "Yeh Mera Dil Pyar Ka Diwana" - Don (1978)

Awards and honors • • • • • • •

Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Gumnaam (1965) Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Shikar (1968) Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Elan (1971) Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award for Lahu Ke Do Rang (1979) Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Khamoshi: The Musical (1996) Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award (1998)[9] Padma Shri, a civilian honour from the Indian government (2009)

Selected filmography

137


Helen (actress)

138

Awaara (1951)

Talash (1969)

Bairaag (1976)

Alif Laila (1952)

Sachchai (1969)

Imaan Dharam (1977)

Hoor-e-Arab (1953)

Ek Shriman Ek Shrimati (1969)

Inkaar (1977)

Miss Coca Cola (1955)

Prince (1969)

Khoon Pasina (1977)

Taksaal (1956)

Bikhre Moti (1969)

Amar Akbar Anthony (1977)

Changez Khan (1957)

Bhai Bahen (1969)

Chala Murari Hero Banne (1977)

Howrah Bridge (1958)

Intaqam (1969)

Don (1978)

Twelve O'Clock (1958)

Aansoo Ban Gaye Phool (1969)

Besharam (1978)

Yahudi (1958)

Pagla Kahin Ka (1970)

Swarg Narak (1978)

Sawan (1959)

The Train (1970)

Phandebaaz (1978)

Hum Hindustani (1960)

Tum Haseen Main Jawaan (1970) •

Bandi (1978)

Ek Phool Char Kaante (1960)

Bombay Talkie (1970)

Lahu Ke Do Rang (1979)

Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai (1960)

Puraskar (1970)

The Great Gambler (1979)

Gunga Jumna (1961)

Caravan (1971)

Ram Balram (1980)

Umar Qaid (1961)

Nadaan (1971)

Shaan (1980)

China Town (1962)

Hulchul (1971)

Abdullah (1980)

Sunehri Nagin (1963)

Hungama (1971)

Bombay 405 miles (1980)

Aaya Toofan (1964)

Yaar mera (1970)

Chhupa chhupee (1981)

Cha Cha Cha (1964)

Upaasna (1971)

Bulandi (1981)

Woh Kaun Thi? (1964)

Mere Jeevan Saathi (1972)

Raaz (1981)

Gumnaam (1965)

Rakhi Aur Hathkadi (1972)

Sawaal (1982)

Lutera (1965)

Dil Daulat Duniya (1972)

Bond 303 (1986)

Khandan (1965)

Apradh (1972)

Parchhayeen (1989)

Kaajal (1965)

Dharkan (1972)

Akayla (1991)

Aulad (1965)

Anamika (1973)

Khamoshi: The Musical (1996)

Teesri Manzil (1966)

Shareef Badmash (1973)

Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam (1999)

Dus Lakh (1966)

Aaj Ki Taaza Khabar (1973)

Mohabbatein (2000)

Night In London (1967)

Geeta Mera Naam (1974)

Shararat (2002)

Jaal (1967)

Benaam (1974)

Dil Ne Jise Apna Kahaa (2004)

CID 909 (1967)

Madhosh (1974)

Anjaane: The Unknown (2006)

Jewel Thief (1967)

Sholay (1975)

Humko Deewana Kar Gaye (2006)

Hare Kanch Ki Chooriyan (1967) •

Zakhmee (1975)

Marigold (2007)

Shikaar (1968)

Kala Sona (1975)

Dunno Y... Na Jaane Kyon (2010)

Vaasna (1968)

Saazish (1975)

References Notes [1] Bollywood Actresses - Helen (http:/ / www. iloveindia. com/ bollywood/ actresses/ helen. html) [2] "Bollywood item numbers: from Monica to Munni" (http:/ / www. pixelonomics. com/ bollywood-item-numbers-monica-to-munni/ ). 2010. . Retrieved 16 November 2010. [3] Mukherjee, Madhurita (3 February 2003). "Revamping Bollywood's sexy vamps" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Revamping-Bollywoods-sexy-vamps-/ articleshow/ 36310778. cms). Times of India. . Retrieved 16 November 2010. [4] Helen, Queen of the Nautch Girls (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0322530/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [5] I've no problems with the item no.: Helen Richardson : Star Talk (http:/ / www. santabanta. com/ cinema. asp?pid=18638) [6] Geeta Dutt songs for Helen (http:/ / www. hamaraforums. com/ index. php?showtopic=68138) [7] ‘Helen: The Life and the Times of an H-Bomb’ (http:/ / www. despardes. com/ in/ ent/ 2006/ 28-helen-item-girl. html) [8] Rediff Interview / Jerry Pinto (http:/ / www. daijiworld. com/ news/ news_disp. asp?n_id=19921& n_tit='You+ Cannot+ Think+ of+ Another+ Helen. . . '+ -+ Writer+ Jerry+ Pinto) March 29, 2006. [9] 1st Filmfare Awards 1953 (http:/ / deep750. googlepages. com/ FilmfareAwards. pdf)


Helen (actress) Further reading • Pinto, Jerry. Helen; The Life and Times of An H-Bomb. New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 2006. ISBN 0143031244.

External links • Rediff magazine profile of Helen (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/dec/24dinesh.htm) • Helen (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0374974/) at the Internet Movie Database

139


Hema Malini

140

Hema Malini Hema Malini

Born

Hema Malini R. Chakravarthy [1] 16 October 1948 [1] Ammankudi, Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

Occupation

Actress, director, producer

Years active 1965–present Spouse

Dharmendra (1980–present)

Hema Malini (Tamil: ஹேமா மாலினி, Hēmā Māliṉi ?; born 16 October 1948) is an Indian actress, director and producer, as well as a Bharatanatyam dancer-choreographer. Making her acting debut in Sapno Ka Saudagar (1968), she went on to appear in numerous Bollywood films, most notably those with actor and future-husband Dharmendra.[2] She was initially promoted as "Dream Girl", and in 1977 starred in a film of the same name.[3] During this period, she established herself as one of Hindi cinema's leading actresses, noted for both her comic and dramatic roles, her beauty, and her accomplished classical dancing.[4] [5] [6] Malini is one of the most successful female film stars in the history of Indian cinema.[5] [7] Appearing in over 150 films in a career span of 40 years, she has starred in a large number of successful films, and her performances in both commercial and arthouse cinema, were often recognised.[5] During her career, she has been nominated 11 times for the Filmfare Award for Best Actress, of which she won once in 1972. In 2000, she was presented with the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award. In the same year, she was honoured with the Padma Shri, the fourth-highest civilian honour, by the Government of India.[8] She also served as the Chairperson of the National Film Development Corporation. Of late Malini spends most of her time on charitable and social ventures, while making occasional appearances in films. She is a member of India's Bharatiya Janata Party and was nominated member by the party in Rajya Sabha, the upper House of parliament during 2003-2009.[9]


Hema Malini

Early life and family Hema Malini Chakravarty was born in a Tamil Iyengar family at Ammankudi, Tiruchirappalli to V.S. Ramanujam Chakravarthy[10] and Jaya Chakravarthy on 16 October 1948.[1] Her mother was a film producer. Malini was the youngest of the three children and has two brothers.[11] She was not interested in studies but liked history, her favourite subject in school.[11] She was educated at the Andhra Mahila Sabha in Chennai.[10] Some of the popular Bollywood actors like Sanjeev Kumar and Jeetendra proposed to Hema Malini,[12] [13] In her authorized biography, Hema Malini also claimed she almost got married to Jeetendra, but later backed out.[12] Unable to tolerate the rejection, Sanjeev Kumar was reportedly driven to liquor and remained unmarried till his death in 1985.[12] Hema fell in love with her co-star Dharmendra during the filming of Sholay.[14] She eventually married him in 1980. Before they married both converted to Islam,[15] since Dharmendra was already married to Prakash Kaur[16] [17] [18] who refused to divorce him. Apart from Sholay, the Dharmendra-Hema pair appeared together in films like Seeta Aur Geeta, Dreamgirl, Charas and The Burning Train. After her marriage she became the step-mother of Sunny Deol and Bobby Deol, both popular actors in Bollywood. She has two daughters with Dharmendra, Esha Deol (born 1982) and Ahana Deol (born 1984). Her elder daughter Esha is a well-known actress in Bollywood while her younger daughter Ahana is an aspiring director[19] who worked as an assistant director to Sanjay Leela Bhansali in his film Guzarish (2010) that starred Hrithik Roshan and Aishwarya Rai.[20] [21] Hema Malini's niece is actress Madhoo who had starred in films Phool Aur Kaante (1991) and Roja (1992).[22]

Film career Debut: 1960s Hema was considered for a Tamil film when she was 15 but rejected by director C. V. Sridhar saying that she was too thin.[23] In 1965, she got an opportunity to act in a short episode as dancer in Pandava Vanavasam, a Telugu film. Later Ananthaswamy, a film poducer offered her a role opposite Raj Kapoor in his film Sapno Ka Saudagar (1968).[23] She was promoted as the dream girl of Bollywood right from that film itself.[23]

Breakthrough: 1970s In Johnny Mera Naam (1970), she was cast in a more pivotal role and the film became a blockbuster. She took challenging roles which most of the heroines of the 1960s refused to do. She played the role of a young widow in Andaaz (1971) and in Lal Patthar (1971) she played a character with negative shades.[23] The following year, Hema double-roled with Dharmendra and Sanjeev Kumar in Seeta Aur Geeta.[24] Even after many years the film remains one of the best in her career.[24] The film was a blockbuster and earned her her first Filmfare Best Actress Award.[25] Within four years of making her debut, she established herself as one of the leading actresses in Bollywood.[4] During the mid 70s, her fans started calling her "Dream Girl", an allusion to the movie of the same name where she starred opposite Dharmendra.[23] A majority of her films released during this period were highly successful; Sanyasi, Dharmatma and Pratigya. Sholay, released in 1975, became a box-office phenomenon, where she played the role of Basanti, an unforgettable role of a talkative girl.[23] Malini starred in many movies throughout the 1970s and is perhaps best remembered for her glamour, style, and accomplished classical dancing.[12] [26] The Dharmendra-Hema pair had back to back hits from the early 70's like Sharafat, Tum Haseen Main Jawan, Naya Zamana, Raja Rani, Seeta Aur Geeta starring together in 28 movies in all, eventually marrying him in 1980.[23] The pair continued with box office hit movies like Patthar Aur Payal, Dost, Charas, Jugnu, Azaad, Dillagi and Dil Kaa Heera. She also achieved some strong dramatic or comic moments in films like Trishul, Joshila and Khushboo. In the late 1970s she acted in female-centric movies like Kinara (1977)

141


Hema Malini and Meera (1979), directed by Gulzar.

Post marriage: 1980-1999 After her marriage she continued to work in films like Kranti, Naseeb, Satte Pe Satta and Vijay Anand's Rajput. The couple Dharmendra Hema Malini were paired together even after marriage, in the eighties in Alibaba Aur 40 Chor, Baghavat, Samraat and Razia Sultan.In 1983 she starred in Andha Kanoon which marked the debut of Tamil actor Rajinikanth in Bollywood. In the film she played the sister of Rajinikanth, seeking revenge for the death of her parents. The following year she acted in K. Balachander's Ek Nai Paheli, a remake of his Tamil film Apoorva Raagangal. She portrayed the role of a classical singer in the film. She was a part of the hit multi-starrers Baghavat and Raaj Tilak both opposite Dharmendra, and continued to gain success in films focusing on her character like Aandhi Toofan, Durgaa and Ramkali in 1985, Sitapur Ki Geeta in 1987 saw her doing action oriented roles while Ek Chaddar Maili Si (1986), Rihaee and Jamai Raja (1990), saw her playing more matured roles.[23] Hema also directed a film, Dil Aashna Hai which was a commercial failure and her career tapered off as she chose to concentrate more on her dance ballets and Television serials.[23]

Comeback: 2000s After taking a break from films for a number of years in the 1990s and early 2000s, Hema made a comeback with Baghban (2003).[23] The film had Amitabh Bachchan playing her husband and also earned her a Filmfare Best Actress Award nomination. She also played a cameo in the 2004 film Veer-Zaara. In both films, she played a self-possessed, elderly married woman.

Political career Hema Malini and her husband have been involved in politics, as members of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). She was elected to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India, with the support of the Bhratiya Janata Party.[27] [28] She campaigned for the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) candidate, Vinod Khanna, former Bollywood actor in the 1999 Lok Sabha Elections in Gurdaspur in Punjab.[27] In 2004, Hema Malini joined the Bharatiya Janata Party.[27] In February 2004, she joined the party (BJP) officially.[27] With her film career less hectic, she has been an active member of the party, attending party meetings and rallies and campaigning for the party through various elections. In March 2010, she was made general secretary of the BJP. In February 2011, it was reported that Hema Malini has been recommended by H.N.Ananth Kumar, party general secretary.[28]

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Hema Malini

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Other work Hema Malini is a trained Bharatanatyam artist, a classical dance of India. Her daughters are well trained in the same dance form; the three have performed together at charity dance concerts.[29] [30] Malini had a natural ability of performing Odissi. Her refulgent smile eased her portrayal of a wide range of characters ranging from the fiery Narasimha to a graceful Lord SriRama on Ramcharitmanas, written by Tulasidas.[31] In 2007, she performed in Mysore on the eve of Dussera, where she played the roles of Sati, Parvati and Durga.[32] She had performed at the Khajuraho Dance Festival with her daughters.[33] She directed and starred in the television serial Noopur, in which she played the role of a Bharatanatyam dancer.[23] She owned the editorship of New Woman, a Hindi woman's magazine.[34] [35] In 2000 she was appointed as the first-ever woman chairperson of the National Film Development Corporation for three years.[10] [36] She owns a dance school, Natya Vihar Kalakendra.[37] Malini performing at a concert

In 2007, she was signed by Kent, a mineral water purifier system, as its brand ambassador.[38] She is one of the three brand ambassadors of Pothys, a textile showroom in Chennai (the others being Sudha Ragunathan and Trisha Krishnan).[39] The first biography of Malini, Diva Unveiled-Hema Malini, was written by Ram Kamal Mukherjee and first published in 2005.[40]

Latest filmography Year

Film

Role

2000

Hey Ram

2001

Censor

2003

Aman Ke Farishtey

2003

Baghban

Pooja Malhotra

2004

Veer-Zaara

Saraswati

2005

Bhagmati

2006

Ganga

2006

Baabul

2007

Laaga Chunari Mein Daag

2007

Gangotri

2010

Sadiyaan

2011

Bbuddah... Hoga Terra Baap Sita

2011

Aarakshan

Notes

Ambujam Iyengar

Shobhana Kapoor Special appearance

Benazir


Hema Malini

References [1] "rediff.com: A dream called Hema Malini" (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2003/ oct/ 16sd1. htm). In.rediff.com. 1948-10-16. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [2] "A dream called Hema Malini" (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2003/ oct/ 16sd4. htm). In.rediff.com. . Retrieved 2009-09-24. [3] "A dream called Hema Malini" (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2003/ oct/ 16sd1. htm). In.rediff.com. 1948-10-16. . Retrieved 2009-09-24. [4] "Abhinetri (1970)" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mp/ 2010/ 12/ 03/ stories/ 2010120351811100. htm). The Hindu. 3 December 2010. . Retrieved 30 June 2011. [5] "Top Actress" (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ cpages. php?pageName=top_actress). BoxOfficeIndia.Com. . Retrieved 2008-01-08. [6] "Friday Review Chennai / Tribute : Bollywood’s macho man bids goodbye" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2009/ 05/ 01/ stories/ 2009050151260600. htm). The Hindu. 2009-05-01. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [7] "Top Box Office Draws of Indian Cinema" (http:/ / www. ibosnetwork. com/ asp/ topactors. asp?isactress=true). IBOS. . Retrieved 2009-09-24. [8] "Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan, Padma Shri awardees" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2000/ 01/ 27/ stories/ 02270005. htm). The Hindu. 2000-01-27. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [9] Smt. Hema Malini, Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)- Bio Data (http:/ / 164. 100. 24. 167:8080/ members/ website/ Mainweb. asp?mpcode=1922) Press Information Bureau of India. [10] "Detailed Profile - Smt. Hema Malini - Members of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) - Who's Who - Government: National Portal of India" (http:/ / india. gov. in/ govt/ rajyasabhampbiodata. php?mpcode=1922). India.gov.in. . Retrieved 2011-07-06. [11] "My Fundays" (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1110629/ jsp/ telekids/ story_14171108. jsp). The Telegraph India. 29 June 2011. . Retrieved 6 July 2011. [12] "Biography reveals dream girl's love affairs" (http:/ / www. paktribune. com/ news/ print. php?id=172750). Paktribune.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-01. [13] "Love, romance and intrigue" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ fr/ 2003/ 05/ 30/ stories/ 2003053001200100. htm). The Hindu. 2003-05-30. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [14] "Dharmendra - Action King: Personal life" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=1101& pg=4& view=4). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2011-07-02. [15] "'Dharmendra embraced Islam to marry Hema'" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ fullstory. php?newsid=30538). Indian Express. 19 April 2004. . Retrieved 2 July 2011. [16] Gupta, Suchandana (17 April 2004). "Plea against Dharmendra" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 621498. cms). Times of India. . Retrieved 2 July 2011. [17] "People" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ radio/ aod/ asiannetwork_aod. shtml?asiannet/ sonia_dharmendrarm). BBC Asian Network. . Retrieved 2 July 2011. [18] "Dharmendra walks down memory lane" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2002/ 20020104/ ldh1. htm). . Retrieved 2 July 2011. [19] Joshi, Tushar (2009-05-26). "Ahana Deol and boyfriend VJ Aditya working together in Guzaarish" (http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ entertainment/ 2009/ may/ 260509-Guzaarish-Ahana-Deol-VJ-Aditya-Aishwarya-Hrithik-Roshan. htm). Mid-day.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-06. [20] "Metro Plus Mangalore / Cinema : Sister act!" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mp/ 2009/ 10/ 10/ stories/ 2009101050230200. htm). The Hindu. 2009-10-10. . Retrieved 2011-07-06. [21] "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) | Entertainment | Next in line" (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1110303/ jsp/ entertainment/ story_13658720. jsp). Telegraphindia.com. 2011-03-03. . Retrieved 2011-07-06. [22] "Hits and misses" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ 20020426/ fcover. html). Screenindia.com. . Retrieved 2009-09-24. [23] "rediff.com, Movies: Hema Malini: Bollywood's dreamgirl" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ oct/ 25dinesh. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-01. [24] "Revisiting Seeta Aur Geeta - Rediff.com Movies" (http:/ / movies. rediff. com/ slide-show/ 2009/ may/ 25/ slide-show-1-revisiting-seeta-aur-geeta. htm). Movies.rediff.com. 2009-05-25. . Retrieved 2011-07-01. [25] "The Winners - 1972- The 51st Filmfare Awards" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 366872. cms). Filmfareawards.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [26] "Goddess of valour" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2011/ 03/ 25/ stories/ 2011032550140300. htm). The Hindu. 25 March 2011. . Retrieved 30 June 2011. [27] "Hema Malini joins BJP" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2004/ 02/ 20/ stories/ 2004022007841100. htm). The Hindu. 2004-02-20. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [28] "Karnataka News : BJP picks Hema Malini for RS" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2011/ 02/ 19/ stories/ 2011021966281000. htm). The Hindu. 2011-02-19. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [29] "Star daughter awaits a big hit" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ thehindu/ lf/ 2002/ 06/ 16/ stories/ 2002061601530200. htm). The Hindu. 2002-06-16. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [30] "Friday Review Hyderabad / Dance : Goddess of valour" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2011/ 03/ 25/ stories/ 2011032550140300. htm). The Hindu. 2011-03-25. . Retrieved 2011-06-14.

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Hema Malini [31] "Friday Review Hyderabad / Dance : Hema's celestial dance recital" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2006/ 04/ 07/ stories/ 2006040701730300. htm). The Hindu. 2006-04-07. . Retrieved 2011-06-14. [32] R., Krishna Kumar (22 October 2007). "Hema Malini presents ‘Durga’ to a standing ovation" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2007/ 10/ 22/ stories/ 2007102261390500. htm). The Hindu. . Retrieved 6 July 2011. [33] "Hema Malini mesmerises at Khajuraho Dance Festival" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2011/ 02/ 03/ stories/ 2011020367570700. htm). The Hindu. 3 February 2011. . Retrieved 6 July 2011. [34] "India as a Writer's Market" (http:/ / www. writing-world. com/ international/ india. shtml). Writing-world.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-01. [35] "Which business family owns Outlook?" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ money/ 2004/ feb/ 20quiz. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-01. [36] "Are You surprised ?" (http:/ / www. rrtd. nic. in/ med-up1oct2k. html). Rrtd.nic.in. 2000-10-15. . Retrieved 2011-07-06. [37] "Hema Malini enthrals audience" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2010/ 09/ 13/ stories/ 2010091361500300. htm). The Hindu. 13 September 2010. . Retrieved 6 July 2011. [38] "Business : Kent RO aims to consolidate market position" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2009/ 02/ 20/ stories/ 2009022060712000. htm). The Hindu. 2009-02-20. . Retrieved 2011-07-06. [39] "Tamil Nadu / Chennai News : Prizes distributed to winners of ‘Pothys Pattu Parisu'" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2010/ 12/ 31/ stories/ 2010123153810500. htm). The Hindu. 2010-12-31. . Retrieved 2011-07-06. [40] Mukherjee, Ram Kamal (1 January 2005). Hema Malini, diva unveiled (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ifZaAAAACAAJ). Magna Books. ISBN 978-81-7809-286-7. . Retrieved 11 September 2011.

Further reading • Somaaya, Bhawana (2007). Hema Malini: the authorized biography. New Delhi: Lotus Collection. ISBN 8174364676. • Raheja, Dinesh. "Hema Malini: Bollywood's Dreamgirl" (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/oct/25dinesh. htm). Rediff. Retrieved 2011-06-15.

External links • Hema Malini (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004564/) at the Internet Movie Database

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Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay

146

Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay Hemanta Mukherjee

Background information Birth name

Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay

Born

16 June 1920 Varanasi, Benares State, British Raj (now in Uttar Pradesh, India)

Died

26 September 1989 Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Genres

Bengali and Hindi/Marathi Playback

Occupations Singer/Composer Years active 1937 – 1989

Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay (Bengali: হেমন্ত কুমার মুখোপাধ্যায়; Hemonto Kumar Mukhopaddhae) also known as Hemanta Mukherjee (16 June 1920 – 26 September 1989) was an Bengali singer, composer and producer. He sang in Hindi films under the name Hemant Kumar.

Early life Hemanta was born in the city of Varanasi, India although his family hailed from a village named Baharu in West Bengal. They migrated to Kolkata in the early 20th century. Hemanta grew up there and attended Mitra Institution school of Bhawanipore area. There he met his longtime friend, Subhas Mukhopadhyay who later became a Bengali poet. After passing the intermediate examinations (12th grade), Hemanta joined Jadavpur University to pursue Engineering.[1] However, he quit academics to pursue a career in music, despite parental objection. He briefly tried his hand at literature and also published a short story in a prestigious Bengali magazine called Desh, but by the late-1930s he was committed entirely to music.


Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay

Early music career Under the influence of his friend Subhas Mukhopadhyay, Hemanta recorded his first song for All India Radio in 1933. The first line of the song was Amar Ganete Ele Nabarupi Chirantanii. Hemanta's music career was primarily mentored by the Bengali musician, Sailesh Duttagupta. In an interview on television in the early 1980s, Hemanta had mentioned that he had also received classical music training from Ustad Faiyaz Khan, but his tutelage was cut short by Ustad's untimely death. In 1937, Hemanta cut his first gramophone disc under the Columbia label. The songs (non-film) on this disc were Janite Jadi Go Tumi and Balo Go Balo More whose lyrics were by Naresh Bhattacharya and music was composed by Sailesh Duttagupta. Thereafter, every year Hemanta continued to record non-film discs for the Gramophone Company of India (GCI) till 1984. His first Hindi songs were Kitana Dukh Bhulaya Tumne and O Preet Nibhanewali, released in 1940 under GCI's Columbia label. Music for these songs were composed by Kamal Dasgupta, lyrics were by Faiyaz Hashmi. Hemanta's first film song was in the Bengali film Nimai Sanyas released in 1941. Music for this film was scored by Hariprasanna Das. Hemanta's first compositions for himself were the Bengali non-film songs Katha Kayonako Shudhu Shono and Amar Biraha Akashe Priya in 1944. Lyrics of these two songs were by Amiya Bagchi. His first Hindi film songs were in Irada in 1944 under Pt. Amarnath's music direction. Lyrics were by Aziz Kashmiri. Hemanta is considered a foremost exponent of Rabindrasangeet. His first recorded Rabindrasangeet was in the Bengali film Priya Bandhabi (1944).[2] The song was Pather Sesh Kothaye. He recorded his first non-film Rabindrasangeet disc in 1944 under the Columbia label. The songs were Aamar Aar Habe Na Deri and Keno Pantha E Chanchalata.[3] His first movie as a music director was the Bengali film Abhiyatri in 1947. Although many of the songs Hemanta recorded during this time received critical acclaim, major commercial success eluded him until 1947. Some contemporary male singers of Hemanta in Bengali around that period were Jaganmay Mitra, Robin Majumdar, Satya Chowdhury, Dhananjay Bhattacharya, Sudhirlal Chakraborty, Bechu Dutta[4] and Talat Mahmood.

Family Hemanta had three brothers and a sister, Nilima. His elder brother, Tarajyoti, was a short-story writer in Bengali. The youngest brother, Amal Mukhopadhyay, composed music for some Bengali movies, most notably Hospital and Abak Prithibi. He also recorded a few Bengali songs in the 1960s.[5] In 1945, Hemanta married Bela Mukherjee (died 25 June 2009),[6] a singer from Bengal. Although Bela (maiden name also Bela Mukhopadhyay) had sung some popular songs in a Bengali movie, Kashinath (1943), with music by Pankaj Mullick – she did not actively pursue her musical career after marriage. They had two children: a son, Jayant, and a daughter, Ranu. Ranu as Ranu Mukhopadhyay pursued a music career in the late 1960s and early 1970s, with somewhat limited success. Jayant is married to Moushmi Chatterjee, an Indian film actress who was popular in the 1970s.

Success and migration to Mumbai In the mid 1940s, Hemanta became an active member of the Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA) and started an association with another active IPTA member – songwriter and composer – Salil Chowdhury. One of the main driving forces behind the establishment of IPTA was the Bengal famine of 1943 and the inaction of the British administration and wealthy Indians to prevent it from happening. In 1948, Hemanta recorded a non-film song called ganyer badhu (literally translates to 'The rural bride') that had music and lyrics by Salil Chowdhury. The six minute song recorded on two sides of a 78 rpm disc was sung at a varying pace and lacked the conventional structure and

147


Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay romantic theme of a Bengali song. It depicted an idyllic, prosperous and caring rural woman's life and family, and how it gets ravaged by the demons of famine and ensuing poverty. This song generated an unforeseen popularity for Hemanta and Salil in eastern India, and, in a way, established Hemanta ahead of his male contemporaries. Hemanta and Salil paired again in several songs over the next four years and almost all these songs proved to be very popular.[7] Around the same period, Hemanta started receiving more assignments for music composition for Bengali films. Some of these films were for a director named Hemen Gupta. When Hemen moved to Mumbai a few years later, he called upon Hemanta to compose music for his first directorial venture in Hindi titled Anandmath under the Filmistan banner. Responding to this call, Hemanta migrated to Mumbai in 1951 and joined the Filmistan Studios. The music of Anand Math (1952) was a moderate success. Perhaps, the most notable songs from this movie is vande mataram sung by Lata Mangeshkar, which Hemanta set to a marching tune. Following Anandmath, Hemanta scored music for a few Filmistan movies like Shart in subsequent years, the songs of which received moderate popularity. Simultaneously, Hemanta also gained popularity in Mumbai as a playback singer.[8] His songs playbacked for actor Dev Anand under music director Sachin Dev Burman in movies like Jaal, House No. 44, and Solva Saal became quite popular.

Career rise By the mid-1950s, Hemanta had consolidated his position as a prominent singer and composer. In Bengal, he was one of the foremost exponents of Rabindrasangeet and perhaps the most sought after male singer. In Mumbai, along with playback singing, He also carved a niche as a composer. He composed music for a Hindi film called Nagin (1954) which became a major success owing largely to its music. Songs of Nagin remained chart-toppers continuously for two years and culminated in Hemant receiving the prestigious Filmfare Best Music Director Award in 1955. The very same year, he scored music for a Bengali movie called Shapmochan in which he also played back four songs for the Bengali actor Uttam Kumar. This started a long partnership between Hemant and Uttam as a playback singer-actor pair. They were the most popular singer-actor duo in Bengali Cinema over the next decade. In the latter part of the 1950s, Hemanta composed music and sang for several Bengali and Hindi films, recorded several Rabindrasangeets and Bengali non-film songs. Almost all of these, especially his Bengali songs became very popular. This period can be termed as the zenith of his career and lasted for almost a decade. He sang songs composed by the major music directors in Bengal such as Nachiketa Ghosh, Robin Chatterjee and Salil Chowdhury. Some of the notable films Hemanta himself composed music for during this period include Harano Sur, Marutirtha Hinglaj, Neel Akasher Neechey, Lukochuri, Swaralipi, Deep Jwele Jaai, Shesh Parjanta, Kuhak, Dui Bhai, and Saptapadi in Bengali, and, Jagriti and Ek Hi Raasta in Hindi.

Movie production In the late 1950s, Hemanta ventured into movie production under his own banner Hemanta-Bela productions. The first movie under this banner was a Bengali film directed by Mrinal Sen, titled Neel Akasher Neechey(1959). The story of this film was based on the travails of a Chinese street hawker in Calcutta in the backdrop of India's freedom struggle. The movie went onto win the President's Gold Medal – the highest honour for a movie from Government of India. In the next decade, Hemanta's production company was renamed Geetanjali productions and it produced several Hindi movies such as Bees Saal Baad, Kohraa, Biwi Aur Makaan, Faraar, Rahgir and Khamoshi – all of which had music by Hemanta. Almost all of these, except Bees Saal Baad and Khamoshi, weren't major commercial successes. Back in Bengal, Hemanta scored music for a movie titled Palatak in 1963 where he experimented with merging Bengal Folk Music and light music. This proved to be a major success and Hemanta's composition style changed noticeably for many of his future films in Bengal such as Baghini, and Balika Badhu. In Bengali films Manihar and Adwitiya, both of which were major musical as well as commercial successes, his compositions had a light classical tinge. In 1961, for commemorating Rabindranath Tagore's birth centenary, Gramophone company of

148


Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay India featured Rabindrasangeet by Hemanta in a large portion of its commemorative output. This too proved to be a major commercial success. Hemanta also went on several overseas concert tours in this period including his trip to the West Indies. Overall, in the 1960s decade he retained his position as the major male singer in Bengal, and, as a composer and singer to be reckoned with in Hindi films.

Latter part of career In the 1970s, Hemanta's contribution in Hindi films was nominal. He scored music for a handful of his home productions, but none of these movies were successful nor the music of them. In Bengal, however, he remained the foremost exponent of Rabindrasangeet. His non-film output was popular in the early part of the decade. In 1971, Hemanta debuted as a film director in for his self-produced Bengali movie titled Anindita. The movie didn't fare exceedingly well at the box office. In the early to mid 1970s, two major music composers in Bengal, Nachiketa Ghosh and Robin Chatterjee, who had worked closely with Hemanta since the early 1950s, died. Simultaneously, music composed by Hemanta for Bengali films like Fuleswari, Raag Anurag and Dadar Kirti established Hemanta as the major film music composer in the Bengal movie scene. In 1979, Hemanta re-recorded some of his earlier works with composer Salil Chowdhury from the 1940s and 1950s. This album, titled 'Legend of Glory, vol. 2' was a major commercial success, despite Hemanta's aged and slightly tired voice. In 1980, Hemanta suffered a major heart attack (myocardial infarction) that severely affected his vocal capabilities, especially his breath control. He continued to record songs in the early eighties, but his voice was a shade of its rich baritone past. In 1984, Hemanta was felicitated by different organizations, most notably by the Gramophone Company of India, for completing 50 years in music. Ironically, that very year Hemanta released his last album with Gramophone Company of India – a 45 rpm extended play disc with four non-film songs. Over the next few years, Hemanta released non-film songs under various small-time labels that had cropped up in the nascent cassette-based music industry. Only a few of these were commercially successful. He composed music for a handful of Bengali movies and one Bengali and one Hindi tele-series. However, by this time he had become an institution, a beloved personality, and a courteous and friendly gentleman. He continued to feature regularly on All India Radio, Doordarshan (TV) and live programmes/concerts during this period. In September 1989, he travelled to Dhaka, Bangladesh to receive the Michael Madhusudan Award. He performed a concert in Dhaka as well. Immediately after returning from this trip, he suffered a major heart attack (myocardial infarction) on September 26 and breathed his last at 11:15 pm in a nursing home in South Calcutta. Interestingly, even 15 years after his death, Gramophone Company of India releases at least one album by him every year, repackaging his older songs, because of the commercial viability of his songs. His legacy still lives on through the numerous songs he has recorded, music he has composed and through many male singers in Bengal and the rest of India who continue to imitate his singing style.

English filmography as a composer • 1972: Siddhartha

Bengali filmography as a composer Total number of films: 138 • • • •

1947: Abhiyatri, Purbaraag 1948: Bhuli Naai, Padma Pramatta Nadi, Priyatama 1949: Diner Par Din, '42, Sandipan Pathshala, Swami 1951: Jighansa, Paritran

• 1952: Swapno O Samadhi-(Jointly with Khagen Dasgupta) • 1955: Shapmochan

149


Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1956: Suryamukhi 1957: Shesh Parichay, Taser Ghar, Harano Sur 1958: Lukochuri, Shikar, Surjatoran, Joutuk, Neel Akasher Neechey 1959: Deep Jwele Jaai, Khelaghar, Marutirtha Hinglaj, Sonar Harin, Kshaniker Atithi 1960: Baishey Shravan, Gariber Meye, Kuhak, Khoka Babur Prayabartan, Shesh Paryanta 1961: Dui Bhai, Agni Sanskar, Madhya Rater Tara, Punashcha, Saptapadi, Sathi Hara, Swaralipi 1962: Atal Jaler Ahwan, Agun, Dada Thakur, Hansuli Banker Upakatha, Nabadiganta 1963: Badshah, Barnachora, Ek Tukro Agun, High Heel, Palatak, Saat Pake Bandha, Shesh Prahar, Tridhara 1964: Arohi, Bibhas, Natun Tirtha, Pratinidhi, Prabhater Rang, Swarga Hotey Biday, Sindure Megh 1965: Alor Pipasa, Ek Tuku Basa, Ek Tuku Chhonya Lage, Suryatapa 1966: Kanch Kata Hirey, Manihar 1967: Balika Badhu, Dushtu Prajapati, Nayika Sangbad, Ajana Shapath 1968: Adwitya, Baghini, Hansamithun, Jiban Sangeet, Panchasar, Parisodh 1969: Chena Achena, Man Niye, Parineeta, Shuk Sari 1970: Deshbandhu Chittaranjan, Duti Mon 1971: Kuheli, Malayadan, Nabarag, Nimantran, Sansar, Mahabiplabi Arabindo 1972: Anindita, Shriman Prithviraj

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1974: Bikele Bhorer Phool, Thagini, Phuleshwari 1975: Agniswar, Mohan Baganer Meye, Nishi Mrigaya, Raag Anuraag, Sansar Simantey 1976: Banhi Sikha, Datta, Sankhabish, Pratisruti 1977: Din Amader, Hatey Roilo Tin, Mantramugdha, Pratima, Proxy, Rajani, Sanai, Shesh Raksha, Swati 1978: Ganadevta, Nadi Theke Sagare, Pranay Pasha 1979: Shahar Theke Dooray, Nauka Dubi 1980: Bandhan, Dadar Kirti, Paka Dekha, Pankhiraj, Shesh Bichar 1981: Kapal Kundala, Khelar Putul, Meghmukti, Subarna Golak 1982: Chhoto Maa, Chhut, Uttar Meleni, Pratiksha 1983: Amar Geeti, Rajeshwari 1984: Agni Shuddhi, Ajantay, Bishabriksha, Didi, Madhuban, Suryatrishna 1985: Bhalobasa Bhalobasa, Tagari 1986: Pathbhola, Ashirwad 1987: Pratibha, Tunibou, Agaman, Boba sanai, Parasmani, Surer Sathi

Hindi filmography as a composer • A: Anand Math, Anjaan, Anupama, Arab Ka Saudagar • B: Bahu, Bandhan, Bandi, Bandish, Bees Saal Baad, Bees Saal Pehle, Bhagwat Mahima, Bin Badal Barsaat, Biwi Aur Makaan • C: Chand, Champakali • D: Daku Ki Ladki, Do Dil, Do Dooni Char, Do Ladke Dono Kadke, Do Mastane, Durgesh Nandini, Duniya Jhukti Hai,Devi Choudhurani • E: Ek hi Raasta, Ek Jhalak • F: Ferry, Faraar, Fashion • G: Girl Friend • H: Hamara Watan, Hill Station, Hum Bhi Insaan Hai • I: Inspector • J: Jagriti • K: Khamoshi, Kohraa, Kitna Badal Gaya Insaan • L: Lagan, Laalten, Love in Canada

150


Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay • • • • • • • •

M: Maa Beta, Majhli Didi, Miss Mary N: Nagin P: Payal, Police R: Rahgeer S: Sahara, Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam, Samrat, Sannata, Shart T: Taj U: Us Raat Ke Baad Y: Yahudi Ki Ladki

Other languages filmography as a composer • Ayel Basant Bahar (1961) • Balma Bada Nadaan (1964) Hemant Kumar also sang several Marathi songs, notably "Mee Dolkara, Dolkara, Dolakra dariyacha raaja...." (मी डोलकर, डोलकर दर्याचा राजा) with Lata Mangeshkar. This song became immensely popular. Another popular Marathi song by Hemant Kumar, "Gomu sangatina mazya tu yeshil kay" (गोमू संगतीनं माझ्या तू येशील काय), is filmed on the famous actor Kashinath Ghanekar in the film Ha Khel Saavalyancha, हा खेळ सावल्यांचा.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

Timeless attraction (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1060914/ asp/ careergraph/ story_6735047. asp) Mostly complete discography (http:/ / faculty. ist. unomaha. edu/ pdasgupta/ hemanta/ discography/ tagore. html#films) Debashis Dasgupta, Desh, Bengali weekly magazine from Anandabazar Patrika Ltd., Calcutta, Issue: Nov. 11, 1989. Pp - 36 S. Bhattacharya, Amar gaaner swaralipi, A. Mukherjee Press, Calcutta, 1988. Pp - 82,83,84 Mostly complete discography (http:/ / faculty. ist. unomaha. edu/ pdasgupta/ hemanta/ discography/ filmlist1. html) "Singer passes away" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Cities/ Kolkata-/ Fast-to-oppose-Sourav-school-/ articleshow/ 4703739. cms). Times of India. 2009-06-26. . Retrieved 2009-07-21. [7] Salil Chowdhury's obituary (http:/ / faculty. ist. unomaha. edu/ pdasgupta/ hemanta/ articles/ salilobi. html) [8] Hemant Kumar: That velvet touch http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ fullstory. php?content_id=17266

Sources 1. Hemanta Kumar Mukhopadhyay, "Ananda dhara", Deb Sahitya Kutir Press, Calcutta, 1970. 2. A. Rajadhakshya and P. Wilhelm, "An Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema," 2nd ed., British Film Institute, 1999. 3. S. Bhattacharya, "Amar gaaner swaralipi," A. Mukherjee Press, Calcutta, 1988.

External links • • • • •

Songs of Hemanta Mukherjee (http://banglasong.evergreenbangla.com/index.php?action=artist&id=13) Hemant Kumar home page (http://faculty.ist.unomaha.edu/pdasgupta/hemanta/index.html) Mostly complete discography (http://faculty.ist.unomaha.edu/pdasgupta/hemanta/discography/index.html) Articles on Hemanta Mukherjee (http://faculty.ist.unomaha.edu/pdasgupta/hemanta/articles/index.html) Hemanta's Hindi Filmography (http://www.bollango.com/cgi-bin/akf_search.tcl?key=movie& singer=hemanta) • Hemanta's Bengali Songs (http://www.cs.utk.edu/~dasgupta/hemanta/) • Hemanta's Bangla Gaan (http://www.sangeet-bhuvan.com/) • Hemanta Mukherjee's Bengali Songs (http://calcuttaglobalchat.net/calcuttablog/bangla-adhunik/ hemanta-mukherjee/)

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Hrishikesh Mukherjee

152

Hrishikesh Mukherjee Hrishikesh Mukherjee Born September 30, 1922 Kolkata, West Bengal, India Died August 27, 2006 (aged 83) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Website [1]

Hrishikesh Mukherjee (Bengali: হৃষিকেশ মুখোপাধ্যায়/মুখার্জী Hrishikesh Mukhopaddhae/Mukharji (see naming conventions)) (30 September 1922–27 August 2006) was a famous Indian film director known for a number of films, including Satyakam, Chupke Chupke, Anupama, Anand, Abhimaan, Guddi, Gol Maal, Aashirwad, Bawarchi, and Namak Haraam. Popularly known as Hrishi-da, he directed 42 films during his career spanning over four decades, and is named the pioneer of the 'middle cinema' of India. Renowned for his social films that reflected the changing middle-class ethos, Mukherjee "carved a middle path between the extravagance of mainstream cinema and the stark realism of art cinema".[2] [3] [4] [5] He also remained the chairman of the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) and of the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC),[6] and was awarded the 1999, Dada Saheb Phalke Award, India's highest award in Cinema for Lifetime achievement.

Early life and background Hrishikesh Mukherjee was born in Calcutta, he studied science and graduated in chemistry from the University of Calcutta. He taught mathematics and science for some time.

Career Mukherjee chose to begin working, initially as a cameraman, and then film editor, in B. N. Sircar's New Theatres in Calcutta in the late 1940s, where he learned his skills from Subodh Mitter ('Kenchida'), a well known editor of his times.[7] He then worked with Bimal Roy in Mumbai as film editor and assistant director from 1951,[8] participating in the landmark Roy films Do Bigha Zameen and Devdas. His debut directorial venture, Musafir (1957), was not a success, but he persisted and received acclaim for his second film Anari in 1959. The film, crew and cast won five Filmfare Awards, with Mukherjee only losing the Best Director Award to his mentor, Bimal Roy. His string of hits with Dharmendra and Amitabh made him one of the golden directors. In the following years he made numerous films. Some of his most notable films include: Anuradha (1960), Asli-Naqli (1962), Anupama (1966), Aashirwad (1968), Satyakam (1969), Guddi (1971), Bawarchi (1972), Mili (1975), Chupke Chupke (1975), Khoobsurat (1980) and Bemisal (1982). He was the first to introduce Dharmendra in comedy roles, through Chupke Chupke, and gave Amitabh Bachchan his big break with Anand in 1970, along with Rajesh Khanna, he also introduced Jaya Bhaduri to Hindi cinema in his film Guddi.[6] Having worked with his mentor, Bimal Roy as an editor, in films like Madhumati, he was much sought after as an editor as well.[9]


Hrishikesh Mukherjee

Later life Hrishikesh Mukherjee was honoured with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award by the Government of India, in 1999.[10] Mukherjee was chairman of the Central Board of Film Certification and of the National Film Development Corporation. He was also awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award for his contribution to Indian cinema by government of India in 2001 . The International Film Festival of India honoured him with a retrospective of his films in November 2005. He holds the distinction of working with almost all the top Indian stars since independence of India in 1947. The films were realistic and unlike the other Bollywood films do not have crime, violence. The simple plots contain deeper meaning, but are generally straightforward in form, theme and treatment. He directed around 50 films most of which were valued by audiences and critics alike because of their middle-of-the-road accessibility, heart-warming irony and literary sensibilities. His characters inhabited a middle-class, urban, educated milieu. One more characteristic of his films was that it had a character engrossed in music. Such as Anuradha, Aashirwad, Chupke chupke, Abhimaan, Khubsoorat, GolMaal, Alaap, Bawarchi, Aashiq, Mili, Saanjh Aur Sawera and Phir Kab Milogi to name a few. His last film was Jhoot Bole Kauwa Kaate. Since his original hero Amol Palekar had grown old he had to choose Anil Kapoor. He has also directed TV serials like Talaash. Another director making films akin to him is Basu Chatterjee.

Death Hrishikesh Mukherjee was suffering from chronic renal failure and would go to Lilavati Hospital for dialysis. He was admitted to Leelavati Hospital in Mumbai early on Tuesday, 6 June 2006 after he complained of uneasiness. Mukherjee died ten weeks later on 27 August 2006.[11] [12]

Personal life Hrishikesh Mukherjee was married and has three daughters and a son.[13] One of his sons died at Delhi railway station in 2001 due to asthma attack. His wife died more than three decades before him. He was an animal lover and had many dogs and sometimes an odd cat at his residence in Bandra, Mumbai. He used to stay alone with servants and pets in his last phase of life. Family members and friends would visit him regularly.

Awards • 2001: The Padmavibhushan by Govt. of India • 2001: NTR National Award

Berlin International Film Festival • 1961: Golden Bear: Nomination: Anuradha[14]

National Film Awards • 1960: President's Silver Medal: Anari[15] • 1961: National Film Award for Best Film: Anuradha • 1999: Dada Saheb Phalke Award

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Hrishikesh Mukherjee

154

Filmfare Awards • • • • • • •

1956: Filmfare Best Editing Award: Naukari 1959: Filmfare Best Editing Award: Madhumati 1970: Filmfare Best Screenplay Award: Anokhi Raat 1972: Filmfare Best Movie Award: Anand – shared with N. C. Sippy 1972: Filmfare Best Editing Award: Anand 1972: Filmfare Best Story Award: Anand 1981: Filmfare Best Movie Award: Khubsoorat- shared with N. C. Sippy

Selected filmography Year

Film

Starring

1957

Musafir

Dilip Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Suchitra Sen and Usha Kiran.

1959

Anari

Raj Kapoor, Nutan, Lalita Pawar and Sohrab Modi.

1960

Anuradha

Balraj Sahni, Leela Naidu

1962

Asli-Naqli

Dev Anand, Sadhna

Aashiq

Raj Kapoor, Padmini

1964

Saanjh Aur Savera

Guru Dutt

1966

Anupama

Dharmendra, Sharmila Tagore, Shashikala

Gaban

Sunil Dutt, Sadhana

1968

Aashirwad

Ashok Kumar

1969

Satyakam

Dharmendra, Sharmila Tagore

Pyar Ka Sapna

Mala Sinha, Biswajeet

1970

Anand

Rajesh Khanna, Amitabh Bachchan

1971

Guddi

Dharmendra, Jaya Bhaduri, Utpal Dutt, Samit Bhanja

1972

Bawarchi

Rajesh Khanna, Jaya Bhaduri

1973

Abhimaan

Amitabh Bachchan, Jaya Bhaduri

Namak Haraam

Rajesh Khanna, Amitabh Bachchan,

Chupke Chupke

Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan, Sharmila Tagore, Jaya Bhaduri

Mili

Amitabh Bachchan, Jaya Bhaduri

1979

Gol Maal

Amol Palekar, Utpal Dutt, Bindiya Goswami

1980

Khubsoorat

Rekha, Rakesh Roshan

1981

Naram Garam

Amol Palekar, Utpal Dutt, Swaroop Sampat, Shatrughan Sinha

1983

Rang Birangi

Amol Palekar, Parveen Babi, Deepti Naval, Farooq Sheikh

1998

Jhooth Bole Kauwa Kaate Anil Kapoor, Juhi Chawla, Amrish Puri

1975

Notes


Hrishikesh Mukherjee

Films as Director • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Musafir (1957) Anari (1959) Anuradha (1960) Memdidi (1961) Chhaya (1961) Asli-Naqli (1962) Aashiq (1962) Sanjh Aur Savera (1964) Do Dil (1965) Gaban (1966) Biwi Aur Makaan (1966) Anupama (1966) Majhli Didi (1967) Aashirwad (1968) Satyakam (1969) Pyar Ka Sapna (1969)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Anand (1970) Guddi (1971) Buddha Mil Gaya (1971) Sabse Bada Sukh (1972) Bawarchi (1972) Abhimaan (1973) Namak Haraam (1973) Phir Kab Milogi (1974) Mili (1975) Chupke Chupke (1975) Chaitali (1975) Arjun Pandit (1976) Alaap (1977) Kotwal Saab (1977) Naukri (1978) Gol Maal (1979) Jurmana (1979) Khubsoorat (1980) Naram Garam (1981) Bemisal (1982) Kissi Se Na Kehna (1983) Rang Birangi (1983) Achha Bura (1983) Jhoothi (1985) Lathi (1988) Namumkin (1988) Jhooth Bole Kauwa Kaate (1998)

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Hrishikesh Mukherjee

156

Films as Editor, Writer and/or Assistant Director Year

Film

Production Function

1947

Tathapi

1950

Maa

1951

Do Bigha Zameen Scenario, Editor, Assistant Director

1953

Parineeta

Editor

1954

Biraj Bahu

Editor

1955

Devdas

1958

Madhumati

1959

Heera Moti

1961

Char Diwari

Editor

1970

Dastak

Editor

1977

Alaap

Story, Producer

1983

Coolie

Editor

Notes

Editor

TV Serials • • • • •

Hum Hindustani (1986) Talaash (1992) Dhoop Chhaon Rishte Ujaale Ki Or

Further reading • Great Masters of Indian Cinema: The Dadasaheb Phalke Award Winners, by D. P. Mishra, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, 2006. ISBN 81-230-1361-2. page 122.

References [1] http:/ / www. hrishikeshmukherjee. com/ [2] Gulzar; Nihalani, Govind; Chatterjee, Saibal (2003). Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) Pvt Ltd.. p. 592. ISBN 8179910660. [3] The common man lure of Hrishikesh Mukherjee's films (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ dec/ 17dinesh. htm) Rediff.com. [4] Hrishikesh Mukherjee's best films (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 28slide1. htm) Special Photo feature, Rediff.com, 28 August 2006. [5] Duara, Ajit (2006-09-03). "A touch of realism" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mag/ 2006/ 09/ 03/ stories/ 2006090300310500. htm). The Hindu. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [6] Remembering Hrishikesh Mukherjee (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ StoryPage/ StoryPage. aspx?sectionName=& id=53183e3d-34a2-4bc5-8c5f-e629fc02f02e& & Headline=Remembering+ Hrishikesh+ Mukherjee& strParent=strParentID) Hindustan Times, 26 August 2008 [7] Hrishikesh Mukherjee Biography (http:/ / www. ultraindia. com/ movies/ awards/ hrishikesh. htm) on winning, the 31st Dada Saheb Phalke Award. [8] Hrishikesh Mukherjee (http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ hrishikesh-mukherjee) Upperstall.com. [9] Remembering Hrishida (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 28hm. htm) Rediff.com, 28 August 2006. [10] "Hrishikesh Mukherjee wins Dadasaheb Phalke Award" (http:/ / www. ultraindia. com/ movies/ awards/ hrishikesh. htm). . [11] Hrishikesh Mukherjee is dead (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1930646. cms).Times of India, 27 August 2006.


Hrishikesh Mukherjee [12] Filmmaker Hrishikesh Mukherjee dead (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ filmmaker-hrishikesh-mukherjee-dead/ 19858-8. html) CNN IBN, 28 August 2006. [13] Veteran Bollywood director dies (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ film/ 5291132. stm?ls) BBC News, 27 August 2006. [14] Awards (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0137362/ awards) Internet Movie Database. [15] 7th National Film Awards (http:/ / iffi. nic. in/ Dff2011/ Frm7thNFAAward. aspx?PdfName=7NFA. pdf)

External links • Hrishikesh Mukherjee (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0611531/) at the Internet Movie Database • Hrishikesh Mukherjee (http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=2:227417) at allmovie.

157


Katrina Kaif

158

Katrina Kaif Katrina Kaif

Katrina Kaif in 2008 Born

16 July 1984 Hong Kong

Nationality

British

Ethnicity

British Indian

Occupation

Model, Actress

Years active

2003 – present

[1]

Katrina Kaif (born 16 July 1984[2] ) is a British Indian actress and former model who appears in Indian films, mainly in the Hindi-language film industry.[3] [4] She has also appeared in Telugu and Malayalam films. She was voted the sexiest Asian woman in the world by Eastern Eye in the years 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011.[5] [6] Being a British citizen, she works in India on an employment visa.[1] Kaif made her acting debut with Kaizad Gustad's commercially and critically unsuccessful film Boom. Since then, Kaif has acted in many successful films, and has thus been reference widely as the "Lucky Mascot."[7] [8] Kaif's successful films include Sarkar, Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya?, Namastey London, Apne, Partner, Welcome, Race, Singh Is Kinng, New York, Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani, Raajneeti, Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara and Mere Brother Ki Dulhan.[9] [10] [11] Furthermore, Kaif's performance in New York earned Kaif her first Filmfare Award for Best Actress nomination.[12] [13]

Personal life Kaif was born to an Indian Kashmiri father,[14] [15] [16] [17] Mohammed Kaif, and an English mother, Susanna Turcotte,[18] both of whom are British citizens. Her parents divorced when she was very young. Kaif once stated, "My dad, unfortunately, and not out of choice, has had no influence on our upbringing, on our religious or social or moral bearings."[19] Kaif has seven siblings; a brother and six sisters.[20] From Hong Kong, she and her family moved to China, then to Japan. From there she went (by boat) to France when she was 8, and thereafter lived for a few months at a time in Switzerland, KrakĂłw, Berlin, Belgium, and many other East European countries.[21] Then she moved with her family to Hawaii, and eventually to her mother's home country of England. Although it is often


Katrina Kaif

159

assumed that Kaif is from London, she lived there only for three years before finally moving to Mumbai.[21] In 2011, she confirmed she was single.[22]

Career Modeling and early film career (1998-2004) Kaif began her modeling career at age fourteen; her first assignment was for a jewelry campaign. She continued modeling in London under a contract with the Models 1 Agency and did campaigns for houses such as La Senza and Arcadius, and even walked on the London Fashion Week.[23] Kaif's modeling work led to her discovery by London-based filmmaker Kaizad Gustad, who gave her a part in his film Boom (2003). The film, which starred Amitabh Bachchan and Gulshan Grover, failed to make an impact. She then moved to Mumbai and was offered a number of modeling assignments, but filmmakers were hesitant to cast Kaif due to her poor command of Hindi.[24] [25]

Breakthrough (2005-2006) In 2005, Kaif made a cameo in Ram Gopal Verma's drama Sarkar, as Abhishek Bachchan's girlfriend. The same year, she landed her first major role in David Dhawan's adaptation of Cactus Flower, Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya, where she was paired opposite Salman Khan. The film also featured Sushmita Sen, Arshad Warsi, Isha Koppikar and Sohail Khan in lead roles. Upon release, the film became a moderate success with Taran Adarsh, a prominent film critic, praising Kaif as a "complete revelation".[26] The following year, she was paired opposite Akshay Kumar for the first time in Raj Kanwar's box-office flop Humko Deewana Kar Gaye. However, for her portrayal of Jia A. Yashvardhan, Adarsh wrote, "Taking giant strides as an actor, Katrina is, without doubt, the star of the show. It's her magnetic presence and dependable performance that you carry home once the show has ended." [27] Katrina Kaif at Feltham 2007

Success (2007- present) In 2007, Kaif appeared in four films, all of which were successful at the box office. Her first release was Vipul Shah's romantic-comedy Namastey London. Kaif portrayed the character of a British Indian girl named Jasmeet "Jazz" Malhotra, alongside Rishi Kapoor, Akshay Kumar and Clive Standen. Upon its release, the film became a major hit, with Nikhat Kazmi, of the The Times Of India praising the chemistry between the leading couple.[28] She next played a supporting role in Anil Sharma's melodrama Apne. Featuring Dharmendra, Sunny Deol, Bobby Deol, Kirron Kher and Shilpa Shetty, the film was a box-office hit.[29] Her next release was David Dhawan's unofficial remake of Hitch, Partner, where she starred alongside Salman Khan, Govinda, and Lara Dutta. This too was box-office success. Her final film of 2007, Welcome, directed by Anees Bazmee and co-starring Akshay Kumar, Paresh Rawal and Anil Kapoor, was declared a blockbuster in India.[29] , despite negative reviews. Her first release of 2008 was Abbas-Mustan's hit action-thriller Race; she played Saif Ali Khan's secretary, Sophia, who is secretly in love with his hostile stepbrother (played by Akshay Khanna). The film also featured Anil Kapoor, Bipasha Basu and Sameera Reddy in leading roles. Despite its success, Kazmi wrote, "Katrina is too pale as the


Katrina Kaif blousy secretary who comes into her own only when she gets seductive with a Touch me, kiss me tenor. " [30] Kaif was next seen in Anees Bazmee's action comedy Singh Is Kinng, portraying Akshay Kumar's love interest and Ranvir Shorey's fiancĂŠe. After its release, the film was declared a blockbuster, making it Kaif's sixth consecutive hit film at the box office. The movie also emerged as the third highest grossing film of 2008.[31] Kaif's final release of the year, Subhash Ghai's Yuvvraaj, was a commercial failure,[32] but its script made its way into the Library of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences for artistic merit, original screenplay with a substance, and the film as a whole.[33] [34] Kaif's first release for 2009 was Kabir Khan's terrorism drama New York, with John Abraham and Neil Nitin Mukesh. It was a critical and commercial success in both India and overseas.[35] Kaif's performance was highly praised: Taran Adarsh wrote, "Katrina gives you the biggest surprise. Known for her glamour roles, Katrina proves that she can deliver if the director and writer offer her a role of substance. She's outstanding. In fact, people will see a new, different Katrina this time."[36] For her performance, Kaif received her first nomination in the Filmfare Award for Best Actress category.[12] She next had a cameo in the star-studded action-thriller Blue, popularly known as India's first underwater thriller, with Akshay Kumar and Zayed Khan.[37] However, it was declared a flop. In November 2009, she appeared along with Ranbir Kapoor, in Rajkumar Santoshi's blockbuster comedy Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani, as Jennifer Pinto. Critics mostly praised her fresh chemistry with Kapoor rather than her own performance.[38] Her final release that year was Priyadarshan's star-studded De Dana Dan with Akshay Kumar, Suniel Shetty, Paresh Rawal and Neha Dhupia. Despite a good opening, the film failed to do well at the box office.[39] Kaif's first film of 2010 was Prakash Jha's political thriller Raajneeti, where she appeared opposite Ranbir Kapoor and Arjun Rampal. The film is a modern-day adaptation of The Mahabharata set against the political backdrop of Delhi. Nana Patekar, Manoj Bajpai and Shruti Seth also played starring roles. Upon release, the film performed extremely well at the box office, and earned Kaif favourable reviews for her portrayal of the dynamic Indu Sakseria.[40] Her last release was Farah Khan's brainless comedy Tees Maar Khan with Akshay Kumar. The film was released on 24 December 2010.[41] The film received mainly negative reviews and was declared a flop. However, Kaif's item number Sheila Ki Jawani became a major chartbuster.[42] On 15 July 2011, she was seen alongside Hrithik Roshan, Farhan Akhtar, Abhay Deol and Kalki Koechlin in Zoya Akhtar's road adventure Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara.[43] which was a critical and commercial success. Kaif was also praised for her portrayal of fun-loving diving instructor Laila. Taran Adarsh wrote, "Katrina is a revelation...the actress continues to surprise you with her performances in film after film."[44] Her last release of 2011 was Yash Raj Films's Mere Brother Ki Dulhan opposite Imran Khan and Ali Zafar.[45] The film was successful at the box office, and earned Kaif rave reviews for her portrayal of vivacious punk-rock girl Dimple Dixit, with Rahul Gangwani saying "the film ultimately belongs to Katrina Kaif. She sparkles, sizzles and infuses energy into the film."[46]

160


Katrina Kaif

Voice It should be noted that due to her poor knowledge of Hindi (and other Indian languages), Kaif's voice was often dubbed by another actress. However, with the exception of De Dana Dan she has used her own voice for all of her films since New York. Earlier, she had dubbed for films like Namastey London and Apne.[47]

Awards Filmfare Awards Nominated • 2010: Filmfare Best Actress Award for New York[12]

Star Screen Awards Winner • 2010: Star Screen Awards, Entertainer of the year [48] • 2011: Star Screen Award for Best Actress (Popular Choice) for Raajneeti and Tees Maar Khan

Zee Cine Awards Winner • 2008: Zee Cine Awards, British Indian Actor Award Nominated • 2005: Zee Cine Award for Most Promising Debut for Sarkar • 2011: Zee Cine Award for Best Actor - Female for Raajneeti

IIFA Awards Winner • 2008: Style Diva of the Year Nominated • 2008: IIFA Best Actress Award for Namastey London • 2009: IIFA Best Actress Award for Singh Is Kinng • 2011: IIFA Best Actress Award for Raajneeti

Stardust Awards Winner • 2006: Stardust Breakthrough Performance Award (Female) for Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya • 2010: Stardust Awards, Best Actress - Popular Award for New York &Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani [49] Nominated • 2009: Stardust Award for Star Of The Year for Singh Is Kinng • 2009: Stardust Award for Best Actress In A Negative Role for Race • 2010: Stardust Star of the Year Award – Female for New York &Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani [50]

161


Katrina Kaif

162

Apsara Film and Television Producers Guild Awards Winner • 2011: Apsara Awards: Hindustan Times Reader's Choice Entertainer Of The Year Award (Female)[51] Nominated • 2009: Apsara Award for Best Actress In Supporting Role for Race

Other awards Winner • • • • • •

2006: Idea Zee F Awards, Fashion Diva of the Year [52] 2008: Sabsey Favourite Kaun Awards, Sabsey Favourite Heroine for Singh Is Kinng 2008: Apsara Film Producers Guild of India Awards, Style Diva of the Year 2009: Rajiv Gandhi Award[53] 2009: Sabsey Favourite Kaun Awards, Sabsey Favourite Heroine [54] 2009: ASSOCHAM Award, Performing Excellence [55]

Nominated • 2010: Big Star Entertainment Award for BIG Star Most Entertaining Film Actor (Female) for Rajneeti [56] • 2010: Big Star Entertainment Award for New Talent of the Decade (Female) [56]

Filmography Year

Film

Role

Notes

2003

Boom

Rina Kaif/Popdi Chinchpokli

2004

Malliswari

Princess Malliswari

2005

Sarkar

Pooja

2005

Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya

Sonia

2005

Allari Pidugu

Shwetha

2006

Hum Ko Deewana Kar Gaye

Jia A. Yashvardhan

2006

Balram vs. Taradas

Supriya

2007

Namastey London

Jasmeet "Jazz" Malhotra

2007

Apne

Nandini Sarabhai

2007

Partner

Priya Jaisingh

2007

Welcome

Sanjana Shetty

2008

Race

Sophia

2008

Singh Is Kinng

Sonia Singh

2008

Hello

Story-teller

2008

Yuvvraaj

Anushka Banton

2009

New York

Maya Shaikh

Nominated—Filmfare Award for Best Actress

2009

Blue

Nikki

Cameo

2009

Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani Jennifer "Jenny" Pinto

2009

De Dana Dan

Anjali Kakkad

2010

Raajneeti

Indu Sakseria/Pratap

Telugu film

Telugu film

Malayalam film

Cameo


Katrina Kaif

163 2010

Tees Maar Khan

Anya Khan

2011

Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara

Laila

2011

Bodyguard

Herself

2011

Mere Brother Ki Dulhan

Dimple Dixit

2011

Main Krishna Hoon

Radha

Cameo

2012

Ek Tha Tiger

Zoya

Filming

Special appearance in song "Bodyguard"

[57]

References [1] "Working in Bollywood for years, but shy of citizenship?" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ india/ Working-in-Bollywood-for-years-but-shy-of-citizenship/ articleshow/ 6458769. cms). The Times of India. Aug 30, 2010. . [2] "Katrina changes birthday plans for Zoya's film" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ movie_Story. aspx?id=ENTEN20100146682& keyword=& subcatg=). NDTV - via - Indo-Asian News Service. July 15, 2010. . Retrieved December 15, 2010. [3] "UK-Indian actress lands role in Bollywood film 'Veer'" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ ukindian-actress-lands-role-in-bollywood-fi/ 452098/ ). The Indian Express. 28 April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-09-16. [4] Dhingra, Deepali (18 August 2009). "The Kat's out of the bag!" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ The-Kats-out-of-the-bag/ articleshow/ 4901960. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2010-09-18. [5] "Katrina Kaif voted 'Sexiest Woman in the World' again" (http:/ / indiatoday. intoday. in/ site/ Story/ 123016/ Cinema/ katrina-kaif-voted-sexiest-woman-in-the-world-again. html). Eastern Eye. India Today. . Retrieved 2010-12-12. [6] "Sexy List" (http:/ / easterneye. eu/ sexylist/ ). EasternEye.eu. . Retrieved 2011-03-11. [7] Vats, Rohit. "Is Katrina Bollywood's lucky mascot?" (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ is-katrina-bollywoods-lucky-mascot/ 183795-8-66. html). . Retrieved 16 September 2011. [8] "Katrina Kaif hits the right notes..." (http:/ / www. desipowerchat. com/ bollywoodnews/ x30-katrina-kaif-lucky-bollywood-mascot. htm). . Retrieved 16 September 2011. [9] Chatterji, Souvik. "Katrina Kaif Hit Films" (http:/ / stationhollywood. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 09/ katrina-kaif-hit-films. html). . Retrieved 16 September 2011. [10] "Katrina Kaif Hindi Movie List – A Look at Her Key Movies" (http:/ / box4. chakpak. com:9080/ articles/ ?p=24770). . Retrieved 16 September 2011. [11] "Katrina Kaif steals the show in Mere Brother Ki Dulhan" (http:/ / www. businessofcinema. com/ news. php?newsid=19026). . Retrieved 16 September 2011. [12] "Nominations for 55th Idea Filmfare Awards 2009" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2010/ 02/ 11/ 5949/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2010-02-11. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [13] "Raajneeti : Complete Cast and Crew details" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ cast/ 13904/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2010-06-04. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [14] Cine blitz, Volume 29, Issue 2 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=AUkqAAAAYAAJ& q=katrina+ kaif+ indian+ name+ kashmiri& dq=katrina+ kaif+ indian+ name+ kashmiri& hl=en& ei=OMqvTPTSNsP48Aau1aGeCQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA). Blitz Publications. . Retrieved 2007–03–25. "Katrina Kaif is my real name. Kaif is my father's surname, he is Kashmiri," she bristled. "When I joined films I decided to take his surname, since I felt people would be able to associate better with an Indian surname." [15] Parvéz Dewân's Jammû, Kashmîr, and Ladâkh: Kashmîr (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=fF0wAQAAIAAJ& q=katrina+ kaif+ kashmiri& dq=katrina+ kaif+ kashmiri& hl=en& ei=MK-qTIDbHcH38AawsJWwCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA). Manas Publications. . Retrieved 2007–03–25. "Today if a person has even a drop of Kashmiri blood in his veins he proclaims it proudly. From novelist Salman Rushdie to writer MJ Akbar and actress-fashion model Katrina Kaif, people everywhere are celebrating their Kashmiri roots." [16] India today, Volume 27 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=FFJDAAAAYAAJ& q=katrina+ kaif+ kashmiri& dq=katrina+ kaif+ kashmiri& hl=en& ei=MK-qTIDbHcH38AawsJWwCA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=3& ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg). Thomson Living Media India Ltd.. . Retrieved 2007–03–25. "Half-Kashmiri. half-Brit. Kaif is one of three leading ladies (besides Madhu Sapre and Salman Rushdie's muse Padma ..." [17] "Kartina Kaif apologizes for commenting on Rahul Gandhi" (http:/ / behindwoods. com/ tamil-movie-news-1/ jul-11-03/ kartina-kaif-rahul-gandhi-21-07-11. html). Behindwoods. 2011-07-21. . Retrieved 2011-07-21. [18] "Katrina misses her dad badly" (http:/ / entertainment. oneindia. in/ bollywood/ news/ 2009/ katrina-misses-dad-150709. html). Oneindia. . Retrieved 2009-11-02. [19] "I'm not dumb: Katrina - Page 2 - Times Of India" (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2010-12-26/ news-interviews/ 28225749_1_attraction-katrina-high-heels/ 2). Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-24.


Katrina Kaif [20] "Home of the Daily and Sunday Express | Film :: Tees Maar Khan: A British Bollywood Barbie!" (http:/ / www. express. co. uk/ posts/ view/ 224986/ Tees-Maar-Khan-A-British-Bollywood-Barbie-/ ). Express.co.uk. 2011-01-23. . Retrieved 2011-08-24. [21] "I'm not dumb: Katrina" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Im-not-dumb-Katrina/ articleshow/ 7162203. cms). The Times of India - via - Indo-Asian News Service. December 26, 2010. . Retrieved January 31, 2011. [22] "Video : Katrina Kaif Becomes The World's Sexiest Woman 2011" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ broadband/ video/ Parties-and-Events/ MLr9ZS61/ 1/ Katrina-Kaif-Becomes-The-World-s-Sexiest-Woman-2011. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-25. [23] Pathiyan, Priya (2003-03-16). "'I'm not involved with Salman Khan'" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 40363538. cms). Times of India. . Retrieved 2003-03-16. [24] Krishna, Kaavya. "Katrina Kaif Profile - Sify.com" (http:/ / sify. com/ movies/ bollywood/ fullstory. php?id=14488878& page=3). Sify. . Retrieved 2009-07-07. [25] "Katrina kaif new and promotion of 'Raajneeti' pics." (http:/ / www. timescontent. com/ tss/ showcase/ virtual/ photos/ 93/ Katrina-Kaif/ 1/ d/ Katrina_Kaif. html). . [26] Adarsh, Taran. "Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya Review" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ review/ 7220/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [27] Adarsh, Taran. "Hum Ko Deewana Kar Gaye Review" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ review/ 12476/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [28] Kazmi, Nikhat (2007-03-24). "Namastey London Review" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ movie-reviews/ hindi/ Namastey-London/ moviereview/ 1802925. cms). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [29] "Box Office 2007" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=214& catName=MjAwNw==). BoxOffice India.com. . [30] Kazmi, Nikhat (2008-03-21). "Race Review" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ movie-reviews/ hindi/ Race/ moviereview/ 2888134. cms). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [31] Box Office India. "Top Earners 2008" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=215). boxofficeindia.com. . Retrieved July 10, 2008. [32] "Box Office 2008" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=215& catName=MjAwOA==). BoxOfficeIndia.com. . [33] "'Yuvvraaj' finds its way to the Oscar Library" (http:/ / www. indiaglitz. com/ channels/ hindi/ article/ 44967. html). IndiaGlitz. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [34] "Scripts Database | Margaret Herrick Library | Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences" (http:/ / scriptlist. oscars. org/ ics-wpd/ exec/ icswppro. dll?QB1=AND& QF1=Film+ Title+ ). Scriptlist.oscars.org. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [35] "Katrina Kaif" (http:/ / www. timescontent. com/ tss/ showcase/ virtual/ photos/ 93/ Katrina-Kaif/ 1/ d/ Katrina_Kaif. html). timescontent.com. . Retrieved 2009-07-01. [36] Adarsh, Taran. "Bollywood Hungama Review: New York" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ review/ 13830/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [37] IANS. "Gear up for India’s first underwater thriller in ‘Blue’" (http:/ / www. thaindian. com/ newsportal/ entertainment/ gear-up-for-indias-first-underwater-thriller-in-blue-ians-preview_100260866. html). Thaindian News. . Retrieved 2009-10-15. [38] Kazmi, Nikhat (2009-11-05). "Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani Review" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ movie-reviews/ hindi/ Ajab-Prem-Ki-Ghazab-Kahani/ moviereview/ 5200397. cms). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [39] "De Dana Dan Box Office" (http:/ / www. indicine. com/ movies/ bollywood/ de-dana-dan-box-office-updates-a-potential-blockbuster/ ). indicine. . [40] "Raajneeti : Complete Cast and Crew details" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ cast/ 13904/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2010-06-04. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [41] "Makers of Tees Maar Khan build Jumbo Jet for Akki's deadly intro sequence" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2010/ 02/ 15/ 13771/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2010-02-15. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [42] Adarsh, Taran. "Bollywood Hungama Review: Tees Maar Khan" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ review/ 14206/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [43] "Bollywood Hungama : Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ cast/ 14207/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [44] Adarsh, Taran. "Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara : Movie Review" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ review/ 14207/ index. html). . Retrieved 17 September 2011. [45] "Bollywood Hungama : Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ movies/ cast/ 14356/ index. html). Bollywood Hungama. . Retrieved 2011-05-16. [46] Gangwani, Rahul. "Mere Brother Ki Dulhan Movie Review" (http:/ / www. filmfare. com/ articles/ mere-brother-ki-dulhan-2727. html). . Retrieved 17 September 2011. [47] "Now I'll insist on my own dubbing: Katrina" (http:/ / www. realbollywood. com/ news/ 2007/ 07/ now-ill-insist-on-my-own-dubbing-katrina-kaif. html). . Retrieved May 19, 2011. [48] "Winners of Nokia 16th Annual Star Screen Awards 2009" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2010/ 01/ 09/ 5835/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2010-01-09. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [49] "Winners of Max Stardust Awards 2010" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2010/ 01/ 18/ 5856/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2010-01-18. . Retrieved 2010-12-23.

164


Katrina Kaif [50] By ApunKaChoice (2010-01-18). "Nominations for Max Stardust Awards 2010" (http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ content/ article/ sid1530-nominations_for_max_stardust_awards_2010/ ). ApunKaChoice.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [51] "Winners of 6th Apsara Film & Television Producers Guild Awards" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2011/ 01/ 11/ 7008/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2011-01-11. . Retrieved 2011-07-25. [52] "Amitabh, Rekha win Idea Zee F awards : Bollywood News" (http:/ / www. apunkachoice. com/ scoop/ bollywood/ 20060514-3. html). ApunKaChoice.Com. 2006-05-14. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [53] "Shahid Kapoor, Katrina Kaif among Rajiv Gandhi Awards winners" (http:/ / www. newkerala. com/ nkfullnews-1-95768. html). New Kerala. . Retrieved 2009-08-19. [54] "Sabsey Favourite Kaun 2009" (http:/ / stargold. indya. com/ specials/ sfk2010/ previous_years/ 2009. asp#yr). Stargold.indya.com. 1981-06-12. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [55] TNN, Dec 17, 2009, 12.00am IST (2009-12-17). "Kat to be awarded for performance" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Kat-to-be-awarded-for-performance/ articleshow/ 5343041. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2010-12-23. [56] "Nominations of BIG Star Entertainment Awards" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2010/ 12/ 16/ 6934/ index. html). Bollywoodhungama.com. 2010-12-16. . Retrieved 2011-07-25. [57] Jha, Subhash K (2010-10-29). "Katrina: From Barbie to Radha" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Katrina-From-Barbie-to-Radha/ iplarticleshow/ 6833112. cms). The Times Of India. .

External links • Katrina Kaif (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1229940/) at the Internet Movie Database

165


Kidar Sharma

166

Kidar Sharma Kidar Sharma Born

Kidar Nath Sharma April 12, 1910 Narowal, Punjab (Pakistan)

Died

April 29, 1999 (aged 89) Mumbai, India

Occupation

Director, Screenwriter, Actor, Producer, Lyricist

Years active 1935-1998 Spouse

Raj Dulari

Kidar Nath Sharma also Kedar Sharma (12 April 1910 - 29 April 1999), was an Indian film director, producer, Screenwriter, and Lyricist of Hindi films.[1] While he had great success as a director of such movies as Neel Kamal (1947 film), Bawre Nain (1950) and Jogan (1950), he is often most remembered for starting the acting careers of Bollywood greats Geeta Bali, Madhubala and Raj Kapoor.

Early life Kidar Sharma was born in Narowal in what was then the Punjab region of India and grew up in a life of poverty. Two brothers, Ragunath and Vishwa had died as infants and his sister, Taro, died of Tuberculosis at an early age. A younger sister Guro survived as did a younger brother, Himmat Rai Sharma, who would later work with Kidar on films before establishing himself as a successful Urdu poet. Kidar attended the Baij Nath High School in Amritsar where he became interested in philosophy, poetry, painting and photography. Upon completion of high school, he ran away from home to pursue a career in cinema in Mumbai but was unsuccessful in gaining employment. He returned to Amritsar and attended the Hindu Sabha College where he founded a College Dramatic Society which would later give him his first break in film.[2]

Career The head of a local Temperance movement would attend one of Kidar's plays and hired him to produce a silent film depicting the evils of alcohol. Using the money he earned from this project he would receive his Masters degree in English at Amritsar's Khalsa College before joining a local theater group that earned him limited acting success in 1931. He was married in 1932 and painted to earn income. Upon seeing an early talkies film Puran Bhagat (1933) by film director Debaki Bose, he left for Calcutta hoping to get his big break at New Theatres Studios, where Debaki Bose worked. After many months of unemployment he managed to meet a then-unknown actor of New Theatres, Prithviraj Kapoor (where he would meet Prithviraj's eight year old son for the first time, Raj Kapoor). Prithviraj Kapoor introduced Kidar to his neighbor, then-unknown Kundan Lal Saigal, who through an acquaintance allowed Kidar to meet Debaki Bose. Debaki Bose hired Kidar initially to become the Movie stills photographer for the film Seeta (1934) but would give Kidar his first part in the creation of film with that of set painter for the film Inquilab (1935) where Kidar also had a bit part.[3] Kidar would continue to work with New Theatres on films such as Dhoop Chhaon (1935) and Pujarin (1936) but a big break would come when Kidar was asked to write the dialog and lyrics for the 1936 adaptation of Devdas starring his friend Kundan Lal Saigal. Devdas was not only a hit, but songs from the film such as Balam Aaye Baso Moray Man Mein and Dukh Ke Ab Din Beetat Naahi became feverishly popular throughout the country, giving Kidar Sharma acclaim by the press and public. Kidar would later say, "Both Bimal Roy and I got our first big break in Devdas. He as the cameraman and I as the writer."[2]


Kidar Sharma Kidar's big directing break came in 1940 when asked to complete the film Tumhair Jeet. Upon its completion he was given the opportunity to direct his own screenplay for Aulad / Dil Hi to Hai, which met with some success. He was then asked to direct Chitralekha which became a smash hit and gave Kidar credibility as a director. He would go on to begin producing his own movies, casting Raj Kapoor and Madhubala in their first film Neel Kamal. He would also cast Geeta Bali in her first movie, Sohag Raat and later he would team her with Raj Kapoor for the film Bawre Nain (1950). That same year he directed Jogan starring Nargis and Dilip Kumar. In the late 1950s Jawaharlal Nehru who had heard Sharma's lyrics, summoned him and asked him to become director-in-chief of the Children's Film Society. Kidar Sharma would work on many movies for the Children's Film Society, including the film Jaldeep which would go on to receive international acclaim.[4] In 1958, he would work for one year directing movies in Singapore for Shaw Brothers Studio. An outstanding poet, Sharma wrote some of the most memorable songs including Balam aayo baso more man mein, Dukh kay ab din beetat nahi and Teri duniya mein dil lagta nahi. Kidar would continue to contribute as a lyricist and to write and direct films through the 1990s. Ironically, many Indian film critics and historians argued that he deserved the highest cinema award from the government of India but he died a day before he was to receive the Raj Kapoor Award, named in honor of the actor he helped make a success.

Awards and nominations International honours and recognitions • Part of the Indian Delegation in 1945 who travelled to England and Hollywood and met with Charlie Chaplin, Walt Disney and Cecil B. DeMille • Best Children's Film, International Film Festival at Venice 1957 for Jaldeep[5]

National honours and recognitions • • • •

1956 for the film Jaldeep: All India Certificate of Merit, as best children film State Awards for Film [5] Indian Film Directors' Association Lifetime Achievement Award Gold Award from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1982 for contribution to Indian Cinema Maharashtra Government's Raj Kapoor Award (awarded in 1999 after his death)[6]

Film Credits • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Inquilab (1935), Set Painter, Actor Dhoop Chhaon (1935), Actor, Assistant Manager Pujarin (1936), Actor Devdas (1936), Dialog and lyrics Vidyapati (1937), Actor Anath Ashram (1937), Writer Jawani Ki Reet (1939), Dialog Badi Didi (1939), Writer, Actor Zindagi (1940), Writer Tumhair Jeet (1940), Director Aulad (1940), Director Chitralekha (1941), Director Armaan (1942), Director

• Gauri (1942), Director • Mumtaz Mahal (1944), Director • Dhanna Bhagat (1945), Director

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Kidar Sharma • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Chand Chakori (1945), Director Duniya Ek Sarai (1946), Director Neel Kamal (1947), Writer, Director, Producer Sohag Raat (1948), Director Neki Aur Badi (1949), Director, Actor Bawre Nain (1950), Writer, Director, Producer Jogan (1950), Director Gunah (1953), Director Chora-Chori (1954), Director Hamari Yaad Aayegi (1961), Director Fariyad (1964), Director Chitralekha (1964), Writer Kaajal (1965), Writer

Children's Film Society of India Contributions • Jaldeep (Light House) (1956), Writer, Director • Ganga Ki Lahren (1957), Writer, Director • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Bachchon Se Bate (Talking To Children) (1957), Writer, Director Haria (1958), Writer Gulab Ka Phool (The Rose Among Flowers) (1958), Writer, Director 26 January (India's Republic Day) (1959), Writer, Director Ekta (In Unison) (1959), Writer, Director Guru Bhakti (Devotion) (1959), Writer Panchtantra Ki Ek Kahani (A Story From The Panchantra) (1959), Writer Yatra (Journey) (1959), Writer Dilli Ki Kahani (The Story Of Delhi City) (1960), Writer Chetak (1960), Writer, Director Meera Ka Chitra (Portrait of Meera) (1960), Writer, Director Nyaya ( Justice) (1960), Camera Mahateerth (Great Pilgrimage) (1961), Writer, Director Khuda Hafiz (Goodbye) (1983), Writer, Director, Lyricst

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

IMDB Entry for Kidar Sharma (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0788880/ ) Sharma, Kidar (2002). The One and Lonely Kidar Sharma. IMDB Inquilab Movie Details (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0026530/ ) Children's Film Society of India, Film: Jaldeep (http:/ / www. cfsindia. org/ black& white/ 56. htm) http:/ / www. cfsindia. org/ black& white/ 56. htm http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ news/ 1999/ may/ 18/ guardianobituaries

External links • Kidar Nath Sharma (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0788880/) at the Internet Movie Database

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Kishore Kumar

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Kishore Kumar Kishore Kumar

The Ganguly brothers - Anoop Kumar, Ashok Kumar and Kishore Kumar (left to right) - with their mother Background information Birth name

Abhas Kumar Ganguly

Born

4 August 1929 Khandwa, Central Provinces and Berar

Died

13 October 1987 (aged 58) Mumbai, Maharashtra

Genres

Playback, Rabindra Sangeet, rock and roll

Occupations

Singer, actor, director, musician, producer

Years active

1946–1987

Kishore Kumar (Bengali: কিশোর কুমার, Hindi: किशोर कुमार, pronunciation; born Abhas Kumar Ganguly 4 August 1929 – 13 October 1987) was an Indian film playback singer and an actor who also worked as lyricist, composer, producer, director, screenwriter and scriptwriter. Kishore Kumar sang in many Indian languages including Bengali, Hindi, Marathi, Assamese, Gujarati, Kannada, Bhojpuri, Malayalam and Oriya. He was the winner of 8 Filmfare Award for Best Male Playback Singer and holds the record for most number of Filmfare Awards won for that category.

Early life Kishore Kumar was born into the Bengali Brahmin Ganguly family in Khandwa, Central Provinces and Berar (now in Madhya Pradesh) as Abhas Kumar Ganguly.[1] His father Kunjalal Ganguly (Gangopadhya) was a lawyer. His mother Gouri Devi came from a wealthy Bengali family. Kishore was the youngest of four siblings, the other three being Ashok Kumar (the eldest), Sati Devi, and Anoop Kumar. While Kishore was still a child, Ashok Kumar became a Bollywood actor. (Later, Anoop Kumar also ventured into cinema with the help of Ashok Kumar). Spending time with his brothers, Kishore also started to take a keen interest in movies and music. He became a fan of singer-actor Kundan Lal Saigal, whom he considered his guru, and tried to follow Saigal's singing style.


Kishore Kumar

Career After Ashok Kumar became a Bollywood star, the Ganguly family used to visit Bombay regularly. Abhas Kumar changed his name to Kishore Kumar and started his cinema career as a chorus singer at Bombay Talkies, where his brother worked. His first film as an actor was Shikari (1946), in which Ashok Kumar played the lead role. Music director Khemchand Prakash gave him a chance to sing the song Marne ki duayen kyon mangu for the film Ziddi (1948). After this, Kishore Kumar got many other assignments, but he was not very serious about a film career.[2] In 1949, he decided to settle in Mumbai. Kishore Kumar played hero in the Bombay Talkies film Andolan (1951), directed by Phani Majumdar. Although Kishore Kumar got some assignments as an actor with help of his brother, he was more interested in becoming a singer. He was not interested in acting, but his elder brother Ashok Kumar wanted him to be an actor like himself.[3] He starred in Bimal Roy's Naukri (1954) and Hrishikesh Mukherjee's directorial debut Musafir (1957). Salil Chowdhury, the music director for Naukri was initially dismissive of him as a singer, when he came to know that Kishore Kumar didn't have any formal training in music.[4] However, after hearing his voice, he gave him the song Chhota sa ghar hoga, which was supposed to be sung by Hemant Kumar. Kishore Kumar starred in films New Delhi (1957), Aasha (1957), Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958), Half Ticket (1962), and Padosan (1968). Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi, his home production, starred the three Ganguly brothers, and Madhubala. The film is about romance between a city girl (Madhubala) and a car mechanic (Kishore Kumar), with a subplot involving brothers. Music director S. D. Burman is credited with spotting Kishore Kumar's talent as a singer, and advancing his singing career. During the making of Mashaal (1950), Burman visited Ashok Kumar's house, where he heard Kishore imitating K. L. Saigal. He complimented Kishore, but also told him that he should develop a style of his own, instead of copying Saigal.[3] Kishore Kumar did not have a formal training in music.[5] He kept Burman's advice in mind, and eventually developed his own style of singing, which featured the yodeling that he had heard on some records of Jimmie Rodgers bought by his brother Anoop Kumar. S. D. Burman recorded with Kishore for Dev Anand's Munimji (1954), Taxi Driver (1954), House No. 44 (1955), Funtoosh (1956), Nau Do Gyarah (1957), Paying Guest (1957), Guide (1965), Jewel Thief (1967), Prem Pujari (1970), and Tere Mere Sapne (1971). He also composed music for Kishore Kumar's home production Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958). Some of their initial films included the songs Maana Janaab Ne Pukara Nahin from Paying Guest, Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke from Nau Do Gyarah (1957), Ai Meri Topi Palat Ke Aa from Funtoosh, and Ek Ladki Bheegi Bhaagi Si and Haal Kaisa Hai Janaab Ka from Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958).[6] Asha Bhosle and Kishore Kumar performed duets composed by S. D. Burman including Chhod Do Aanchal from Paying Guest (1957), Ankhon Mein Kya Ji from Nau Do Gyarah (1957), Haal Kaisa Hai Janaab Ka and Paanch Rupaiya Baara Aana from Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958), Chhedo Na Meri Zulfein from Ganga Ki Lahren (1964), and Arre Yaar Meri Tum Bhi Ho Gajab from [Teen Devian|Teen Deviyan] (1965). C. Ramchandra was another music director who recognized Kishore Kumar's talent as a singer.[4] and their collaborations include Eena Meena Deeka from Aasha (1957). Kishore Kumar's work includes, Nakhrewaali from New Delhi (1956) by Shankar Jaikishan, and C.A.T. Cat Maane Billi and Hum To Mohabbat Karega from Dilli Ka Thug (1958) by Ravi. Kishore Kumar produced, directed, and acted in the film Jhumroo (1961). He wrote the lyrics for the title song, Main Hoon Jhumroo, and composed music for all the songs in the film. Later, he produced and directed the film Door Gagan Ki Chhaon Mein (1964). He also wrote the script and composed music for the film. The film is based on the relationship between a father (Kishore Kumar), and his deaf and mute son (played by his real-life son, Amit Kumar). He made another two films called Door Ka Rahi (1971) and Door Waadiyon Mein Kahin (1980). In the 1960s, as an actor, Kishore Kumar built up a notoriety for coming late for the shootings, or bunking them altogether.[7] His films flopped frequently, and he also landed in income tax trouble.[3] As a singer, his work in this

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Kishore Kumar period includes Zaroorat Hai Zaroorat Hai from Manmauji (1961), Gaata Rahe Mera Dil from Guide (1965), and Yeh Dil Na Hota Bechara from Jewel Thief (1967). In the late 1960s, Rahul Dev Burman worked together on the soundtrack of the film Padosan (1968), in which Kishore Kumar sang the songs Mere Saamne Wali Khidki Mein and Kehna Hai. Padosan was a comedy film starring Kishore Kumar as a dramatist-musician, Mehmood as a Carnatic music and dance teacher, and Sunil Dutt as a simpleton named Bhola. Kishore Kumar's character in the film was inspired by the personality of Kishore's own uncle, Dhananjay Bannerjee (a classical singer).[2] The highlight of the film was a musical, comical duel between Kishore Kumar-Sunil Dutt and Mehmood, Ek Chatur Nar Karke Singaar.

1970's and 1980's In 1969, Shakti Samanta produced and directed the film Aradhana, for which the music was composed by S. D. Burman. S. D. Burman fell ill after recording some duet songs with Mohammed Rafi, Asha Bhosle, Lata Mangeshkar and Kishore Kumar. Afterwards, his son and assistant Rahul Dev Burman took over the recording. R. D. Burman got Kishore Kumar to solo sing the songs Mere Sapno Ki Rani and Roop Tera Mastana. Kishore Kumar won his first Filmfare award for the song "Roop Tera Mastana". In 1970s & 1980s Kishore Kumar sang for Rajesh Khanna, Amitabh Bachchan, Dharmendra, Jeetendra, Sanjeev Kumar, Dev Anand, Shashi Kapoor, Randhir Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor, Mithun Chakraborty, Sanjay Dutt, Sunny Deol, Anil Kapoor and Jackie Shroff. S. D. Burman and Kishore Kumar continued to work together, including Phoolon Ke Rang Se and Shokhiyon Mein Ghola Jaaye from Prem Pujari (1969), Aaj Madhosh Hua Jaaye Re, Khilte Hain Gul Yahan and O Meri Sharmilee from Sharmilee (1971), Meet na mila from Abhimaan (1973), Pyaar Ke Is Khel Mein from Jugnu. In 1975, S. D. Burman composed his last song for Kishore Kumar. S. D. Burman went into a coma for the second time, soon after Kishore recorded the song Badi Sooni Sooni Hai Zindagi for the film Mili.[4] R. D. Burman frequently used Kishore Kumar as the male singer, and recorded several songs with him in the 1970s. Some Kishore Kumar-R. D. Burman songs include O Maajhi Re from Khushboo, Yeh Shaam Mastaani and Yeh Jo Mohabbat Hai from Kati Patang (1971), Kuchh To Log Kahenge from Amar Prem (1972), "Raat Kali Ek Khwab Mein Aayi" from Buddha Mil Gaya (1971), Musafir Hoon Yaaron from Parichay (1972), Diye Jalte Hain from Namak Haraam (1973), Meri Bheegi Bheegi Si from Anamika (1973), Zindagi Ke Safar Mein from Aap Ki Kasam (1974), Agar Tum Na Hote, Humein Tum Se Pyaar Kitna from Kudrat, "Mere Naina Saawan Bhadon" from Mehbooba, and Chingari Koi Bhadke (Amar Prem), Jab Bhi Koi Kangana from Shaukeen (1986). R. D. Burman also recorded several duets pairing Kishore Kumar with Asha Bhosle and with Lata Mangeshkar. Some of these duets include Panna Ki Tamanna from Heera Panna (1973), Neend Chura Ke Raaton Mein from the film Shareef Budmaash, Kya Yehi Pyaar Hai from Sanjay Dutt's debut film Rocky (1981), Sagar Kinare from Sagar in [1985], Aap Ki Aankhon Mein Kuchh from Ghar, Jaane Ja Dhoondta and Nahi Nahi from Jawani Diwani, "Kharoshoo" from Harjai (1982). Apart from the Burmans, Kishore Kumar worked with other music directors as well. The composer duo Laxmikant-Pyarelal (L-P) also composed many songs sung by Kishore Kumar. Some of their songs include Mere Mehboob Qayamat Hogi from Mr. X In Bombay, Mere Naseeb Mein Aye Dost from Do Raaste, Yeh Jeevan Hai from Piya Ka Ghar, Mere Dil Mein Aaj Kya Hai from Daag: A Poem of Love, Nahi Mai Nahi Dekh Sakta from Majboor, Mere diwanepan ki bhi from Mehboob Ki Mehndi, Naach Meri Bulbul from Roti, Chal Chal Mere Haathi from Haathi Mere Saathi, Gaadi Bula Rahi Hai from Dost, Ruk Jaana Nahi from Imtihaan, Ek Ritu Aaye from Gautam Govinda, My Name Is Anthony Gonsalves from Amar Akbar Anthony Bahut Khoobsurat Jawan Ek Ladki from Dostana and Om Shanti Om as well as Paisa Yeh Paisa from Karz. Laxmikant-Pyarelal also composed several Kishore-Lata duets, including Achchha To Hum Chalte Hain from Aan Milo Sajna, Gore Rang Pe Na Itna from Roti, Main Solah Baras Ki from Karz, and Din Mahine Saal from Avtaar, Tu Kitne Baras Ki from Karz. L-P also got Kishore Kumar and Mohammed Rafi to sing duets for the films Dostana, Ram Balram and Deedaar-E-Yaar. L-P

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Kishore Kumar composed a duet with Kishore Kumar and Alisha Chinoy, I love you (Kaate Nahin Katate Yeh Din Yeh Raat) from Mr. India in (1987). Salil Chowdhury recorded songs like Koi Hota Jisko Apna from Mere Apne and Gujar Gaye Din Din from Annadata. Ravindra Jain recorded Ghungroo Ki Tarah, and the duet Tota Maina Ki Kahani from Fakira. Khaiyyaam recorded beautiful duets with Lata Mangeshkar such as Hazar Rahein from Thodisi Bewafai, Aankhon Mein Humne Aapke Sapne Sajaye Hain, Chandani Raat Mein Ek Bar. Hridaynath Mangeshkar recorded Zindagi Aa Raha Hoon Main from Mashaal. Kalyanji-Anandji recorded several songs with Kishore Kumar including Zindagi Ka Safar and Jeevan Se Bhari Teri Aankhein, from Safar, Pal Pal Dil Ke Paas from Black Mail, Apne Jeevan Ki Uljhan from Uljhan, Mera Jeevan Kora Kagaz from Kora Kagaz, O Saathi Re from Muqaddar Ka Sikandar, Khaike Paan Banaraswala from Don, Neele Neele Ambar Par from Kalakar and Pal Bhar Ke Liye from Johny Mera Naam. Other composers including Rajesh Roshan, Sapan Chakravarty, Jaidev, Chitragupta (composer), Usha Khanna, Sohnik Omi, Prem Dhawan, Vanraj Bhatia and Bappi Lahiri also worked with Kishore Kumar. Rajesh Roshan's film Julie featured songs sung by Kishore Kumar, Bhool Gaya Saab Kuchh (duet with Lata Mangeshkar) and Dil Kya Kare Jab Kisise. Their other songs include Chhookar mere man ko from Yaarana, Tune Abhi Dekha Nahin from Do Aur Do Paanch and Kahan Tak Ye Man Ko Andhere Chhalenge from Baaton Baaton Mein. Bappi Lahiri also recorded many songs with Kishore Kumar, including Pag Ghunghroo Bandh from Namak Halal (1982), Manzilen Apni Jagah Hai from Sharaabi (1984) and Chalte Chalte Mere Ye Geet from Chalte Chalte (1976), Saason Se Nahi Kadmose Nahi from Mohabbat in (1987) and duets with (Lata Mangeshkar)) like Taa thaiya from Himmatwala in (1984), Albela Mausam from Tohfa in (1985) and another duet Pyar Ka Tohfa from the same film. During the Indian Emergency (1975–1977), Sanjay Gandhi asked Kishore Kumar to sing for an Indian National Congress rally in Mumbai, but Kishore Kumar refused.[8] As a result, the government put an unofficial ban on playing Kishore Kumar songs on the All India Radio or television.[9]

Later years Kishore Kumar produced and directed some movies in the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as Badhti Ka Naam Daadhi (1978), Zindagi (1981) and Door Wadiyon Mein Kahin (1980). His last appearance as an actor was in Door Wadiyon Mein Kahin. With patronage from R. D. Burman and Rajesh Roshan, Kishore Kumar's son Amit Kumar also became a Bollywood singer in the 1980s. Kishore Kumar also continued singing for several actors. He also did some stage shows, apparently to earn money to pay his income tax arrears.[7] Kishore Kumar stopped singing for Amitabh Bachchan in the mid-1980s, after Bachchan did not do a guest appearance in a film produced by him but called a truce with him by singing for him in Toofan. He also temporarily stopped singing for Mithun Chakraborty, after Yogeeta Bali divorced him and married Chakraborty. However, later Kumar sang for him in many films like Disco Dancer, Muddat, and Pyar Ka Mandir. In the mid-1980s, Kishore Kumar sang for Anil Kapoor in Kapoor's debut film as a leading man, Woh Saat Din and also recorded Mr. India. He sang a duet with Alka Yagnik, Tumse Badhkar Duniya Mein Na Dekha for Kaamchor in (1986). He also recorded some songs for the film Saagar with R. D. Burman. By this time, he had decided to retire and was planning to go back to his birthplace, Khandwa.[7] On 13 October 1987, he died of a heart attack in Mumbai at 4:45 pm. His body was taken to Khandwa for cremation. He had recorded his last song a day before he died. The song was Guru Guru, a duet with Asha Bhosle, for the film Waqt Ki Aawaz (1988) composed by Bappi Lahiri for Mithun Chakraborty and Sridevi. Kishore Kumar's song Pal Bhar Ke Liye from the film Johny Mera Naam (1970) was used in an episode of The Simpsons titled "Kiss Kiss, Bang Bangalore".[10] His songs have also been featured in several films, including Such a Long Journey (1998) and Side Streets (1998).[11] Sony TV organised the television singing contest K for Kishore to search for a singer like Kishore Kumar.

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Kishore Kumar

Personal life Kishore Kumar married four times. His first wife was Ruma Guha Thakurta aka Ruma Ghosh. Their marriage lasted from 1950 to 1958. Kishore's second wife was actress Madhubala, who had worked with him on many films including his home production Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958) and Jhumroo (1961). When Kishore Kumar proposed to her, Madhubala was sick and was planning to go to London for treatment. At this time, she didn't know that she had a ventricular septal defect, and her father wanted her to wait and consult the London doctors first. Furthermore, at the time he was married to the Bengali singer and actress Ruma Guha Thakurta. After his divorce, because Kishore Kumar was Hindu and Madhubala Muslim, they had a civil wedding ceremony in 1960. His parents refused to attend. The couple also had a Hindu ceremony to please Kumar's parents, but Madhubala was never truly accepted as his wife. Within a month of her wedding she moved back to her bungalow in Bandra because of tension in the Kumar household. They remained married but under great strain for the remainder of Madhubala's life. The doctors in London told Madhubala that she would not live for long. The marriage lasted for nine years, and ended with Madhubala's death on 23 February 1969. Kishore Kumar's third marriage was to Yogeeta Bali, and lasted from 1976 to 4 August 1978. Kishore was married to Leena Chandavarkar from 1980 until his death. Kishore Kumar sired two sons, Amit Kumar (playback singer) with Ruma, and Sumit Kumar with Leena Chandavarkar. Kumar is said to have been paranoid about not being paid.[2] During recordings, he would sing only after his secretary confirmed that the producer had made the payment.[12] Once, when he discovered that his dues hadn't been fully paid, he landed up for shooting with make-up on only one side of his face. When the director questioned him, he replied "Aadha paisa to aadha make-up." (Half make-up for half payment).[2] On the sets of Bhai Bhai, Kishore Kumar refused to act because the director M V Raman owed him five thousand rupees. Ashok Kumar persuaded him to do the scene. But, when the shooting started, he walked across the floor and, each time he walked a few places, he said, Paanch Hazzar Rupaiya (five thousand rupees) and did a somersault. After he reached the end of the floor, he went out of the studio, jumped into his car, and ordered his driver Abdul to drive away.[13] On another occasion, when producer R. C. Talwar did not pay his dues in spite of repeated reminders, Kishore turned up at Talwar's residence one morning and started shouting "Hey Talwar, de de mere aath hazaar" ("Hey Talwar, give me my eight thousand"). He did this every morning until Talwar paid him.[12] The film Anand (1971) was originally supposed to star Kishore Kumar and Mehmood Ali in the lead.[14] Hrishikesh Mukherjee, the director of the film, was asked to meet Kishore Kumar to discuss the project. However, when he went to Kishore Kumar's house, he was driven away by the gatekeeper due to a misunderstanding. Kishore Kumar (himself a Bengali) hadn't been paid for a stage show organized by another Bengali man, and had instructed his gatekeeper to drive away this "Bengali", if he ever visited the house. When Hrishikesh Mukherjee (also a Bengali) went to Kishore Kumar's house, the gatekeeper drove him away, mistaking him for the "Bengali" that Kishore Kumar had asked him to drive away. Consequently, Mehmood had to leave the film as well, and new actors (Rajesh Khanna and Amitabh Bachchan) were signed up for the film.[14] In spite of his "no money, no work" principle, sometimes Kishore Kumar recorded for free even when the producers were willing to pay. Such films include those produced by Rajesh Khanna and Danny Denzongpa.[15] On one occasion, Kishore Kumar helped actor-turned-producer Bipin Gupta, by giving him Rs. 20,000 for the film Dal Mein Kala (1964). When actor Arun Kumar Mukherjee died, Kishore Kumar regularly sent money to his family in Bhagalpur.[13] Mukherjee was one of the first persons to appreciate Kishore's singing talent.[13] Many journalists and writers have written about Kishore Kumar's seemingly eccentric behavior.[16] [17] Kishore Kumar had put a "Beware of Kishore" sign at the door of his Warden Road flat, where he stayed for some time while his bungalow was being done up. Once, producer-director H. S. Rawail, who owed him some money, visited his flat to pay the dues. Kishore Kumar took the money, and when Rawail offered to shake hands with him, he reportedly put Rawail's hand in his mouth, bit it, and asked "Didn’t you see the sign?". Rawail laughed off the incident and left

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Kishore Kumar

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quickly.[13] Kishore Kumar was a loner, and in an interview with Pritish Nandy (1985), he said that he had no friends – he preferred talking to his trees instead.[18] Once, when a reporter made a comment about how lonely he must be, Kishore Kumar took her to his garden. He then named some of the trees in his garden, and introduced them to the reporter as his closest friends.[13] According to another reported incident, once Kishore Kumar was to record a song for producer-director G. P. Sippy. As Sippy approached his bungalow, he saw Kishore going out in his car. Sippy pleaded him to stop his car, but Kishore only increased the speed of his car. Sippy chased him to Madh Island, where Kishore Kumar finally stopped his car near the ruined Madh Fort. When Sippy questioned his strange behavior, Kishore Kumar refused to recognize or talk to him and threatened to call police. Sippy had to return. Next morning, Kishore Kumar reported for the recording. An angry Sippy questioned him about his behavior on the previous day. However, Kishore Kumar insisted that Sippy must have seen a dream, and claimed that he was in Khandwa on the previous day.[19] Once, a producer went to court to get a decree that Kishore Kumar must follow the director's orders. As a consequence, Kishore Kumar obeyed the director to the letter. He refused to alight from his car until the director ordered him to do so. Once, after a car scene in Mumbai, he drove on till Khandala because the director forgot to say "Cut".[13] In the 1960s, a financier named Kalidas Batvabbal, patently disgusted with Kishore Kumar's alleged lack of cooperation during the shooting of Half Ticket, gave him away to the income tax authorities. Kishore had to face a raid at his house. Later, Kishore invited Batvabbal home, tricked him by asking him to enter a cupboard for a "chat" and locked him inside. He unlocked Batvabbal after two hours and told him "Don’t ever come to my house again."[13]

Awards Filmfare Awards Winner: Year

Nominated:

Song

Film

Music director

Lyricist

1969

Roop tera mastaana

Aradhana

Sachin Dev Burman Anand Bakshi

1975

Dil aisa kisi ne Mera

Amanush

Shyamal Mitra

Indeevar

1978

Khaike Pan Banaras Wala

Don

Kalyanji-Anandji

Anjaan

1980

Hazaar raahen mudke dekheen

Thodisi Bewafaii

Khayyam

Gulzar

1982

Pag ghungroo baandh ke meera nachi Namak Halaal

Bappi Lahiri

Anjaan

1983

Hamen aur jeene ki

Agar Tum Na Hote Rahul Dev Burman

Gulshan Bawra

1984

Manzilen apni jagah

Sharaabi

Bappi Lahiri

Anjaan

1985

Saagar Kinaare

Saagar

Rahul Dev Burman

Javed Akhtar


Kishore Kumar

175

Year

Song

Film

Music Director

Lyricist Hasrat Jaipuri

1971

Zindagi Ek Safar

Andaz

Shankar-Jaikishan

1971

Yeh Jo Mohabbat Hai

Kati Patang

Rahul Dev Burman Anand Bakshi

1972

Chingari Koi Bhadke

Amar Prem

Rahul Dev Burman Anand Bakshi

1973

Mere Dil Mein Aaj

Daag: A Poem of Love Laxmikant-Pyarelal Sahir Ludhianvi

1974

Gaadi Bula Rahi Hai

Dost

1974

Mera Jeevan Kora Kagaz Kora Kagaz

Kalyanji Anandji

M.G.Hashmat

1975

Main Pyaasa Tum

Faraar

Kalyanji Anandji

Rajendra Krishan

1975

O Manjhi Re

Khushboo

Rahul Dev Burman Gulzar

1977

Aap Ke Anurodh

Anurodh

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1978

O Saathi Re

Muqaddar Ka Sikander Kalyanji-Anandji

1978

Hum Bewafa Harghiz

Shalimar

Rahul Dev Burman Anand Bakshi

1979

Ek Rasta Hai Zindagi

Kaala Patthar

Rajesh Roshan

1980

Om Shanthi Om

Karz

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1981

Hameh Tumse Pyar

Kudrat

Rahul Dev Burman Majrooh Sultanpuri

1981

Chhookar Mere Mann Ko Yaraana

Rajesh Roshan

Anjaan

1983

Shayad Meri Shaadi

Souten

Usha Khanna

Sawan Kumar

1984

De De Pyar De

Sharaabi

Bappi Lahiri

Anjaan

1984

Inteha Ho Gayi

Sharaabi

Bappi Lahiri

Anjaan

1984

Log Kehete Hai Main

Sharaabi

Bappi Lahiri

Anjaan

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

Anjaan

Sahir Ludhianvi

Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards Winner: • • • •

1971 - Best Male Playback Singer for Aradhana[20] 1972 - Best Male Playback Singer for Andaz[21] 1973 - Best Male Playback Singer for Hare Rama Hare Krishna[22] 1975 - Best Male Playback Singer for Kora Kagaz[23]

References [1] "When Kishore Kumar Insisted on a Bullockcart Ride" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ when-kishore-kumar-insisted-on-bullockcart-ride/ 696711/ ). The Indian Express. 13 Oct., 2010. . Retrieved 2010-10-13. [2] Filmfare (November 1–15, 1987) [3] Avijit Ghosh (7 October 2007). "Unforgettable Kishore" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ Opinion/ Sunday_Specials/ Special_Report/ Unforgettable_Kishore/ articleshow/ 2435600. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2007-10-07. [4] Raju Bharatan. "Repertoire Unlimited: Remembering Kishore Kumar" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2000/ oct/ 13kumar. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [5] "Remembering Kishore Kumar" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2000/ oct/ 13kumar. htm). 13 October 2000. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [6] Khubchandani, Lata (2003). Gulzar, Govind Nihalani, Saibal Chatterjee. ed. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Popular Prakashan. pp. 486–487. ISBN 8179910660. [7] "Kishore Kumar - A Tribute". Filmfare magazine. November 1987. [8] Vinay Kumar (2005-08-19). "The spark that he was" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ fr/ 2005/ 08/ 19/ stories/ 2005081902110400. htm). Entertainment Hyderabad. The Hindu. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [9] Sharma, Dhirendra (2005). "A Comedy King and Superstar". Popular Prakashan. pp. 133. ISBN 8179912132. [10] Foreign exchange! (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ fullstory. php?content_id=15704). Rajeev Vijayakar. Screen Weekly. 4 May 2007. [11] Side Street (1998): Cast and Credits (http:/ / movies. yahoo. com/ movie/ 1800024525/ cast)


Kishore Kumar [12] Kuldip Dhiman (1998-10-04). "A melancholy but life-long prankster" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 1998/ 98oct04/ book. htm#2). The Tribune. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [13] Valicha, Kishore (1998) [1998]. Kishore Kumar: The Definitive Biography. Penguin Books. pp. 312. ISBN 067088264X. [14] Zaveri, Hanif (2005). "A Comedy King and Superstar". Mehmood, a Man of Many Moods. Popular Prakashan. pp. 133. ISBN 8179912132. [15] Suresh Kohli (2004-09-16). "What a yodeller!" (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ thehindu/ mp/ 2004/ 09/ 16/ stories/ 2004091601540400. htm). Metro Plus Kochi. The Hindu. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [16] Dinesh Raheja. "Kishore Kumar: The Master's Voice" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ feb/ 18dinesh. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [17] O.P. Bhagat (1998-10-09). "Life is a lovely journey" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 1998/ 98oct09/ art-trib. htm). Arts Tribune, Chandigarh. The Tribune. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [18] "I screamed, pretended to be crazy: Kishore Kumar in 1985" (http:/ / articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ 2011-08-08/ news-interviews/ 29863757_1_kishore-kumar-pn-kk/ 2). The Illustrated Weekly of India (republished in The Times of India). 1985. . Retrieved 2011-08-23. [19] "One evening with Kishore Kumar Khandwewala" (http:/ / www. indiafm. com/ features/ 2007/ 02/ 01/ 2191/ index. html). India FM. 2007-02-01. . Retrieved 2007-07-13. [20] 34th Annual BFJA Awards (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197134. htm) [21] 35th Annual BFJA Awards (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197235. htm) [22] 36th Annual BFJA Awards (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197336. htm) [23] 38th Annual BFJA Awards (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197538. htm)

Further reading • Bose, Derek (2004). Kishore Kumar: Method in Madness. New Delhi: Rupa & Co.. ISBN 978-8129105264. OCLC 57429780. • Valicha, Kishore (1998). Kishore Kumar: The Definitive Biography. New York/New Delhi: Penguin Books/Viking. ISBN 978-0670882649. OCLC 40164015. • Nerurkar, Vishwas (2004). Kishore Kumar: The Many Faces of a Genius (The Ultimate Book which includes his complete filmography, discography, unreleased material, and film posters of his films). Gayathri Publications.

External links • Kishore Kumar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0474822/) at the Internet Movie Database

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Kundan Lal Saigal

177

Kundan Lal Saigal Kundan Lal Saigal

Kundan Lal Saigal and Jamuna in Devdas (1935) Background information Born

April 11, 1904 Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir

Origin

Dogra Indian

Died

January 18, 1947 (aged 42) Jalandhar, Punjab

Genres

Playback singing

Occupations

Singer, actor

Instruments

Vocalist

Years active

1932–1947

Kundan Lal (K.L.) Saigal (Dogri: कुन्दन लाल सहगल) (11 April 1904 – 18 January 1947) was an Indian singer and actor who is considered the first superstar of the Hindi film industry, which was centered in Calcutta during Saigal's time, but is currently centered in Mumbai.

Early life Saigal was born at Jammu where his father Amar Chand was a tehsildar at the court of the Raja of Jammu & Kashmir. His mother Kesar Bai was a deeply religious lady who was very fond of music. She used to take her young son to religious functions where bhajan, kirtan and shabad were sung in traditional styles based on classical music. Saigal was the fourth-born child of five and his formal schooling was brief and uneventful. As a child he occasionally played Sita in the Ramlila of Jammu. Saigal dropped out of school and started earning money by working as a railway timekeeper. Later, he worked as a typewriter salesman for the Remington Typewriter Company, which allowed him to tour several parts of India. His travels brought him to Lahore where he befriended Meharchand Jain (who later went on to start the Assam Soap Factory in Shillong) at the Anarkali Bazaar. Meharchand and Kundan remained friends when they both moved to Calcutta and had many a mehfil-e-mushaira. In those days Saigal was a budding singer and Meharchand encouraged him to pursue his talent. Saigal often remarked that he was what he was because of Meharchand's encouragement and early support. He also briefly worked as a hotel manager. Meanwhile, his passion for singing continued and became more intense with the passage of time.


Kundan Lal Saigal

Career at New Theatres In the early 1930s, classical musician and music director Harishchandra Bali brought K.L. Saigal to Calcutta and introduced him to R. C. Boral. R.C. Boral took an instant liking to his talents. Saigal was hired by B. N. Sircar's Calcutta-based film studio New Theatres on a contract of Rs. 200 per month. There he came into contact with contemporaries like Pankaj Mullick, K. C. Dey and Pahari Sanyal. Meanwhile, Indian Gramophone Company had released Saigal's record containing a couple of Punjabi songs composed by Harishchandra Bali. In this way, Bali became Saigal's first music director. The first film in which Saigal had a role was the Urdu film Mohabbat Ke Ansoo, followed by Subah Ka Sitara and Zinda Laash, all released in 1932. However, these films did not do very well. It was in 1933 that his four bhajans for the film Puran Bhagat created a sensation throughout India. Other films that followed were Yahudi Ki Ladki, Chandidas and Rooplekha. As a youngster, Lata Mangeshkar is alleged to have said that she wanted to marry K.L. Saigal after seeing his performance in Chandidas. In 1935, Saigal played the role that would come to define his acting career: that of the drunken title character in Devdas, based on Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel of the same name and directed by P.C. Barua. His songs in the film, Balam Aaye Baso Moray Man Mein and Dukh Ke Ab Din Beetat Naahi, became popular throughout the country. Saigal picked up Bengali very well and acted in seven Bengali films, produced by New Theatres. Rabindranath Tagore first heard Saigal before giving consent for the first time to a non-Bengali singing his songs. Saigal endeared himself to the whole of Bengal through his 30 Bengali songs. Saigal's association with New Theatres continued to bear fruit in the successful films Didi (Bengali)/President (Hindi) in 1937, Saathi (Bengali)/Street Singer (Hindi) in 1938, and Zindagi in 1940, with Saigal in the lead. There are a number of songs of this era which form the rich heritage of film music in India. Also, in Street Singer, Saigal rendered the song Babul Mora live in front of the camera, even though playback was becoming the preferred method of singing songs in films.

Move to Bombay and death In December 1941, Saigal moved to Bombay to work with Ranjit Movietone. Here he acted and sang in a number of successful films. Bhakt Surdas (1942) and Tansen (1943) were hits during this period. The latter film is still remembered for Saigal's performance of the song Diya Jalao in Raga Shuddha Kalyan; in the same movie, he also sang "Sapta Suran,Tin .. Gaa-o Saba Guni Jan". In 1944, he returned to New Theatres to complete Meri Behen. This film contained the songs Do Naina Matware and Ae Qatib-e-Taqdeer Mujhe Itna Bata De. By this time, alcohol had become a predominant factor in Saigal's life. His dependence on alcohol had begun affecting his work and his health. It was said that he could only record a song after being fortified with liquor. He survived ten years of drinking; however, his alcoholism was too advanced for even a single attempt at abstinence, and Saigal died in his ancestral city of Jalandhar on 18 January 1947, at the age of 42. However, before his death, he was able to churn out three more hits under the baton of Naushad for the film Shahjehan (1946). These are Mere Sapnon Ki Rani, Ae Dil-e-Beqaraar Jhoom and Jab Dil Hi Toot Gaya. Parwana (1947) was his last film, released after his death, in which he sang under the baton of Khawaja Khurshid Anwar.The four songs which Saigal sang in Parwana are: Toot gaye sab sapne mere, Mohabbat mein kabhi aisi bhi haalat, Jeene ka dhang sikhaae ja, and Kahin ulajh na jaana. Saigal was survived by his wife Asha Rani (whom he married in 1935); three children, a son and two daughters: Madan Mohan, Nina (born 1937) and Bina (born 1941); and an adopted child, his elder brother's daughter, Durgesh Nandani, whom he adopted when he was still single. In a career of fifteen years, Saigal acted in 36 feature films[1] - 28 in Hindi/Urdu, 7 in Bengali, and 1 in Tamil. In addition, he acted in a short comedy Hindi/Urdu film, Dulari Bibi (3 reels), released in 1933. In 1955 B.N. Sircar released a documentary film based on the life of K.L. Saigal, Amar Saigal. In the film, G. Mungheri performed the title role of Saigal. The film contained 19 songs lifted from Saigal's films. In all, Saigal rendered 185 songs which

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Kundan Lal Saigal includes 142 film songs and 43 non-film songs. Of the film songs, there are 110 in Hindi/Urdu, 30 in Bengali and 2 in Tamil. There are 37 non-film songs in Hindi/Urdu, and 2 each in Bengali, Pashto,[2] Punjabi and Persian. His non-film songs comprise bhajans, ghazals and hori. He has rendered the creations of poets such as Ghalib, Zauq, and Seemab. Saigal's distinctive singing voice was idolized by the first generation of post-independence Bollywood playback singers, including Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammad Rafi, Mukesh, and Kishore Kumar.

Pop Culture Ths song Saigal Blues from the Bollywood movie Delhi Belly pays tribute to him.

References [1] India Rises in the West by Ranganathan Magadi (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=rvVWPsjx1iwC& pg=PA349& dq=kl+ saigal& hl=en& ei=gwhnTKOKFcKB8gaGtoCzBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CDYQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=kl saigal& f=false) [2] http:/ / www. culturalindia. net/ indian-music/ indian-singers/ k-l-saigal. html

Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen: Saigal, Kundan Lal. [In] Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, revised edition, 1999, p. 203. R. Raghava Menon: K.L. Saigal; the pilgrim of the Swara, Hind Pocket Books, New Delhi, 1989, new edition.

External links • • • • •

Kundan Lal Saigal (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0756485/) at the Internet Movie Database Biography (http://www.upperstall.com/people/klsaigal.html) Detailed K.L. Saigal profile (http://members.tripod.com/oldies_club/profile_kls.htm) K.L. Saigal's profile (http://www.the-south-asian.com/May-June2003/k_l_saigal.htm) A comprehensive fan website on Saigal (http://www.kundanlalsaigal.com/)

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Lata Mangeshkar

180

Lata Mangeshkar Lata Mangeshkar

Mangeshkar in 2008 Background information Born

September 28, 1929 Indore, Central India Agency, British India

Genres

Film music (playback singing)

Occupations

Singer

Instruments

Vocals

Years active

1942–present

Lata Mangeshkar (Marathi: लता मंगेशकर; born September 28, 1929) is a singer from India. She is one of the best-known and most respected playback singers in India.[1] [2] Mangeshkar's career started in 1942 and has spanned over six and a half decades. She has recorded songs for over a thousand Bollywood movies and has sung songs in over thirty-six regional Indian languages and foreign languages, though primarily in Hindi. She is the elder sister of singer Asha Bhosle, and Hridayanath Mangeshkar, Usha Mangeshkar and Meena Mangeshkar. She is the second vocalist to have ever been awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.[3] Mangeshkar was featured in the Guinness Book of World Records from 1974 to 1991 for having made the most recordings in the world. The claim was that she had recorded approximately 25,000 solo, duet, and chorus-backed songs in 20 Indian languages between 1948 to 1974 (30,000 songs between 1948 and 1987, according to the 1987 edition). Over the years, while several sources have supported this claim, others have raised concerns over its veracity, claiming that this number was highly exaggerated and that Mangeshkar's younger sister, Asha Bhosle, had more song recordings than she had.[4]

Early life Lata Mangeshkar was born in Sikh Mohalla,[5] Indore, in the Central India Agency (now part of Madhya Pradesh). Her father, Pandit Deenanath Mangeshkar who belonged to a Gomantak Maratha Samaj family from Goa, was a classical singer and theater actor. Her mother Shevanti (Shudhamati) who was from Thalner, Maharashtra, was Deenanath's second wife. The family's last name used to be Hardikar; Deenanath changed it to Mangeshkar in order to identify his family with his native town, Mangeshi in Goa. Lata was named "Hema" at her birth. Her parents later renamed her Lata after a female character, Latika, in one of her father's plays, BhaawBandhan.[6] Lata is the eldest child of her parents. Meena, Asha, Usha and Hridayanath are her siblings in sequence.


Lata Mangeshkar Mangeshkar took her first music lessons from her father. At the age of five, she started to work as an actress in her father's musical plays (Sangeet Natak in Marathi). On the first day in the school, she started teaching songs to other children. When the teacher stopped her, she was so angry that she stopped going to the school.[6] Other sources cite that she left school because they would not allow her to bring Asha with her, as she would often bring her younger sister with her.

Singing career Early career in the 1940s In 1942, when Mangeshkar was 13, her father died of heart disease. Master Vinayak (Vinayak Damodar Karnataki), the owner of Navyug Chitrapat movie company and a close friend of the Mangeshkar family, took care of them. Mangeshkar sang the song "Naachu Yaa Gade, Khelu Saari Mani Haus Bhaari" which was composed by Sadashivrao Nevrekar for Vasant Joglekar's Marathi-language movie Kiti Hasaal (1942), but the song was dropped from the final cut. Vinayak gave her a small role in Navyug Chitrapat's Marathi movie Pahili Mangalaa-gaur (1942), in which she sang "Natali Chaitraachi Navalaai" which was composed by Dada Chandekar.[6] Her first Hindi song was "Mata Ek Sapoot Ki Duniya Badal De Tu" for the Marathi film, Gajaabhaau (1943). Mangeshkar moved to Mumbai in 1945 when Master Vinayak's company moved its headquarters there. She started taking lessons in Hindustani classical music from Ustad Amanat Ali Khan Bhendibazaarwale. She sang “Paa Lagoon Kar Jori” for Vasant Joglekar's Hindi-language movie Aap Ki Seva Mein (1946),[6] which was composed by Datta Davjekar. Mangeshkar and her sister Asha played minor roles Vinayak's first Hindi-language movie, Badi Maa (1945). In that movie, Lata also sang a bhajan, “Maata Tere Charnon Mein.” She was introduced to music director Vasant Desai during the recording of Vinayak's second Hindi-language movie, Subhadra (1946). Following the partition of India in 1947, Ustad Amanat Ali Khan Bhendibazaarwale migrated to newly formed Pakistan, so Mangeshkar started to learn classical music under Amanat Khan Devaswale. Pandit Tulsidas Sharma, a pupil of Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, also trained her. After Vinayak's death in 1948, music director Ghulam Haider mentored her as a singer. Haider introduced Mangeshkar to producer Sashadhar Mukherjee, who was working then on the movie Shaheed (1948), but Mukherjee dismissed Mangeshkar's voice as "too thin."[6] An annoyed Haider responded that in the coming years the producers and the directors would "fall at Lata's feet" and "beg her" to sing in their movies. Haider gave Lata her first major break with the song “Dil Mera Toda,” from the movie Majboor (1948).[6] Initially, Mangeshkar is said to have imitated Noor Jehan, but later she developed her own style of singing.[6] Lyrics of songs in Hindi movies are primarily composed by Urdu poets and contain a higher proportion of Urdu words, including the dialogue. Actor Dilip Kumar once made a mildly disapproving remark about Mangeshkar's Maharashtrian accent while singing Hindi/Urdu songs; so for a period of time, Lata took lessons in Urdu from an Urdu teacher named Shafi.[7] “Aayega Aanewaala,” a song in the movie Mahal (1949) was composed by music director Khemchand Prakash and lip-synced on screen by actress Madhubala.

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Lata Mangeshkar

182

1950s In the 1950s, Mangeshkar sang songs composed by various music directors of the period, including Anil Biswas (in films such as Tarana and Heer), Shankar-Jaikishan, Naushad, S. D. Burman, C. Ramchandra, Hemant Kumar, Salil Chowdhury, Khayyam, Ravi, Sajjad Hussain, Roshan, Kalyanji-Anandji, Vasant Desai, Sudhir Phadke, Hansraj Behl, Madan Mohan, and Usha Khanna. Mangeshkar sang many raga-based songs for Naushad in movies such as Baiju Bawra (1952), Mughal-E-Azam (1960), and Kohinoor (1960). Ae Chorre Ki Jaat Badi Bewafa, a duet with G. M. Durrani, was her first song for composer, Naushad. The duo, Shankar-Jaikishan, chose Mangeshkar for Aag, Aah (1953), Shree 420 (1955), and Chori Chori (1956). Before 1957, composer Sachin Dev (S. D.) Burman chose Mangeshkar as the leading female singer for his musical scores in Sazaa (1951), House No. 44 (1955), and Devdas (1955). However a rift developed between Lata and Burman in 1957, and Lata did not sing Burman's compositions again until 1962.[6] Mangeshkar won a Filmfare Best Female Playback Award for Salil Chowdhury's composition “Aaja Re Pardesi,� from Madhumati (1958). Mangeshkar as a young woman In the early fifties, Lata Mangeshkar's association with C. Ramchandra produced songs in movies such as Anarkali, Albela, Asha, Pehli Jhhalak, Shin Shinkai Bublaa Boo, Azad and Amardeep. For Madan Mohan, she performed for films like Adalat, Railway Platform, Dekh Kabira Roya and Chacha Zindabad.

1960s Mangeshkar's song "Pyar Kiya To Darna Kya" from Mughal-E-Azam (1960), composed by Naushad and picturized on Madhubala, still remains famous . The Hawaiian-themed number "Ajeeb Dastaan Hai Yeh" from Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai (1960) was composed by Shankar-Jaikishan and picturized on Meena Kumari. In 1961, Mangeshkar recorded two popular bhajans, "Allah Tero Naam" and "Prabhu Tero Naam", for Burman's assistant, Jaidev. In 1962, she was awarded her second Filmfare Award for the song "Kahin Deep Jale Kahin Dil" from Bees Saal Baad, composed by Hemant Kumar. On June 27, 1963, against the backdrop of the Sino-Indian War, Mangeshkar sang the patriotic song "Aye Mere Watan Ke Logo" (literally, "Oh, the People of My Country") in the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India. The song, composed by C. Ramchandra and written by Pradeep, is said to have brought the Prime Minister to tears.[6] [8] In 1963, Mangeshkar returned to collaboration with S. D. Burman. She also sang for R. D. Burman's very first film Chhote Nawaab and later for his films such as Bhoot Bangla (1965), Pati Patni (1966), Baharon ke Sapne (1967) and Abhilasha (1969). She also recorded several popular songs for S. D. Burman, including "Aaj Phir Jeene Ki Tamanna Hai", "Gata Rahe Mera Dil" (duet with Kishore Kumar) and "Piya Tose" from Guide (1965), and "Hothon Pe Aisi Baat" from Jewel Thief (1967). During the 1960s, Lata Mangeshkar continued her association with Madan Mohan which included the songs "Aap Ki Nazron Ne Samjha" from Anpadh (1962), "Lag Ja Gale" and "Naina Barse Rim Jhim" from Woh Kaun Thi? (1964), "Woh Chup Rahen To" from Jahan Ara (1964), and "Tu Jahan Jahan Chalega" from Mera Saaya (1966). The 1960s also witnessed the beginning of Mangeshkar's association with Laxmikant-Pyarelal, the music directors for whom she sang the most popular songs in her career.


Lata Mangeshkar She also sang several playback songs for Marathi films, composed by Marathi music directors including Hridaynath Mangeshkar, Vasant Prabhu, Srinivas Khale, Sudhir Phadke and herself (under the name Anandghan). During the 1960s and 1970s, she also sang several Bengali songs, composed by music directors like Salil Chowdhury and Hemant Kumar. In this period Lata Mangeshkar has recorded duets with Mukesh, Manna Dey, Mohammed Rafi, and Kishore Kumar.

1970s In 1972, Meena Kumari's last film, Pakeezah released. It featured popular songs including "Chalte Chalte" and "Inhi Logon Ne" sung by Lata Mangeshkar, and composed by Ghulam Mohammed. She recorded many popular songs for S. D. Burman's last films, including "Rangeela Re" from Prem Pujari (1970), "Khilte Hain Gul Yahaan" from Sharmeelee (1971), and "Piya Bina" from Abhimaan (1973). Lata Mangeshkar's most notable songs in 1970s were composed by Laxmikant-Pyarelal (Laxmi-Pyare) and Rahul Dev Burman. She recorded several songs composed by Laxmi-Pyare in 1960s and 1970s, many of them written by the lyricst Anand Bakshi. She also recorded many hit songs with Rahul Dev Burman in the films Amar Prem (1972), Caravan (1971), Kati Patang(1971), and Aandhi (1975). The two are noted for their songs with the lyricists Majrooh Sultanpuri, Anand Bakshi and Gulzar. In 1973, she won the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for the song "Beeti Na Bitai" from the film Parichay, composed by R. D. Burman, and written by Gulzar. In 1974, she sang her only Malayalam song "Kadali Chenkadali" for the film Nellu, composed by Salil Chowdhury, and written by Vayalar Ramavarma. In 1975, she again won the national award, this time for the song "Roothe Roothe Piya" from the film Kora Kagaz, composed by Kalyanji-Anandji. From 1970s onwards, Lata Mangeshkar has also staged many concerts in India and abroad, including several charity concerts. Her first concert overseas was at the Royal Albert Hall, London, in 1974. She also released an album of Mirabai's bhajans, Chala Vaahi Des, composed by her brother Hridayanath Mangeshkar. Some of the bhajans in the album include "Saanware Rang Raachi" and "Ud Jaa Re Kaaga". In the early 70s, she released other non-film albums, such as her collection of Ghalib ghazals, an album of Marathi folk songs (koli-geete), an album of Ganesh aartis (all composed by her brother Hridaynath) and an album of abhangs of Sant Tukaram composed by Shrinivas Khale. In late 1970s and early 1980s, she worked with the children of composers she had earlier worked with. Some of these composers included Rahul Dev Burman (son of Sachin Dev Burman), Rajesh Roshan (son of Roshan), Anu Malik (son of Sardar Malik), and Anand-Milind (sons of Chitragupt).

1980s onwards From 1980s onwards, Lata Mangeshkar worked with music directors including Shiv-Hari, Ram Laxman, and A. R. Rahman. She recorded some non-film songs, including ghazals with Jagjit Singh. In 1990, Mangeshkar launched her own production house for Hindi movies which produced the Gulzar-directed movie Lekin.... She won her third National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for her rendition of the song "Yaara Sili Sili" from the film, which was composed by her brother Hridayanath. During the 1990s, she recorded with music directors including Jatin-Lalit and Nadeem-Shravan. She has sung for Rajshri Productions, including Maine Pyar Kiya (1989) and Hum Aapke Hain Kaun (1994). Mangeshkar has sung for almost all the Yash Chopra films and films from his production house Yash Raj Films at that time, including Chandni (1989), Lamhe (1991), Darr (1993), Yeh Dillagi (1994), Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai (1997) and later on Mohabbatein (2000), Mujhse Dosti Karoge (2002) and Veer Zaara (2004).

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Lata Mangeshkar A. R. Rahman recorded a few songs with Mangeshkar during this period, including "Jiya Jale" (Dil Se), "Khamoshiyan Gungunane Lagin" (One Two Ka Four), "Ek Tu Hi Bharosa" (Pukar), "Pyaara Sa Gaon" (Zubeidaa), "Lukka chuppi" (Rang de Basanti) and "O Paalanhaare" (Lagaan). She made an appearance in the film Pukar singing this song. In 1999, Lata Eau de Parfum, a perfume brand named after her, was launched.[9] In 1999, Mangeshkar was nominated as a member of Rajya Sabha.[10] However, she did not attend the Rajya Sabha sessions regularly, inviting criticism from several members of the House, including the Deputy Chairperson Najma Heptullah, Pranab Mukherjee and Shabana Azmi.[11] [12] She stated the reason for her absence as ill-health; it was also reported that she had not taken a salary, allowance or a house in Delhi for being a Member of Parliament.[11] [13] In 2001, Lata Mangeshkar was awarded Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor. In the same year, she established the Master Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital in Pune, managed by the Lata Mangeshkar Medical Foundation (founded by the Mangeshkar family in October 1989). In 2005, she designed a jewellery collection called Swaranjali, which was crafted by Adora, an Indian diamond export company. Five pieces from the collection raised £105,000 at a Christie's auction, and a part of the money was donated for the 2005 Pakistan earthquake relief.[14] Also in 2001, she recorded her first Hindi song with the composer Ilaiyaraaja, for the film Lajja; she had earlier recorded Tamil and Telugu songs composed by Ilaiyaraaja. Lata Mangeshkar's song "Wada Na Tod" is in the film Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) and on the film's soundtrack. On June 21, 2007, she released an album Saadgi, featuring eight ghazal-like songs written by Javed Akhtar and composed by Mayuresh Pai.[15]

Non-singing career Music direction Lata Mangeshkar composed music for the first time in 1955 for Marathi movie Ram Ram Pavhane. Later in 1960s, she composed music for following Marathi movies under the pseudonym of Anand Ghan.[16] • • • • •

1960 - Ram Ram Pavhana 1963 - Maratha Tituka Melvava 1963 - Mohityanchi Manjula 1965 - Sadhi Manase 1969 - Tambadi Mati

She won Maharashtra State Government's Best Music Director Award for the film Sadhi Manase. The song "Airanichya Deva Tula" from the same film received best song award.

Production Lata Mangeshkar has produced four films: • • • •

1953 - Vaadal (Marathi) 1953 - Jhaanjhar (Hindi), co-produced with C. Ramchandra 1955 - Kanchan (Hindi) 1990 - Lekin (Hindi)

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Lata Mangeshkar

Awards and recognitions Lata Mangeshkar has won several awards and honors, including Padma Bhushan (1969), Padma Vibhushan (1999), Dada Saheb Phalke Award (1989), Maharashtra Bhushan Award (1997),[17] NTR National Award (1999), Bharat Ratna (2001), ANR National Award (2009), three National Film Awards, and 12 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards. She has also won four Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards. In 1969, she made the unusual gesture of giving up the Filmfare Best Female Playback Award, in order to promote fresh talent. She was later awarded Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 1993. In 1984, the State Government of Madhya Pradesh instituted the Lata Mangeshkar Award in honuor of Lata Mangeshkar. The State Government of Maharashtra also instituted a Lata Mangeshkar Award in 1992. In 1974, The Guinness Book of Records listed Lata Mangeshkar as the most recorded artist in the history, stating that she had reportedly recorded "not less than 25,000 solo, duet and chorus backed songs in 20 Indian languages" between 1948 and 1974. Her record was contested by Mohammed Rafi, who was claimed to have sung around 28,000 songs.[4] [18] After Rafi's death, in its 1984 edition, the Guinness Book of World Records stated Lata Mangeshkar's name for the "Most Recordings", but also stated Rafi's claim. The later editions of Guinness Book stated that Lata Mangeshkar had sung no fewer than 30,000 songs between 1948 and 1987.[19] Although the entry has not been printed in Guinness editions since 1991, reputable sources claim that she has recorded thousands of songs, with estimates ranging up to figures as large as 50,000.[20] [21] However, even the earliest Guinness claim of 25,000 songs (between 1948–1974) was claimed to be exaggerated by other sources, who stated that the number of songs sung by Lata Mangeshkar in Hindi films till 1991 was found to be 5250.[22] Mangeshkar herself stated that she does not keep a record of the number of songs recorded by her, and that she did not know from where Guinness Book editors got their information.[23]

References [1] "Lata Mangeshkar" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 30899862. cms). The Times of India. December 10, 2002. . Retrieved 2009-07-22. [2] Yasmeen, Afshan (September 21, 2004). "Music show to celebrate birthday of melody queen" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ lf/ 2004/ 09/ 21/ stories/ 2004092114010200. htm). The Hindu. . Retrieved 2009-08-19. [3] Lata Mangeshkar given Bharat Ratna (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ 2001/ 03/ 22/ stories/ 01220006. htm) The Hindu [4] Raju Bharatan (23 August 2006). "How fair were they to Mohammed Rafi?: Page 7" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 23sld7. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2007-04-28. [5] Harish Bhimani (1995). In search of Lata Mangeshkar. Indus. ISBN 9788172231705. [6] Khubchandani, Lata (2003). Gulzar, Govind Nihalani, Saibal Chatterjee. ed. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema. Popular Prakashan. pp. 486–487. ISBN 8179910660. [7] Bharatan, Raju (1995). Lata Mangeshkar: A Biography. UBS Publishers Distributors. ISBN 978-8174760234. [8] "Kavi Pradeep, master of the patriotic song, dies at 84" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 1998/ dec/ 11kavi. htm). Rediff.com. 1998-12-11. . Retrieved 2010-11-04. [9] Suparn Verma (November 3, 1999). "A perfume called Lata" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 1999/ nov/ 03lata. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [10] "Nominated Members of the Rajya Sabha" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070927182238/ http:/ / rajyasabha. gov. in/ publ/ pandp/ book2. htm). Rajya Sabha Secretariat, Government of India. Archived from the original (http:/ / rajyasabha. gov. in/ publ/ pandp/ book2. htm) on 2007-09-27. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [11] Viral Bhayani (November 29, 2002). "Unequal music" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 29780945. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [12] "Straight Answers" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 39009721. cms). The Times of India. March 2, 2003. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [13] "Leave me alone, says Lata" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 39305376. cms). The Times of India. March 5, 2003. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [14] "Lata Mangeshkar's jewellery collection raises quake relief funds" (http:/ / www. indiaglitz. com/ channels/ hindi/ article/ 18569. html). November 28, 2005. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [15] "Lata Mangeshkar launches new album 'Saadgi'" (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ report. asp?NewsID=1105020). Daily News & Analysis. June 21, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-13.

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Lata Mangeshkar [16] "BFI, Lata Mangeshkar" (http:/ / ftvdb. bfi. org. uk/ sift/ individual/ 83243). . [17] "Stage set for felicitation of Lata with Maharashtra Bhushan award" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ ie/ daily/ 19971119/ 32350123. html). The Indian Express. . Retrieved 2009-12-02. [18] Raju Bharatan (23 August 2006). "How fair were they to Mohammed Rafi?: Page 6" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ aug/ 23sld6. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2007-04-28. [19] Puri, Amit (February 24, 2003). "Dedicated to Queen of Melody" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2003/ 20030224/ login/ music. htm). The Tribune, Chandigarh. . Retrieved 2009-08-18. [20] Chopra, Yash (28 September 2004). "The nightingale of India turns 75" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 3696042. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [21] "Melody Queen Lata rings in 75th birthday quietly" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20040929/ nation. htm#12). The Tribune, Chandigarh. September 29, 2004,. . Retrieved 2007-08-13. [22] Broughton, Simon; Mark Ellingham, Richard Trillo (2000). World music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 106. ISBN 978-1858286365. [23] Bhatt, Punita. "A controversy in the making". Filmfare magazine. June 1–15, 1987.

Further reading • Bichu, Dr. Mandar (2011). Lata - Voice of the Golden Era. Popular Prakashan (http://www.popularprakashan. com/lata-voice-of-the-golden-era.htm). ISBN 978-81-7991-625-4. • Bhimani, Harish (1995). In search of Lata Mangeshkar. Indus. ISBN 978-8172231705. • Bharatan, Raju (1995). Lata Mangeshkar: A Biography. UBS Publishers Distributors. ISBN 978-8174760234. • Kabir, Nasreen Munni (2009). Lata Mangeshkar: In Her Own Voice. Niyogi Books. ISBN 978-8189738419. • Lata, Mangeshkar (1995). Madhuvanti Sapre and Dinkar Gangal. ed (in Marathi). In search of Lata Mangeshkar. Harper Collins/Indus. ISBN 978-8172231705.. A collection of articles written by Lata Mangeshkar since 1952. • Nerurkar, Vishwas (in Hindi). Lata Mangeshkar Gandhar Swaryatra (1945-1989). Mumbai: Vasanti P. Nerukar.. • Bichhu, Mandar V. (1996) (in Hindi). Gaaye Lata, Gaaye Lata. Sharjah: Pallavi Prakashan. ISBN 978-8172231705.. A collection of articles written by Lata Mangeshkar since 1952.

External links • Lata Mangeshkar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0542196/) at the Internet Movie Database

186


Madan Mohan (music director)

187

Madan Mohan (music director) Late. Madan Mohan

Born

Madan Mohan Kohli June 25, 1924 Baghdad, Iraq

Died

July 14, 1975 (aged 51) Mumbai,  India

Years active 1943-1975 Awards

1971: National Film Award for Best Music Direction - Dastak.

Madan Mohan Kohli (Hindi: मदन मोहन) (25 June 1924 - 14 July 1975), better known as Madan Mohan, was a famed Bollywood film music director of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. He is particularly remembered for the ghazals he composed for the film industry, mainly using the voice of India's Melody Queen, Lata Mangeshkar and 'King Of Ghazals' Talat Mahmood and his favourite singer, Mohammed Rafi.

Background Born on June 25, 1924, at Baghdad, Iraq, where his father Rai Bahadur Chunilal was working as an Accountant General with the Iraqi Police, Madan Mohan spent the first five years of his life in the Middle East. As a boy of two, Madan Mohan used to spend hours listening to gramophone records and cultivated the uncanny ability to recognize and pick up any record from a pile of hundreds. When his father had guests at home, he would ask Madan Mohan to pick a particular record from a pile and he could do so with unerring precision, leaving the visitors wonder struck as to how a tiny tot, unable to read or write, could accomplish this near impossible feat. After Iraq won independence from Britain, Rai Bahadur Chunnilal migrated back to India. He took his family to his home town, Chakwal in Jhelum district of Punjab, now in Pakistan, and left them in the care of Madan Mohan's grandfather, Hakim Yograj- a famous doctor. Rai Bahadur Chunilal left for Mumbai for business opportunities and subsequently became a partner in the Bombay Talkies studio and then in the Filmistan studio. Madan Mohan attended school there for the next six years. It is said that he inherited his talent for music from his mother, who was a poet and great admirer of music. His father was not very musically inclined, but grandfather Hakim Yograj and his younger brother, Prakash were staunch connoisseurs. They used to discuss the subtleties of music in Madan's presence. Later, Madan's father shifted the whole family to Mumbai and Madan became acquinted with some children of film personalities. These 'children' were Raj Kapoor, Nargis & Suraiya. At the behest of his father, he joined the army and received his first commission (emergency) in 1943. Personal traits like courtesy, endurance, discipline, physical fitness and punctuality were all fostered in him during those years. Though as history would have it, he quit the armed forces and turned to his first love—music. He joined All India Radio in Lucknow, where he brushed shoulders with such ghazal and classical luminaries as Ustad Faiyyaz Khan, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, Begum Akhtar, and Talat Mahmood. He picked up their influences and carried them with him to Mumbai when he entered Bollywood. Not many know that he aspired to becoming an actor but ended up


Madan Mohan (music director) directing music.

Early career After assisting S.D. Burman and Shyam Sunder for a short time, Madan scored his first big break with the film Aankhen in 1950. His next film was "Adaa". This film saw the beginning of a long partnership with Lata Mangeshkar; she would sing for him in majority of his future films. Wo Chup Rahen To from the film Jahan Ara (1964) and Maine Rang Li Aaj Chunariya from Dulhan Ek Raat Ki (1966) are just two such examples. Madan was also able to write songs for male singers such as Talat Mahmood (Phir Wohi Saam, Main Teri Nazar Ka Suroor Hoon and Teri Aankh Ke Aansoo from Jahan Ara, and Meri Yaad Mein Tum Na from Madhosh) and Mohammad Rafi (Ek Haseen Shaam Ko from Dulhan Ek Raat Ki, Kisi Ki Yaad Mein from Jahan Ara, Main Nigahen Tere Chehere Se from Aap Ki Parchaiyian, Aap Ke Pehlun Mein Aakar Ro Diye from Mera Saaya, the all-time haunting Meri Awaaz Suno and Tumhare Zulf Ke Sayen from Naunihal, Teri Aankhon Ke Siva Duniya Mein from Chiraag as well. Madan did not usually employ Kishore Kumar, as his tunes were complex classical-based compositions and "Kishoreda" had a singing style that was more pop-oriented. Nonetheless their partnership created songs as well; in this category fall songs such as Simti Si, Sharmai Si from Parwana, Zaroorat Hai, Zaroorat Hai from Manmauji, the title song from Ek Muthi Aasman, Mera Naam Abdul Rehman from Bhai Bhai, and Aai Hasino, Naazanino from Chacha Zindabad. During his early career Madan Mohan had been mildly criticized for creating songs that suited female voices, especially that of Lata Mangeshkar (who called him Madan Bhaiya or "Brother Madan"). But this is not true all the way; in 1957 he came out with a film named Dekh Kabira Roya in which singer Manna Dey gave his voice to the melodious Kaun Aaya Mere Man Ke Dwaare. In addition to that, he had Lata sing Tu Pyaar Kare Ya Thukraaye and Meri Veena Tum Bin Roye numbers, and he used Talat Mahmood for the song Hum Se Aaya Na Gaya in the same movie. Once in an interview Manna Dey recalled that Madan Mohan "sahab" asked him to take special care when singing Kaun Aaya Mere Man Ke Dwaare. Madan Mohan's association with Lataji was so close and Madan Mohan respected Lataji so much, that Madan Mohan had once remarked about Lataji "Kambakth Lataji kabhi besoor hi natin hoti". A film scored by Madan was Chetan Anand's Haqeeqat (1964), starring Balraj Sahni and Dharmendra and based on the Sino-Indian War of 1962. In it, he used Rafi, who sang numbers like Kar Chale Hum Fida, Main Yeh Soch Kar. Lata was used for the song Zara Si Aahat Hoti Hai and the unscreened " Khelo na mere dilse". And the same film saw Rafi, Talat, Manna Dey, and Bhupendra singing Hoke Majboor Mujhe Usne Bulaya Hoga. Bhupendra appeared on the screen as well for the first time, much before he established himself as a playback singer. This song is also the only song in which four top-rated male playback singers have put voices together in a song. Madan Mohan's most successful venture was Raj Khosla's Desi version of "Woman in White", titled "Woh Kaun Thi?". This film has three Lata solos ('Naina barse rim jhim rim jhim', 'Lag ja gale' and 'Jo humne daastaan apni sunaye') and a Lata duet. In 1970, during the changing times of western music he gave music based on ragas for Rajinder Singh Bedi's Dastak and won his only 1971 National Film Award for Best Music Direction. Its songs sung by Lata Mangeshkar are still considered her finest.[1] The late fifties, sixties and the early seventies were the most productive period in Madan Mohan’s career. His songs from those decades include compositions for films like Adalat, Anpadh, Dulhan ek raat ki, Mera Saya, Dastak, Hanste Zakhm, Heer Raanjha, Maharaja, and Mausam, among many others. His second last bow was for a film released five years after his death, Chalbaaz. The last bow this great composer took posthumously was for Veer Zara - that almost made all of us travel down the memory lane when all untouched tunes composed by Madan Mohan were conducted by his son Sanjeev Kohli. Madan Mohan's son, Sanjeev Kohli had about 30 unused tunes and the producer/director Yash Chopra selected only 8 of them for Veer Zara. Later on, Sanjeev Kohli brought out an album "Tere Baghair" which contains some of Madan Mohan's songs.

188


Madan Mohan (music director)

Lyricists Madan's favourite lyricists were Raja Mehdi Ali Khan, Kaifi Azmi, and Rajinder Krishan, but Sahir Ludhianvi and Majrooh Sultanpuri also collaborated with him on a few movies. The Madan-Raja pairing in particular produced the song Aap Ki Nazron Ne Samjha from the movie Anpadh (1962). Among the admirers of the song was the Naushad who reportedly said, "Let me have this ghazal and take all my compositions in return" upon hearing it. Madan and Raja also came up with the tunes for Mera Saaya in 1966, a film starring Sunil Dutt as the male lead. meri duniya me na purab hai na paschim koi, sari duniya simti hai khuli bahon mein, kal bhatakta tha jin raho me tanha tanha, kafile kitne mile aaz uni raho me

Mass appeal Lata Mangeshkar christened him "Ghazal ka Shehzadaa", or the Prince of Ghazals. Even Lata herself stated in a live concert in the late 1990s that she found Madan Mohan's compositions difficult to master. Most of the top film actors of the day (who were also studio heads) had fallen into a groove with their preferred composers (e.g., Raj Kapoor had Shankar Jaikishan, Dev Anand had the Burmans, Dilip Kumar had Naushad, etc.) Hence, he often had difficulty finding assignments. His 1964 Filmfare Award nomination for Best Music Director for Woh Kaun Thi. In a tightly-contested race, both Madan and Shankar Jaikishan (Sangam) lost to relative newcomers Laxmikant Pyarelal, who scored Dosti.

Death and after Madan's constant struggles took a toll on his life, and he began drinking heavily. He died of liver cirrhosis on 14 July 1975. In 2004, Madan's unused tunes were recreated by his son, Sanjeev Kohli, for the Yash Chopra film Veer-Zaara, starring Shahrukh Khan, Preity Zinta, and Rani Mukerji. The lyrics were written by Javed Akhtar, and Lata Mangeshkar was invited to once again sing the majority of the melodies composed by her dear friend.[2]

Book on Madan Mohan 'Madan Mohan: An Unforgettable Composer - Edited by V M Joshi & Suresh Rao, presents an analytical look at the composer’s work. It includes articles by Sanjeev Kohli, Akshay Kohli, O P Dutta, Uttam Singh, B R Ishara, Dr. Ashok Ranade, Alka Deo Marulkar, Mridula Joshi, Dr. Kirti Shrivastava, Deepak Jeswal and many more; interviews with Lata Mangeshkar, Shreya Ghoshal, Mahalaxmi Iyer & Rehana Sultan, and Madan Mohan’s filmography.

Style Madan's music was characterized by his immense ability to meld elements of Indian and Western classical music into a new style of Hindi filmi song. He had a keen and sensitive ear for the nuances of Indian classical tunes, and combined them with elements of Western music such as harmonies to produce a style of music that could be appreciated by both classical music aficionados and the common person alike.

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Madan Mohan (music director)

References [1] Incredible Sweet Sound - Madan Mohan (http:/ / www. codesutra. net/ archives/ individual/ music/ the_incredibly_sweet_sound_of_impending_doom_madan_mohan_1924_1975. php?page=all) [2] Madan Mohan lives on (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ oct/ 06madan. htm)

External links • • • •

madanmohan.in (http://www.madanmohan.in), website on Madan Mohan, created and maintained by his sons Madan Mohan (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0463317/) at the Internet Movie Database Online Fan Group (http://launch.groups.yahoo.com/group/madanmohan/) Madan Mohan Bio @ Downmelodylane.com (http://www.downmelodylane.com/madanmohan.html)

190


Madhubala

191

Madhubala Madhubala

Born

Mumtaz Begum Jehan Dehlavi 14 February 1933 New Delhi, India

Died

23 February 1969 (aged 36) Bombay, Maharashtra, India

Residence

Bombay, Maharashtra, India

Nationality

Indian

Occupation

Actress

Years active 1942–1969 Religion

Islam

Spouse

Kishore Kumar (m. 1960–1969) (Her death)

Mumtaz Jahan Begum Dehlavi, known by her stage name Madhubala (Devnagari: मधुबाला) (14 February 1933 – 23 February 1969) was a popular Hindi movie actress. She starred in several successful movies in the 1950s and early 1960s, many of which have attained a classic status. With her contemporaries Nargis and Meena Kumari, she is widely regarded as one of the most talented Hindi movie actresses.

Early life Madhubala was born as Mumtaz Jahan Begum Dehlavi[1] [2] in New Delhi, India on 14 February 1933 in a Muslim family from Afghanistan, member of the Nawabi family of Kabul, branch of the royal dynasty of the Mohammadzai (called also Barakzay), her grandparents were exiled by Afghanistan's army to India. She was the fifth child among eleven children of a conservative Muslim couple. After Madhubala's father Ataullah Khan lost his job at the Imperial Tobacco Company in Peshawar,[3] the father relocated his family to Mumbai. Young Mumtaz entered the movie industry at the age of nine.


Madhubala

Early career Mumtaz’s first movie Basant (1942) was a box-office success.[4] She played in it as the daughter of the popular actress Mumtaz Shanti. She went on to act in several movies as a child artist. Actress Devika Rani was impressed by her performances and potential and advised her to assume the name Madhubala,[5] meaning "a woman of honey". Madhubala soon garnered reputation as a reliable professional performer. By the time she entered adolescence, she was being groomed for lead roles. Her first break came when producer Kidar Sharma cast her opposite Raj Kapoor in Neel Kamal (1947).[4] She was fourteen when she was given a lead role. The film was not a commercial success, but her performance was received well. During the next two years, she blossomed into a captivating beauty. After her lead role in Bombay Talkies production Mahal in 1949, Madhubala attained immense popularity. Though she was only 16 at the time, her subtle and skilful performance, upstaged her seasoned co-star Ashok Kumar. The movie and the song Aayega Aanewala in it heralded the arrival of two new superstars: Madhubala and playback singer Lata Mangeshkar.

Serious illness Madhubala was found to have a heart problem after she coughed up blood in 1950. She was discovered to have been born with a ventricular septal defect, commonly known as a "hole in the heart". At the time, heart surgery was not widely available. Madhubala hid her illness from the movie industry for many years, but one incident was widely reported by the media in 1954: She was filming in Madras for S.S. Vassan's Bahut Din Huwe when she vomited blood on the set. Vassan and his wife took care of her until she was well again. She continued to work and established herself as an A-grade star. Madhubala's family was extremely protective of her because of her health problem. When filming at the studios, she would eat only home-prepared food and drink water only from a specific well in order to minimize risks of infection. But her condition took its toll and she died in 1969 at age 36. For most of the 1950s, Madhubala performed successfully despite her illnesss.

Hollywood Interest In the early 1950s as Madhubala became one of the most sought-after actresses in India, she also attracted interest from Hollywood. She appeared in many American magazines such as Theatre Arts. In their August 1952 issue, Madhubala was featured in an extensive article with a full page photo. The piece was entitled: The Biggest Star in the World (And She's Not in Beverly Hills).[6] It presented the actress as a mysterious and ethereal woman of mythical beauty with a legion of fans. During this period, on a trip to Mumbai and its film studios, the American filmmaker Frank Capra was pampered and hosted by the elite of the Hindi movie industry. However the one star he really wanted to meet was conspicuous by her absence, Madhubala. A meeting to discuss an opening for Madhubala in Hollywood was proposed by Capra. Madhubala's father declined and put an emphatic end to her potential Hollywood film career.

Madhubala as a Star Madhubala had many successful films following Mahal. With pressure to secure herself and her family financially, she acted in as many as twenty-four films in the first four years of her adult career. Consequently, critics of the time commented that Madhubala's beauty was greater than her acting ability. This was in part due to careless choices in film roles. As sole support of her family, she accepted work in any film, causing her credibility as a dramatic actress to be seriously compromised. Something she later expressed regret over.

192


Madhubala She did have aspirations to appear in more prestigious films with challenging roles. Bimal Roy's Biraj Bahu (1954) being a case in point. Madhubala having read the novel, was desperate to secure the lead in the film adaptation. Assuming she would command her market price (one of the highest), Bimal Roy passed her over in favour of a then, struggling Kamini Kaushal. When Madhubala learned that this was a factor in her losing the part, she lamented the fact that she would have performed in the film for a fee of one rupee. Such was her desire to improve her image as a serious actress. As a star, Madhubala did ascend to the top of the industry. Her co-stars at the time were the most popular of the period: Ashok Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Rehman, Pradeep Kumar, Shammi Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Sunil Dutt and Dev Anand. Madhubala also appeared alongside many notable leading ladies of the time including Kamini Kaushal, Suraiya, Geeta Bali, Nalini Jaywant and Nimmi. The directors she worked with were amongst the most prolific and respected: Mehboob Khan (Amar), Guru Dutt (Mr. & Mrs. '55), Kamal Amrohi (Mahal) and K. Asif (Mughal-e-Azam) . She also ventured into production and made the film Naata (1955) which she also acted in. During the 1950s, Madhubala proved herself a versatile performer in starring roles, in almost every genre of film being made at the time. She was the archetypal lady fair in the popular swashbuckler, Badal (1951) and was next seen as an uninhibitted village belle in Tarana (1951). She was convincing as the traditional ideal of Indian womanhood in Sangdil (1952) and was well received in a comic performance as the spoilt heiress, Anita in Guru Dutt's classic satire Mr. & Mrs. '55 (1955). In 1956 she had success in historical costume dramas such as Shirin-Farhad and Raj-Hath. Equally successful in contemporary characterizations, she was memorable in a double role in the social film Kal Hamara Hai (1959). Madhubala played the cigarette smoking dancer Bella, and her more conventional saintly sister Madhu. Suddenly in the mid-1950s her films, even major ones like Mehboob Khan's Amar (1954), fared so badly commercially that she was labelled "Box Office Poison". She turned her career around in 1958, with a string of hit films: Howrah Bridge opposite Ashok Kumar featured Madhubala in the unusual role of an Anglo-Indian Cabaret singer, embroiled in Calcutta's Chinatown underworld. She made a big impact with a daring (for the time) Westernized image, with her cascading locks, deep cut blouses, fitted Capri pants and tailored Chinese dresses. Madhubala's sensuous torch song from the film, Aye Meherebaan, dubbed by Asha Bhosle, was a popular hit with audiences, and is widely quoted and celebrated to this day. Howrah Bridge was followed by Phagun opposite Bharat Bhushan, Kalapani opposite Dev Anand, the perennial hit Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi opposite her would-be-husband, Kishore Kumar and Barsaat Ki Raat (1960), opposite Bharat Bhushan again. In 1960, she consolidated these successes, and her super-star status when she went on to appear in the epic mega-budget historical, Mughal-e-Azam. This film is widely perceived to be the crowning glory of her career and perhaps the decade of filmmaking in India.

Personal life and controversial court case Madhubala had a long affair with actor and frequent co-star Dilip Kumar. They first met on the sets of Jwar Bhata (1944), and worked together again in the film Har Singaar (1949) which was never completed or released. It was two years later during the filming of, Tarana (1951), that their off-screen relationship began. They also became a popular romantic screen team appearing in a total of four films together. Madhubala was known for keeping a low profile, never making public appearances (with the exception of the premiere for the film Bahut Din Huwe in 1954) and she rarely gave interviews. Film media often speculated over her personal life and romantic liaisons and Dilip Kumar was repeatedly mentioned. These rumours were confirmed with a bold and rare public appearance during their courtship in 1955. Madhubala was escorted by Dilip Kumar for the premier of his film Insaniyat (1955), a film with which she had no other association. Though this may have been another gesture of gratitude to the producer and director S. S. Vasan, who had cared for her earlier when she had taken ill during the filming of Bahut Din Huwe (1954), this appearance was significant for another reason. By attending the premiere officially escorted by Dilip Kumar, they publicly acknowledged their relationship.

193


Madhubala

194

Madhubala's romance with Kumar lasted five years, between 1951 and 1956. Their association was ended following a highly controversial and widely publicized court case. B.R. Chopra, the director of the film Madhubala and Dilip Kumar were currently starring in, Naya Daur (1957), wanted the unit to travel to Bhopal for an extended outdoor shooting. Ataullah Khan objected and even claimed that the entire Bhopal schedule was a ruse to give Dilip Kumar the opportunity to romance his daughter. Finally, Chopra sued Madhubala for the cash advance she received from him for a film she now had no intention of completing. He also replaced her with South Indian actress Vyjayanthimala. Madhubala obediently supported her father despite her commitment to Dilip Kumar. Kumar testified against Madhubala and Ataullah Khan in favor of the director B.R. Chopra in open court. The case was lost by Madhubala and her father amid much negative publicity. Up until that point Madhubala had worked hard to gain a reputation as a reliable and professional performer with much good will in the industry. Her image was badly damaged after this episode. Madhubala and Dilip Kumar were effectively separated from that point on. When rediff news spoke to her sister Madhur Bhushan, her account of the story was:[3] The reason Madhubala broke up with Dilip Kumar was B R Chopra's film Naya Daur, not my father. Madhubala had shot a part of the film when the makers decided to go for an outdoor shoot to Gwalior. The place was known for dacoits, so my father asked them to change the location. They disagreed because they wanted a hilly terrain. So my father asked her to quit the film. He was ready to pay the deficit. Chopra asked Dilip Kumar for help. Dilipsaab and Madhubala were engaged then. Dilipsaab tried to mediate but Madhubala refused to disobey her father. Chopra's production filed a case against her, which went on for a year. But this did not spoil their relationship. Dilipsaab told her to forget movies and get married to him. She said she would marry him, provided he apologised to her father. He refused, so Madhubala left him. That one 'sorry' could have changed her life. She loved Dilipsaab till the day she died. She met her husband, actor and playback singer, Kishore Kumar during the filming of Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958) and Jhumroo (1961). At the time he was married to the Bengali singer and actress Ruma Guha Thakurta . After his divorce, because Kishore Kumar was Hindu and Madhubala Muslim, they had a civil wedding ceremony in 1960. His parents refused to attend. The couple also had a Hindu ceremony to please Kumar's parents, but Madhubala was never truly accepted as his wife. Within a month of her wedding she moved back to her bungalow in Bandra because of tension in the Kumar household. They remained married but under great strain for the remainder of Madhubala's life.

Mughal-e-Azam and later work It was the film Mughal-e-Azam that marked what many consider to be her greatest and definitive characterization as the doomed courtesan Anarkali. Director K. Asif, unaware of the extent of Madhubala's illness, required long and grueling shooting schedules that made heavy physical demands on her, whether it was posing as a veiled statue in suffocating make-up for hours under the sweltering studio lights or being shackled with heavy chains. From 1951 through to 1959 Madhubala invested her best efforts into Mughal-e-Azam. Post 1956 and her separation from Dilip Kumar, the film's remaining intimate romantic scenes were filmed under much tension and strain between Madhubala and her now estranged co-star. This emotionally and physically taxing experience is widely perceived as a major factor in her subsequent decline in health and premature death. On 5 August 1960, Mughal-e-Azam released and became the biggest grossing film at that time, a record that went unbroken for 15 years until the release of the film Sholay in 1975. It still ranks second in the list of all time box-office hits of Indian cinema (inflation adjusted). Despite performing alongside the most respected acting talent of the industry, Prithviraj Kapoor, Durga Khote, and Dilip Kumar, critics recognised and appreciated Madhubala's intelligent and multi layered performance. She received some recognition as a serious actress when she was nominated for a Filmfare Award. However she did not win, losing out to Bina Rai for her performance in the film Ghunghat (1960). In Khatija Akbar's biography on Madhubala (see reference section), Dilip Kumar paid tribute to her talent: "Had she lived, and had she selected her films with more care, she would have been far superior to her


Madhubala contemporaries. Apart from being very versatile and an excellent artiste, she had a warm and cheerful nature. God had gifted her with so many things..." In 1960, Madhubala hit the peak of her career and popularity with the release of back-to-back blockbusters Mughal-e-Azam and Barsaat Ki Raat. She was offered strong, author-backed roles, but her deteriorating health did not permit her to enjoy this period and develop as an actress. At this point Madhubala became so ill that she could not accept any new films or even complete her existing assignments. In the biography by Khatija Akbar, her frequent co-star Dev Anand recalled: "She was so robust and full of life and energy. She was always laughing and enjoyed her work. One could never conceive she was seriously ill. Then one day out of the blue she just disappeared...". She did have intermittent releases in the early 60s. Some of these, like Jhumroo (1961), Half Ticket (1962) and Sharabi (1964), even performed above average at the box-office. However, most of her other films issued in this period were marred by her absence in later portions when her illness prevented her from completing them. They suffer from compromised editing and in some cases the use of "doubles" in an attempt to patch in scenes that Madhubala was unable to shoot. Her last released film Jwala, although filmed in the late 1950s, was not issued until 1971, two years after her death. Incidentally, apart from some Technicolor sequences in Mughal-e-Azam, Jwala is the only time Madhubala appeared in a colour film.

Final years and death In 1960, Madhubala sought treatment in London as her condition deteriorated.[7] Complicated heart surgery was in its infancy and offered her some hope of a cure. After an examination the doctors there refused to operate, convinced her chances of surviving the procedure were minimal.[8] Their advice was that she should rest and avoid overexertion, and predicted that she could live for another year. Knowing her death was imminent, Madhubala returned to India, but defied the predictions by living for another 9 years. In 1966, with a slight improvement in her health, Madhubala tried working again opposite Raj Kapoor in the film Chalak. Film media heralded her "comeback" with much fanfare and publicity. Stills from this time showed a still beautiful but pale and wan-looking Madhubala. However, within a few days of filming, her frail health caused her to collapse and the film remained incomplete and unreleased. When acting was clearly no longer an option, Madhubala turned her attention to film making. In 1969 she was set to make her directorial debut with a film named Farz aur Ishq. However the film was never made, as during the pre production stages, Madhubala finally succumbed to her illness and died on 23 February 1969, shortly after her 36th birthday. She was buried at Santa Cruz cemetery with her diary by her family and husband Kishore Kumar.[9] Madhubala's tomb at the Juhu/Santa Cruz Muslim cemetery was carved in pure marble and aayats from the Quran as well as verses dedicated to her. Controversially, her tomb was demolished in 2010 to make space for new graves.[10]

Madhubala the icon In her short life, Madhubala made over 70 films. In all three biographies and numerous articles published on her, she has been compared with Marilyn Monroe and has a similarly iconic position in Indian film history. Perhaps because she died before being relegated to supporting or character roles, to this day Madhubala remains one of the most enduring and celebrated legends of Indian cinema. Her continuing appeal to film fans was underlined in a 1990 poll conducted by Movie magazine. Madhubala was voted the most popular vintage Hindi actress of all time, garnering 58% of the votes, and out ranking contemporary legendary actresses Meena Kumari, Nargis, and Nutan. More recently in rediff.com's International Women's Day 2007 special (see external links), Madhubala was ranked second in their top ten list of "Bollywood's best actresses. Ever" According to the feature, the actresses that made the final list were ranked on "...acting skills, glamour, box office appeal, versatility and icon status -- and the fact that each of them became a figurehead for Bollywood, ushering in a new wave of cinema..."

195


Madhubala

196

In 2004 a digitally colorized version of Mughal-e-Azam was released and, 35 years after her death, the film and Madhubala became a success with cinema audiences all over again. In the past decade, several biographies and magazine articles have been issued on Madhubala, revealing previously unknown details of her private life and career. Consequently in 2007, a Hindi film Khoya Khoya Chand was produced starring Shiney Ahuja and Soha Ali Khan - the plot included some events loosely based on the life of Madhubala and other vintage film personalities. In 2008 a commemorative postage stamp featuring Madhubala was issued. The stamp was produced by India Post in a limited edition presentation pack which featured images of the actress. It was launched by veteran actors Nimmi and Manoj Kumar in a glittering ceremony attended by colleagues, friends and surviving members of Madhubala's family. The only other Indian film actress to be honoured in this manner is Nargis Dutt.

Trivia • Filmmaker Mohan Sinha taught Madhubala to drive a car when she was only 12 years old. • She was an avid fan of Hollywood and after learning to speak fluent English, frequently watched American movies on her home projector. • When nervous she suffered from uncontrolled outbursts of giggles and laughter which sometimes antagonised co-stars and directors. • When Guru Dutt first announced his classic film Pyaasa (1957) it was with Madhubala and Nargis in the feminine lead roles. The parts were eventually played by Mala Sinha and Waheeda Rehman who both became stars with the film. • With the exception of Geeta Dutt in Mr. & Mrs. '55 (1955), most of Madhubala's memorable songs were dubbed by Lata Mangeshkar or Asha Bhosle. Madhubala proved lucky for both. The songs from Mahal picturised on Madhubala in 1949 were some of Lata's earliest successes; nine years later, Asha's vocals for the actress in four 1958 films established her as a major playback singer, rivaling her own sister, Lata. • Madhubala's sister Chanchal was also an actress and bore a striking resemblance to her famous sibling. She appeared in Nazneen (1951), Naata (1955), Mahalon Ka Khwab (1960) and Jhumroo (1961) alongside Madhubala. She also played prominent roles in Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) and Raj Kapoor's Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (1960).

Filmography Movie

Year

Basant

1942

Mumtaz Mahal

1944

Dhanna Bhagat

1945

Rajputani

1946

Pujari

1946

Phoolwari

1946

Saat Samundaron Ki Mallika 1947 Mere Bhagwan

1947

Khubsoorat Duniya

1947

Dil-Ki-Rani Sweet-Heart

1947

Chittor Vijay

1947


Madhubala

197 Neel Kamal

1947

Parai Aag

1948

Lal Dupatta

1948

Desh Sewa

1948

Amar Prem

1948

Sipahiya

1949

Singaar

1949

Paras

1949

Neki Aur Badi

1949

Mahal

1949

Imtihaan

1949

Dulari

1949

Daulat

1949

Apradhi

1949

Pardes

1950

Nishana

1950

Nirala

1950

Madhubala

1950

Hanste Aansoo

1950

Beqasoor

1950

Tarana

1951

Saiyan

1951

Nazneen

1951

Nadaan

1951

Khazana

1951

Badal

1951

Aaram

1951

Saqi

1952

Sangdil

1952

Rail Ka Dibba

1953

Armaan

1953

Bahut Din Huye

1954

Amar

1954

Teerandaz

1955

Naqab

1955

Naata

1955

Mr. & Mrs. '55

1955

Shirin Farhad

1956

Raj Hath

1956


Madhubala

198 Dhake Ki Malmal

1956

Yahudi Ki Ladki

1957

Gateway of India

1957

Ek Saal

1957

Police

1958

Phagun

1958

Kalapani

1958

Howrah Bridge

1958

Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi

1958

Baghi Sipahi

1958

Kal Hamara Hai

1959

Insaan Jaag Utha

1959

Do Ustad

1959

Mehlon Ke Khwab

1960

Jaali Note

1960

Barsaat Ki Raat

1960

Mughal-e-Azam

1960

Passport

1961

Jhumroo

1961

Boy Friend

1961

Half Ticket

1962

Sharabi

1964

Jwala

1971

References [1] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ ie/ daily/ 19970725/ 20650943. html [2] The mystery and mystique of Madhubala by Mohan Deep (1996) page 42 [3] http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2008/ mar/ 25sd1. htm [4] http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ madhubala [5] http:/ / www. madhubalano1. 20m. com/ profile. html [6] http:/ / films. hindi-movies-songs. com/ madhubala-biggest-star-o. pdf [7] http:/ / www. chakpak. com/ celebrity/ madhubala/ biography/ 8959 [8] http:/ / www. madhubalano1. 20m. com/ marriage. html [9] Last days (http:/ / www. madhubalano1. 20m. com/ lastdays. html) [10] Jaisinghani, Bella (11 February 2010). "Rafi, Madhubala don't rest in peace here" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ city/ mumbai/ Rafi-Madhubala-dont-rest-in-peace-here/ articleshow/ 5558345. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2010-02-14.

Books & Film Journals: • Akbar, Khatija. Mahubala: Her Life, Her Films (English). New Delhi: UBS Publishers' Distributors, 1997. ISBN 8174761535. • Deep, Mohan. Madhubala: Mystery and Mystique, Magna Publishing Co. Ltd. • Raheja, Dinesh. The Hundred Luminaries of Hindi Cinema, India Book House Publishers. • Reuben, Bunny. Follywood Flashback, Indus publishers • Bhattacharya, Rinki . Bimal Roy: A man of silence, South Asia Books


Madhubala • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish and Willemen, Paul. The Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. • Cort, David. THEATRE ARTS Magazine, Issue Date: August 1952; Vol. XXXVI No. 8.

External links • Madhubala: Women's day special (http://specials.rediff.com/women07/2007/mar/06wslid10.htm) rediff.com • Madhubala: A sweet Seduction (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/oct/18dinesh.htm) rediff.com • Madhubala (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0534870/) at the Internet Movie Database

199


Madhuri Dixit

200

Madhuri Dixit Madhuri Dixit

Madhuri Dixit on Nach Baliye (2007). Born

Madhuri Shankar Dixit 15 May 1967 Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Actress

Years active

1984–2002 2007–present

Spouse

Dr Shriram Madhav Nene (1999–present)

Madhuri Dixit (Marathi: माधुरी दीक्षित) (born Madhuri Shankar Dixit on 15 May 1967)[1] is an Indian film actress who has appeared in Hindi films. Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, she established herself as one of Hindi cinema's leading actresses and most accomplished dancers.[2] She appeared in numerous commercially successful films was recognised for several of her performances. Dixit is often cited by the media as one of the best actresses in Bollywood.[3] [4] Dixit has won five Filmfare Awards, four for Best Actress and one for Best Supporting Actress. She holds the record for the highest number of Best Actress nominations at the Filmfare, with 13. In 2008, she was awarded the Padma Shri, India's fourth-highest civilian award by the Government of India.[5]


Madhuri Dixit

201

Early life Madhuri Dixit is a native of Mumbai, India. She was born Madhuri Shankar Dixit to Shankar and Snehlata Dixit, of a Marathi Brahmin family. Dixit attended Divine Child High School and Mumbai University and studied to be a microbiologist.[6] She is a trained Kathak dancer.[7]

Film career Madhuri Dixit made her acting debut in Rajshri Productions' movie Abodh in 1984. The film failed but minor and supporting roles continued to follow. She attained stardom after she landed the lead female role in N. Chandra's blockbuster Tezaab (1988),[8] for which she received her first Filmfare nomination. In the following year, she starred in a number of important films that included Ram Lakhan, Parinda and Tridev. In 1990, Dixit starred in Indra Kumar's romantic-drama Dil. She played the role of a rich and arrogant girl who falls in love with a poorer boy and later leaves her house to marry him. The film became the biggest box-office hit of the year in India[9] and Dixit's performance earned her the first Filmfare Best Actress Award of her career. Post the success of Dil she starred in several successful movies like Saajan (1991), Beta (1992),[10] Khalnayak (1993), Hum Aapke Hain Kaun...! (1994), and Raja (1995). Dixit's performance in Beta, that of a woman married to an illiterate, well-meaning man who exposes her Madhuri Dixit in 2011. scheming mother-in-law, won her a second Filmfare Award for Best Actress. Hum Aapke Hain Kaun...! (1994) became one of the biggest hits in the history of Hindi cinema. Dixit's role of a modern yet family-oriented young girl fetched her the third Filmfare Best Actress Award of her career. Post Raja, Dixit's career went into a slump during 1996 and much of 1997. However, she bounced back commercially with Yash Chopra's Dil To Pagal Hai (1997) for which she won a fourth Filmfare Best Actress Award.[11] In that same year, Dixit starred in Prakash Jha's critically acclaimed Mrityudand. Dixit's performance in the film landed her the Best Actress award at the annual Star Screen Awards. Madhuri Dixit has been the muse for the famous Indian painter M.F. Husain. He made a film named Gaja Gamini (2000) starring her, which was intended as a tribute to Dixit herself. [12] In 2002, she starred in Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Devdas. Her performance earned her a Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award. The film was featured at the Cannes Film Festival. The following year a film named after her, Main Madhuri Dixit Banna Chahti Hoon!, was released[13] in which a woman (played by Antara Mali) aspires to become the new Madhuri Dixit by trying her luck in Bollywood.[14] [15] Dixit is not only known for her acting skills,[3] [14] [15] [16] [16] [17] but for her dancing skills as well.[18] She is famous for her dance sequences accompanying Bollywood songs such as "Ek Do Teen" (from Tezaab), "Humko Aaj Kal Hai" (from Sailaab), "Bada Dukh Deenha" (from Ram Lakhan), "Dhak Dhak" (from Beta), "Chane Ke Khet Mein" (from Anjaam), "Didi Tera Devar Deewana" (from Hum Aapke Hain Kaun...!), "Choli Ke Peechhe" (from Khalnayak), "Akhiyan Milaun" (from Raja), "Mera Piya Ghar Aaya" (from Yaraana), "Kay Sera Sera" (from Pukar), and "Maar Daala" (from Devdas). On 7 December 2006, Dixit returned to Mumbai with her husband and sons to start filming for Aaja Nachle (2007).[19] The film released in November 2007 and, despite the critics panning it, Dixit's performance was highly


Madhuri Dixit appreciated,[20] [21] [22] with the New York Times commenting about her that "she's still got it".[23] [24] On Women's International Day in 2007, Dixit topped Rediff's list of the Best Bollywood Actresses Ever.[3] In May 2008, she was given a tribute by Indian Film Festival at Los Angeles.[25] In March 2010, The Economic Times named Madhuri Dixit in the list of the "33 women who made India proud".[4] In 2011, she appeared as a judge on the dance reality show Jhalak Dikhlaja 4.[26] She also received a Filmfare Special Award in honor of her 25 years in the Bollywood industry.

Personal life In 1999, Madhuri Dixit married Shriram Madhav Nene, a UCLA-trained cardiovascular surgeon who practices in Denver.[27] [28] [29] Nene is also from a Marathi Brahmin family.[30] They have two sons, Arin (born in March 2003 in Colorado) and Raayan (born in March 2005 in Colorado)

Awards and nominations Filmfare Awards Won • • • • • •

1991: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Dil 1993: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Beta 1995: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Hum Aapke Hain Kaun...! 1998: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Dil To Pagal Hai 2003: Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award for Devdas 2011: Filmfare Special Award for completing 25 years in the Indian film industry

Nominated • • • • • • • • • •

1989: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Tezaab 1990: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Prem Pratigya 1992: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Saajan 1994: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Khalnayak 1995: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Anjaam 1996: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Raja 1996: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Yaraana 2001: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Pukar 2002: Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award for Lajja 2008: Filmfare Best Actress Award for Aaja Nachle

Star Screen Awards Won • • • •

1994: Star Screen Award Best Actress for Hum Aapke Hain Kaun...! 1995: Star Screen Award Best Actress for Raja 1997: Star Screen Award Best Actress for Mrityudand 2002: Star Screen Award Best Supporting Actress for Devdas

Nominated • 2000: Star Screen Award Best Actress for Pukar

202


Madhuri Dixit

203

Zee Cine Awards Won • 1998: Zee Cine Award for Best Actor - Female for Dil To Pagal Hai • 2002: Zee Cine Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role - Female for Lajja Nominated • 2000: Zee Cine Award for Best Actor - Female for Pukar • 2003: Zee Cine Award for Best Actor - Female for Devdas'

IIFA Awards Nominated • 2000: IIFA Best Actress Award for Pukar

Stardust Awards Nominated • 2008: Stardust Star of the Year Award - Female for Aaja Nachle

Honours and recognitions • • • • • • •

1997: "Kalabhinetri" award by the Government of Andhra Pradesh[31] 2001: National Citizen's Award 2001: Forbes named Dixit among the Top Five Most Powerful Indian Movie Stars.[32] 2008: Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian award by the Government of India[5] 2008: Honored at IFFLA Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles[33] 2011: Pearls Wave Awards - "Wave Silver Screen Queen Honour" 2011: Madhuri Dixit was voted as the most desirable Bollywood actress of 2011 in a poll conducted by HindiFIlmNews.Com[34]

Filmography Year

Film

Role

1984

Abodh

1985

Awara Baap

1986

Swati

Anandi

1987

Mohre

Maya

Hifazat

Janki

Uttar Dakshin

Chanda

Khatron Ke Khiladi

Kavita

Dayavan

Neela Velhu

Tezaab

Mohini

1988

Other notes

Gauri

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award


Madhuri Dixit

1989

204 Vardi

Jaya

Ram Lakhan

Radha

Prem Pratigyaa

Laxmi

Ilaaka

Vidya

Mujrim

Sonia

Tridev

Divya Mathur

Kanoon Apna Apna

Bharathi

Parinda

Paro

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

India's official entry to the Oscars

Paap Ka Anth 1990

1991

1992

1993

Maha Sangram Kishen Kanhaiya

Anju

Izzatdaar

Mohini

Dil

Madhu Mehra

Deewana Mujh Sa Nahin

Anita

Jeevan Ek Sangharsh

Madhu Sen

Sailaab

Dr. Sushma

Jamai Raja

Rekha

Thanedaar

Chanda

Pyaar Ka Devata

Devi

Khilaaf

Sweta

100 Days

Devi

Pratikaar

Madhu

Saajan

Pooja

Prahaar

Shirley

Beta

Saraswati

Zindagi Ek Jua

Juhi

Prem Deewane

Shivangi Mehra

Khel

Seema/Dr.Jadi Buti

Sangeet

Nirmala Devi & Sangeeta

Dharavi

Dreamgirl

Sahibaan

Sahibaan

Khalnayak

Ganga (Gangotri Devi)

Phool

Guddi

Dil Tera Aashiq

Sonia Khanna/Savitri Devi

Winner, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Winner, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Aansoo Bane Angaray 1994

1995

Anjaam

Shivani Chopra

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Hum Aapke Hain Kaun...!

Nisha Choudhury

Winner, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Raja

Madhu Garewal

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Yaraana

Lalita/Shikha

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award


Madhuri Dixit

1996

205 Prem Granth

Kajri

Paapi Devta Raj Kumar 1997

1998

Koyla

Gauri

Mahaanta

Jenny Pinto

Mrityudand

Ketki

Mohabbat

Shweta Sharma

Dil To Pagal Hai

Pooja

Bade Miyan Chhote Miyan Madhuri Dixit Wajood

Apoorva Choudhury

1999

Aarzoo

Pooja

2000

Pukar

Anjali

Gaja Gamini

Gaja Gamini/Sangita/ Shakuntala/Monika/Mona Lisa

Yeh Raaste Hain Pyaar Ke

Neha

Lajja

Janki

2001

2002

2007

Winner, Filmfare Best Actress Award Special appearance

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

Nominated, Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award

Hum Tumhare Hain Sanam Radha Devdas

Chandramukhi

Winner, Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award India's official entry to the Oscars

Aaja Nachle

Diya

Nominated, Filmfare Best Actress Award

References [1] "indiaFM" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2008/ 05/ 15/ 11388/ index. html). Wish Madhuri Dixit on her birthday today. 2008-05-15. . Retrieved 2008-10-03 October. [2] Kumar, P.K. Ajith (6 December 2007). "Dancing to her tunes" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2007/ 12/ 06/ stories/ 2007120650170200. htm). Chennai, India: The Hindu. . Retrieved 2009-05-30. [3] "specials.rediff.com" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ women07/ 2007/ mar/ 06wslid11. htm). Bollywood's Best Actress. Ever.. . Retrieved 4 January 2009. [4] "Day in Pics" (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ articleshowpics/ 5661380. cms). The Times Of India. . [5] "Madhuri missed meeting favourite director" (http:/ / in. movies. yahoo. com/ news-detail. html?news_id=25317). Times of India. Yahoo. 2010-07-09. . Retrieved 4 January 2009. [6] Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 0-415-28854-1. [7] Rajan, Anjana (2010-03-04). "Dance me no nonsense" (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ arts/ article145715. ece). Chennai, India: The Hindu. . Retrieved 6 January 2011. [8] "Boxofficeindia.com" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=194& catName=MTk4OA==). Boxofficeindia.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [9] "Boxofficeindia.com" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=196& catName=MTk5MA==). Boxofficeindia.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [10] "Boxofficeindia.com" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=198& catName=MTk5Mg==). Boxofficeindia.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [11] "1997 awards" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 368661. cms). Indiatimes. . Retrieved 2006-12-12. [12] "Interesting trivia on M F Husain" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ news/ india/ interesting-trivia-on-m-f-husain-16866. php). ndtv.com. . Retrieved 5 January 2010. [13] "imdb.com" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0374848/ ). Film named after Madhuri Dixit. . Retrieved 12 December 2006. [14] Posted: Sep 14, 2003 at 0000 hrs IST (2003-09-14). "Main Madhuri Dixit Kyon Banna Chahti Hoon?" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ oldStory/ 31345/ ). Indianexpress.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [15] "rediff.com: The power of Madhuri" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ may/ 15sld1. htm). Specials.rediff.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30.


Madhuri Dixit [16] "rediff.com: The best of Madhuri" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2008/ may/ 14slde1. htm). Specials.rediff.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [17] "rediff.com: Readers pick: Madhuri's best films" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ may/ 11sld1. htm). Specials.rediff.com. 2006-05-11. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [18] "rediff.com: Bollywood's best dancing girls" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2008/ apr/ 03sld1. htm). Specials.rediff.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [19] "rediff.com" (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ dec/ 07madhuri. htm). Madhuri Dixit arrives for new film. . Retrieved 10 December 2006. [20] The Times Of India. http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ Reviews/ Bollywood/ Aaja-Nachle/ articleshow/ 2585202. cms. [21] "Mesmerising Madhuri is back!" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ movie_Story. aspx?id=ENTEN20070034197& keyword=& subcatg=). Movies.ndtv.com. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [22] "She’S Back" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ shes-back/ 242577/ ). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [23] "Aaja Nachle" - Asia entertainment news from Variety - varietyasiaonline.com (http:/ / www. varietyasiaonline. com/ content/ view/ 5258/ 53/ ) [24] Saltz, Rachel (1 December 2007). "Aaja Nachle - Movie - Review - New York Times" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 12/ 01/ movies/ 01nach. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 12 May 2010. [25] now to post a comment! (2008-04-17). "Madhuri Dixit Awarded Indian Film Awards Los Angles USA" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=_MSz_P_oxbI& feature=related). YouTube. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [26] "Jhalak creates history with opening TRP of 5.6 - Highest ever acrossall the seasons" (http:/ / www. indiainfoline. com/ Markets/ News/ Jhalak-creates-history-with-opening-trp-of-5. 6-Highest-ever-acrossall-the-seasons/ 5028351559). Indiainfoline.com. 2010-12-22. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [27] Goldenberg, Suzanne (8 November 1999). "Heartbreak for millions as Indian film idol weds" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 1999/ nov/ 08/ bollywood. film). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 12 May 2010. [28] "Madhuri flashes charm- and Dr Nene on arm" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ ie/ daily/ 19991220/ ien19020. html). Indianexpress.com. 1999-12-20. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [29] "Rediff On The NeT: Hubby Hardly Knew Of Madhuri's Screen Life" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 1999/ nov/ 06us2. htm). Rediff.com. 1999-11-06. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [30] "Madhuri Dixit: Gets the Padma Shri" (http:/ / pakistantimes. net/ 2008/ 05/ 26/ societal2. htm). Pakistan Times. . Retrieved October 16, 2010. [31] "AP honours Sridevi, Madhuri" (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ ie/ daily/ 19971124/ 32850403. html). The Indian Express. 1997-11-24. . Retrieved 4 January 2009. [32] (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2001/ 03/ 09/ 0309bollywood. html) Forbes.com [33] "Madhuri Dixit Tribute" (http:/ / www. indianfilmfestival. org/ movies08/ tribute2008-madhuridixit. html). Indian Film Festival of Los Angeles. . Retrieved 4 January 2009. [34] "Madhuri is voted as the most desirable Bollywood actress of 2011" (http:/ / hindifilmnews. com/ polls-2/ poll-6-the-most-desirable-bollywood-actress/ ). Hindi Film News. .

External links • Madhuri Dixit (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0002043/) at the Internet Movie Database • Madhuri Dixit (http://twitter.com/#!/MadhuriDixit1) on Twitter

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Mahesh Bhatt

207

Mahesh Bhatt Mahesh Bhatt Born

September 20, 1948 Mumbai, India

Occupation Director, producer, screenwriter Spouse

Kiran Bhatt 1970−90 Soni Razdan−Present

Children

Pooja Bhatt, Rahul Bhatt, Shaheen Bhatt & Alia Bhatt.

Awards

1984 Filmfare Best Screenplay Award: Arth 1985 Filmfare Best Story Award: Saaransh 1999 Filmfare Best Story Award: Zakhm

Mahesh Bhatt (born on 20 September 1948), is a prominent Indian film director, producer and screenwriter.[1] Bhatt's early directional career consisted of acclaimed films, such as Arth, Saaransh, Janam, Naam and Zakhm. He was later the writer of numerous commercial films in a range of film genres, from dramas like Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke and comedies like Duplicate, though he was mostly recognised for thrillers like Inteha, Jism, Murder and Woh Lamhe.

Biography Early life and family Mahesh Bhatt was born to Nanabhai Bhatt, (1915–1999), a Hindi film director-producer and a Shia Muslim woman. His parents separated when he was young and was raised by his mother. He went through various phases of beliefs, including following Osho and U.G.Krishnamurti.

Career Bhatt began his career as an assistant to Hindi director Raj Khosla. At age 21 he made his debut as a director, with the film Sakat (1970),[2] this was followed by Manzilein Aur Bhi Hain in 1974. His 1979 film, Lahu Ke Do Rang, starring Shabana Azmi and Vinod Khanna, bagged two Filmfare Awards in 1980.[3] Though his first major hit came with Arth (1982), when he turned to his personal life for inspiration. Later, he made many more films taking insights from his personal life, where he highlighted personal narratives, ranging from illegitimate birth to extramarital affair and created critically acclaimed films such as Janam (1985) and Naam (1986). A stand-out film from his earlier period is Saaransh (1984), an exploration of an old couple's anxieties in a universe governed by arbitrary violence, and dramatic films like Kaash (1987), which dealt with real-life family situations with a tragic end. In 1987 he turned producer, when he set up his own banner Vishesh Films, with his brother Mukesh Bhatt. He went on to become one of the most recognised film directors of the Indian film industry in the coming decade, giving both serious films like Daddy (1989), launching his daughter Pooja Bhatt as a film actress, and Swayam (1991); as well as commercial romantic hits like Awaargi (1990), Aashiqui (1990) and Dil Hai Ki Manta Nahin (1991), in which he cast his daughter Pooja with actor Aamir Khan. He next directed Sadak (1991) and won critical acclaim for the films Sir (1993), which saw Pooja Bhatt acting along with Naseeruddin Shah and Criminal (1994). In 1994 he won the National Film Award - Special Jury Award for his film, Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke (1993)


Mahesh Bhatt In 1995 he moved to television, then a newly opening up medium in India. He made two TV series, the English language "A Mouthful of Sky" written by Ashok Banker and the popular Hindi language serial "Swabhimaan" scripted by writer Shobha De. Following this, he directed drama films like Dastak (1996), the debut film of actress Sushmita Sen, and Tamanna (1997), and tried his hand at comedy with Duplicate in 1998. His film, Zakhm (1998), was returned to the censor board because of right-wing pressure critical of its references to the Mumbai riots of 1993. His last film as director was Kartoos (1999). Thereafter, Bhatt retired a director, and took to screenwriting full-time, churning out stories and screenplays for over twenty films, many of which were box-office successes, like Dushman, Raaz, Murder (2004), Gangster (2006) and lastly Woh Lamhe (2006), based on the life of actress Parveen Babi, and on whom he has also scripted the 1982 film Arth. Recently Mahesh Bhatt also Produced a play "The Last Salute" directed Arvind Gaur,based on Muntadhar al-Zaidi's Book,Starring Imran Zahid.Pooja Bhatt and Mahesh Bhatt announced a film on this play

Cinematic style Bhatt's films show an unusual engagement with the psychological damage arising from infringement of social norms, situations which are characteristic deep mental/emotion damage and trauma. These films provided challenges of characterization to their actors, who included both parallel and mainstream stars. Bhatt himself is known for making both art films with realistic topics and commercial films which include a wide division of action, comedy and thriller films. His serious films demanded strong performances from the performers, and actors who worked under Bhatt's hand have won awards for their performances in his films, like National Film Awards and Filmfare Awards. Whatever the concept may be his movies always contain a relationship of friendship. That can be marked in his Zeher, Woh Lamhein, Paap, Jism etc.

Personal life He married Kiran Bhatt, in 1970, and the couple had two children, a daughter Pooja Bhatt, a former actress, now a producer, and Rahul Bhatt, an aspiring actor. His second wife is Soni Razdan, an accomplished film actress and director. He has two daughters from Soni Razdan, Shaheen Bhatt and Alia Bhatt. Alia will be launched as an actor in Karan Johar's film Student Of The Year. Bhatt also had an intimate affair with Parveen Babi. Emraan Hashmi a Hindi film actor is his nephew. In 1970s, he became a follower of Osho Rajneesh, and later found spiritual companionship and guidance with philosopher, U.G. Krishnamurti, whose biography he later wrote as, U.G. Krishnamurti: A Life, in 1992.[4] Apart from this he has edited several books based on conversations with U.G. Krishnamurti. Mahesh Bhatt's latest book 'A Taste of Life: The Last Days of U.G. Krishnamurti' published in June-2009. Bhatt is co-owner of film production house, Vishesh Films, with Mukesh Bhatt. He is also a member of the advisory board of U.S. nonprofit TeachAIDS.[5]

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Mahesh Bhatt

Awards • • • • •

1984 Filmfare Best Screenplay Award: Arth 1985 Filmfare Best Story Award: Saaransh 1994 National Film Award - Special Jury Award: Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke 1999 Filmfare Best Story Award: Zakhm 1999 Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration: Zakhm

Filmography Director • • • • • • •

Sakat (1970) Manzilein Aur Bhi Hain (1974) Lahu Ke Do Rang (1979) Arth (1982) Janam (1985) Naam (1986) Saaransh (1984)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Kaash (1987) Kabzaa (1988) Daddy (1989) Awaargi (1990) Aashiqui (1990) Dil Hai Ki Manta Nahin (1991) Sadak (1991) Sir (1993) Criminal (1994) Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke (1993) Dastak (1996) Tamanna (1997) Duplicate (1998) Zakhm (1998) Dushman (1998) Kartoos (1999)

References [1] "The Saraansh of Mahesh Bhatt's life" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ city/ delhi-times/ The-Saraansh-of-Mahesh-Bhatts-life/ articleshow/ 34774326. cms). The Times Of India. . [2] Mahesh Bhatt profile (http:/ / www. mapsofindia. com/ who-is-who/ entertainment/ mahesh-bhatt. html) [3] Lahu Ke Do Rang (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0151285/ awards) [4] U.G. Krishnamurti: A Life (http:/ / www. ugbio. blogspot. com/ ) [5] "Mahesh Bhatt, leading Indian cultural icon, joins the TeachAIDS Advisory Board" (http:/ / teachaids. org/ blog/ mahesh-bhatt-leading-indian-cultural-icon-joins-the-teachaids-advisory-board/ ). TeachAIDS. 31 October 2009. . Retrieved 16 December 2010.

• Real stories behind Mahesh Bhatt's movies by Paromita (http://sites.google.com/site/sapagroup1/home/ films)

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Mahesh Bhatt

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External links • Mahesh Bhatt (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0080315/) at the Internet Movie Database

Mala Sinha Mala Sinha

Mala Sinha in Baharen Phir Bhi Aayengi (1966) Born

Alda Sinha 11 November 1936 Kashmir, India

Occupation

Actress

Years active

1952–1994

Spouse

Chidambar Prasad Lohani

Mala Sinha (Hindi: माला सिन्हा) (born 11 November 1936) is an Indian actress, who has worked in Hindi, Bengali and Nepali films. Recognised for her acting talent and beauty, she went on to become a popular leading actress in Hindi films from the early fifties till late seventies. Sinha has starred in over a hundred film productions.[1]

Early life Sinha was born to Albert Sinha, in a Indian-Nepali Christian family in Kashmir in India. They named her Alda. Her friends at school used to tease her calling Dalda (a branded vegetable oil of India), so she changed her name to Mala.[2] In her childhood she learnt dancing and singing. She has never done playback singing in films but has been a singer and has done stage shows and sung in many languages in period 1947-1975.

Career Sinha started her film career as child artist in Bengali films Jai Vaishno Devi followed by Shri Krishan Leela, Jog Biyog and Dhooli. Noted Bengali film director Ardhendu Bose saw her acting in a school play and took permission from her father to cast her as a heroine in his film Roshanara (1952), her cinematic debut. After acting in a couple of films in Calcutta, Mala had to go to Bombay to shoot for a Bengali film. There she met Geeta Bali, a noted Bollywood Actress, who was charmed by her and introduced her to film director Kidar Sharma. It was Sharma who cast her as a heroine in his film Rangeen Ratein. However, her first Hindi film was Badshah opposite Pradeep Kumar, then came Ekadashi; a mythological film. Both films failed, but her lead role in Kishore Sahu's Hamlet, paired opposite Pradeep Kumar, fetched her rave reviews in spite of the film failing at the boxoffice.[3] Films like ‘Lai Batti’ (actor Balraj Sahni’s only directorial venture), ‘Nausherwan-E-Adil’ where she starred as the fair maiden Marcia in Sohrab Modi’s romance about forbidden love and ‘Phir Subah Hogi’, which was director Ramesh Saigal’s adaptation of Dosteovsky’s ‘Crime & Punishment’ established Mala Sinha’s reputation as a versatile actress who took the maximum career risks by accepting different unconventional roles


Mala Sinha Mala was also a singer of some repute and used to sing for All India Radio, albeit she was never allowed to sing playback (even for herself) in the movies with the lone exception being 1972 film Lalkar.[4] In the fifties, she had string of hits opposite Pradeep Kumar like Fashion(1957), Detective(1958), Duniya Na Mane(1959) though their first two ventures had failed.The films she did with Pradeep Kumar were men oriented films. In 1957, noted Bollywood actor and film director Guru Dutt (the husband of Geeta Dutt) cast Mala in his film Pyaasa(1957) in a role originally intended for Madhubala. Mala gave a memorable performance as the the relatively unsympathetic part of an ambitious woman who chooses to marry a rich man (played by actor Rehman) and have loveless marriage with him rather than a poor unsuccessful poet and her impoverished lover (played by Guru Dutt himself)whom she ditches. The film was a dud at the box office upon its release but remains to this day a classic in the history of Indian cinema and a turning point for Sinha. After Pyaasa her major success were Phir Subah Hogi(1958) and Yash Chopra's directorail debut Dhool Ka Phool (1959) that elevated her into a major dramatic star.[5] There was no looking back for Sinha then as she was part of many successful male oriented movies from 1958 and early sixties like Parvarish(1958), Ujala, Main Nashe Main Hoon, Duniya Na Mane, Love Marriage(1959), Bewaqoof(1960), Maya(1961), Hariyali Aur Rasta and Dil Tera Deewana(1962), Anpadh,Bombay Ka Chor(1962).Critics believe her career best performance was in Bahurani(1963), Gumrah, Gehra Daag, Apne Huye Paraye and Jahan Ara.[6] Apart from her pair with Pradeep Kumar, her pairing opposite Raaj Kumar, Rajendra Kumar ,Biswajit and Manoj Kumar in the woman oriented films were appreciated by audiences , with her films opposite Biswajit being the most popular. With Raaj Kumar, she gave box office hits like Phool Bane Angaare, Maryada and Karmayogi and opposite Manoj Kumar, gave commercial successes like Hariyali Aur Rasta, Apne Huye Paraye and Himalaya Ki God Mein. The hit films with Rajendra Kumar were Devar Bhabhi, Dhool Ka Phool, Patang, Geet and Lalkar and with Biswajit, her popular movies include Aasra, Night in London, Do Kaliyaan, Tamanna, Nai Roshni and critically acclaimed films Pyar Ka Sapna, Paisa Ya Pyaar, Jaal and Phir Kab Milogi (1974 film). She did maximum films ie. 10 with Biswajit.In the year 2007, the screen awards gave The Star Screen Lifetime Achievement Award to both Biswajit and Mala Sinha, by calling them on stage together giving due respect to the fact they were popular as a pair and have tasted box office success.[7] The most remarkable feature of career of Mala Sinha was that most of her 1960s and 1970s hits were fuelled by her own star power as much as the heroes and most of the times her role was more powerful than the hero. Though she was pitted opposite her seniors like Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand, Kishore Kumar, Pradeep Kumar and also when she acted opposite the emerging stars from late 1950's like Shammi Kapoor, Rajendra Kumar and Raaj Kumar, she made sure her role was minimum as good as theirs. The characters played by her stood out and gave her recognition for her performances. Mala Sinha did not mind working with newcomers as long as her role was worth. She worked with many newcomers of her era including Manoj Kumar, Dharmendra, Rajesh Khanna, Sunil Dutt, Sanjay Khan, Jeetendra and Amitabh Bachchan. In most of her films from the sixties, she got the first billing in the credits, even before the heroes, with exceptions being the films she acted with Guru Dutt, Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand, Pradeep Kumar and Kishore Kumar. In 1966, Sinha went to Nepal to act in a Nepali film called Maitighar when the Nepali film industry was still in its infancy. Her hero in the film was an estate owner called Chidambar Prasad Lohani[C. P. Lohani].[8] Soon after, Mala Sinha married C. P. Lohani with the blessings of her parents. From the beginning theirs was a long-distance marriage with Lohani based in Kathmandu to look after his business and she living in Bombay with their daughter Pratibha. Mala continued acting in films after her marriage.[1] She has been a heroine in Nepali and Bengali films. In Bengali films she has acted with Uttam Kumar as well as Kishore Kumar. Her last Bengali film as a main female lead was Kabita(1977) which featured Ranjit Mullick and Kamal Hassan was a super-hit at the box office. She is noted for her strong women oriented yet glamorous roles fuelled by her equal star power on par with the heroes in films like Dhool Ka Phool, Suhag Sindoor,Anpadh, Phir Subah Hogi, Hariyali Aur Rasta, Bahurani, Aasra, Do Kaliyaan, Gumrah, Aankhen, Baharen Phir Bhi Aayengi, Himalaya Ki God Mein, Do Kaliyaan, Holi Aayi Re, Nai Roshni, Mere Huzoor, Kangan, Archana, Maryada

211


Mala Sinha amongst others.[9] Of her rich and varied repertoire of films, she mentions she is rather partial to Jahan Ara(1964), a historical that Meena Kumari passed on to her as she says: "Meenaji turned down the role saying that she would not look the part whereas I would. Given my ignorance of Urdu, I was rather skeptical but Meenaji was convinced that I could do justice to the role. Playing Mumtaz Mahal's eldest daughter entailed grueling Urdu classes and learning royal tehzeeb. It was hot on the grand sets erected at Ranjit Studio and the film had Madan Mohan's haunting music. It was a film replete with lyrical moments".[1] From 1974,she cut down on her films assignments as the lead actresses. She accepted strong character roles in films like 36 Ghante(1974), Zindagi(1976), Karmayogi(1978), Be-Reham (1980), Harjaee(1981), Yeh Rishta Na Tootay, Babu (film) and Khel, which were popular films. In the early 90's Madhuri Dixit was promoted as new Mala Sinha in magazines.But after 1994, she completely withdrew herself from industry and has given very few public appearances. In ‘Dhool Ka Phool’ and B.R. Chopra’s ‘Gumrah’, she played the first unwed mother and adulterous wife respectively in Hindi Cinema. As she grew older, she gracefully moved on to doing character roles that befitted her age. She was last seen in Zid (1994).[10] Though Mala evinced as much interest in her daughter Pratibha's career as her father did in her career, she was unable to achieve the same success for her daughter.[11]

Personal life Sinha married her co-star from Nepali Films, Chidambar Prasad Lohani in 1968. The couple met when they worked together in the Nepali film Maiti Ghar (1966). Lohani had an estate agency business. Post her marriage, she used to come and stay in Mumbai to shoot for films while her husband used to stay in Nepal running his business. She has one daughter from the marriage - Pratibha Sinha, who is a former Bollywood actress.[12] [13] From the late 1990s, the couple and their daughter have been residing in a bunglow in Bandra, Mumbai.[14] [15]

Awards • • • • •

BFJA Award for Best Actress (1965) — Jahan Ara BFJA Award for Best Actress (1966) — Himalaya Ki God Mein[16] Sikkim Samman Award by Government of Sikkim (2004)[17] Felicitation by Government of Nepal (2005)[18] Star Screen Lifetime Achievement Award (2007)[19]

Nominations • • • •

Filmfare Award for Best Actress — Dhool Ka Phool (1960) Filmfare Award for Best Actress — Bahurani (1964) Filmfare Award for Best Actress — Jahan Ara (1965) Filmfare Award for Best Actress — Himalaya Ki God Mein (1966) [20]

Filmography Hindi films • Zid (1994) Jai Mehta • Radha Ka Sangam (1992) Govinda • Khel (1992) Anil Kapoor • Dil Tujhko Diya (1987) Kumar Gaurav • Babu (film) (1985) Navin Nishchol and Rajesh Khanna

212


Mala Sinha • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Yeh Rishta Na Toote (1985) Rajendra Kumar Aasman (1984) Rajeev Kapoor Beraham (1982) Sanjeev Kumar Harjai (1981) Shammi Kapoor Dhan Daulat (1980) Rajendra Kumar Karamyogi (1977) Raj Kumar Prayeschit (1977) Parikshit Sahni Do Ladkiyan (1977) Sanjeev Kumar Zindagi (1976) Sanjeev Kumar—Sarojini Mazdoor Zindabad (1976) Rajendra Kumar Naseeb (1976) (Guest Appearance) Sunehra Sansar (1975) Rajendra Kumar Archana (1974) Sanjeev Kumar Kora Badan (1974) (Guest Appearance) 36 Ghante (1974) Rajkumar Nek Parveen (1974) Rakesh Pandey Rickshawala (1973) Sujit Kumar

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Kahani Hum Sab Ki (1973) Vinod Mehra Phir Kab Milogi (1973) Biswajeet Rivaaj (1972) Sanjeev Kumar Lalkaar (1972) Rajendra Kumar Maryada (1971)Rajkumar and Rajesh Khanna Sanjog (1971) Amitabh Bachchan Chahat (1971) Jeetendra Holi Aayee Re (1970) Prakash Thapa Kangan (1970)Sanjeev Kumar Geet (1970)Rajendra Kumar Do Bhai (1970) Jeetendra Paisa Ya Pyar (1970) Biswajeet Mere Huzoor (1969) Rajkumar/Jeetendra Humsaya (1968) Joy Mukherjee Do Kaliyaan (1968) Biswajeet Pyar Ka Sapna (1968) Biswajeet Aankhen (1968) Dharmendra Dillagi (1966) Sanjay Khan Nai Roshni (1967) Biswajeet Night In London (1967) Biswajeet Jaal (1967) Biswajeet Aasra (1966)Biswajeet Tamanna (1966) Biswajeet Apne Huye Paraye (1966) Manoj Kumar Mere Lal (1966) Dev Kumar Baharen Phir Bhi Aayengi (1966) Dharmendra Himalaya Ki God Mein (1965) Manoj Kumar........Nominated (Filmfare Best Actress Award) Jab Yaad Kisiki Aati Hai (1965) Dharmendra

• Neela Akaash (1965) Dharmendra • Bahu Beti (1965) Joy Mukherjee

213


Mala Sinha • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Main Suhagan Hoon (1965) Ajit Khan Jahan Ara (1964) Bharat Bhushan..........Nominated (Filmfare Best Actress Award) Suhagan (1964) Guru Dutt Phool Bane Angarey (1963) Rajkumar Pooja Ke Phool (1963) Dharmendra Gumraah (1963) with Sunil Dutt Bahu Rani (1963) Guru Dutt...........Nominated (Filmfare Best Actress Award) Gehra Daag (1963) Rajendra Kumar Hariyali Aur Rasta (1962) Manoj Kumar Anpadh (1962) Dharmendra Bombay Ka Chor (1962) Kishore Kumar Aankh Micholi (1962) Shekhar Gyarah Hazaar Ladkiyan (1962) Bharat Bhushan Dil Tera Diwana (1962) Shammi Kapoor Suhag Sindoor (1961) Manoj Kumar Maya (1961) Dev Anand Dharamputra (1961) Rehman

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Patang (1960) Rajendra Kumar Main Nashe Mein Hoon (1960) Raj Kapoor Bewaqoof (1960) Kishore Kumar Mitti Mein Sona (1960) Pradeep Kumar Dhool Ka Phool (1959) Ashok Kumar / Rajendra Kumar.......Nominated (Filmfare Best Actress Award) Love Marriage (1959) Dev Anand Duniya Na Mane (1959) Pradeep Kumar Ujala (1959) Shammi Kapoor Devar Bhabhi (1958) Rajendra Kumar Parvarish (1958) Raj Kapoor Phir Subah Hogi (1958) Raj Kapoor Jaalsaz (1959) Kishore Kumar Chandan (1958) Kishore Kumar Detective (1958) Pradeep Kumar Nausherwan-E-Adil (1957) Rajkumar Ek Goan Ki Kahani (1957) Abhi Bhattacharya/Talat Mehmood Apradhi Kaun (1957) Abhi Bhattacharya Lal Batti (1957) Balraj Sahni Naya Zamana (1957) Pradeep Kumar Fashion (1957) Pradeep Kumar Pyaasa (1957) Guru Dutt/Rehman Rangin Raaten (1956) Shammi Kapoor Ek Shola (1956) Pradeep Kumar Paisa Hi Paisa (1956) Kishore Kumar Jhanshi Ki Rani (1956) Sohrab Modi Ratna Manjari (1955) Mahipal Ekadashi (1955) Trilok Kapoor Riyasat (1955) Mahipal

• Badshah (1954) Pradeep Kumar • Hamlet (1954) Pradeep Kumar/Kishore Sahu

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Mala Sinha • Suhagan (1952) Guru Dutt

Bengali films • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Shohorer Itikotha (Uttam Kumar ) Saathihaara (Uttam Kumar) Abhaya O Srikanta (1961) Kelaghar (1959) (Uttam Kumar) Lookochoori (1958)(Kishore Kumar) Louha Kapat (1958) Kabita (1977) Bondhu Surer Parashay (1957) Prithibi Amare Chaay (1957) Putrabadhu (1956) Dhuli (1954) Chitrangadha (1954) Jog Biyog (1953)

• Roshanara (1952)

Nepali films • Maitighar (1966)

References [1] "Trip down the memory lane with Mala Sinha" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2007/ 03/ 13/ 2373/ index. html). Screen (Bollywood Hungama). 2001-03-13. . Retrieved 2011-08-26. [2] http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ Features-Events/ Features/ 10-less-known-facts-about-Mala-Sinha/ articleshow/ msid-3696038,curpg-3. cms [3] http:/ / www. suraurtaal. com/ forums/ mala-sinhatrip-down-the-memory-lane-vt354. html [4] http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ content/ 173206/ musical-gimmicks. html [5] (http:/ / www. yashrajfilms. com/ Movies/ MovieIndividual. aspx?MovieID=c30c4227-ac75-4332-9e41-73ed431214ac) [6] http:/ / www. movietalkies. com/ movies/ reviews/ 9313/ gumrah [7] http:/ / www. india-server. com/ awards/ features/ lifetime-achievement-96. html [8] http:/ / fursad. com/ flashback. php?subaction=showfull& id=1168635469& archive=& start_from=& ucat=13& [9] http:/ / www. bollymood. com/ biography/ mala-sinha/ [10] (http:/ / www. bollyadda. com/ 2008/ 11/ trip-down-memory-lane-with-mala-sinha. html) [11] (http:/ / www. bollywood-actors. in/ mala_sinha. php) [12] http:/ / goodtimes. ndtv. com/ PhotoDetail. aspx?Page=10& ID=8563& AlbumType=PG#talk [13] http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ may/ 22dinesh. htm [14] http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ mala-sinha [15] http:/ / goodtimes. ndtv. com/ PhotoDetail. aspx?Page=15& ID=8563& AlbumType=PG#talk [16] (http:/ / www. gomolo. in/ people/ PeopleAwards. aspx?pplid=7967) [17] http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1040715/ asp/ siliguri/ story_3496329. asp [18] http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2005/ 07/ 11/ 5476/ index. html [19] (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ hrithik-kareena-clinch-screen-awards/ top/ 30517-8. html) [20] (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ NEWS/ India/ Sikkim-begins-to-map-Nepals-treasures/ articleshow/ 781017. cms)

(http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ may/ 22dinesh. htm)-A Profile of Mala Sinha (http:/ / www. bollymood. com/biography/mala-sinha/)-A Biography of Mala Sinha

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Mala Sinha

216

External links • Mala Sinha (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0802366/) at the Internet Movie Database • A Biography (http://movies.indiainfo.com/tales/mala_sinha.html)

Manna Dey Manna Dey Birth name

Prabodh Chandra Dey

Born

May 1, 1919 Calcutta, British India

Genres

Playback singing

Occupations Singer Instruments Vocalist Years active 1939–present Website

http:/ / www. mannadey. in

Prabodh Chandra Dey (born 1 May 1919), better known by his nickname Manna Dey (Bengali: মান্না দে), is a playback singer in Bengali Assamese and Hindi films. Along with Mohammed Rafi, Kishore Kumar, Mukesh, he was a part of Indian film playback music from the 1950s to the 1970s. He has recorded more than 3500 songs over the course of his career. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1971, the Padma Bhushan in 2005 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2009.

Biography Dey was born to Purna Chandra (father) and Mahamaya Dey (mother) on 1 May 1919. Besides his parents, his youngest paternal uncle Sangeetacharya (meaning "Venerable Teacher of Music" in Sanskrit), K. C. Dey highly inspired and influenced him. Dey received his early education in a small pre-primary school named Indu Babur Pathshala. Thereafter he attended Scottish Church Collegiate School and Scottish Church College,[1] followed by Vidyasagar College where he received his graduate education. During Dey’s years at Scottish Church College, he sang to entertain his classmates. He began taking singing lessons from his uncle, Krishna Chandra Dey and Ustad Dabir Khan. During this period, Manna Dey stood first for three consecutive years in three different categories of inter-collegiate singing competitions. In 1942, Dey accompanied Krishna Chandra Dey on a visit to Bombay. There he started working as an assistant, first under Krishna Chandra Dey, and then under Sachin Dev Burman. Later he assisted other music composers and then started to work independently. While working independently as a music director for various Hindi movies, Manna Dey continued to take musical lessons in Hindustani classical music from Ustad Aman Ali Khan and Ustad Abdul Rahman Khan. Dey started his career in playback singing with the movie, Tamanna, in 1943. The musical score was by Krishna Chandra Dey and Manna sang a duet with Suraiya. The song was an instant hit. He sang a solo composed by Sachin Dev Burman, Upar Gagan Vishal, in the 1950 movie, Mashal. Its lyrics were written by Kavi Pradeep. In 1952, Dey sang for a Bengali and a Marathi movie with the same name and storyline, Amar Bhupali. This established him as a leading playback singer. Dey recorded a popular duet, Ketaki Gulab Juhi, with classicist Bhimsen Joshi. With Kishore Kumar, he sang duets of different genres such as, Yeh Dosti Hum Nehi Torenge (Sholay) and Ek Chatur Naar (Padosan), "Babu Samjho


Manna Dey Ishare" (Chalti ka naam Gadi). With Md Rafi, Dey sang 58 duets like "Isq Isq" (Barsat ki raat) "Tu hai mera prem Devta (Kalpana), "Mama o mama" (Parvarish). With Lata Mangeshkar, Manna recorded 113 duets including Yeh raat bhigi bhigi,"Pyar hua iqrar hua", "Aja madhur sanam", "Ritu aye". With Asha Bhosle, Manna recorded more than 100 duets including "Re man sur me ga", "Tu chupi hai kahan", "Zindegi hai khel". Dey sang with singer/composer, Hemant Kumar (Hemanta Mukherjee), in Bengali movies, and also for some other Bengali composers like Nachiketa Ghosh and Sudhin Dasgupta. He sang a duet, "Ke Prothom Kachhe Esechi", with Lata Mangeshkar in the movie Sankhyabela. He also performed Rabindra Sangeet and has recorded over 3500 songs. He was presented the Filmfare Life Time Achievement Award in 2011.

Personal life On 18 December 1953, Manna Dey married Sulochana Kumaran from Kerala. They have two daughters: Shuroma, born on 19 October 1956; and Sumita, born on 20 June 1958. Manna Dey currently lives in Bangalore in the township of Kalyannagar after spending more than fifty years in Mumbai. He also maintains a Calcutta address. He still travels widely in the world to present musical programs. His Bengali-language autobiography, Jiboner Jalsaghorey, has been published by the renowned Ananda Publisher in the year 2005 which has been translated in English as Memories Come Alive, in Hindi as Yaden Jee Uthi and in Marathi as Jiboner Jalsaghorey. Jibaner Jalsaghore, a documentary on Dey's life, was released in 2008. Manna Dey Sangeet Academy is developing a complete archive on Manna Dey. In association with Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata, the Manna Dey Music Archive has been developed in the Sangeet Bhawan. He has also lent his voice for Madhushala, composed by Late Harivansh Rai Bachchan

Accolades and awards Dey has been honored with the titles Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan. The following is the list of Manna Dey's other awards: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1969 National Film Award for Best Male Playback Singer for the Hindi Film Mere Huzur 1971 National Film Award for Best Male Playback Singer for the Bengali film Nishi Padma 1971 Padma Shri Award by Government of India 1985 Lata Mangeshkar Award awarded by Government of Madhya Pradesh 1988 Michale Sahittyo Puraskar awarded by Renaissance Sanskritik Parishad, Dhaka 1990 Shyamal Mitra Award by Mithun Fans Association 1991 Sangeet Swarnachurr Award awarded by Shree Khetra Kala Prakashika, Puri 1993 P.C.Chandra Award by P.C.Chandra Group & others 1999 Kamala Devi Roy Award by Kamala Devi Group 2001 Anandalok Lifetime Award by the Anandabazar Group 2002 Special Jury Swaralaya Yesudas Award for outstanding performance in music 2003 Alauddin Khan Award by the Government of West Bengal 2004 National Award as Playback singer by Government of Kerala 2004 Hony D. Lit Award by the Rabindra Bharati University 2005 Lifetime Achievement award by the Government of Maharashtra 2005 Padma Bhushan Award by the Government of India 2007 First AKSHAYA Award by Government of Orissa 2007 Awarded the Dada Saheb Phalke Award by the Government of India

• 2008 Hony D. Lit Award by Jadavpur University • 2011 Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award

217


Manna Dey • 2011 Banga-Vibhushan by Government of West Bengal

Filmography • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Tamanna (1942) Ramrajya (1943) Jwar Bhata (1944) Kavita (1944) Mahakavi Kalidas (1944) Vikramaditya (1945) Prabhu Ka Ghar (1946) Valmiki (1946) Geetgobind (1947) Awaara (1951) Do Bigha Zamin (1953) Hamdard (1953) Parineeta' '(1953) Chitrangada (1953)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Boot Polish (1954) Shree 420 (1955) seema (1955) chori chori (1956) Do Aankhen Barah Haath (1957) Kabuliwala (1961) Dil Hi To Hai (1963 film)(1963) Waqt (1965) Love in Tokyo (1966) Teesri Kasam (1966) Pyar Kiye Ja (1966) Upkaar (1967) Raat Aur Din (1967) Aamne Samne (1967) Palki Nawab Sirajdoula Boond Jo Ban Gaya Moti (1967) Padosan (1968) Mere Huzoor (1968) Neel Kamal (1968) Ram aur Rahim (1968) Ek Phool Do Mali (1969) Chanda Aur Bijli (1969) Jyoti (1969) Mera Naam Joker (1970) Anand (1970) Johar Mehmood in Hong Kong (1971)

• Jane Anjane (1971) • Lal Patthar (1971) • Buddha Mil Gaya (1971)

218


Manna Dey • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Paraya Dhan (1971) Reshma Aur Shera (1971) Chemmeen (Malayalam) Bawarchi (1972) Seeta Aur Geeta (1972) Shor (1972) Zindagi Zindagi (1972) Avishkaar (1973) Dil Ki Rahe (1973) Hindustan Ki Kasam (1973) Sampurna Ramayan (1973) Saudagar (1973) Zanjeer (1973) Bobby (1973) Resham ki Dori (1974) Us Paar (1974) Sholay (1975)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Himalaya Se Ooncha (1975) Sanyasi (1975) Ponga Pandit (1975) Jai Santoshi Ma (1975) Das Mnambati (1976) Mehbooba (1976) Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) Anurodh (1977) Minoo (1977) Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (1978) Satyam Shivam Sundaram (1978) Jurmana (1978) Abdullah (1980) Choro Ki Baraat Kranti Karz (1980) Laawaris (1981) Prahaar (1990) Guria (1997) Umar (2008)

219


Manna Dey

References [1] "Music Singer Colossus" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ print. php?content_id=10431& secnam=music). Screen. 28 July 2009. . Retrieved 28 July 2009.

External links • Manna Dey official website (http://www.mannadey.in) • Manna Dey interview at 90 in Anandabazar Patrika (http://www.anandabazar.com/archive/1090425/ 25mukhomukhi1.htm) • Manna Dey's interview by Chandan Mitra (http://www.dailypioneer.com/columnist1. asp?main_variable=Columnist&file_name=mitra55.txt&writer=MITRA&validit=yes) • Manna Dey's interview by [[Shekhar Gupta (http://www.suraurtaal.com/forums/ aye-mere-pyare-watan-manna-dey-the-living-legend-vt367.html)]] • "Ai Mere Pyare Watan" (http://www.littleindia.com/news/123/ARTICLE/1515/2004-09-05.html) Little India article • "Being Manna Dey: The modest musical maestro" - IBNLive interview (http://www.ibnlive.com/news/ being-manna-dey-the-modest-musical-maestro/66376-19.html)

220


Manoj Kumar

221

Manoj Kumar Manoj Kumar Born

Harikrishna Giri Goswami July 24, 1937 Abbottabad, Hazara Division, British India (now Pakistan)

Other names Bharat Kumar Manoj Occupation

Actor , Director

Years active

1964–present (Retired)

Spouse

Sashi Goswami

Manoj Kumar (born Harikrishna Giri Goswami[1] on 24 July 1937) is an award-winning Indian actor and director in the Bollywood film industry. He is known for acting in and directing films with patriotic themes, and has been given the nickname "Mr Bharat" (Bhaarat is the Sanskrit and Hindi term for India). In 1992, he was honoured with the Padma Shri by the Government of India.

Early life Manoj Kumar was born in Abbottabad, a town of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, then part of India. Abbottabad is now located within the borders of Pakistan. His original name was Harikishan Giri Goswami. When he was 10, his Gosain Hindu family had to move to Delhi owing to partition. His family lived as refugees in Vijay Nagar, Kingsway Camp and later moved to Patel Nagar area of New Delhi. After graduating from Hindu College, University of Delhi, he decided to enter the film industry.

Career As a youth, he admired Bollywood superstar Dilip Kumar, and decided to name himself Manoj Kumar after Dilip's character in Shabnam (1949).[1] After making a little-noticed dĂŠbut in Fashion in 1957, Manoj landed his first leading role in Kaanch Ki Gudia (1960) opposite Sayeeda Khan. Piya Milan Ki Aas and Reshmi Roomal followed, setting the stage for the Vijay Bhatt-directed Hariyali Aur Raasta (1962) opposite Mala Sinha. Kumar then appeared with Sadhana in Raj Khosla's Woh Kaun Thi (1964), and reunited with Vijay Bhatt and Mala Sinha in Himalaya Ki God Mein (1965).

The patriotic hero Kumar's image as the patriotic hero started with the 1965 film Shaheed,[2] based on the life of Bhagat Singh, a martyr in the struggle for India's freedom. After the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri asked him to create a film based on the popular slogan Jai Jawan Jai Kissan (hail the soldier, hail the farmer).[1] The result was Kumar's magnum opus and his directorial debut, Upkaar (1967). In it, he played both a soldier and a farmer. The film was also noted for the famous song Mere Desh Ki Dharti, written by Gulshan Bawra, composed by Kalyanji-Anandji and sung by Mahendra Kapoor. Upkaar was a hit and won Kumar his first Filmfare Best Director Award. After dabbling in various roles in the late 1960s, Manoj returned to patriotic themes in Purab Aur Paschim (1970), in which life in the East and West are juxtaposed. In 1972, he starred in Be-Imaan (for which he won the Filmfare Best Actor Award) and directed and starred in Shor (1972). The latter, opposite Nanda, was not a huge box office success, but it did feature the memorable song Ek Pyar Ka Nagma Hai, a duet by Lata Mangeshkar and Mukesh, which was


Manoj Kumar composed by Laxmikant Pyarelal.

Later career The mid-1970s saw Kumar star in three hit films: Roti Kapda Aur Makaan (1974) was a social commentary featuring an all-star cast including Zeenat Aman, Shashi Kapoor and Amitabh Bachchan that won him his second Filmfare Award for Best Director; Sanyasi (1975) had Kumar and Hema Malini in the lead roles of a religious-themed comedy; and Dus Numbri (1976) also gave Kumar and Hema top billing. In 1981, Kumar reached the peak of his career when he got the opportunity to direct his idol, Dilip Kumar, as well as star in Kranti, a story about the struggle for Indian independence in the 19th century. Kranti was the last notable successful film in his career. He also starred in the hit Punjabi film Jat Punjabi. After Kranti, Kumar's career began to decline in the 1980s as all of his films failed at the box office. In 1989 he cast Pakistani actors Mohammad Ali and Zeba in his film Clerk which was considered to be a groundbreaking event. He quit acting after his appearance in the 1995 film Maidan-E-Jung. His son, Kunal Goswami, tried to revive the patriotic theme and was directed by Kumar in the 1999 film Jai Hind which was a flop. Kumar was awarded the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award that same year. His trademark hand-covering-the-face was very popular and continues to be the butt of jokes of latter day stand-up comedians. In 2007, the Shah Rukh Khan film Om Shanti Om featured the lead character pretending to be Manoj Kumar so as to sneak into a movie premiere, by holding his hand over his face. Kumar filed a lawsuit, which was settled out of court.[3]

Politics Like many other Bollywood stars, Kumar decided to enter politics following his retirement. Before the 2004 general election in India, it was announced that he had officially joined the ranks of the Shiv Sena.

Personal life Kumar is married to Shashi Goswami (originally from Jodhkan, Sirsa district, Haryana). He has two sons, Vishal and Kunal, Vishal tried his skills as a singer and Kunal as an actor. His brother, Rajiv Goswami, also entered the film industry, but none were able to gain any footing in Bollywood.

Awards Civilian award • 1992 - Padma Shri by the Government of India

National Film Awards • 1968 - National Film Award for Second Best Feature Film for Upkaar

Filmfare Awards Winner • 1968 - Filmfare Best Movie Award for Upkaar • 1968 - Filmfare Best Director Award for Upkaar [4] • 1968 - Filmfare Best Story Award for Upkaar • 1968 - Filmfare Best Dialogue Award for Upkaar • 1972 - Filmfare Best Actor Award for Beimaan

222


Manoj Kumar

223

• 1975 - Filmfare Best Director Award for Roti Kapda Aur Makaan • 1999 - Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award Nominated • • • • • •

1968 - Filmfare Best Actor Award for Upkaar 1969 - Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award for Aadmi 1973 - Filmfare Best Director Award for Shor 1975 - Filmfare Best Movie Award for Roti Kapda Aur Makaan 1975 - Filmfare Best Actor Award for Roti Kapda Aur Makaan 1976 - Filmfare Best Actor Award for Sanyasi

Honours • 2009 - Phalke Ratna Award by the Dadasaheb Phalke Academy [5]

Other Awards • 1968 - BFJA Awards: Best Dialogue for Upkaar [6] • 2008 - Star Screen Lifetime Achievement Award • 2010 - Lifetime Achievement Award at the 12th Mumbai Film Festival [7]

Special Honour In the honour of devotion of Manoj Kumar towards Shri Sai Baba; Shri Saibaba Sansthan Trust, Shirdi has renamed "Pimpalwadi Road" in Shirdi, as "Manojkumar Goswami Road".[8]

Selected filmography Actor Year 1957

Film

Role

Other notes

Fashion

1958 Panchayat Sahara 1959 Chand 1960 Honeymoon 1961 Suhaag Sindoor Kaanch ki gudiya Reshmi rumal 1962 Hariyali Aur Rasta

Shanker

Mala Sinha/Shashikala

Dr Vidya

Vyjantimala

Shaadi

BalrajSahni-Saira Banu-Manoj Kumar-Dharmendra

Banarsi Thug Maa beta Piya milan ki aas' Naqli nawab

Shyam

Vijaya Chaudhari


Manoj Kumar

224

1963 Apna bana ke dekho Ghar basake dekho Grahasti 1964 Apne huye paraye Woh Kaun Thi?

Dr Anand

Sadhana

Phoolon Ki Sej 1965 Shaheed

Shaheed-e-Azam Bhagat Singh

Himalaya Ki God Mein

Sunil Mehra

Mala Sinha

Gumnaam

Anand

Nanda

Vikas

Asha Parekh

Poonam Ki Raat 1966 Do Badan Saawan Ki Ghata

Sharmila Tagore

Saajan

Asha Parekh

1967 Patthar Ke Sanam

Rajesh

Waheeda Rehman/Mumtaz

Anita

Neeraj

Sadhana

Upkaar

Bharat

Winner, Filmfare Best Movie Award

Ram

Waheeda Rehman

Dr Shekhar

Waheeda Rehman

Bharat

Saira Banu

Yaadgar

Banu

Nutan

Pehchan

Gangaram

Babita

Mera Naam Joker

David

1968 Neel Kamal Aadmi 1970 Purab Aur Paschim

1972 Shor Be-Imaan

Shankar

Nanda/Jaya Bachchan

Mohan

Winner, Filmfare Best Actor Award

1974

Roti Kapda Aur Makaan Bharat

Zeenat Aman/Moushumi Chatterji

1975

Sanyasi

Ram Rai

Hema Malini

1976

Dus Numbri

Arjun

Hema Malini

1981

Kranti

Bharat/Kranti

Hema Malini

1987

Kalyug Aur Ramayan

Pawan Putra (Shri Hanuman)

Madhavi

1989 Santosh

1995

Santosh Singh

Clerk

Bharat

Maidan-E-Jung

Master Dinanath

Rekha


Manoj Kumar

References [1] Verghis, Shana Maria (8 May 2011). "‘I left behind a can of marbles in Abbotabad after Partition’" (http:/ / www. dailypioneer. com/ 336876/ ‘I-left-behind-a-can-of-marbles-in-Abbotabad-after-Partition’. html). The Pioneer. . Retrieved 24 May 2011. [2] Manoj Kumar Resource page (http:/ / www. bollywood501. com/ classic_m/ manoj_kumar/ index. html) Bollywood classics, www.bollywood501.com. [3] "The super censors" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ The-super-censors/ iplarticleshow/ 4959880. cms). The Times of India. 2 Sep 2009. . Retrieved 24 May 2011. [4] Awards (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0006370/ awards) imdb.com. [5] http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2009/ 04/ 18/ 12766/ index. html [6] http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196831. htm [7] http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2010/ 10/ 29/ 14862/ index. html [8] Manojkumar Goswami Road, Shirdi (http:/ / www. shrisaibabasansthan. org/ main_English/ sansthan/ Saileela/ 2006/ saileela_eng_jylly_aug2006/ PAGE5. htm)

External links • Manoj Kumar: Bollywood's Own Mr Bharat (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/jul/02dinesh.htm) • Showbiz Legends: Manoj Kumar (http://123india.santabanta.com/cinema.asp?pid=3530) • Manoj Kumar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006370/) at the Internet Movie Database

225


Meena Kumari

226

Meena Kumari Meena Kumari

Meena Kumari Born

Mahjabeen Bano 1 August 1932 Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India

Died

31 March 1972 (aged 39) Bombay, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Actress

Years active 1939–1972

Meena Kumari (1 August 1932 – 31 March 1972), born Mahjabeen Bano, was an Indian movie actress and poetess. She is regarded as one of the most prominent actresses to have appeared on the screens of Hindi Cinema. During a career spanning 30 years from her childhood to her death, she starred in more than ninety films, many of which have achieved classic and cult status today. Kumari gained a reputation for playing grief-stricken and tragic roles, and her performances have been praised and reminisced throughout the years. Like one of her best-known roles, Chhoti Bahu, in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962), Kumari became addicted to alcohol. Her life and prosperous career were marred by heavy drinking, troubled relationships, an ensuing deteriorating health, and her death from liver cirrhosis in 1972. Kumari is often cited by media and literary sources as "The Tragedy Queen", both for her frequent portrayal of sorrowful and dramatic roles in her films and her real-life story.[1] [2]


Meena Kumari

227

Early life Meena Kumari was the third daughter of Ali Baksh and Iqbal Begum; Khursheed and Madhu were her two elder sisters. At the time of her birth, her parents were unable to pay the fees of Dr. Gadre, who had delivered her, so her father left her at a Muslim orphanage, however, he picked her up after a few hours. Her father, a Shia Muslim, was a veteran of Parsi theater, played harmonium, taught music, and wrote Urdu poetry. He played small roles in films like Id Ka Chand and composed music for films like Shahi Lutere. Her mother was the second wife of Ali Baksh. Before meeting and then marrying Ali Baksh, she was a stage actress and dancer, under the stage name, Kamini.

Career Early work When Mahjabeen was born, Ali Bakhsh aspired to get roles as an actor in Rooptara Studios. At the urging of his wife, he got Mahjabeen too into movies despite her protestations of wanting to go to school. Young Mahjabeen is said to have said, "I do not want to work in movies; I want to go to school, and learn like other children." As Mahjabeen embarked on her acting career at the age of 7, she was renamed Baby Meena. Farzand-e-Watan or Leatherface (1939) was her first movie, which was directed for Prakash Studios by Vijay Bhatt. She became practically the sole breadwinner of her family during the 1940s. Her early adult acting, under the name Meena Kumari, was mainly in mythological movies like Veer Ghatotkach (1949), Shri Ganesh Mahima (1950), and fantasy movies like Alladin and The Wonderful Lamp (1952).

Breakthrough Meena Kumari gained fame with her role as a heroine in Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra (1952). This heroine always negated herself for the material and spiritual advancement of the man she loved and was even willing to annihilate herself to provide him the experience of pain so that his music would be enriched. She became the first actress to win the Filmfare Best Actress Award in 1953 for this performance. Meena Kumari highly successfully played the roles of a suffering woman in Parineeta (1953), Daera (1953), Ek Hi Raasta (1956), Sharda (1957), and Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayi (1960). Though she cultivated the image of a tragedienne, she also performed commendably in a few light-hearted movies like Azaad (1955), Miss Mary (1957), Shararat (1959), and Kohinoor (1960).

Meena Kumari, (here with Rehman), performed a landmark role, as Choti Bahu, in Abrar Alvi's, Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam, 1962

One of her best-known roles was in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962), which was produced by Guru Dutt. Kumari played Chhoti Bahu, an alcoholic wife. The film was a major critical and commercial success, which was attributed by critics to Kumari's performance, which is regarded as one of the best performances of Hindi Cinema.[3] The role was famous for its uncanny similarity to Meena Kumari's own life. At that time, she herself was on a road to gradual ruin in her own personal life. Like her character, she began to drink heavily, though she carried on. In 1962, she made history by getting all the three nominations for Filmfare Best Actress Award, for her roles in Aarti, Main Chup Rahungi, and Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam. She won the award for Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam. Upperstall.com wrote about her performance, "While each of the performances are spot on, if there is one person who is the heart and soul of the film, it is Meena Kumari. Her portrayal of Chhoti Bahu is perhaps the greatest performance ever seen on the Indian


Meena Kumari Screen. The sequence where Chhoti Bahu dresses for her husband singing Piya Aiso Jiya Main is a poignant exploration of a woman's expectations and sexual desire. And later on when she has become a desperate alcoholic, you cannot help but cry with her in the sequence where she pleads with her husband to stay with her and then angrily turns on him to tell him how she has prostituted her basic values and morals to please him. However the common factors between the actress's life and Chhoti Bahu are too dramatic to be merely coincidental - The estranged marital relationship, the taking of alcohol, turning towards younger male company, the craving to be understood and loved - all elements evident in Meena Kumari's own life."[4]

Later work For four more years, Kumari performed successfully in Dil Ek Mandir (1963), Kaajal (1965), and Phool Aur Patthar (1966), all of which earned her Filmfare nominations, with Kaajal garnering her a fourth and last win of the Best Actress award. However, after divorcing her husband in 1964, her addiction to alcohol became stronger, and she often dulled her senses with liquor. She also relied more and more on intimate relationships with younger men like Dharmendra. Her subsequent releases, including Chandan Ka Palna and Majhli Didi did not do well.[1] Kumari's heavy drinking had badly damaged her liver, and in 1968 she fell seriously ill.[1] [5] She was taken to London and Switzerland for treatment. Back home, she started settling her debts and made peace with her estranged sister, Madhu, whom she had not spoken to for two years.[5] Because of her heavy drinking, she increasingly lost her good looks, and when she returned, she began playing character roles in movies like Jawab (1970) and Dushmun (1972).[1] She developed an attachment to writer-lyricist Gulzar and acted in his directorial debut Mere Apne (1971). Kumari presented an acclaimed portrayal of an elderly woman who got caught between two street gangs of frustrated, unemployed youth and got killed, her death making the youth realise the futility of violence. Pakeezah, starring Kumari and directed by her ex-husband Kamal Amrohi, took 14 years to reach the silver screen. First planned by Amrohi in 1958, the film went on the studio floors in 1964, but the shooting came to a standstill after their separation in March 1964, when it was more than halfway complete.[5] In 1969, Sunil Dutt and Nargis previewed some reels of the shelved film and convinced the estranged Amrohi and Kumari to complete it.[1] Hindustan Times described the meeting which Dutt had organised between the two: "Not much was said, but streams of tears were shed... Amrohi greeted her with a token payment of a gold guinea and the promise that he’d make her look as beautiful as the day she had started the film."[5] Gravelly ill, Kumari was determined to complete the film and, well aware of the limited time left for her to live, went out of her way to complete it at the earliest. Despite her rapidly deteriorating health, she gave the finishing touches to her performance. Initially, after its release in February 1972, Pakeezah opened to a lukewarm response from the public; however, after Meena Kumari's death less than two months later, people flocked to see it, making it a major box-office success. The film has since gained a cult and classic status, and Kumari's performance as a golden-hearted Lucknow prostitute drew major praise. She posthumously received her twelfth and last Filmfare nomination. Throughout her life, Kumari had a love-hate relationship with movies, and besides being a top-notch actress, she was a talented poetess, and recorded a disc of her Urdu poems, I write, I recite with music by Khayyam.

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Meena Kumari

Death Three weeks after the release of Pakeezah, Meena Kumari became seriously ill, and died on 31 March 1972 of liver cirrhosis. At her death, she was in more or less the same financial circumstance as her parents at the time of her birth: It is said that when she died in a nursing home, there was no money to pay her hospital bills. She was buried at Rahematabad Qabristan located at Narialwadi, Mazgaon, Mumbai.

Relationship with Kamal Amrohi In 1952, on the sets of one of her films, Meena Kumari fell in love with and married film director, Kamal Amrohi, who was fifteen years elder than her and was already married. She wrote about Amrohi: "Dil saa jab saathi paya Bechaini bhi woh saath le aaya" (When I found someone like my heart He also brought sorrow with him) Soon after marriage, Kamal Amrohi and Meena Kumari produced a film called Daera (1953), which was based on their love story. They also planned another film, Pakeezah. However, it took sixteen years (1956 to 1972) before Pakeezah reached the silver screen. (The scenes in Pakeezah's popular song, Inhi logon ne, were originally filmed in black and white, and were later reshot in color.) It is said that Amrohi did not want children with Meena Kumari because she was not a Syed. They raised Kamal Amrohi's son, Tajdaar, who was greatly attached to his chhoti ammi (younger mother). Due to their strong personalities, however, Meena Kumari and Kamal Amrohi started to develop conflicts, both professionally and in their married life. Their conflicts led to separation in 1960, and ultimately divorce in 1964. Highly affected Meena Kumari, who, once a happy woman, became depressed and found solace in heavy drinking. They remarried, but Meena Kumari had become an alcoholic by then. She expressed her sorrows prominently in her poetry. About Kamal Amrohi she wrote: "Tum kya karoge sunkar mujhse meri kahani Belutf zindagi ke kisse hain pheeke pheeke" (Why do you want to listen to my story: Colourless tales of a joyless life) At the time of the divorce, she wrote: "Talaak to de rahe ho Nazar-e-kahar ke saath Jawani bhi mere lauta do Mehar ke saath" (You are divorcing me with rage in your eyes Return to me, also, my youth along with the alimony!)

Filmography • • • • • • •

Gomti Ke Kinare (1972) .... Ganga Pakeezah (1972) .... Nargis/Sahibjaan Dushmun (1971) .... Malti R. Din Mere Apne (1971) .... Anandi Devi/Auaji (Aunt) Jawab (1970) .... Vidya Saat Phere (1970) Abhilasha (1968) .... Mrs. Meena Singh

• Baharon Ki Manzil (1968) .... Nanda S. Roy/Radha Shukla • Bahu Begum (1967) .... Zeenat Jahan Begum

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Meena Kumari • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Chandan Ka Palna (1967) .... Shobha Rai Majhli Didi (1967) .... Hemangini 'Hema' Noorjehan (1967) Phool Aur Patthar (1966) .... Shanti Devi Pinjre Ke Panchhi (1966) .... Heena Sharma Bheegi Raat (1965) Jadui Angoothi (1965) Kaajal (1965) .... Madhavi Purnima (1965) .... Purnima V. Lal Maain Bhi Ladki Hun (1964) .... Rajni Benazir (1964) .... Benazir Chitralekha (1964) .... Chitralekha Gazal (1964) .... Naaz Ara Begum Sanjh Aur Savera (1964) .... Gauri Akeli Mat Jaiyo (1963) Seema Dil Ek Mandir (1963) .... Sita Kinare Kinare (1963)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aarti (film) (1962) .... Aarti Gupta Main Chup Rahungi (1962) .... Gayetri Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962) .... Chhoti Bahu Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan (1961) .... Geeta, Shyam's wife Pyaar Ka Saagar (1961) .... Radha/Rani B. Gupta Zindagi Aur Khwab (1961) .... Shanti Bahaana (1960) Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai (1960) .... Karuna Kohinoor (1960) Ardhangini (1959) .... Chhaya Chand (1959) Char Dil Char Raahein (1959) .... Chavli Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan (1959) .... Ratna Jagir (1959) Madhu (1959) Satta Bazaar (1959) .... Jamuna Shararat (1959) Farishta (1958) Sahara (1958) .... Leela Savera (1958) Yahudi (1958) .... Hannah Miss Mary (1957) .... Miss Mary/Laxmi Sharada (1957) .... Sharada Ram Sharan Bandhan (1956) Ek-Hi-Rasta (1956) .... Malti Halaku (1956) .... Niloufer Nadir Mem Sahib (1956) .... Meena Naya Andaz (1956)

• Shatranj (1956) • Adl-E-Jahangir (1955)

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Meena Kumari • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Azaad (1955) .... Shobha Bandish (1955) .... Usha Sen Rukhsana (1955) Baadbaan (1954) Chandni Chowk (1954) .... Zarina Ilzam (1954) Daera (1953) .... Sheetal Dana Paani (1953) Do Bigha Zamin (1953) .... Thakurain Foot Path (1953) .... Mala Naulakha Haar (1953) .... Bijma Parineeta (1953) .... Lalita Aladdin Aur Jadui Chirag (1952) Baiju Bawra (1952) .... Gauri Tamasha (1952) .... Kiran Hanumaan Pataal Vijay (1951) Lakshmi Narayan (1951)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Madhosh (1951) .... Soni Sanam (1951) Anmol Ratan (1950) Hamara Ghar (1950) Magroor (1950) Shri Ganesh Mahima (1950) Veer Ghatotkach (1949) .... Surekha Bichchade Balam (1948) Piya Ghar Aaja (1947) Bachchon Ka Khel (1946) Duniya Ek Sarai (1946) Lal Haveli (1944) Pratiggya (1943) Garib (1942) Bahen (1941) (as Baby Meena) .... Bina Kasauti (1941) Nai Roshni (1941) Ek Hi Bhool (1940) Pooja (1940) Leatherface (1939)

Filmfare Awards • Filmfare Best Actress Award – Won 1954 Baiju Bawra – Gauri 1955 Parineeta – Lolita 1963 Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam – Chhoti Bahu 1966 Kaajal – Madhavi • Filmfare Best Actress Award – Nominated 1956 Azaad – Shobha 1959 Sahara – Leela

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Meena Kumari 1960 Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan – Ratna 1963 Aarti – Aarti Gupta 1963 Main Chup Rahungi – Gayetri 1964 Dil Ek Mandir – Sita 1967 Phool Aur Patthar – Shanti Devi 1973 Pakeezah – Nargis / Sahibjaan (posthumous nomination)[6]

Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards Meena Kumari has won several awards at the Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards (BFJA) • 1963 Best Actress (Hindi): Aarti • 1965 Best Actress (Hindi): Dil Ek Mandir • Special Award: Pakeezah[7]

Biography One of the first biographies of Meena Kumari was written just after her death by Vinod Mehta in the year 1972. It was simply titled Meena Kumari.

References [1] "Meena Kumar: The Queen of Sorrow" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ mar/ 30dinesh. htm). Rediff.com. . [2] "www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020331/spectrum/main9.htm" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2002/ 20020331/ spectrum/ main9. htm). . [3] "25 Must See Bollywood Movies - Special Features-Indiatimes - Movies" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ Special_Features/ 25_Must_See_Bollywood_Movies/ articleshow/ msid-1250837,curpg-18. cms). The Times Of India. . [4] "Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam" (http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ films/ sbg. html). . [5] (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ StoryPage/ StoryPage. aspx?id=ffaae824-9693-4139-a251-c35db60c1035& & Headline=Beautiful+ loser) [6] "1st Filmfare Awards 1953" (http:/ / deep750. googlepages. com/ FilmfareAwards. pdf) (PDF). . [7] "36th Annual BFJA Awards" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080501183002/ http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197336. htm). BFJA. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197336. htm) on 1 May 2008. . Retrieved 2011-02-23.

External links • Meena Kumari (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0474932/) at the Internet Movie Database • Meena Kumari (http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Cinema/MeenaK.html) at Manas: Culture of India • Collection of verses by Meena Kumari (http://aligarians.com/category/poets/meena-kumari/)

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Mohammed Rafi

233

Mohammed Rafi Mohammed Rafi

Background information Birth name

Mohammed Haji Ali Mohammed Rafi

Born

24 December 1924 Kotla Sultan Singh, Punjab, British India

Origin

India

Died

31 July 1980 (aged 55) Bombay, Maharashtra, India

Genres

Hindustani Classical Music, Indian classical, ghazal, playback singing, qawwali. thumri

Occupations

Playback Singer, sang in Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, and various other regional languages, also recorded songs in English, Scottish, Spanish and French

Instruments

Vocalist

Years active

1941–1980

Mohammad Rafi (Urdu: ‫ ;ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺭﻓﯿﻊ‬December 24, 1924 – July 31, 1980), was an Indian playback singer whose career spanned four decades.[1] He was awarded National Award and 6 Filmfare Awards. In 1967, he was honoured with the Padma Shri awarded by the Government of India.[2] Rafi claimed to have recorded 28,000 songs in 11 Indian languages between 1944 and April 1980; according to the available figures, Rafi has sung 4,516 Hindi film songs, 112 non-Hindi film songs, and 328 private (non-film) songs from 1945 to 1980.[3] His singing career spanned about 40 years, and his songs ranged from classical numbers to patriotic songs, sad lamentations to highly romantic numbers, qawwalis to ghazals and bhajans, and from slow melancholic tunes to fast and melodious fun filled songs. He had a strong command of Hindi and Urdu and a powerful range that could accommodate this variety.[4] Primarily noted for his Hindi-Urdu songs, he also sang in other Indian languages including Konkani, Bhojpuri, Oriya, Punjabi, Bengali, Marathi, Sindhi, Kannada, Gujarati, Telugu, Maghi, Maithili and Assamese. He recorded a few English, Persian, Spanish and Dutch songs. He is best known for romantic and duet songs, which he playback sings with the technique to mould the voice according to characters of the actor on the screen.[5]


Mohammed Rafi An article in Times of India, published on 24 July 2010 sums up his voice as, "If there are 101 ways of saying "I love you" in a song, Mohammed Rafi knew them all. The awkwardness of puppy love, the friskiness of teen romance, the philosophy of unrequited love and the anguish of heartbreak - he could explore every crevice of ardour. It wasn't just love, his voice could capture the navras of life - a failed poet's melancholy, a fiery unionist's vim, a debt-ridden farmer's despair, really anybody at all. Rafi, whose career spanned nearly four decades, was a singer for every season and every reason."[6]

Early years and background Mohammed Rafi was born the second youngest of six sons of Hajji Ali Mohammad at Kotla Sultan Singh, a village near Amritsar in Punjab (British India).[7] Rafi, whose nickname was Pheeko, started singing by imitating chants of a fakir in his village.[7] Rafi's father moved to Lahore in the Nineteen Twenties and owned a men's salon in Noor Mohalla in Bhatti Gate Lahore.[8] It was his elder brother (Mohammad Deen's) friend Abdul Hameed who later became his brother in law, who spotted the talent in Rafi in Lahore and encouraged him to sing. Abdul Hameed later convinced the family elders to let him move to Bombay and he accompanied Mohammad Rafi to Bombay in 1944. Rafi learnt classical music from Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Ustad Abdul Wahid Khan, Pandit Jiwanlal Matto and Firoze Nizami.[9] [10] Rafi's first public performance came at the age of 13, when he was allowed to sing at a concert in Lahore featuring K. L. Saigal.[9] In 1941, Rafi, under Shyam Sunder, made his debut in Lahore as a playback singer in the duet "Soniye nee, Heeriye nee" with Zeenat Begum in the Punjabi film Gul Baloch (the film was released in 1944).[11] In that same year, Rafi was invited by All India Radio Lahore station to sing for them.[12] He made his professional debut in the Shyam Sunder-directed 1941 Punjabi film Gul Baloch and the earliest debut in Bombay film was Gaon Ki Gori in 1945.[5]

Advent in Bombay In 1944, Rafi moved to Bombay (now Mumbai),The brother in laws to be took up a ten-by-ten-feet room in the crowded downtown Bhendi Bazar area. Here poet Tanvir Naqvi introduced him to some of film producers including Abdur Rashid Kardar, Mehboob Khan and actor-director Nazeer.[8] Shyam Sunder was in Bombay and again provided an opportunity to Rafi – who got to sing a duet with GM Durrani, ‘Aji dil ho qaabu mein to dildar ki aisi taisi…’, for Gaon Ki Gori, which became Rafi’s first recorded song in a Hindi film. Many other songs followed.[13] Rafi also did brief roles in movies like Laila-Majnu (1945) and Jugnu. In Laila-Majnu, he was seen singing Tera Jalwa as a part of the chorus.[14] In 1948, after the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, the team of Husanlal Bhagatram-Rajendra Krishan-Rafi had overnight created the song ‘Suno suno ae duniyawalon, Bapuji ki amar kahani…’.[13] He was invited by the Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, to sing at the latter's house. In 1948, Rafi received a silver medal from Nehru on the Indian Independence Day. In 1949, Rafi was given solo songs by music directors such as Naushad, (Chandni Raat, Dillagi and Dulari) Shyam Sunder (Bazaar) and Husnalal Bhagatram (Meena Bazaar). Rafi's first song with Naushad was "Hindustan ke hum hain" with Shyam Kumar, Alauddin and others, from A. R. Kardar's Pehle Aap (1944). Around the same time, Rafi recorded another song for the 1945 film Gaon ki Gori, "Aji dil ho kaaboo mein". He considered this song his first Hindi language song.[12] Rafi also appeared in two movies. In 1945, Rafi appeared on the screen for the song "Tera Jalwa Jis Ne Dekha" in the film Laila Majnu.[12] He sang a number of songs for Naushad as part of the chorus, including "Mere sapnon ki rani, Roohi Roohi" with K. L. Saigal from the film Shahjahan (1946). Rafi sang "Tera Khilona Toota Balak" from Mehboob Khan's Anmol Ghadi (1946) and a duet with Noor Jehan in the 1947 film Jugnu, "Yahan Badla Wafa Ka". Following the Partition of India, Rafi decided to stay in India and had his family flown to Bombay. Whereas Noor Jahan migrated to Pakistan and made a pair with playback singer Ahmed Rushdi.

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Mohammed Rafi Rafi was highly influence by the singers of that time like K. L Saigal, Talat Mehmood and, most notably, by G. M. Durrani - on whose style he based his singing. He sung with his idol in some of the songs such as "Humko Hanste Dekh Zamana Jalta Hai (Hum Sab Chor Hain, 1956)[15] and "Khabar Kisi ko Nahiin, woh kidhar Dekhte (Beqasoor, 1950),[16] etc.

Recording career He associated with many music directors of his time, most notably Naushad. In the late 1950s and 1960s, Rafi worked with other composers of the era such as O. P. Nayyar, Shankar Jaikishan and S.D. Burman. Association with Naushad As per Naushad, Rafi came to him with a letter of recommendation from Naushad's father.[17] Rafi’s first song for Naushad was "Hindustan ke hum hain" ("We belong to Hindustan") for the film Pehle Aap in 1944. The first song for the duo was the soundtrack of the movie Anmol Ghadi (1946). Before Rafi, Naushad’s favorite singer was Talat Mahmood. Once Naushad found Talat smoking during a recording. He was annoyed and hired Rafi to sing all the songs of the movie Baiju Bawra.[14] In 1949 when "Suhani Raat Dhal Chuki".[18] Rafi's association with Naushad helped the former establish himself as one of the most prominent playback singers in Hindi Cinema.[12] Songs from Baiju Bawra (1952) like "O duniya ke rakhwale" and "Man tarpat Hari darshan ko aaj" furthered Rafi's credentials.[11] Rafi ended up singing a total of 149 songs (81 of them solo) for Naushad.[19] In the 1960 film Mughal-E-Azam, Mohammed Rafi sang the song "Ae Mohabbat Zindabad", composed by Naushad, with a chorus of 100 singers.[20] Association with S D Burman S. D. Burman patronized Rafi as the singing voice of Dev Anand and Guru Dutt.[21] Rafi worked with Burman in movies like Pyaasa (1957), Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959), Tere Ghar ke Saamne (1962), Guide (1965), Aradhana (1969), and Abhimaan (1973). S. D. Burman was also another music director besides Naushad who used Rafi prolifically to sing for most of his songs. Association with Shankar-Jaikishan Rafi and Shankar Jaikishan was a partnership in the Hindi film industry. Under Shankar-Jaikishan, Rafi produced some of his songs for actors like Shammi Kapoor and Rajendra Kumar. Out of six Filmfare awards, Rafi won three for S-J songs, viz., "Teri pyari pyari soorat ko", "Baharon phool barsao", and "Dil ke jharokhe mein". The song "Yahoo! Chahe koi mujhe junglee kahe" was sung by Rafi, only to be matched a fast-paced orchestra and a composition by Shankar Jaikishan. S-J made Rafi give playback for Kishore Kumar in the film Shararat ("Ajab hai daastan teri yeh zindagi"). Rafi sang a total of 341 numbers (216 solo) for Shankar-Jaikishan.[19] Among the films of this combination, are Basant Bahar, Professor, Junglee, Suraj, Brahmachari, An Evening in Paris, Dil Tera Deewana, Yakeen, Prince, Love in Tokyo, Beti Bete, Dil Ek Mandir, Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai, Gaban and Jab Pyar Kisi Se Hota Hai. Association with Ravi Rafi got his first Filmfare Award for the title song of Chaudhvin Ka Chand (1960), composed by Ravi. He got National Award for the song "Babul Ki Duaen Leti Ja" from the film Neel Kamal (1968), also composed by Ravi. Rafi actually wept during the recording of this song. He, himself, admitted this in his interview to BBC in 1977.[22] Ravi and Rafi produced several other songs, in the films China Town (1962), Kaajal (1965), and Do Badan (1966). Association with Madan Mohan Madan Mohan was another composer whose favorite singer was Rafi. Rafi's first solo with Madan Mohan in Ankhen (1950), "Hum ishq mein barbad hain barbad rahenge".[12] They teamed up to produce many songs including "Teri Aankhon ke Siva", "Yeh Duniya Yeh Mehfil" and "Tum Jo Mil Gaye Ho".

235


Mohammed Rafi Association with O. P. Nayyar Rafi and O. P. Nayyar created music in the 1950s and 1960s. O. P. Nayyar was once quoted as saying "If there had been no Mohd. Rafi, there would have been no O. P. Nayyar".[23] He and Rafi created many songs together including "Yeh hai Bombay meri jaan". He got Rafi to sing for singer-actor Kishore Kumar – "Man mora baawara" for the movie Raagini. Later, Rafi sang for Kishore Kumar in movies such as Baaghi, Shehzaada and Shararat. O. P. Nayyar used Rafi and Asha Bhosle for most of his songs. The team created many songs in early 1950s and 1960s for movies such as Naya Daur (1957), Tumsa Nahin Dekha (1957), and Kashmir Ki Kali (1964). Rafi sang a total of 197 numbers (56 solo) for Nayyar.[24] The song "Jawaaniyan yeh mast mast" and the title song "Yun to humne lakh hansee dekhe hain, tumsa nahin dekha" of the film Tumsa Nahin Dekha. They were followed by songs like "Taareef karoon kya uski jisne tumhe banaya" from Kashmir ki Kali.[25] Rafi and OP had a fallout during the recording for movie "Sawan ki Ghata", as disclosed by OP during one of his interviews.[26] In the interview, he says, "Throughout my career, I have been famous for my punctuality. Rafi had given me a time for recording a song from Saawan Ki Ghata. The musicians were all set. Rafi came late for that recording and said, “Sorry, I was stuck up in Shankar- Jaikishan’s recording.” I said, “You had given me the time by your choice. So I gather, you have time for Shankar- Jaikishan and not for O.P. Nayyar. Now onwards, O.P.Nayyar will not have time for Rafi.” I cancelled the recording in front of shell shocked musicians and told the accountant to charge the expenses for the cancelled session to my account! After three years, Rafi came to my house crying like a baby. I also broke down. Both of us touched each other’s feet. I said, “Rafi, by coming here today you proved that you are much greater than O.P. You could overcome your ego. I could not!” He often used to sing – Yuun To Humne Laakh Sangeetkaar Dekhe Hai, O.P.Nayyar Sa Nahi Dekha! (I have seen many a composer but never one like O.P.Nayyar!) He also used to tell me, “Your music could turn a eunuch into a he-man!” Association with Laxmikant-Pyarelal The composer duo Laxmikant-Pyarelal (L-P) also patronized Rafi as one of their singers, right from their very first film, Parasmani (1963). Both Rafi and L-P won the Filmfare Awards for the song "Chahoonga main tujhe saanjh savere" from Dosti (1964). Rafi rendered the maximum number of songs for the music director duo Laxmikant-Pyarelal: a total of 369 numbers (186 solo) for L-P.[19] Once, when composer Nisar Bazmi (who had migrated to Pakistan) didn’t have enough money to pay him, Rafi charged a fee of one rupee and sang for him. He also helped producers financially. As Laxmikant (of the Laxmikant-Pyarelal duo) once observed – “He always gave without thinking of the returns”.[27] Between 1950 and 1970, Rafi was the most sought after singer in Bollywood.[28] He sang for many male stars in Hindi films.[29] In 1965, he was honoured by the Government of India with the Padma Sri award. Rafi recorded two Hindi songs in English on 7" release in 1968. He also sang a song in Creole while on his visit to Mauritius in the late 1960s.[9] Rafi recorded two English albums as well. One of them is Pop Hits. In Bollywood, yodeling is generally associated with Kishore Kumar but Rafi introduced yodeling in Indian film as playback singing. Rafi yodeled in some of his old songs, such as "Hello sweety seventeen" (duet with Asha Bhosle), "O Chale ho kaha", "Dilke Aine main", and "Unse Rippy Tippy Ho gayee" (duet with Geeta Dutt). Association with his Contemporary Singers Rafi associated with several of his contemporaries, singing duets with them and sometimes for them (as in case of Kishore Kumar who was also an actor). Rafi sang the maximum number of duets with Asha Bhonsle (female), Manna Dey (male) and Lata Mangeshkar (female).[20] For the song “Man mora bawra” in the film Ragini, Kishore Kumar requested Rafi to sing this song for him because this song was a semi classical and Kishore Kumar said that "Rafi Sahab can sing this song better than me". Rafi sang the song.[30] [31] The song “Ajab hay dastan teri aey zindagi” was first given to Kishore Kumar to sing and he sung the first half of antara but in the second half, he faced some trouble and after many retakes, he was unable to give

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Mohammed Rafi the effect that Shankar Jaikishan wanted, and finally the song was given to Rafi to sing.[31] In the song "Humko Tumse Ho Gaya Hai Pyaar Kya Karein" (Amar, Akbar, Anthony), Mohd Rafi sang with Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar and Mukesh - all in one song. This was probably the only time that all of them rendered their voices for one song.[32]

Controversies Royalty issue In 1962-1963, the popular female playback singer Lata Mangeshkar raised the issue of playback singers' share in the royalties. Recognizing Rafi's position as the leading male playback singer, she wanted him to back her in demanding a half-share from the 5 percent song royalty that the film's producer conceded to select composers. Lata's contention was that, there was no way producers and music directors could deny this singing duo, one-half share in that 5 percent song royalty to the composer. Rafi's stated that his claim on the film's maker ended with his being paid his agreed fee for the song. After that, if the film proved a hit, good luck to the movie's maker, he was welcome to keep the Gramco (HMV) royalty he earned from it. Lata viewed his stand as a stumbling block on the royalty issue and this subsequently led to differences between the two. During the recording of "Tasveer Teri Dil Mein" (Maya, 1961), Lata argued with Rafi over a certain passage of the song. Rafi felt belittled, as music director Salil Chowdhury sided with Lata. The situation worsened when Lata Mangeshkar declared that she would no longer sing with Rafi. Rafi stated that he was only so keen to sing with Lata as she was with him.[33] [34] Later, at the insistence of S. D. Burman, the two decided to reconcile and sing duets.

Guiness World Records During his last years, Rafi was involved in a controversy over Lata Mangeshkar's introduction in to the Guinness Book of World Records. In a letter dated June 11, 1977 to the Guinness Book of World Records, Rafi had challenged the claim that Lata Mangeshkar has recorded the maximum number of songs ("not less than 25,000" according to Guinness). After receiving a reply from Guinness, in a letter dated November 20, 1979, he wrote: "I am disappointed that my request for a reassessment vis-a-vis Ms Mangeshkar's reported world record has gone unheeded.".[35] In an interview to BBC recorded in Nov 1977, Rafi claimed to have sung 25,000 to 26,000 songs till then.[22] After Rafi's death, in its 1984 edition, the Guinness Book of Word Records gave Lata Mangeshkar's name for the "Most Recordings" but also stated: "Mohammad Rafi (d 1 Aug 1980) [sic] claimed to have recorded 28,000 songs in 11 Indian languages between 1944 and April 1980.".[3] According to the available figures, Rafi has sung 4,516 Hindi film songs, 112 non-Hindi film songs, and 328 private (non-film) songs from 1945 to 1980.[3] The Guinness Book entries for both Rafi and Lata were later removed in 1991.

Early 1970s In early 1970s, Rafi recorded fewer songs due his ill health and Hajj pilgrimage. At the same period Kishore Kumar's popularity increased due to the songs he sang for the film Aradhana.[33] [36] The music for Aradhana was composed by S. D. Burman, and he had used Rafi as the male playback voice for the first two recorded duets, "Baaghon Mein Bahaar Hai" and "Gunguna Rahen Hain Bhanwre".[21] After these two recordings, S. D. Burman fell ill and his son and assistant, R. D. Burman, took over the recordings. R. D. Burman got Kishore Kumar to sing the solos "Roop Tera Mastana" and "Mere Sapnon Ki Rani". During 1971-1973, Rafi's musical output decreased; however, he did sing several songs.[37] Some of Rafi's songs of the early 1970s were with music directors like Laxmikant Pyarelal, Madan Mohan, R. D. Burman and S. D. Burman. These include "Tum mujhe Yun Bhula na Paoge" (a signature song of Rafi in 1971) from Pagla Kahin Ka, "Yeh Duniya Yeh Mehfil" from Heer Ranjha (1970), "Jhilmil Sitaron ka" from Jeevan Mrityu (a duet with Lata

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Mohammed Rafi Mangeshkar, 1970), "Gulabi Aankhen" from The Train (1970), "Yeh Jo Chilman Hain" and "Itna to Yaad Hain Mujhe" from Mehboob Ki Mehndi (1971), "Mera mann tera pyasa" Gambler, "Chalo Dildar Chalo" from 1972 released Pakeezah, "Chura Liya Hain Tumne" from Yaadon Ki Baarat (a duet with Asha Bhosle, 1973), "Na tu Zameen Ke liye" from 1973 released Dilip Kumar movie Dastan, "Tum Jo Mil Gaye Ho" from Hanste Zakhm (1973), "teri bindiya re", from Abhimaan(1973) and "Aaj mausam bada beimaan hai" from Loafer (1973).

Later years Rafi made an comeback as a top leading singer in the mid-1970s. In 1974, he won the Film World magazine Best Singer Award for the song "Teree Galiyon Mein Na Rakhenge Qadam Aaj Ke Baad" (Hawas, 1974) composed by Usha Khanna.[19] In 1977, he won both Filmfare Award and the National Award for the song "Kya Hua Tera Wada" from the movie Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin, composed by R. D. Burman.[21] Rafi sang for Rishi Kapoor in films like Amar Akbar Anthony (1977), Sargam (1979) and Karz (1980). The qawwali "Pardah Hai Pardah" from Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) was a superhit. Rafi's notable renderings in the late 1970s and early 80s include Laila Majnu (1976), Apnapan (1978), Qurbani, Dostana (1980), The Burning Train (1980), Naseeb (1981), Abdullah (1980), Shaan (1980), Asha (1980), Aap To Aise Na The (1980), Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai (1982).

Death On Thursday, 31 July 1980, Rafi died at 10:50 p.m., following a heart attack.[38] His last song was "Shaam phir kyun udaas hai dost" (Aas Paas), which he had recorded with Laxmikant-Pyarelal few hours before his death.[39] [40] Rafi was buried at the Juhu Muslim cemetery.[41] It was one of the biggest funeral processions Bombay had ever witnessed, with over 10,000 people attending. In 2010, his tomb was demolished to make space for new burials. Fans of Mohammed Rafi who arrive twice a year at his tomb, on 24 December and 31 July, to mark his birth and death anniversary, use the coconut tree nearest to his grave as a marker.[42] The Government of India announced a two-day public holiday on his death, honouring him.[40]

Legacy • Rafi's song from the film Gumnaam (1965), "Jaan Pehechan Ho", was used on the soundtrack of Ghost World (2001). The film opens with the lead character dancing around in her bedroom to a video of Gumnaam.[43] • His "Aaj Mausam Bada Beiman Hai" is featured in the 2001 film Monsoon Wedding.[44] His song "Mera Man Tera Pyasa" (Gambler, 1970) has been used as one of the soundtracks in the Jim Carrey-Kate Winslet starrer Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004). This song is played in the background in Kate Winslet's character's home while the lead pair are having a drink - at approx 00.11.14 runtime.[45] • Several of Rafi's unreleased songs will be used for an upcoming film titled Sorry Madam.[46] • A documentary about Rafi’s life is under production by The Films Division of India.[47] • In the summer of 2008, the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra released a double CD entitled Rafi Resurrected comprising 16 songs by Rafi. Bollywood playback singer Sonu Nigam provided the vocals for this project and toured with the CBSO in July 2008 at venues including the English National Opera in London, Manchester's Apollo Theatre and Symphony Hall, Birmingham.[48] • The Padma Shri Mohammed Rafi Chowk in the Bandra suburb of Mumbai and Pune (extending MG Road) is named after Rafi.[35] • In June 2010, Rafi was voted the most popular playback singer in the OUTLOOK Music Poll, conducted by Outlook Magazine, along with Lata Mangeshkar.[49] The same Poll voted "Man re, tu kahe na Dheer Dhare"

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Mohammed Rafi (Chitralekha, 1964), sung by Rafi as the #1 song.[50] Three songs tied up for the #2 place and two of them were sung by Rafi. The songs were "Tere Mere Sapne Ab Ek Rang Hain" (Guide, 1965) and "Din Dhal Jaye, hai raat na jaye" (Guide, 1965). This poll was published in Outlook Magazine, the jury of which included many people in the Indian music industry; Abhijeet, Adesh Srivastava, Alisha Chinai, Anu Malik, Ehsaan, Gulzar, Hariharan, Himesh Reshammiya, Jatin, Javed Akhtar, Kailash Kher, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Khayyam, Kumar Sanu, Lalit, Loy, Mahalaxmi Iyer, Mahendra Kapoor, Manna Dey, Prasoon Joshi, Rajesh Roshan, Sadhna Sargam, Sameer, Sandesh Shandilya, Shaan, Shankar, Shantanu Moitra, Shreya Ghoshal, Sonu Nigam and Talat Aziz.[51] • In an article in Times of India, Rafi is described as "a versatile singer, who could render classical, rock and roll, indeed any kind of song with ease, he was Hindi film's favourite male voice through the 1950s and 1960s". Music director Rajesh Roshan, who composed some of the songs with Rafi, remembers him as "a warm-hearted simple person with no ego".[52] • There has been appeals [53] to the Government of India to honour the singer, posthumously, with Bharat Ratna (India's Highest Civilian Award)[13] • Classical and playback singer Manna Dey, who was also a contemporary of Rafi, credits Rafi as "the best singer of them all". He said, "Rafi and I could sing everything, and he was such a gentleman. He was a better singer than me, and I will say this - that no one came even close to him! He deserved everything he got! We had a great understanding and it was never about one-upmanship".[54] [55] • There were reports that a man, sentenced to be hanged, was asked what his last wish was. The man asks that he be allowed to listen to “O duniya ke rakhwale, sun dard bare mere naale; jeewan apna wapas lele, jeewan dene wale“ - a song sung by Rafi.[56] • Veteran actor Shammi Kapoor said, "I am incomplete without Mohammad Rafi. I used to often go for the recoding of my song, which was sung by Mohammad Rafi, only because I used to like telling him how I would perform on this song on screen so that he can sing it that way. Even he liked my involvement".[57] • On 22 September 2007, a shrine to Rafi designed by artist Tasawar Bashir was unveiled on Fazeley Street, Birmingham, UK. Bashir is hoping that Rafi will attain sainthood as a result.[58] [59] • Singers like Shabbir Kumar, Mohammed Aziz, and more recently, Sonu Nigam, who made a name by adopting his style, perhaps owe their entire careers to Rafi.[60] • After his death, seven Hindi movies were dedicated to Mohd Rafi; Allah Rakha, Mard, Coolie, Desh-Premee, Naseeb, Aas-Paas and Heeralal-Pannalal. • As per newspaper reports,[61] over 9000 musical tributes were organized in July 2011 commemorating the singer's 31st death anniversary.

List of Songs See List of Songs by Mohammed Rafi

Personal life Rafi and Abdul Hameed married two sisters in Bombay in late forties. Rafi had an earlier marriage with her cousin that took place in his ancestral village that could not be continued due to the migration of his in laws and wife to Lahore Pakistan after partition. Rafi had one son from his earlier marriage and three sons and three daughters from his second marriage with Bilquis in Bombay. He was a teetotaller, a religious and humble person.[62] He was very much a family man, following a recording-room to home to recording-room itenerary. He never attended filmy parties, did not smoke or drink. He used to perform his riyaz (musical practise) from 3 AM to 7 AM without fail. His only indulgences were playing carom and badminton and flying kites.[13]

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Mohammed Rafi

240

Awards Honorary • 1948 - Rafi received a silver medal from the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, on the first anniversary of the Indian Independence Day.[12] • 1967 - Honoured with the Padma Shri by the Government of India. • 1974 - Film World magazine Best Singer Award for the song "Teree Galiyon Mein Na Rakhenge Qadam Aaj Ke Baad" (Hawas, 1974). • 2001 - Rafi was honored with the "best singer of the millennium" by Hero Honda and Stardust magazine in Mumbai on Jan 7, 2001. Rafi won with 70% of the votes. • Rafi has a record number of Filmfare Award nominations (23).[20] In the earlier years, Filmare used to have only one Best Singer Award (no distinction between a male or female singer). Rafi won it six times.[63] National Film Awards[64] Winner: Year

Song

Film

Music director

Lyricist

[10] "Kya Hua Tera Wada" Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin Rahul Dev Burman Majrooh Sultanpuri

1977

Filmfare Awards[65] Winner: Year

Song

1960

"Chaudhvin Ka Chand Ho"

1961

Film

Music director

Chaudhvin Ka Chand

Lyricist

Bombay Ravi

Shakeel Badayuni

"Teri Pyaari Pyaari Surat Ko" Sasural

Shankar Jaikishan

Shailendra

1964

"Chahunga Main Tujhe"

Dosti

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Majrooh Sultanpuri

1966

"Baharo Phool Barsao"

Suraj

Shankar Jaikishan

Shailendra

1968

"Dil Ke Jharoke Mein"

Brahmachari

Shankar Jaikishan

Shailendra

1977

"Kya Hua Tera Wada"

Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin Rahul Dev Burman Majrooh Sultanpuri

Nominated:[65] Year

Song

Film

Music director

Lyricist

1961

"Husnwale Tera Jawab Nahin"

Gharana

Bombay Ravi

Shakeel Badayuni

1962

"Aye Gulbadan Aye Gulbadan"

Professor

Shankar Jaikishan

Shailendra

1963

"Mere Mehboob Tujhe"

Mere Mehboob

Naushad

Shakeel Badayuni

1965

"Chhoo Lene Do Nazuk Hothon Ko" Kaajal

Bombay Ravi

Sahir Ludhianvi

1968

"Mein Gaaon Tum Sojaao"

Brahmachari

Shankar Jaikishan

Shailendra

1969

"Badi Mastani Hai"

Jeene Ki Raah

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1970

"Khilona Jaan Kar"

Khilona

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1973

"Hum Ko To Jaan Se Pyaari"

Naina

Shankar Jaikishan

1974

"Achha Hi Huva Dil Toot Gaya"

Maa Bahen Aur Biwi Sharda

1977

"Pardah Hai Pardah"

Amar Akbar Anthony Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1978

"Aadmi Musaafir Hai"

Apnapan

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1979

"Chalo Re Doli Uthao Kahaar"

Jaani Dushman

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Varma Malik

Hasrat Jaipuri Qamar Jalalabadi, Vedpal Varma


Mohammed Rafi

241

1980

"Mere Dost Kissa Yeh"

Dostana

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1980

"Dard-e-dil Dard-e-jigar"

Karz

Laxmikant-Pyarelal Anand Bakshi

1980

"Maine Poocha Chand Se"

Abdullah

Rahul Dev Burman Anand Bakshi

Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards Winner Year 1957

Film

Music director

Tumsa Nahin Dekha O. P. Nayyar

Lyricist Majrooh Sultanpuri

[66] Dosti

Laxmikant Pyarelal Majrooh Sultanpuri

[67] Arzoo

Shankar Jaikishan

1965 1966

Hasrat Jaipuri

Sur Sringar Award Winner Year 1964

Film

Music director

Chitralekha Roshan

Lyricist Sahir Ludhyanvi

[68]

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The Hindu (Chennai, India). 24 October 2009. . [54] http:/ / www. santabanta. com/ cinema. asp?pid=28039 [55] The Times Of India. http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ city/ kolkata-/ Rafi-was-a-better-singer-than-me/ articleshow/ 5085308. cms.

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Mohammed Rafi [56] "A wide range of fans for one song!" (http:/ / www. mohdrafi. com/ meri-awaaz-suno/ a-wide-range-of-fans-for-one-song. html) [57] "I am incomplete without Rafi: Shammi - The Times of India" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ I-am-incomplete-without-Rafi-Shammi/ articleshow/ 6243555. cms). The Times Of India. . Retrieved 2010-12-25. [58] Mohammed Rafi Sainthood Attempt (http:/ / www. ethnicnow. com/ channels/ arts-culture/ press-release/ 5/ 1450/ mohammed-rafi-sainthood-attempt. html) [59] "A shrine to be built in memory of Mohammed Rafi" (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ news/ 2007/ 04/ 04/ 9212/ index. html). . [60] Mohammed Rafi lives on! (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Mohammed-Rafi-lives-on/ Article1-437996. aspx). Hindustan Times, 30 July 2009 [61] 9000 musical tributes, commemorations for Rafi (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ 9000-musical-tributes-commemorations-for-ra/ 654266/ ) [62] "Mohd Rafi: A Legend has no substitute" (http:/ / www. rafisongs. org/ 2007/ 07/ 09/ 78615/ 15). . Retrieved 2010-12-25. [63] "The incomparable Mohammad Rafi" (http:/ / blogs. hindustantimes. com/ capital-closeup/ 2009/ 07/ 29/ the-incomparable-mohammad-rafi/ ). The Hindustan Times. 2009-07-29. [64] . http:/ / www. thecolorsofindia. com/ mohd-rafi/ awards. html. [65] The Times Of India. http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ . [66] "1965- 28th Annual BFJA Awards - Awards For The Year 1964" (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196528. htm). Bengal Film Journalists' Association. . Retrieved 14 December 2008. [67] "1966: 29th Annual BFJA Awards - Awards For The Year 1965" (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196629. htm). Bengal Film Journalists' Association. . Retrieved 22 October 2009. [68] "His Voice swayed millions" (http:/ / www. mohdrafi. com/ web/ his-voice-swayed-millions. html). . Retrieved 2010-12-25.

External links • Mohammad Rafi (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0706327/) at the Internet Movie Database

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Mohammed Zahur Khayyam

244

Mohammed Zahur Khayyam Mohammed Zahur Khayyam Born

1927 Rahon, Nawanshahr District, Punjab

Occupation Composer, film score composer

Mohammed Zahur "Khayyam" Hashmi, better known as Khayyam, is an Indian music composer whose career spanned four decades (1953–1990).[1] [2] He has won three Filmfare Awards for Best Music in 1977 for Kabhi Kabhie and 1982 for Umrao Jaan, and a lifetime achievement award in 2010 . He was awarded the 2007 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in Creative Music, by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance and Theatre.[3] He has been awarded the third-highest civilian honour, Padma Bhushan by the Government of India for 2011.[4]

Early life Khayyam was born as Sa’aadat Hussain in undivided Punjab in Rahon, a village in Nawanshahr District. As a boy Khayyam ran away to Delhi to learn music but was forced to return to complete his education. Khayyam then went to Lahore to learn music from the famous Baba Chishti. He was never interested in his studies and was always fascinated by the music of Hindi cinema. He was inclined to the music when he was very young. He often escaped to the city for watching movies. Khaiyyam soon ran away to his uncle's house in Delhi, in the hope of becoming an actor. Khaiyyam's uncle enrolled him in a school, but when he saw his passion for films, he allowed him to learn music. In those days it was actually a step forward in realizing his ambitions. He got his training in music under Pandit Amar Nath.

Career He went to Lahore looking for roles in films. There he also learnt music from famous Baba Chishti who was a famous Pakistani music director. Fate had something else in store for him. One day Khaiyyam had gone to meet G.A. Chishti, one of the foremost music directors from Pakistan. When young Khaiyyam who was listening to the composition by Chishti and sung to him its first part. Impressed Chishti gave him an offer of joining him as an assistant. Khayyam assisted Chishti for six months and came to Ludhiana in 1943. He was only 18 then. After a stint in the Army in the Second World War, Khayyam went to Bombay to fulfil his dream. He made his debut as Sharmaji of the Sharmaji-Varmaji composer duo with the movie Heer Ranjha in 1948. He went solo after his co-composer Rahman Varma went to the newly created Pakistan post partition. One of his earliest breaks was in the film Biwi in which the song “Akele mein wo ghabrate to Honge” sung by Mohammed Rafi was a huge hit. But he gained greater recognition from the film Phir Subha Hogi starring Raj Kapoor and Mala Sinha, in which songs written by Sahir Ludhyanvi and sung by Mukesh and Asha Bhonsle were set to tune by Khayyam, notable amongst them “Wo Subha Kabhi to Aayegi”, “Aasman Pe hai Khauda aur Zameen pe Hum” and “Chin-o-Arab Humara”. The film Shola Aur Shabnam established Khayyam’s reputation as a great composer. The songs written by Kaifi Azmi are some of the greats of the Hindi Film Industry. From Shola aur Shabnam “Jaane kya dhhonti rehti hein ye aanken mujhmen” sung by Rafi and “Jeet Hi lenge Baazi Hum tum” sung by Lata and Rafi, from the Chetan Anand directed Aakhri Khat “Baharon mera jeevan bhi Sawaron” by Lata and “Aur kuch der theher,a ur kuch der na ja” by Rafi. Also, noticeable are songs from the film Shagun which had Khayyam’s wife Jagjit Kaur sing “Tum apna ranj-o-gham” and “Tum chali Jaogi”. From the film Lalarokh “Hai Kali Kali ke lab par” sung by Rafi and from Footpath “Shyam-e-Gham ki Kasam” sung by Talat Mehmood. From Mohhabat Isko Kehte hein "Theheriye hosh


Mohammed Zahur Khayyam mein aa lun to chaley jaiyega" by Rafi and Suman Kalyanpur. The 70’s saw Khayyam team up with Sahir Ludhyanvi once again to work in the Yash Chopra-directed “Kabhi Kabhi”. The songs were super hits and showed Khayyam’s versatility with huge hits like “Kabhi Kabhi mere dil mein Khayal ata hai”, “Tere chehre se nazar Nahin hatti” and “Mein Pal do pal ka Sahayar Hun”. The film Shankar Hussain had Rafi sing "Kahin ek Masum Nazuk si Lardki" and Lata render "Aaap yun Faaslon Se", both classic Khayyam songs. Khayyam’s gave memorable music to the late 70’s and early 80’s was from Trishul, Thodi Si Bewafaai, Bazaar and Noorie. Again pairing with Sahir in Trishul he produced great songs like “Mohabbat bare kaam ki cheez hai” and “Janeman tum kamal karti ho” and the light “Gapuchi Gapuchi gam gam”. “Hazar rahen” from Thodi si Bewafai and “Aaja re o mere dilbar Aaja” from Noorie and “Dikahyi Diye” from Bazaar are some noticeable songs. Khayyam also created music for the Kamal Amrohi directed “Razia Sultan” and his “Aye dil-e-nadan” sung by Lata capturing the mood beautifully. One of popular song is Cho lene do. Khayyam was still to deliver his best and the opportunity came in Muzaffar Ali’s Umrao Jaan in 1981. He made Asha Bhonsle sing songs which are indisputably her best. “In Aankhon ki masti ke”, “Ye Kya Jagah hai doston” and “Dil Cheez kya hai” are evergreen. Khayyam also composed non film songs noticeably "Paaon padun tore Shyam, Brij mein laut chalo" and "Ghazab kiya tere Vaade pe Aitbaar kiya". He also composed for Meena Kumari's album, 'I Write, I Recite' featuring nazms of Meena Kumari sung by her. Khayyam has always preferred to work with the poets having strong background of poetry side lining the regular film lyricists. That is the reason one finds poetry playing an equal role in Khayyam's compositions as the music or the singer. Khayyam prefers to give full freedom to the poets to express their views thereby making the expression of the songs more poetic and more meaningful. He has worked with both the contemporary and the legends in the field of poetry. That's the reason one finds in his account the work profiled by Mirza Ghalib, Daagh, Wali Saheb, Ali Sardar Jafri, Majrooh Sultanpuri, Sahir Ludhianvi, and among the new ones Naqsh Lyalpuri, Nida Fazli & Ahmed Wasi to name a few. After a very long break, he gave music in Yatra in 2006. In 2010, he was given the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award.

Awards and nominations Won[5] • • • • •

1977: Filmfare Best Music Director Award: Kabhi Kabhie 1982: Filmfare Best Music Director Award: Umrao Jaan 2007: Sangeet Natak Akademi Award: Creative Music 2010: Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award 2011: Padma Bhushan

Nominated • • • •

1980: Filmfare Best Music Director Award: Noorie 1981: Filmfare Best Music Director Award: Thodisi Bewafai 1982: Filmfare Best Music Director Award: Bazaar 1984: Filmfare Best Music Director Award: Razia Sultan

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Mohammed Zahur Khayyam

Filmography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Yatra (2006) Jaan-E-Wafa (1990) Ek Naya Rishta (1988) Anjuman (1986) Bepanaah (1985) Lorie (1984) Mehndi (1983) Razia Sultan (1983) Dil... Akhir Dil Hai (1982) Sawaal (1982) Baawri (1982) Bazaar (1982) Dil-E-Nadaan (1982) Ahista Ahista (1981) Dard (1981) Nakhuda (1981)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Umrao Jaan (1981) Chambal Ki Kasam (1980) Thodi Si Bewafaai (1980) Khandan (1979) Noorie (1979) Trishul (1978) Shankar Hussain (1977) Kabhi Kabhie (1976) Sankalp (1975) Aakhri Khat (1966) Mohabbat Isko Kahete Hain (1965) Shagoon (1964) Shola Aur Shabnam (1961) Lala Rukh (1958) Phil Subha Hogi (1958) Gul Bahar (1954) Foot Path (1953)

Further reading • Khayyam - The Man, His Life, biography.

References [1] PM meets musician Khayyam (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1714730. cms) PTI, The Times of India, 7 July 2006. [2] This studio gave a struggling musician a new dawn (http:/ / cities. expressindia. com/ fullstory. php?newsid=18751) Mohammed Wajihuddin, Indian Express, 26 May 2002. [3] Creative Music (http:/ / www. sangeetnatak. com/ programmes_recognition& honours_music_creative. html) Sangeet Natak Akademi Official Award listings. [4] Padma Bhushan (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 7362365. cms) [5] List of awards (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0451541/ awards) IMDB

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Mohammed Zahur Khayyam

External links • Mohammed Zahur Khayyam (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0451541/) at the Internet Movie Database • Best of Khayyam (http://www.dhingana.com/khaiyyaam-golden-collection-disk-1/movie/songs/hindi/ ghazals/5092)

247


Mukesh

248

Mukesh Mukesh

Background information Birth name

Mukesh Chand Mathur

Born

July 22, 1923 Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Died

August 27, 1976 (aged 53) Detroit, Michigan, USA

Genres

Playback singing

Occupations singer Instruments Vocalist Years active 1940–1976

Mukesh Chand Mathur (Hindi: मुकेश चन्द माथुर) (22 July 1923 – 27 August 1976) was an Indian playback singer of Bollywood. He, alongside Mohammad Rafi, Manna Dey and Kishore Kumar, left such an impact on the Hindi film industry that they are still remembered to date.[1] [2]

Early life Mukesh was born in a Kayastha family in Ludhiana to Zorawar Chand Mathur, an engineer, and Chand Rani. He was the sixth in a family of ten children. The music teacher who came home to teach Mukesh's sister, Sundar Pyari, found a pupil in Mukesh who would listen from the adjoining room. Mukesh left school after the 10th grade and worked briefly for the Department of Public Works. He experimented with voice recordings during his employment in Delhi and gradually developed his singing abilities.

Singing career Mukesh's voice was first noticed by Motilal, a distant relative, when he sang at his sister's wedding. Motilal took him to Bombay and arranged for singing lessons by Pandit Jagannath Prasad. During this period Mukesh was offered a role in a Hindi film, Nirdosh (1941). His first song was Dil hi bujha hua ho to as an actor-singer for Nirdosh. He got his break as a playback singer for actor Motilal in 1945 with the film Pehli nazar with music by Anil Biswas & lyrics by Aah Sitapuri. The first song that he sang for a Hindi film was Dil jalta hai to jalne de, which was picturised on Motilal. He was such a fan of K. L. Saigal that in his early years of playback singing he used to imitate his idol. In fact, it is said that when K. L. Saigal first heard the song Dil jalta hai to jalne de, he remarked, "That's strange, I don't recall


Mukesh singing that song". He is best known for the songs he sang for Raj Kapoor. In 1974, Mukesh received National Film Award for Best Male Playback Singer for the song Kai baar yoon bhi dekhaa hai from Rajnigandha (1974), and Filmfare Awards for the songs Sab kuch seekha in the movie Anari (1959), Sabse bada naadan wahi hai in Pehchaan (1970), Jai bolo in Be imaan (1972) and Kabhi Kabhie Mere Dil Mein, the title song of film Kabhie Kabhie (1976). A total of around 1,200 songs were sung by him. This number is less than those sung by some of his contemporaries, but the fact is that Mukesh emphasized on quality rather than quantity. The comparatively less songs sung by him in the 70s can be attributed to both the Kishore wave and his failing health due to his worsening heart problem.

Death Mukesh died of a heart attack on 27 August 1976 in Detroit, Michigan, USA, where he had gone to perform in a concert. His body was flown to India by Lata Mangeshkar, where a grand funeral ceremony was held in the presence of several actors, with personalities of the Indian film industry and fans paying tribute. When news of his death reached Raj Kapoor, he burst into tears, and remarked, "I have lost my voice," which is a testimony to the association of Mukesh's voice (in playback) to the immensely popular songs of Raj Kapoor's films. A famous song of the 50s featured on Bharat Bhushan Aa laut ke aa ja mere meet is another example of his earlier melodies, as is Dil tadap tadapke keh raha hai, picturised on Dilip Kumar. After Mukesh's death, his newer, hitherto unreleased, songs were released in 1977 in films such as Dharam Veer, Amar Akbar Anthony, Khel khiladi ka, Darinda and Chandi sona. The year 1978 also featured a considerable number of Mukesh's songs in films such as Aahuti, Paramatma, Tumhari kasam and Satyam Shivam Sundaram, where Mukesh sang his last film song Chanchal sheetal nirmal komal for Raj Kapoor's younger brother, Shashi Kapoor. From 1980 onward, Mukesh's voice was heard in many later released films such as Shaitan mujarim, Premika, Patthar se takkar (1980), Sanjh ki bela, Maila anchal (1981), Aarohi (1982), Chor mandali (1983), Nirlaj (1985), Love and God (1986), Shubh chintak (1989), and his last known release of Chand grahan (1997).

Personal life Mukesh married Sarla Trivedi Raichand alias Bachhiben in a temple in Kandiwali in 1946, at the residence of R. D. Mathur. Sarla was the daughter of a Gujarati Brahmin millionaire. With no proper house, an erratic income and what was then considered in India a supposedly "immoral" profession, Mukesh and Sarla were forced to elope. Everyone made dire predictions of unhappy days and divorce, but both weathered the lean days and celebrated their thirtieth wedding anniversary on 22 July 1976, four days before his departure for the U.S.A. on 27 July 1976. The couple had five children - Rita, Nitin, Nalini (d. 1978), Mohnish (Taboo - nickname) and Namrata (Amrita). He is the grandfather of actor Neil Nitin Mukesh.

249


Mukesh

Awards Winner

National Film Awards • 1974 - National Film Award for Best Male Playback Singer for Kain baar yoon bhi dekhaa hai song in the film Rajnigandha

Filmfare Awards Winner • • • •

1959 - Filmfare Best Male Playback Award for Subkuchh seekha humne song in the film Anari (inaugural) 1970 - Filmfare Best Male Playback Award for Sabse bada naadan song in the film Pehchan 1972 - Filmfare Best Male Playback Award for Jai bolo beiman ki song in the film Beimaan 1976 - Filmfare Best Male Playback Award for Kabhi Kabhie Mere Dil Mein song in the film Kabhi Kabhie

Nominated • 1961 - Hothon Pe Sacchai song in the film Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai • 1964 - Dost Dost Na Raha song in the film Sangam • • • • • • • •

1967 - Sawan Ka Mahina song in the film Milan 1970 - Bas Yehi Apradh Main Har Baar Karta Hoon song in the film Pehchan 1972 - Ek Pyar Ka Nagma song in the film Shor 1974 - Main Na Bhoolunga song in the film Roti Kapda Aur Makaan 1976 - Main Pal Do Pal Ka Shayar song in the film Kabhie Kabhie 1976 - Ek Din Bik Jayega, Maati Ke Mol song in the film Dharam Karam 1977 - Suhani Chandni Raten song in the film Mukti 1978 - Chanchal Sheetal song in the film Satyam Shivam Sundaram

Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards Winner • 1967 - Best Male Playback Singer for Teesri Kasam [3] • 1968 - Best Male Playback Singer for Milan [4] • 1970 - Best Male Playback Singer for Saraswatichandra [5]

Filmography • • • • • • • • • •

Pehli Nazar (First Look) (1945) Mela (The Fair) (1948) Aag (Fire) (1948) Andaz (1949) Awaara (1951), featuring the song Awara Hoon Aah (1953) Barsaat (1953) Shree 420 (1955) Parvarish (Upbringing) (1958) Phir Subaha Hogi (1958)

• Anari (Fool) (1959) • Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai (1960) • Chhalia (1960)

250


Mukesh • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Bumbai ka Babu (1960) Hum Hindustani (1960) Banjarin (1960) Mera Ghar Mere Bachhe (1960) HoneyMoon (1960) Phool Bane Angarey (1962) Aashiq (1962) Dil Hi To Hai (1963) Akeli Mat Jaiyo (1963) Parasmani (1963) Sangam (1964) Ishaara (1964) Himalay ki God Mein (1965) Lal Bungla (1966) Gunaho ka devta (1967) Raat Aur Din (1967) Saraswatichandra (1968)

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Sambandh (1969) Vishwas (1969) Mera Naam Joker (1970) ek Bar Muskura Do (1972) Dharam Karam (1975) Dus Numbari (1975) Sanyasi (1975) Do Jasoos (1975) Kabhi Kabhie (1976) Darinda (1977) Dharam Veer (1977) Satyam Shivam Sundaram (1978)

References [1] Gopal, Sangita; Sujata Moorti (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. p. 94. ISBN 0816645795. [2] Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen. Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0851704557, page 169. [3] http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196730. htm [4] http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196831. htm [5] http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197033. htm

External links • • • • •

- www.SingerMukesh.com A Dedicated Web Site To Singer Mukesh (http://www.SingerMukesh.com) - Pankaj Dwivedi The Man With Mukesh (http://www.SingerMukesh.com/Pankaj.htm) Mukesh (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006715/) at the Internet Movie Database Legends - Mukesh (http://cinepick.com/India/Mukesh.html) Listen Mukesh Online (http://www.nagarnews.com/freehindimusic/mukesh.htm)

251


Nargis

252

Nargis For the town in France, see Nargis, Loiret; For the 2008 cyclone which devastated the Irrawaddy Delta and the city of Yangon, see Cyclone Nargis, for the flower, see Nargis (flower), for the other actress, see Nargis (actress)

Nargis

Born

Fatima Rashid 1 June 1929 Calcutta, West Bengal, British India

Died

3 May 1981 (aged 51) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Actress

Years active 1935, 1942–1967 Spouse

Sunil Dutt (1958–1981) (her death)

Children

Sanjay Dutt Namrata Dutt Priya Dutt

Nargis Dutt (Hindi: नर्गिस, Urdu: ‫ ;ﻧﺮﮔﺲ‬1 June 1929 – 3 May 1981), born Fatima Rashid but known by her screen name, Nargis,[1] was an Indian film actress. She is widely regarded as one of the greatest actresses in the history of Hindi cinema. She made her screen debut as a child in Talash-E-Haq in 1935, but her acting carer began in 1942 with Tamanna. During a career that spanned from the 1940s to the 60s, Nargis appeared in numerous commercially successful as well as critically appreciated films, many of which featured her alongside actor and filmmaker Raj Kapoor. One of her best-known roles was that of Radha in the Academy Award-nominated Mother India (1957), a performance that won her Best Actress trophies at the Filmfare Awards and the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. In 1958, Nargis married her Mother India co-star, actor Sunil Dutt, and left the film industry. She would appear infrequently in films during the 60s. Some of her films of this period include the drama Raat Aur Din (1967), for which she got the inaugural National Film Award for Best Actress. Along with her husband, Nargis formed the Ajanta Arts Cultural Troupe, which roped in several leading actors and singers of the time and held stage shows at border areas.[2] In early 1970s, she became the first patron of Spastics Society of India,[3] and her subsequent work with the organisation brought her recognition as a social worker, and later a Rajya Sabha nomination in 1980.[4] Nargis died in 1981 of pancreatic cancer, a few days before her son Sanjay Dutt made his film debut in Bollywood. In 1982, the Nargis Dutt Memorial Cancer Foundation was established in her memory.[5] The award for best feature film on national integration in the annual National Film Awards ceremony is called the Nargis Dutt Award in her honour.[6]


Nargis

Early life and background Nargis was born into the tawaif tradition[7] of Calcutta. Her mother, the Allahabad-based Hindustani classical music singer and courtesan Jaddanbai,[7] did not teach her singing, to prevent her from falling into the tawaif tradition. Instead, she introduced her into the movie culture unfolding in India at the time. Her father was one Uttamchand Mohanchand (popularly known as Mohanbabu), a wealthy doctor born in a Mohyal Brahmin family from Rawalpindi.[8] Her only brother, Anwar Hussain, also became a film actor. Anwar Hussain was born to Jaddanbai and a different husband, and was raised in Muslim tradition like his mother.

Career Fatima was recruited to the cinema at an early age. She made her first film appearance in the 1935 Talashe Haq when she was six years old, credited as "Baby Nargis". Nargis, her stage name, means "Narcissus", the flower. She was subsequently credited as Nargis in all of her films. Nargis appeared in numerous movies after her film debut; she won lasting fame for her later, adult, roles, starting with at the age of 14, in Mehboob Khan's Taqdeer in 1943 opposite, Motilal.[4] She starred in many popular Hindi movies of the late 1940s and 1950s such as Barsaat (1949), Andaz (1949), Awaara (1951), Deedar (1951), Shree 420 (1955), and Chori Chori (1956). In most of her films she starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar. Her most famous role came in Mehboob Khan's Oscar-nominated rural drama Mother India in 1957. She won the Filmfare Best Actress Award for her performance. After her marriage to Sunil Dutt in 1958, Nargis gave up her film career after her last few film releases to settle down with her family. She made her last film appearance in the 1967 film Raat Aur Din for which she won a National Film Award for Best Actress, the first actress to win in this category. She also received a Filmfare Best Actress Award Nomination for this film. In 2011, Rediff.com listed her as the greatest actress of all time, noting, "An actress with range, style, grace and an incredibly warm screen presence, Nargis is truly a leading lady to celebrate."[9]

Personal life Nargis married actor Sunil Dutt (himself a Mohyal from Jhelum, British India). Reportedly, Dutt had saved her life from a fire accident on the sets of Mother India.[10] The couple married on 11 March 1958 and had three children together: Sanjay, Namrata, and Priya. Sanjay Dutt went on to become a very successful film actor. Namrata married actor Kumar Gaurav, son of veteran actor Rajendra Kumar who had appeared alongside both Nargis and Sunil Dutt in Mother India. Priya became a politician, and since 2005 has been a Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha).[10] Along with her husband, Nargis formed the Ajanta Arts Cultural Troupe, which roped in several leading actors and singers of the time, and performed at remote frontiers to entertain the Indian soldiers; it was the first troupe to perform at Dhaka, after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and the formation of Bangladesh.[2] Later, Nargis worked for the cause of spastic children. She became the first patron of The Spastics Society of India. Her charitable work for the organisation got her recognition as a social worker.[2]

Death Nargis was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and underwent treatment for the disease at Memorial Sloan窶適ettering Cancer Center in New York.[10] Upon her return to India, her condition deteriorated, and she was admitted to Breach Candy Hospital in Mumbai. She sank into a coma on 2 May 1981 and died on 3 May 1981.[10] Her absence at the premiere of her son's debut film Rocky on 7 May 1981, where one seat was kept vacant for her, was a nationally famous event.[10] Nargis is buried at Badakabarastan in Marine Lines, Mumbai.

253


Nargis

254

Awards and recognitions • • • • •

1957 - Filmfare Best Actress Award, Mother India 1958 - Best Actress at Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, Mother India 1958 - Padma Shri - first film personality to be conferred the award.[4] 1968 - National Film Award for Best Actress, Raat Aur Din Nargis Dutt was the recipient of the "Urvashy Award", the highest honour that can be conferred on a movie actress in India.[4] • She was not just the first actress to win the "Karlovy Wary Award", and also nominated to the Rajya Sabha (Upper house of Indian Parliament) (1980–81),[1] [11] but fell ill and died during her tenure.[12] • She had been conferred with a National Award for contribution to Indian Cinema.[13] • On 8 January 2001, Amitabh Bachchan and Nargis Dutt were honoured with the "Best Artists of the Millennium" award by Hero Honda and film magazine "Stardust".[14]

Filmography •

Talashe Haq (1935)

Pyar Ki Baaten (1951)

Tamanna (1942)

Hulchul (1951)

Taqdeer (1943)

Deedar (1951)

Humayun (1945)

Awaara (1951)

Bisvi Sadi (1945)

Sheesha (1952)

Nargis (1946)

Bewafaa (1952)

Mehandi (1947)

Ashiana (1952)

Mela (1948)

Anhonee (1952)

Anokha Pyar (1948)

Amber (1952)

Anjuman (1948)

Shikast (1953)

Aag (1948)

Paapi (1953)

Roomal (1949)

Dhoon (1953)

Lahore (1949)

Aah (1953)

Darogaji (1949)

Angarey (1954)

Barsaat (1949)

Shree 420 (1955)

Andaz (1949)

Jagte Raho (1956)

Pyaar (1950)

Chori Chori (1956)

Meena Bazaar (1950) •

Pardesi (1957 film)

Khel (1950)

Mother India (1957)

Jogan (1950)

Lajwanti (1958)

Jan Pahchan (1950)

Ghar Sansar (1958)

Chhoti Bhabbi (1950) •

Adalat (1958)

Babul (1950)

Yaadein (1964)

Aadhi Raat (1950)

Raat Aur Din (1967)

Saagar (1951)

Tosa oneira stous dromous (1968)


Nargis

Further reading • Mr. and Mrs. Dutt: Memories of our Parents, Namrata Dutt Kumar and Priya Dutt, 2007, Roli Books. ISBN 9788174364555.[15] • Darlingji: The True Love Story of Nargis and Sunil Dutt, Kishwar Desai. 2007, Harper Collins. ISBN 9788172236977. • The Life and Times of Nargis, T. J. S. George. 1994, Harper Collins. ISBN 9788172231491.

References [1] 57. Shrimati Nargis Dutt (Artiste) –1980-81 (http:/ / rajyasabha. nic. in/ publ/ pandp/ book2. htm) List of Nominated members, Rajya Sabha Official website. [2] Dauntless Dutt (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20040529/ windows/ main1. htm) The Tribune, 29 May 2004. [3] History (http:/ / www. nrcissi. org/ aboutus/ history. html) The Spastics Society of India. [4] Dutt, Nargis (1929-1981) (http:/ / nrcw. nic. in/ shared/ sublinkimages/ 142. htm) The National Resource Centre for Inclusion, The Spastics Society of India. [5] About us (http:/ / www. nargisdutt. com/ about. php) Nargis Dutt Memorial Foundation. [6] PM’s remarks at the Release of Book ”Mr. & Mrs. Dutt” on Late Sunil and Nargis Dutt (http:/ / www. pmindia. nic. in/ speech/ content. asp?id=587) Prime Minister of India Official website, 28 September 2007. [7] http:/ / www. tehelka. com/ story_main43. asp?filename=hub071109bring_on. asp [8] Biography of Nargis (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0004291/ bio) at IMDB. [9] Sen, Raja (2011-06-29). "Readers Choice: The Greatest Actresses of all time" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ slide-show/ slide-show-1-greatest-actresses-of-all-time/ 20110629. htm). Rediff.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [10] Dhawan, M. (27 April 2003). "A paean to Mother India" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2003/ 20030427/ spectrum/ main6. htm). The Tribune. . Retrieved 2008-09-07. [11] "Lady In White" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ fullstory. php?content_id=4109). . [12] Nargis: A daughter remembers (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ jun/ 01priya. htm) Rediff.com, 1 June 2004. [13] The Hindu : New Delhi News : An award in a different genre (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2005/ 07/ 01/ stories/ 2005070106120200. htm) The Hindu, 1 July 2007 [14] "Amitabh, Nargis 'best artistes'" (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2000/ 20000109/ nation. htm#2), The Tribune [15] To Mr. and Mrs. Dutt, with love (Literary Review) (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ lr/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ stories/ 2007100750160200. htm) The Hindu, 7 Oct 2007.

External links • Nargis (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004291/) at the Internet Movie Database • Nargis Dutt Memorial Foundation (http://www.nargisdutt.com/)

255


Naseeruddin Shah

256

Naseeruddin Shah Naseeruddin Shah

Naseeruddin Shah Born

20 July 1950 Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India

Occupation

Actor

Years active 1975–present Spouse

Ratna Pathak Shah

Children

Imaad Shah Vivaan Shah Heeba Shah

Naseeruddin Shah (Urdu: ‫ ﻧﺼﯿﺮﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺷﺎﮦ‬, Hindi: नसीरुद्दीन शाह) (born 20 July 1950) is an Indian film actor and director. He is an actor of the Indian cinema/ Bollywood. In 2003, the Government of India honored him with the Padma Bhushan for his contributions towards Indian cinema.

Early life Shah was born on July 20, 1950 in Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India. He is a descendant of the 19th-century Afghan warlord Jan Fishan Khan, and related to the Afghan writer Idries Shah, the famous Pakistani actor, Syed Kamal Shah , Director General of IB, Pakistan, Shah Mahboob Alam and the cricketer Owais Shah.[1] Naseeruddin Shah did his schooling at St. Anselm's Ajmer and St Joseph's College, Nainital. He graduated in arts from Aligarh Muslim University in 1971 and attended National School of Drama in Delhi. He has seen success in both mainstream Bollywood cinema as well as in Parallel Cinema. He also appeared in many international films most notably playing Captain Nemo in the Hollywood comic book adaptation The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. His elder brother Lt. General Zameerud-din Shah PVSM, SM, VSM, also an alumnus of St. Joseph's Nainital, retired from the Indian Army in early 2008 as Deputy Chief of Army Staff (Planning and Systems) and formerly commanded Dimapur based 3 Corps. He also served as Director Indian Defence Attache to Saudi Arabia from Feb 1994 -April 1997.[2] [3]


Naseeruddin Shah

Career Shah has acted in movies such as Nishant, Aakrosh, Sparsh, Mirch Masala, Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Ata Hai, Trikal, Bhavni Bhavai, Junoon, Mandi, Mohan Joshi Hazir Ho!, Ardh Satya, Katha, Jaane Bhi Do Yaaro, etc.[4] In the very early stages of his career he made a film with Rakhi where she played the character of kusumji whom he was forced to marry unwillingly (in the film). One of his most important films Masoom (1983) was shot at St Joseph's College, Nainital. He became active in mainstream Bollywood cinema with the 1980 film Hum Paanch. His next major success in mainstream films was the 1986 multi-starrer film Karma where he acted alongside veteran Dilip Kumar. Starring roles for films such as, Ijaazat (1987), Jalwa (1988) and Hero Hiralal (1988) followed. In 1988 he played opposite his wife Ratna Pathak as Inspector Ghote, the fictional detective of H. R. F. Keating's novels in the Merchant-Ivory English language film The Perfect Murder. He has acted in several multi-starrer Bollywood films as well, such as, Ghulami (1985), Tridev (1989) and Vishwatma (1992). In 1994, he acted as the villain in Mohra, his 100th film as an actor. He strongly believed that the distinction between art and commercial films had largely reduced, especially with the directors of the former also making commercial films. In 2000 his dream of playing Mahatma Gandhi was realized when he played Gandhi in Kamal Hassan's critically acclaimed Hey Ram which focused on the assassination of Gandhi from the assailant's point of view. He won a lot of critical acclaim by acting as Mohit, the drunken coach to a deaf and mute boy in Iqbal which was written by Vipul K Rawal keeping specially him in mind. He also worked in the critically acclaimed A Wednesday (2008). Later, he starred in international projects such as Monsoon Wedding in 2001 and a Hollywood comic book adaptation The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen in 2003 (co-starring Sean Connery) where he played the role of Captain Nemo. His portrayal of Nemo was very close to the design of the graphic novel, although his Nemo was far less manic. He worked in an Indian adaptation of Shakespeare's Macbeth, titled Maqbool and Rajiv Rai's Asambhav in 2004. He then went on to work in The Great New Wonderful. He was most recently seen in Ishqiya. Shah's upcoming films include The Hunt where he plays a recluse growing marijuana in his forest retreat. He made his Pakistani film debut in the critically acclaimed and controversial film Khuda Ke Liye by Shoaib Mansoor where he played a short cameo.

Other media and art forms In 1977, he along with Tom Alter and Benjamin Gilani formed a theatre group called Motley Productions. Their first play was Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot, which was staged at Prithvi Theatre on 29 July 1979.[5] In 1988, he acted in the eponymous television series based on the life and times of Mirza Ghalib, directed by Gulzar and telecast on DD National. In 1989, he had also acted as the Maratha King Shivaji in another eponymous television series Bharat Ek Khoj based on Jawaharlal Nehru's book The Discovery of India directed by noted film director Shyam Benegal. The role of Aurangzeb was performed by Om Puri. The story of Shivaji was spread over two episodes. In 1999, he acted as a special agent in a TV Series Tarkash, coming in Zee TV. He played the role of a retired agent haunted by nightmares who is re-inducted as he apparently knows something about a dreaded terrorist somehow connected with his past. In 1998, he played the role of Mahatma Gandhi in the play Mahatma Vs. Gandhi, (which looked at the Mahatma's relation with Harilal Gandhi, his first son). With this, he achieved his objective of portraying Mahatma Gandhi, a role he had auditioned for Richard Attenborough's Gandhi. Incidentally, in 2000, he again portrayed the Mahatma, this time on film, in Hey Ram.

257


Naseeruddin Shah

258

His performance in Sarfarosh (1999) was widely acclaimed. He played the villain with dual identity of a Ghazal singer and Pakistani spy who supports terrorism in India. He was widely appreciated in his role of Mohit a drunken coach in the critically acclaimed film Iqbal (film). The role was specially written keeping him in mind by Vipul K Rawal, the writer of Iqbal (film). The role got him rave reviews. The film was also recently voted as one of Ten Hindi Films that is considered ideal training and motivational material.[6] He was the first of several celebrity actors, who played the role of narrator in the popular audiobook series for kids Karadi Tales,. He was also the narrator in the film Paheli - the Indian entry to the 2006 Academy Awards. He has been awarded the life membership of International Film And Television Club of Asian Academy Of Film & Television.

As director Naseeruddin Shah has been giving performances with his theatre troupe at places such as New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Lahore. He has directed plays written by Lavender Kumar, Ismat Chughtai and Saadat Hasan Manto. His directorial debut in movie, Yun Hota To Kya Hota, was released in 2006. The movie stars several established actors such as Konkona Sen Sharma, Paresh Rawal, Irfan Khan, newcomer Ayesha Takia, his son Imaad Shah and his old friend Ravi Baswani.

Personal life He is married to Bollywood actress Ratna Pathak Shah. They have a daughter, Heebaa, and two sons, Imaad and Vivaan. They have co-starred in the films like Jaane Tu... Ya Jaane Na, Mirch Masala and The Perfect Murder. Heeba Shah is Mr. Shah's daughter from the earlier marriage. She is not the daughter of Ratna Pathak Shah. Naseeruddin Shah married Ratna Pathak after the demise of Heeba Shah's mother.[7] [8]

Awards Award •

Film

Year

Status

Civilian Awards

Padma Shri

India's fourth highest civilian award 1987

Won

Padma Bhushan

India's Third highest civilian award 2003

Won

National Film Award for Best Actor

Sparsh

1979

Won

National Film Award for Best Actor

Paar

1984

Won

National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor Iqbal

2006

Won

National Film Award

Filmfare Award

Filmfare Best Actor Award

Aakrosh

1981

Won

Filmfare Best Actor Award

Chakra

1982

Won

Filmfare Best Actor Award

Masoom

1984

Won

Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award

Sir

1993

Nominated

Filmfare Best Villain Award

Mohra

1995

Nominated

Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award

Naajayaz

1996

Nominated

Filmfare Best Villain Award

Chaahat

1998

Nominated


Naseeruddin Shah

259 Filmfare Best Villain Award

Sarfarosh

2000

Nominated

Filmfare Best Villain Award

Krrish

2007

Nominated

Filmfare Best Actor Award

A Wednesday

2008

Nominated

Paar

1984

Won

Venice Film Festival

The Volpi Cup (Award for Best Actor)

Other Awards • 2000: Won: Sangeet Natak Akademi Award • 2000: Won: IIFA (International Indian Film Academy) Award — Artistic Excellence for Performance in a Negative Role for Sarfarosh

Selected filmography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Nishant (1975) — Smita Patil, Shabana Azmi — as Vishwam Manthan (1976) — Smita Patil — as Bhola Bhumika (1977) — Smita Patil — as Sunil Verma Tabbaliyu Neenaade Magane (1977) (Kannada) — as Shastri Junoon (1978) — Shabana Azmi — as Sarfaraz Khan Sparsh (1979) — Shabana Azmi — as Aniruddh Parmar Aakrosh (1980) — Smita Patil — as Bhaskar Kulkarni Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Aata Hai (1980) — Shabana Azmi — as Albert Pinto Bhavni Bhavai (1980) — Smita Patil Hum Paanch (1980) — as Suraj (as Nasiruddin Shah) Chakra (1981) — Smita Patil — as Lukka Umrao Jaan (1981) — Rekha — as Gohar Mirza Bazaar (1982) — Smita Patil — as Salim Jaane Bhi Do Yaaron (1983) — Bhakti Barve — as Vinod Chopra Katha (1983) — Deepti Naval — as Rajaram Purshotam Joshi Masoom (1983) — Shabana Azmi — as DK Woh Saat Din (1983) — Padmini Kohlapure — as Dr. Anand Paar (1984) — Shabana Azmi — as Naurangia Mohan Joshi Hazir Ho! (1984) — as Lawyer Malkani Holi (1984) — as Professor Singh Ghulami (1985) — Smita Patil — as SP Sultan Singh Trikaal (1985) — Leela Naidu, Kulbhushan Kharbanda — as Ruiz Pereira Mirch Masala (1985) — Smita Patil — as subedar Karma (1986) — as Khairuddin Chishti Jalwa (1987) — Archana Puran Singh — as Kapil Tamas (1987) Ijaazat (1987) — Rekha — as Mahender Hero Hiralal (1988) — Sanjana Kapoor — as Hero Hiralal Maalamaal (1988) — as Raj Pestonjee (1988) — Shabana Azmi — as Phirojshah The Perfect Murder (1988) — Ratna Pathak — as Inspector Ghote Tridev (1989) — Sonam — as Jay Singh Ek Ghar (1991)


Naseeruddin Shah • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Vishwatma (1992) — Sonam — as Suryapratap Singh Electric Moon (1992) — Goswani, Roshan Seth, Leela Naidu — as Rambuhj Goswami Chamatkar (1992) — Shahrukh Khan, Urmila Matondkar — as Amar Kumar (alias Marco) Panaah (1992) Kabhi Haan Kabhi Naa (1993) — as Father Breganza Sir (1993) — Soni Razdan — as Professor Amar Verma Ponthan Mada (1994)(Malayalam film) — Mammootty — as Sheema Thampuran Mohra (1994) — as Mr. Zindal Drohkaal (1994) — as DCP Abbas Lodhi Naajayaz (1995) — Reema Lagoo Chaahat (1996) — as Raj Solanki Bombay Boys (1997) — as Mastana Chinagate (1998) — as Major Sarfaraz Khan Such a Long Journey (1998) — as Jimmy Bilimoria Sarfarosh (1999) — as Gulfaam Hasan Bhopal Express (1999) — as Bashir Hey Ram (2000) — as Mahatma Gandhi

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Monsoon Wedding (2001) — as Lalit Verma The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003)(US film) — as Captain Nemo Encounter: The Killing (2002) — as Inspector Bharucha Maqbool (2003) — as Inspector Purohit 3 Deewarein (2003) — Sujata Mehta — as Ishaan Main Hoon Na (2004) — as Brig. Shekhar Sharma Paheli (2005) — Voice of narrator Iqbal (2005) — as Mohit, cricket coach Being Cyrus (2006) — Dimple Kapadia — as Dinshaw Sethna Krrish (2006) — as Dr. Siddhant Arya Omkara (2006) — as Bhaisaab Banaras (2006) — as Babaji Parzania (2007) — Sarika — as Cyrus Amal (2007) — Seema Biswas — as G.K. Jayaram Khuda Ke Liye (A Pakistani film) (2007) — as Maulana Wali Dus Kahaniyaan (2007) Mithya (2008) Shoot on Sight (2008) — as Tariq Ali Jaane Tu Ya Jaane Na (2008) — as Amar Singh Rathore, Jai's father A Wednesday (2008) — Anonymous antagonist Maharathi (2008) — as Jaisingh Adenwalla Barah Aana (2009) — as Shukla Firaaq (2009) — as Khan Sahab Today's Special (2009) — as Akbar Ishqiya (2010) — as Khalu Jaan/Khalu/Iftikhar Raajneeti (2010) — as Bhaskar Sanyal Allah Ke Banday (2010) — as Warden 7 Khoon Maaf (2011) — as Dr. Modhusudhon Tarafdar

• That Girl in Yellow Boots (2011) • The Hunt - Feature Film - India (2011) — Post-Production, as Colonel

260


Naseeruddin Shah • • • •

261

Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara (2011) — as Salman Habib The Dirty Picture (2011) - Production Devool- Marathi (2011) - To be released Mad Dad (2012) - Announced

Co-Producer • Raghu Romeo (2003) (released)

Director • Yun Hota To Kya Hota (2006)

References [1] Narayanan, Renuka. "The way of the goofy" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ ie/ daily/ 20010219/ ied19024. html). Indian Express. . Retrieved 2009-05-31. [2] "Indian Army promises transparency in defence deals" (http:/ / www. thaindian. com/ newsportal/ uncategorized/ indian-army-promises-transparency-in-defence-deals_10026004. html). Thaindian.com. 2008-03-10. . Retrieved 2011-07-30. [3] http:/ / www. eastarmy. nic. in/ views-counter-views/ ied-victims. html [4] "Naseeruddin Shah" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0787462). . Retrieved 22 Sept, 2009. [5] "Still waiting, for Mr Godot" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ res/ web/ pIe/ ie/ daily/ 19970821/ 23350783. html). The Indian Express. August 21, 1997. . [6] http:/ / www. biggyan. com/ iqbal [7] Tags: (2009-08-17). "Did you know why Heeba Shah agreed to play the role of the young Daadisa?" (http:/ / www. tellychakkar. com/ did-you-know/ why-heeba-shah-agreed-play-role-young-daadisa). Tellychakkar.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-30. [8] "Naseeruddin Shah's son falls off train" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ india/ Naseeruddin-Shahs-son-falls-off-train/ articleshow/ 548379. cms). The Times Of India. 24 November 2006. .

National Film Awards

External links • A conversation with Naseeruddin Shah (http://jaiarjun.blogspot.com/2010/03/ conversation-with-naseeruddin-shah.html) • Naseeruddin Shah (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0787462/) at the Internet Movie Database • Full Filmography (http://www.cuppax.in/artist/Naseeruddin-Shah/44664) • A review of the play Mahatma Vs. Gandhi (http://www.rediff.com/news/1998/feb/23nandy.htm) • Article mentioning that Naseeruddin Shah lost out on the title role for the film Gandhi (http://cinema.sholay. com/stories/dec2001/24122001-1.htm) • Article about Shah's direction of plays (http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/mp/2003/03/24/stories/ 2003032400650100.htm) • Narrator of Karadi tales (http://www.karaditales.com/narrators.html) • An interview about state of Bollywood movies (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2001/dec/01shah.htm) • An article about Naseerudddin Shah's directorial debut in Cinema (http://www.deccanherald.com/ deccanherald/aug142005/enter1043402005812.asp) • Award at the International Film Festival of Mumbai (http://www.telegraphindia.com/1050115/asp/opinion/ story_4255699.asp) ·


Naushad

262

Naushad Naushad Ali

Naushad in 2005 Background information Born

January 12, 1919

Died

May 5, 2006 (aged 88)

Genres

Hindustani classical music, Indian film music

Occupations composer, music director, film producer, writer Years active 1940–2005

Naushad Ali (Hindi: नौशाद अली, Urdu: ‫ ;ﻧﻮﺷﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﯽ‬December 25, 1919 – May 5, 2006) was an Indian musician. He was one of the foremost music directors for Bollywood films of all time, and is particularly known for popularizing the use of classical music in films. His first film as an independent music director was Prem Nagar in 1940. His first musical success film was Rattan (1944), following it up with 35 silver jubilee hits, 12 golden jubilee and 3 diamond jubilee mega successes. Naushad was conferred with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1982, and Padma Bhushan in 1992. The Guardian had referred him as Master of Bollywood film music magic.[1]

Early life and education Naushad was raised as a Muslim in Lucknow, a city with a long tradition as a center of Muslim culture. His father, Wahid Ali, was a munshi (court clerk). As a child, Naushad would visit the annual fair at the Deva Sharif in Barabanki, 25 km from Lucknow, where all the great qawwals and musicians of those days would perform before the devotees, and Naushad would sit there, listening to those wondrous melodies. He studied classic Hindustani music there under Ustad Ghurbat Ali, Ustad Yusuf Ali, Ustad Babban Saheb, and others. He repaired harmoniums. As a lad, he joined a junior theatrical club and was appointed as the club's music maestro for their theatrical presentations. He used to watch silent films at the Royal theatre in Lucknow. Theatre owners would hire a team of musicians to play the tabla, harmonium, sitar and violin. The musicians would watch the film first, make notes, finalise the scales required. When the show began in the evening, they would sit in front of the screen and play music for the scenes. This was a great way to be entertained and learn music at the same time. It made him grasp the nuances required in composing a film's background music score. In time Naushad formed his own Windsor Music Entertainers or just Windsor Entertainers, so named because he had seen the word "Windsor" around Lucknow and liked its ring. It led to the Indian Star Theatrical Company in a theatre at Golagunj colony in Lucknow. He was trained under Laddan Khanhad where he became capable of working


Naushad independently as a composer. There he also developed the sense to pick rare musical jewels from the folk tradition of Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Saurashtra during the company's sojourns in those regions. The traveling players got as far as Viramgam in Gujarat, where they discovered penury, even after selling off theatrical props and musical instruments. The company limped back to Lucknow through the kindness of one of Naushad's friends. Naushad had already become a cinema fan in the silent era, and then, in 1931, Indian cinema got voice and music that further fascinated the 13 year old boy. But his family was strict follower of Islamic diktat of prohibition of music and his father gave him ultimatum to leave music if he has to stay at home. He ran away to Mumbai (then called Bombay) in the late 1937 to try his luck as a musician.

Career In Mumbai, he initially stayed with an acquaintance from Lucknow (U.P.) at Colaba and after a while, shifted to Dadar opposite the Broadway theater where he would sleep on the footpath. He assisted music director Ustad Jhande Khan who was at the peak of his success those days, at a monthly salary of Rs 40. The producer was a Russian and the studio was at Chembur. The film could not be completed. Naushad was a piano player so he worked as a pianist in composer Ustad Mushtaq Hussain's orchestra. He then polished off an unfinished film score and got a credit as assistant to Hussain. Then the film company collapsed. Composer Khemchand Prakash took him on as his assistant for the film Kanchan at Ranjit Studio at a salary of Rs 60 per month, for which Naushad remained extremely grateful and, in interviews, had called Khemchand his guru. His friend, lyricist D N Madhok trusted Naushad's unusual talent for composing music and introduced him to various film producers. Chandulal Shah, the owner of Ranjit Studios, offered to sign Naushad for one of his forthcoming films. Naushad composed a lilting bhajan for this film, ‘Bata de koi kaun gali gaye Shyam’, but the film never got on the floors. He was assistant music director for the Punjabi film 'Mirza Sahib' (1939). He composed for his first Independent film Prem Nagar in 1940 that had story set in Kachchh for which he did a lot of research into the folk music of the area. With A.R. Kardar's film Nai Duniya (1942), he got first credit as "music director" and he began to work regularly for Kardar Productions. He however had a flexibility that he could work outside Kardar Productions, and this arrangement continued ever after. He first got noticed with A.R. Kardar's film Sharda (1942) wherein 13-year-old Suraiya debut with Panchhi Ja song for the playback for heroine Mehtab. It was Rattan (1944) that took Naushad right to the top and enabled him to charge Rs 25,000 a film then. But his Lucknow based family remained against music and Naushad had to hide the fact that he composes music from his family. When Naushad got married, the band was playing the tunes of the super hit songs of Naushad's film Rattan while Naushad's father and father-in-law were condemning the musician who had composed these songs, Naushad dared not tell them that it was he who had composed the music. 1946 brought Anmol Ghadi in which he worked with Noorjehan and Shahjehan and paired with K L Saigal, both films and the music became super hit. From 1942 until the late 1960s, he was one of the top music directors in Bollywood. While he did less than a hundred films during his lifetime, 26 of those films celebrated Silver jubilees (25 weeks run) -- 8 celebrated golden jubilees (50 weeks run) and 4 celebrated diamond jubilees (60 weeks run). (inclusive count - a diamond jubilee film also celebrated Silver and Golden jubilee) Naushad worked with several lyricists, including Shakeel Badayuni, Majrooh Sultanpuri, D. N. Madhok, Zia Sarhadi, and Khumar Barabankvi. Mother India (1957), for which he had composed music, was the first Indian film that got nominated for Oscar. Naushad completed Pakeezah (1972) after its Music Director, Ghulam Mohammed's death, who had worked earlier as his assistant for several films. In 1981, Naushad was awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for his lifetime contribution to Indian cinema. In 1988, he worked in a Malayalam film Dhwani, which is noted as the last film of Ever Green Hero Prem Nazir. The songs

263


Naushad of this film became a major success and has attained cult status.[2] In 1995 he gave music for Shahrukh Khan starrer, Guddu of which a few songs became popular. In 2004, when a colorized version of the classic Mughal-e-Azam was released, Naushad was a guest of honor at the premiere.[3] Amongst his assistants, Mohammed Shafi, Jerry Amaldev, and Ghulam Mohammed stand out prominently. He composed the tunes of Taj Mahal: An Eternal Love Story (2005) at the age of 86, thus becoming the world's oldest composer. 5 films have been made on his life and work Naushad Ka Sangeet, Sangeet Ka Badshah, Naushad (T. V.) 1972, Biography-by Doordarshan; B. C. LONDON T. V. 's Movie Mahal Naushad, and T. V. Serial 'Zinda Ka Safer Biographical books published are Dastaan-E-Naushad (Marathi) by Shashikant Kinikar; Aaj Awat Man Mero (Gujarati); Hindi and Urdu biographical sketches in Shama & Sushma Magazines respectively, titled "Naushad Ki Kahani, Naushad Ki Zubani"; the last one was translated into Marathi by Shashikant Kinikar. Kinikar also came up with a book titled "Notes of Naushad" which puts together some interesting anecdotes of Naushad's life. Amongst his assistants, Mohammed Shafi, Ghulam Mohammed, and Jerry Amaldev stand our prominently. He set Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's verse, Unki yaad kare, to song in 2006, rendered by A. Hariharan in lead voice with 40 chorus singers, produced by Keshav Communications. The poem is dedicated to those who have lost their lives defending the country's border. He also loved Angling and the beauty of Nature. In 1962, he caught his largest fish, a 52Â lb. CATLA.

Last days Naushad died on 5 May 2006 in Mumbai. He was buried at the Juhu Muslim cemetery.[4] He is survived by six daughters Zubeda, Fehmida, Farida, Sayeeda, Rashida, Waheeda & three sons Rahman Naushad, Raju Naushad & Iqbal Naushad. Rahman Naushad and Raju Naushad had assisted him in some of his films. Also, Naushad composed music in two movies 'My Friend' & 'Teri Payal Mere Geet' which was directed by Rahman Naushad. Naushad had requested Maharashtra state government to sanction a plot for the Academy for promoting Hindustani sangeet which was sanctioned during his lifetime & 'Naushad Academy of Hindustani sangeet' was formed. There also was an announcement that Carter Road, where Naushad's residence was, would be renamed to 'Sangeet Samrat Naushad Ali Marg' and it was done by Maharashtra government (M.C.G.M.) on 5 May 2008.

Writer Naushad was also a respected and published poet and formally launched his book of Urdu poetry entitled Aathwan Sur ("The Eighth Note") and the Navras label's album titled "Aathwan Sur – The Other Side of Naushad" having 8 ghazals as part of Hounslow's book fair and festival "Bookmela" in November 1998. The album has lyrics and composition by Naushad, are arranged by Uttam Singh. Track list: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Aabadiyon Mein Dasht Ka Munzar Bhi Aayega - A. Hariharan - 7:08 Aaj Ki Baat Kal Pay Kyun Taalo - A. Hariharan & Preeti Uttam Singh - 6:17 Ghata Chhaayi Thi Saawan Khul Ke Barsa - Preeti Uttam Singh - 7:19 Kabhi Meri Yaad Unko Aati To Hogi - A. Hariharan & Preeti Uttam Singh - 6:18 Mujh Ko Muaff Kijiye - A. Hariharan - 5:35 Peenay Waalay Bekhudi Say Kaam Lay - A. Hariharan & Preeti Uttam Singh - 8:13 Saawan Kay Jab Baadal Chhaaye - A. Hariharan - 6:50

8. Tanhaa Khud Say Baat Karoon - Preeti Uttam Singh - 7:49

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Music style Naushad was known for his deft adaptation of the classical musical tradition for movies. For some movies like Baiju Bawra, he composed all scores in classical raga modes. He could easily work with Western instruments, including the clarinet, the mandolin, and the accordion. He could incorporate Western musical idioms in his compositions, and compose for Western-style orchestras. During early 1940s, recordings were done in quiet parks and gardens after midnight because the studios did not have sound-proof recording rooms. In the gardens, there would be no echo and disturbances, unlike the studios where the sound reverberated because of the tin roofs. For films like Uran Khatola and Amar, he recorded the voice of a particular artiste on a scale of 90, then recorded it on 70, then on 50 and so on. After the complete recording, it was played for the scene and the impact it created was terrific. He was one of the first to introduce sound mixing and the separate recording of voice and music tracks in playback singing. He was the first to combine the flute and the clarinet, the sitar and mandolin. He also introduced the accordion to Bollywood film music and was among the first to concentrate on background music to extend characters’ moods and dialogue through music. But perhaps his greatest contribution was to bring Indian classical music into the film medium. Many of his compositions were inspired by ragas and he even used distinguished classical artistes like Amir Khan and D.V. Paluskar in Baiju Bawra (1952) and Bade Ghulam Ali Khan in Mughal-e-Azam (1960). Baiju Bawra (1952) demonstrated Naushad's grasp of classical music and his ability to bring it to the masses, for which he won the first Filmfare Best Music Director Award in 1954. For Aan (1952), he was the first to use a 100-piece orchestra, He was the first composer to have developed the system of western notation in India. The notation for the music of the film Aan was published in book form in London. In Uran Khatola (1955), he recorded an entire song without the use of orchestra, having replaced the sound of musical instruments with choral sound of humming. For Mughal-e-Azam (1960) song Ae Mohabbat Zindabad, he used a chorus of 100 persons. He asked Lata Mangeshkar to render a part of the song "Pyaar Kiya To Darna Kya" in a bathroom that had glazed tiles and then recorded the music to get the echo effect. For Ganga Jamuna (1961), he used lyrics in chaste Bhojpuri dialect. He used just 6-instruments in the title song of Mere Mehboob (1963). In 2004, a colorized version of the classic Mughal-e-Azam (1960) was released, for which Naushad had the orchestral music specially re-created (in Dolby Digital) by today’s industry musicians, while maintaining all the solo vocals from the original soundtrack. To elaborate, the playback vocals (though not the chorus) recorded four decades ago are mixed with orchestra tracks created in the present millennium. As Indian film music gradually assumed a Western bend starting in the late 1960s, Naushad came to be considered old-fashioned. Composers who could compose rock-and-roll and disco-inflected music started getting increasingly popular. Naushad was still esteemed as a maestro, but his talents were sought mostly for historical movies where traditional scores were appropriate.

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Filmography Music Director Film

Year

Director

Cast

Remarks/Verdict

Prem Nagar

1940

Mohan Dayaram Bhavnani

Ramanand, Bimla Kumari, Husn Banu, Rai Mohan, Nagendra, Salu, Gulzar

Darshan

1941

Chimanlal Muljibhoy Luhar

Raj Kapoor, Suraiya

Mala

1941

Balwant Bhatt

Jayant, Rose, Jairaj, Nazir, Daya Devi, Heera

Nai Duniya

1942

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Jairaj, Shobhna Samarth, Wasti, Azurie, Mazhar Khan. Hari Shivdasani, Jeevan

Debut of Singer Surayya in the song "Boot Karoon main Polish" Silver Jubilee

Sharda

1942

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Ulhas, Mehtab. Wasti, Nirmala, Badri Prasad

Silver Jubilee

Station Master

1942

Chimanlal Muljibhoy Luhar

Prem Adib, Pratima Devi, Gulab

Kanoon

1943

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Mehtaab, Shahu Modak

Silver Jubilee

Namaste

1943

Mohammed Sadiq Sani

Wasti, Protima Das, Jagdish Sethi, Misra

Silver Jubilee

Sanjog

1943

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Charlie, Anwar Hussain, Mehtab

Silver Jubilee

Geet

1944

S. U. Sunny

Shahu Modak, Nirmala, Amir Ali

Jeevan

1944

Mohammed Sadiq

Wasti, Mehtab, Badri Prasad, Anwar, Shyam Kumar

Pehle Aap

1944

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Shamim, Wasti, Anwar Hussain, Jeevan, Dixit

Rafi's first song for Naushad "Hindustan Ke Hum Hain" in a chorus Silver Jubilee

Rattan

1944

S Sadiq

Amir Banu, Karan Dewan, Swarnalata

Diamond Jubilee

Sanyasi

1945

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Shamim, Amar, Misra, Shyam Kumar, Naseem Jr., Gulam Mohamad

Silver Jubilee

Anmol Ghadi

1946

Mehboob Khan

Noorjehan, Surinder, Suraiya

Diamond Jubilee

Keemat

1946

Nazir Ajmeri

Amar, Sulochana Chatterjee, A Shah, Sharda, Badri Prasad, Sofia, Anwari, Nawab

Shahjehan

1946

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Kundan Lal Saigal, Ragini

Silver Jubilee

Dard

1947

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Uma Devi, Suraiya

Debut of Singer Uma Devi (Comedy Actress Tuntun) in the song "Afsana Likh Rahi Hoon" Silver Jubilee

Elan

1947

Mehboob Khan

Himalaywala, Leela Mishra, Shah Nawaz

Natak

1947

S. U. Sunny

Suraiya, Amar, Sofiya, Kanwar, Sham Kumar, Pratima Devi

Silver Jubilee

Anokhi Ada

1948

Mehboob Khan

Surendra, Naseem Bano, Murad, Cuckoo

Golden Jubilee


Naushad

267

Mela

1948

S. U. Sunny

Dilip Kumar, Nargis, Jeevan

Golden Jubilee

Andaz

1949

Mehboob Khan

Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Nargis

Golden Jubilee

Chandni Raat

1949

Mohammed Ehsan

Shyam, Naseem Bano

Dillagi

1949

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Shyam, Suraiyya, Sharda, Amir Banu, Amar

Silver Jubilee

Dulari

1949

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Suresh, Madhubala, Geeta Bali

Silver Jubilee

Babul

1950

S. U. Sunny

Dilip Kumar, Nargis

Also as Producer Silver Jubilee

Dastan

1950

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Raj Kapoor, Suraiya, Veena, Suresh

Also as Co-producer Silver Jubilee

Deedar

1951

Nitin Bose

Dilip Kumar, Nimmi, Nargis, Ashok Kumar

Golden Jubilee

Jadoo

1951

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Suresh, Nalini Jaywant

Also as Co-producer Silver Jubilee

Aan

1952

Mehboob Khan

Dilip Kumar, Nimmi, Nadira

Golden Jubilee

Baiju Bawra

1952

Vijay Bhatt

Bharat Bhushan, Meena Kumari

Debut of singers Amir Khan and D. V. Paluskar in the song "Aaj gaavat man mero jhoomke" Diamond Jubilee

Deewana

1952

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Suraiya, Suresh, Sumitra Devi, Shyam Kumar

Silver Jubilee

Amar

1954

Mehboob Khan

Dilip Kumar, Nimmi, Madhubala

Shabaab

1954

Mohammed Sadiq

Bharat Bhushan, Nutan

Silver Jubilee

Uran Khatola

1955

S. U. Sunny

Dilip Kumar, Nimmi.

Also as Producer Silver Jubilee

Mother India

1957

Mehboob Khan

Nargis, Raj Kumar, Rajendra Kumar, Sunil Dutt, Kanhaiyalal

Diamond Jubilee

Sohni Mahiwal

1958

Raja Nawathe

Bharat Bhushan, Nimmi

Debut of singer Mahendra Kapoor in the song "Chaand Chhupa Aur Taarey Doobey"

Kohinoor

1960

S. U. Sunny

Dilip Kumar, Meena Kumari, Kumkum, Jeevan

Golden Jubilee

Mughal-e-Azam

1960

Karim Asif

Dilip Kumar, Madhubala, Prithviraj Kapoor, Durga Khote, Ajit

Debut of singer Bade Ghulam Ali Khan in the songs "Shubh din aayo" and "Prem jogan ban ke" Diamond Jubilee

Gunga Jumna

1961

Nitin Bose

Dilip Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali

Lyrics of several songs were in Bhojpuri dialect Golden Jubilee

Son of India

1962

Mehboob Khan

Kamaljit, Kumkum, Sajid, Simi Garewal, Jayant

Mere Mehboob

1963

Harnam Singh Rawail

Rajendra Kumar, Sadhana, Ameeta, Ashok Silver Jubilee Kumar, Nimmi

Leader

1964

Ram Mukherjee

Dilip Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali


Naushad

268

Dil Diya Dard Liya

1965

Abdul Rashid Kardar

Dilip Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Pran

Saaz Aur Awaaz

1966

Subodh Mukherji Saira Banu, Kanhaiyalal, Joy Mukherjee

Palki

1967

S. U. Sunny

Rajendra Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Rehman, Johnny Walker

Also as Writer

Ram Aur Shyam

1967

Tapi Chanakya

Dilip Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Mumtaz, Pran, Nirupa Roy, Leela Mishra

Golden Jubilee

Aadmi

1968

A. Bhimsingh

Dilip Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Manoj Kumar

Saathi

1968

C. V. Sridhar

Rajendra Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali, Simi Garewal

Sunghursh

1968

Harnam Singh Rawail

Dilip Kumar, Vyjayanthimala, Balraj Sahni

Gunwaar

1970

Naresh Kumar

Rajendra Kumar, Vyjayantimala Bali, Nishi

Pakeezah

1971

Kamal Amrohi

Raj Kumar, Meena Kumari, Ashok Kumar Background Score and a few songs Golden Jubilee

Tangewala

1972

Naresh Kumar

Mumtaz, Sujit Kumar

My Friend

1974

M Rehman

Rajeev, Prema Narayan, Utpal Dutt, Jagdeep, Asit Sen, Tuntun

Sunehra Sansar

1975

Adurti Subba Rao Rajendra Kumar, Hema, Mala Sinha

Aaina

1977

Kailasham Balachander

Mumtaz, Rajesh Khanna

Paan Khaae Sainyyan 1985 Humaar

Sujit Kumar

Sujit Kumar, Bandini, S. N. Tripathi

Chambal Ki Rani

1979

Radhakant

Mahendra Sandhu, Dara Singh, Chand Usmani

Dharam Kanta

1982

Sultan Ahmed

Raj Kumar, Waheeda Rehman, Jeetendra, Reena Roy, Rajesh Khanna, Sulakhshana Pandit

Love and God

1986

Karim Asif

Sanjeev Kumar, Nimmi, Pran

Dhwani

1988

A. T. Abu

Prem Nazir, Jayaram, Shobana

Teri Payal Mere Geet

1989

Rehman Naushad Govinda, Meenakshi Seshadri

Aawaz De Kahan Hai

1990

Sibte Hassan Rizvi

Bindu, Annu Kapoor, Satyendra Kapoor

Guddu

1995

Prem Lalwani

Shah Rukh Khan, Manisha Koirala, Mukesh Khanna

Taj Mahal: An Eternal Love Story

2005

Akbar Khan

Kabir Bedi, Sonia, Monisha Koirala

Hubba Khatoon

Unreleased B. R. Chopra

Sanjay Khan, Zeenat Aman

Bhojpuri film

Malayalam film

"Jis Raat Ke Khwaab Aaye", sung by Rafi is released


Naushad

Non-film album • Aathwan Sur - The Other Side of Naushad : This was a Ghazal album released in 1998 and had all its songs composed by Naushad and sung by Hariharan.

English film • Such a Long Journey (1998), Director: Sturla Gunnarsson, Music: Jonathan Goldsmith, Cast: Roshan Seth, Soni Razdan, Om Puri, Nasiruddin Shah, In this film, the song from film "Pakeezah" (1971), "Thaade rahiyo", lyrics: Kaifi Azmi, rendered by Lata Mangeshkar, was played during the end casting.

Producer • Maalik (1958) Music Director for this film was Ghulam Mohammed • Uran Khatola (1955) • Babul (1950)

Storywriter • Palki (1967) • teri payal mere geet(1989)

Awards and recognition • • • • • • • • • •

1954: Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Baiju Bawra 1961: Bengal Film Journalists' Association's best music director Award for Gunga Jumna 1975: "Naushad Ali", a 30-minute documentary film produced by Television Centre, Bombay 1981: Dada Saheb Phalke Award 1984: Lata Mangeshkar Award (Madhya Pradesh state government's) 1987: Amir Khusro Award 1992: Sangeet Natak Akademi Award 1992: Padma Bhushan : Maharashtra Gaurav Puruskar : Best Music for "The Sword of Tipu Sultan"

Positions Held • • • • •

President of Cine Music Directors Association Chairman of Indian Performing Rights Society President of Maharashtra State Angling Association President of Alam-E-Urdu Conference (Delhi) The title of Special Executive Magistrate, Bombay

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Naushad

Naushad and Raaga Here is a list of Naushad's songs based on different raagas. (raaga, song, singer, movie) Ahir Bhairav: 1. aj hai pyar ka faisala sanam - lata - leader Alahaiya-Bilawal: 1. dil mein chupake pyar ka - rafi - aan Bageshri: 1. chah barbaad karegi - saigal - shah jahan 2. milke bichad gaye - amirbai - rattan Bahar: 1. man ki been - lata, rafi - shabab (with a line in basant) Bhairavi: 1. kya mil gaye bhagwan - noorjahan - anmol ghadi 2. aye dil tujhe kasam hai - lata - dulari 3. teer khate jayenge - lata -dewana 4. na toofan se - rafi - udan kha tola 5. haal e dil main lata - udan kha tola 6. dooba tara ummeedon ki sahara - lata - udan kha tola 7. kya rang-e-mehfil hain - lata - dil diya dard liya 8. allah bachaya naujawan - lata - mere mehboob 9. yaad mein teri jag - lata, rafi - mere mehboob 10. aai diwali - zohrabai - rattan 11. diya na bujhe re aj hamara - lata - son of India 12. zindabad ae mohabbat zindabad - rafi - mughal e azam 13. insaf ka mandir - rafi - amar 14. khamosh hain khewan - lata - amar 15. milte hain aankhen - samsad, talat - babul 16. lagan more man ki - lata - babul 17. huye hum jinke - rafi - deedar 18. dekhliya maine - rafi, lata - deedar 19. jadugar katil - asha - kohinoor 20. zara man ki kewadiyain khol - rafi- kohinoor 21. aanewalon ko ana hoga - rafi, lata - sohni mahiwal 22. chand chupa aur tare duba - mahendra - sohni mahiwal 23. Tumhare Sang Main Bhi Chalungi - lata - sohni mahiwal 24. mera bichda yaar mila de - lata, rafi - sohni mahiwal 25. rat gazab ki aye - mahendra - sohni mahiwal 26. dil hai pyar zara - sanu, sadhana - guddu 27. dil kahe hardam ishq - suresh, aziz - guddu 28. baat sabse karo pyar humse karo - sp bala - tere payal mere geet 29. jab dil hi toot gaya - saigal - shah jahan 30. tu ganga ki - rafi, lata - baiju bawra 31. ayi sawan rut ayi - samsad - mela 32. manzil ki dhun mein - mukesh - anokhi ada 33. gaon tarane - samsad, lata, rafi - aan

270


Naushad 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

271 man mera ehsan - rafi - aan do hanson ka joda - lata - ganga jamuna main to payar se teri piya - lata - saathi mere jeevan saathi - lata - saathi husn-e-jana idhar aa - mukesh - saathi Tute Na Dil Tute Na - mukesh - andaz yeh zindegi ki mele - rafi- mela mere paas aao nazar to milao - lata - sanghursh

Bhimpalasi: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

aj mere man me - lata - aan tere sadke balam - lata - amar Manasa Nilayil, Yesudas - dhwani (Malayalam) afsana likh rahi hoon - uma - dard aj purani rahon se - rafi - aadmi

Bihag: 1. mari ladli re - lata - andaz 2. tere payar mein dildar - lata - mere mehboob 3. tere payel mere geet - sp balasubranium - tere payel mere geet Bilawal: 1. meri ladli hai - lata - andaz 2. bachpan ki mohabbat - lata - baijubawra 3. mere mehboob tujhe - rafi/lata - mere mehboob (most people think it is Jheenjhoti) Brindavani Sarang: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

sawan ki badalo - zohrabai, karan - rattan jab tumhi chale - karan - rattan aja meri barbad - anmol ghadi tu mera chand - suraiya, shyam - dillagi jhule mein pawan - rafi, lata - baijubawra Saavan Aye Ya Na Aye - asha, rafi- dil diya dard liya ( some say its Suddha sarang)

Darbari Kanada: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

daiya re daiya laj mohe lage - asha, rafi - leader gujre hai aj ishk mein - rafi - dil diya dard liya kabhi dil dilse takrata - mukesh - anokhi ada mohabbat ki jhuti kahani - lata - mughal e azam o duniya ki rakhwale - rafi - baiju bawra duniya badal gayi - talat, samsad - babul hue hum jin ke - rafi - deedar darbari alap - ustad amir khan - baiju bawra bich bhainwan mein - suraiya - dard

Desh: 1. door koi gaaye - samsad, lata, rafi - baiju bawra 2. kal rat zindagi se - rafi - palki Desi: 1. aaj gaawat man mero - ustad amir khan, pandit d v paluskar - baiju bawra


Naushad Dani/Dhani: 1. ajnabi thehero jara - hariharan, preeti uttam - taj mahal 2. mere mehboob mein kya nahin - lata, asha - mere mehboob Dhanasri: 1. mere mehboob tujhe - rafi/lata - mere mehboob (most people think it is Jheenjhoti) Gara: 1. mohe panghat pe - lata - mughal e azam 2. jab rat ho aisi matwali - lata - mughal e azam (sometimes mistaken as jaijawanti) Gaud Sarang: 1. aaye na baalam waada kar ke - rafi - shabab Gorakh Kalyan: 1. dil ki kashti - lata - palki 2. o balam tere pyar ke - rafi, asha - ram aur shyam Gowda Sarang: 1. mera salam le ja - lata - udan kha tola Hamir: 1. madhuban mein radhika nache re - rafi - kohinoor Jaijaivanti : 1. Zindagi Aaj Mere Nam Se Sharamati Ha - rafi - son of India 2. mohabbat ki rahon mein - rafi - udan kha tola Jainpuri: 1. dil ko laga ke - uma - anokhi ada 2. guzre hain aj - rafi - dil diya dard liya Janasamohini/shubha kalyan: 1. koi sagar dil ko - rafi - dil diya dard liya (some say its kalawati) 2. mere mehboob tujhe - rafi/lata - mere mehboob (most people think it is Jheenjhoti) Jhinjhoti: 1. mere mehboob tujhe - rafi - mere mehboob 2. mere mehboob tujhe - lata - mere mehboob Jogiya: 1. o mere lal aja - lata - mother india Kafi/Misra Kafi: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

gham diye mustaqil - saigal - shah jahan angdaye tera hain bahana - manju - rattan jhum jhum ke nacho - mukesh - andaz meri payari patang - samsad, uma - dillagi duniya badal gaye - samsad, talat - babul janewale teri khuda hafiz - lata - palki

Kalingda/bhairav: 1. mohe bhool gaye - lata - baiju bawra Kedar:

272


Naushad 1. uthaye ja unke sitam - lata - andaz 2. bekas pe karam - lata - mughal e azam 3. kal rat zindagi se - rafi - palki Khamaj/Misra Khamaj: 1. 2. 3. 4.

chunariya katati jay re - manna de - mother India dhal chuki sham e gham - lata, rafi - kohinoor kaun gali jayo shyam - parveen - pakeezah nain lad gay hain - rafi - ganga jamuna

Lalit: 1. Ek Shahenshah Ne Banvaa Ke Hasin Tajmahal - lata, rafi - leader (shyam-lalit) Madhu-Bilwal: 1. Bachpan ki mohabbat - lata - baijubawra Madhumad-sarang: 1. dukh bhar din - rafi, samsad, lata, manna - mother india 2. o gadiwale gadi - rafi, samsad - mother india 3. holi ayi re - samsad - mother india 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

matwale jiya - lata, rafi, samsad, manna - mother india aj mere man mein - lata - aan aj khushi ki irade - rafi - aan udi udi chayi ghata - lata - amar tan rang lo - lata, rafi - kohonoor

Malgunji: 1. hum aj kahi dil - mukesh - andaz Malkauns/ Malkaush/ Kaushik: 1. man tarapat hari darshan - rafi - baiju bawra Mand: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Bachpan Ki Mohabbat Ko - lata - baiju bawra Jo Me Jaanthi Bisarat - lata - shabab Phir teri kahaani yaad aayi - lata - dil diya dard liya Mar gaye hum jeete jee - lata - shabab Kal raat zindagi se mulaqat - rafi - palki duniya wale duniya sare - lata - guddu

Maru-Bihag: 1. 2. 3. 4.

ai dil bekarar jhum - saigal - shah jahan challenge teer jab dil - lata, rafi - kohinoor hamare dil se na jana - lata - udan khatola na milta gam - lata - amar

Marwa: 1. payaliya bawari - lata - saaz aur aawaz Megh: 1. Ghanan Ghanan ghan garjo re - ustad amir khan - baiju bawra 2. sawan aye ya na - rafi, asha - dil diya dard liya (brindabani sarang) Megh malhar:

273


Naushad 1. dukh bhare din - asha, manna, rafi, samsad - mother India 2. tan rang lo ji - lata, rafi - kohinoor Misra desi: 1. aye shahare lucknow - rafi - palki Miya Malhar: 1. apni zulfein - hariharan - taj mahal (slight use of jhinjhoti) Multani: 1. daya kar he giridhar - ustad amir khan - shabab Narayani: 1. der ki basti - lata - palki Nayaki kanada: 1. Chala Diye Deke Gam - lata - son of India (some say its Bilaskhani todi) 2. mehlon mein - rafi - shabab Pahadi: 1. Aaj Ki Raat Mere Dil Ki Salami Le Le- rafi - ram aur shaym 2. Awaz De Kahan Hain - noorzahan, surendra - anmol ghadi 3. mere bachapan ki - noorjahan - anmol ghadi 4. tere nainon ne - suraiya - anmol ghadi 5. jawan hain mohabbat - noorjahan - anmol ghadi 6. rimjhim barse - zohrabai, amirbai - rattan 7. Bata De Sakhi Kaun Gali Gayo Shyam - parveen sultana - pakeezah 8. Dil Todnewale - lata, rafi - son of India 9. Do Sitaron Ka Zamin - lata, rafi - kohinoor 10. Javaan Hai Muhabbat - noorzahan - anmol ghadi 11. Koi Pyara Ki Dekhe Jadugari - lata, rafi - kohinoor 12. O Dur Ke Musaphir Hamko - rafi - udan khatola (some identify it as raaga Durga) 13. Suhani Raat Dhal Chuki - rafi - dulari 14. Tod Diya Dil Mera Tune Ai Bewafa - lata - andaz 15. Tora Man Bada Papi Sanvariya Re - asha - ganga jamuna 16. duniya mein hum - lata - mother india 17. tasveer banata hoon - rafi - deewana 18. na main bhagwan - rafi - mother india 19. kisne mujhe pukara - rafi, suman - saz aur awaz 20. chod babul ka ghar - samsad - babul Pilu: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Chandan Ka Palna Resham Ki Dori - hemant, lata - shabab Dhoondho Dhoondho Re Saajna - lata - ganga jamuna Hai Hai Rasiya Tu Bada Bedardi - asha - dil diya dard liya Jhule Mein Pavan Ki Ayi Bahar - lata, rafi - baiju bawra Mera Pyar Bhi Tu Hai - mukesh, suman - saathi More Sainya Ji Utarenge Paar - lata - udan khatola na maanu na maanu - lata - ganga jamuna

8. pi ke ghar aaj pyari dulhaniya - samsad - mother India 9. gunghat nahin - lata - mother india

274


Naushad 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

275 chehre se apne aj - rafi - palki aankhiya mila ke - zohrabai - rattan main bhanwara tuhe phool - mukesh, samsad- mela le ja meri duaein - lata - deedar bachpan ke din - lata, samsad - deedar dil ki halat - rafi, asha - dharam kanta humise muhabbat - rafi - leader

Patdeep: 1. jis rat ki khwab - rafi - habba khatun 2. anuraga lola gathri - yesudas, s janaki - dhwani (malayalam) 3. saaz ho tum Awaz hoon main - rafi - saaz aur Awaz (patdeep and Madhuvanti mixed) Puriya: 1. yeh kaun mujhe yaad - ajay chatterjee - taj mahal (puriya kalyan mixed) 2. pyar kiya to darna - lata - mughal e azam (pilu + megh + sarang + sahana + bahar + darbari + other ragas) Puriya Dhanashree: 1. tori jai jai kartaar - ustad amir khan - baiju bawra 2. Tareef e Meena Bazaar - couplet - taj mahal 3. Mumtaz Tuze Dekha - hariharan - taj mahal 4. hum kasam kaise - rafi - shabab Rageshri: 1. shubhadina aayo rajadulara - bade gulam ali - mughal e azam Shahana: 1. mehalon mein rehne waale - rafi - shabab Sarang: 1. aja meri barbad - noorjahan - anmol ghadi Shivranjani: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ishq ki dastaan - kavita, preeti uttam - taj mahal (yaman mixed) gam diye mushkil - saigal - shehjahan ye hi arman lekar - rafi - shababa mera pyar bhi - mukesh, suman - saathi dharti ko akash - mukesh, samsad - mela

Sindhu-bhairavi: 1. koyi mere dil mein - lata - andaz Sohni: 1. prem jogan - bade gulam ali - mughal e azam Suddha Sarang: 1. gayeja geet milan ke - mukesh - mela 2. dur koyi gaye - lata, samsad, rafi - baijubawra Tilang: 1. Meri Kahani Bhulnevale - rafi - deedar 2. Yahi Arman Lekar Aaj Apne - rafi - shabab Todi:


Naushad 1. insaan bano - rafi - baiju bawra Yaman/Kalyan/Yaman Kalyan: 1. dilruba Maine tere - rafi - dil diya dard liya 2. dil e betab ko - rafi, suman - palki 3. janewale se mulaqat na hone - lata - amar 4. tere husn ki - lata, rafi - leader 5. ai ishq zara jaag tujhe husn jagaye - rafi - mere mehboob 6. khuda nigehbaan ho tumharaa - lata - mughal e azam 7. mera jeevan sathi - talat - babul 8. nagri nagri - lata - mother india 9. kaun gali gayo - parveen - pakeezah 10. do sitaron ke - rafi, lata - kohinoor 11. dil tod ne wale - rafi, lata - son of india 12. khuda nigahban - lata - mughal e azam Raagmala: 1. piu piu karat - rafi - baiju bawra - 4 raagas used (lalit, gaur malhar, puriya, bageshri)

References [1] "The Guardian" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ news/ 2006/ jun/ 09/ guardianobituaries. artsobituaries). guardian.co.uk. 9 June 2006. . Retrieved 23 August 2011. [2] Renuka Narayanan. (April 9, 2011). "The song of songs for this Tuesday" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ The-song-of-songs-for-this-Tuesday/ Article1-683309. aspx). The Hindustan Times. Retrieved April 28, 2011. [3] rediff.com: The Epic Premieres Again! (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2004/ nov/ 11sd1. htm) [4] Jaisinghani, Bella (11 February 2010). "Rafi, Madhubala don't rest in peace here" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ city/ mumbai/ Rafi-Madhubala-dont-rest-in-peace-here/ articleshow/ 5558345. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2010-02-14.

External links • Dr. Amjad Parvez (April 28, 2011). "Naushad Ali - Music composer with rich melodies" (http://www. dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2011\04\28\story_28-4-2011_pg9_14). Daily Times. • Khayyam remembers Naushad (http://www.rediff.com/movies/2006/may/10naushad.htm) • Naushad: Composer of the century by Raju Bharatan (http://specials.rediff.com/movies/2006/may/08sl1. htm) • Glowing tribute to Naushad: the Hindu (http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/06/stories/2006050601841300. htm) • Pandit Jasraj on Naushad (http://www.hindu.com/mag/2006/05/14/stories/2006051400170700.htm) • Biography at upperstall.com (http://www.upperstall.com/people/naushad.html) • Naushad (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006210/) at the Internet Movie Database • Naushad Ali (http://stationhollywood.blogspot.com/2007/12/naushads-relationship-with-rafi.html) Naushad Ali's Relationship with Mohammed Rafi • Fan Site of Naushad (http://www.majroohnaushad.com) • ghazal "mein ne jo geet" from Naushad sung by [[Mahendra Kapoor (http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=SgpKgMsV0qE)]] • Songs of Dhwani (Malayalam) (http://www.devaragam.com/vbscript/MusicNew.aspx?MovieId=361) • Lyrics of Dhwani (Malayalam) (http://filmsonglyrics.wordpress.com/category/dhwani/) • Songs and lyrics of Dhwani (Malayalam) (http://www.musicindiaonline.com/music/malayalam/m/ music_director.155/) • Naushad's book Aathwan Sur (http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0953473732)

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Naushad • Read a ghazal by Naushad (http://www.anindianmuslim.com/2006/05/ na-mandir-mein-sanam-hotay-na-masjid.html) • Hear Naushad's voice. Probably his last interview (http://icecast.commedia.org.uk:8000/history/naushad. mp3) • Naushad's Letterhead (http://hindi-films-songs.com/naushad-letterhead2.jpg)

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Nutan

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Nutan Nutan

Nutan in Hrishikesh Mukherjee's Anari (1959) Born

Nutan Samarth 4 June 1936 Bombay, Bombay Presidency, India

Died

21 February 1991 (aged 54) India

Years active

1950–1991

Spouse

Rajnish Behl (1959–1991) (her death)

Children

Mohnish Behl

Nutan (Marathi: नूतन) (4 June 1936 – 21 February 1991) was an Indian actress, who appeared in more than 70 Hindi films in a career spanning over four decades. She started her career in 1950 and, until the late 1970s, was a leading actress in several successful Hindi movies. Highly regarded for her acting abilities, Nutan was recognised as an accomplished dramatic actress, and her performances often received praises and accolades. She holds the record of five wins of the Filmfare Award for Best Actress, which was held only by her for over 30 years until it was matched by her niece Kajol in 2011; she is overall the most-awarded actress in the female acting categories at Filmfare, with six awards alongside Jaya Bachchan.[1] [2]

Personal life Nutan was born into a Marathi family of four children as Nutan Samarth to director-poet Kumarsen Samarth and his actress wife Shobhna Samarth. Nutan was the eldest child of actress Shobhana Samarth. She had three other siblings, 2 younger sisters and a younger brother. Her younger sister Tanuja is also an actress, and Chatura, who did not work in Bollywood. Her parents separated when she was still a child. Kajol is Tanuja's daughter and Nutan's niece and is also a successful actress. On 11 October 1959, she married naval Lieutenant-Commander Rajnish Behl. Their son, Mohnish Behl, born in 1963, later entered films as well. Nutan died in February 1991, of cancer, at the age of 54. Nutan’s narrative as a human being is depicted in a book “Nutan – Asen Mi Nasen Mi” written by famous marathi author Lalita Tamhane. The book can be summarized as one describing Nutan’s life experiences, interactions with co-actors / family / friends etc. as told by her to Lalita Tamhane.


Nutan

279

Career Nutan is related to many of the screen stars of the past fifty years (see Mukherjee-Samarth family (film)). She started her career as actress as a fourteen-year-old in Hamari Beti (1950). This film was produced by her mother, Shobhana. In 1952 she was the winner of Miss India. Her first big break was Seema, for which she won her first Filmfare Best Actress Award. She followed her success with a romantic comedy, Paying Guest, in which she co-starred with Dev Anand. In 1959 she starred in two hit films, Anari (with Raj Kapoor) and Bimal Roy's Sujata (with Sunil Dutt). In the 1960s and 1970s she had many more successful films including Chhalia (1960), Bandini (1963), Saraswatichandra (1968), Devi (1970) and Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (1978). She received her third Best actress Filmfare award in 1964, for Bandini; her fourth Filmfare award for Milan (1967 film)tied her with Meena Kumari. She starred opposite Amitabh Bachchan in 1973's Saudagar (1973 film), for which she received a sixth Filmfare Best actress nomination. In 1978, she made an astonishing return to the screen as the righteous Sanjukta Chauhan in Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki (1978). For this performance, she received an eight Filmfare career nomination and won her fifth Filmfare best actress award, at the age of 42. She thus holds the record of winning five Filmfare Best Actress Award, the highest number of awards won by an actress. At age 42, she is also the oldest winner of the award. Nutan was perhaps the only actress of her generation to command leading roles in her 40s, with tremendous success. Following this, she starred in Saajan ki Saheli (1981), as an ignorant, jealous wife to a husband who knowingly befriends the daughter she abandoned at childbirth. In the remaining 1980s she played roles in blockbuster films such as Meri Jung (1985), Naam (1986) and Karma (1986). Karma was notable for being the first time she was paired with actor Dilip Kumar. For Mere Jung she won a Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actress. Her last film released while she was alive was Kanoon Apna Apna in 1989. She died in 1991 of cancer. Two of her films Naseebwala (1992) and Insaniyat (1994) were released after her death.

Awards and nominations Filmfare Awards • • • • • •

1956 - Filmfare Best Actress Award for Seema 1959 - Filmfare Best Actress Award for Sujata 1963 - Filmfare Best Actress Award for Bandini 1967 - Filmfare Best Actress Award for Milan 1978 - Filmfare Best Actress Award for Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki 1985 - Filmfare Best Supporting Actress Award for Meri Jung

Filmfare Nominations • • • • •

1960 - Filmfare Nomination as Best Actress for Chhalia 1973 - Filmfare Nomination as Best Actress for Saudagar 1973 - Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Saudagar 1973 - Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Anuraag 1978 - Filmfare Nomination as Best Supporting Actress for Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki[3]


Nutan

280

Other Awards • 1963: BFJA Best Actress Award (Hindi): Bandini [4] • 1967: BFJA Best Actress Award (Hindi): Milan [5] • 1974: BFJA Best Actress Award (Hindi): Saudagar[6]

Filmography Year

Title

1950 Hamari Beti

Character Daughter

1952 Shisham 1953 Laila Majnu

Laila

1954 Shabab 1955 Seema

Gauri

1956 Heer

Heer

1957 Baarish

Chanda

Paying Guest

Shanti

Zindagi Ya Toofan 1958 Chandan Dilli Ka Thug Kabhi Andhera Kabhi Ujala Sone Ki Chidiya

Lakshmi

Aakhri Daao 1959 Anari

Aarti Sohanlal

Kanhaiya

Shanno

Sujata

Sujata

1960 Basant Chhabili Chhalia

Shanti

Manzil

Pushpa

1962 Soorat Aur Seerat 1963 Bandini

Kalyani

Dil Hi To Hai

Jameela

Tere Ghar Ke Samne

Sulekha

1964 Chandi Ki Deewar 1965 Khandaan Rishte Naahte 1966 Chhota Bhai Chilaka Gorinka Dil Ne Phir Yaad Kiya Kalapi

Radha Savitri


Nutan

281 1967 Dulhan Ek Raat Ki

Nirmala

Laat Saheb Milan

Radha

1968 Gauri

Gauri

Saraswatichandra

Kumud Sundari

1969 Bhai Bahen

Mala

1970 Maa Aur Mamta

Maya

Devi

Devi

Maharaja Yaadgaar 1972 Anuraag

Bhavna Anu Rai

Grahan 1973 Saudagar (1973 film)

Mahjubhi

1975 Jogidas Khuman 1978 Ek Baap Chhe Bete Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki Sanjukta Chouhan Saajan Bina Suhagan 1980 Saajan Ki Saheli

Kunti Kumar

1982 Jiyo Aur Jeene Do 1983 Rishta Kagaz Ka

Suman

1984 Yeh Kaisa Farz 1985 Yudh

Savitri Devi

Paisa Yeh Paisa

Laxmi

Meri Jung

Aarti (Mrs. Deepak Verma)

1986 Sajna Sath Nibhana

Shobha Rana

Karma

Mrs Vishwa Pratap Singh

Naam

Jaanki Kapoor

1988 Main Tere Liye 1989 Kanoon Apna Apna Mujrim

Mrs. Singh Yashoda

1992 Naseebwala

Sharda

1994 Insaniyat

Shani Devi


Nutan

282

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

Nutan (http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ nutan) Upperstall. Forever Nutan (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ feb/ 05din. htm) Rediff.com. Filmfare - the full coverage (http:/ / deep750. googlepages. com/ FilmfareAwards. pdf) (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196427. htm) (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196831. htm) "37th Annual BFJA Awards" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080422070342/ http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197437. htm). BFJA. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197437. htm) on 2008-04-22. . Retrieved 2011-02-23.

External links • Nutan (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0638295/) at the Internet Movie Database • Nutan Online: Tribute of Lalit Kumar to Nutan (http://web.archive.org/web/20091027013313/http:// geocities.com/nutan_samarth/) • Nutan Biography (http://www.bollywood501.com/classic_f/nutan/index.html)


O. P. Nayyar

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O. P. Nayyar O. P. Nayyar Born

January 16, 1926 Lahore, British Punjab, British India

Died

January 28, 2007 (Age 81) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation Music director, composer

Omkar Prasad Nayyar (16 January 1926 – 28 January 2007) was an Indian film music director and composer born in Lahore, India, now in modern day Pakistan. He was particularly acclaimed for his peppy numbers.

Career O. P. Nayyar ( "O.P." ) started his career as a movie music composer by composing the background score for the movie Kaneez (1949). Aasmaan (1952), produced by Dalsukh M. Pancholi was O.P.Nayyar's first film as independent music director, after which he composed music for Chham Chhama Chham (1952) and Baaz (1953) but all these 3 movies couldn't make any impact on viewers. He started receiving increasing public recognition from his compositions for Guru Dutt's Aar Paar (1954), Mr. & Mrs. '55 (1955), C.I.D. (1956), and Tumsa Nahin Dekha (1958). O.P. went on to notch up even higher distinction through his compositions for Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon and Mere Sanam. The former movie included his enormously popular song, Bandaa Parwar, Thaamlo Jigar, while the latter included Jaayiye Aap Kahaan Jaayenge and Pukaarataa Chalaa Hoon Main. Some months later, his scores for the movie, Kashmir Ki Kali, once again gained high popularity. O.P. is reported to have commanded the highest fees in the Hindi movie music world at the height of his reign as a composer . He was the first Hindi music director to receive 100,000 rupees for his compositions for a movie. It was a very substantial sum of money in the 1950s. O.P. was known to have a stubborn individuality, and traits of aloofness and imperiousness. However, he was always generous with struggling newcomers and artists who had been marginalized in the movie industry. The press was always deferential to him, and frequently referred to him as a "rebel" composer. Many columnists too labeled him as a maverick. Judging from his combative performance in various TV talk shows later on, O.P. seemed to enjoy those epithets. During the 1950s, the state-controlled All India Radio found O.P. too "trendy", and put for quite some time a ban on broadcasting most of his tunes.[1] He seemed to have remained undaunted by this highhanded government order, and went on to create more, similar tunes, and most of them continued to receive national popularity. The far-away Radio Ceylon, (which later transformed into Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation), was at that time the only source from which O.P.'s new hits could be heard. Soon the English language press began referring to him with the honorific, "maestro", though Opee was still very young then.


O. P. Nayyar

Artists O.P. worked extensively with Geeta Dutt, Asha Bhosle, and Mohammed Rafi, and was instrumental in building their careers. Some Bollywood observers maintained that Asha Bhosle was his find and that he groomed her specially for his tunes. Many of his compositions which Asha sang are memorable and have a contemporary flair. O.P. never worked with Lata Mangeshkar, the melody queen. After a breakup with Mohammed Rafi, Opee started to work with Mahendra Kapoor, an upcoming male singer. He also worked in the movie, Sambandh, with Mukesh, who was the favorite playback singer of Raj Kapoor. Based on one of Rabindranath Tagore's Bengali compositions, O.P. composed the song, Chal Akelaa, Chal Akelaa, sung by Mukesh. The same movie also included a memorable baritone rendering by Hemant Kumar, who was both a top-notch singer and a renowned Bollywood composer in his own right. Like many other movies for which Opee provided scores, Sambandh is remembered mostly because of its music. Mahendra Kapoor sang O.P.'s compositions, displaying much depth of feelings, and provided cadence and rhythm to O.P.'s style. His rendering of the song for Dharmendra, Badal Jaaye Agar Maali, Chaman Hotaa Nahi Khaali in Bahaaren Phir Bhi Aayengi was an instant hit. O.P. recognized very early in the career of Kishore Kumar his talent as a singer. Both movies, Baap Re Baap and Raagini contain many Kishore Kumar hits in the inimitable O.P. style. Regrettably, a cordial relationship between Opee and Kishore Kumar did not endure. O.P. did produce great hits with Shamshad Begum, notably "Kajra Mohabbatwala" even when she was not in demand. In the black-and-white movie era, Madhubala, who could provide a distinct, stylized performance for O.P.'s songs became O.P.'s favorite heroine. After her untimely death, heroines like Vyjayanthimala, Mala Sinha, Padmini, Asha Parekh, and Sharmila Tagore lip-synced several of the O.P.-Asha Bhosle numbers, and a large number of those songs gained high popularity. O.P. and Asha Bhosle parted ways in 1974, and that parting impacted O.P. for the rest of his life. After the breakup, he tried to work with several good singers, including Dilraj Kaur, Alka Yagnik, Krishna Kale, Vani Jayaram, and Kavita Krishanmurthy, but the magic in his work somehow seemed to have long gone. Almost until his last days, he would often refer to Asha as a singing sensation. Embittered Asha, on the other hand, practically ignored him after the breakup, and held the thought that she was beholden to no single composer. On the part of Asha, she went on to become a widely popular singer while working with many other composers, including, most notably, R D Burman, who gave her voice a special dimension. Majrooh Sultanpuri and Sahir Ludhianvi wrote some memorable lyrics for some of O.P.'s earlier compositions such as in Naya Daur. However, generally keeping clear of established song writers of his time, O.P. experimented with different upcoming lyricists like Jan Nisar Akhtar, Qamar Jalalabadi, Shamshul Huda Bihari, and Ahmed Wasi, who tried to write the lyrics that would match the sensuous tunes which O.P. would have in his mind. In the tradition of the great composers in India, O.P. was fond of the poetic flourish of the Urdu language for his more serious songs. The Rafi rendering, Dil ki Awaz Bhi Sun, Mere Fasane pe Na Jaa in Humsaya is one of Opee's haunting scores. O.P.'s wife, Saroj Mohini Nayyar, is an accomplished lyricist. She wrote the C H Atma song, Preetam Aan Milo, which launched O.P. into the big league of Bollywood composers. O.P. started the tradition of assigning to comedians full three-minute long songs, some of which proved even more popular than the songs sung by the heroes themselves. These supporting actors also received excellent reviews. Thus, comedian Om Prakash sang O.P.'s composition, Churi Bane Kanta Bane Oo My Son in Jaali Note. Comedian Johnny Walker sang O.P.'s popular song, Aye Dil Hai Mushkil Jeena Yahaan in C.I.D., "Jaane Kahan Mera Jigar Gaya Jee" (Mr. & Mrs. 55), and Main Bambaika Baaboo, Naam Meraa Anjaanaa in Naya Daur. There was later a movie titled Johnny Walker where Johnny Walker himself was the hero. Along with some other numbers in the last movie, Asha Bhosle/Gita Dutt's, Thandi Thandi Hawaa in it is memorable.

284


O. P. Nayyar Rhythm was O.P.'s specialty. His spirited composition, Yeh Desh Hai Veer Jawaanonkaa featuring Dilip Kumar and Ajit in Naya Daur (1957) is an all-time favorite in India even after fifty years. Lata Mangeshkar once said that her most favorite O.P.-Asha Bhosle tune was Aao Huzoor Tumko Sitaaromein Le Chale in Kismet. The last Opee composition which Asha sang was Chain Se Humko Kabhi. It was meant to be included in the movie, Pran Jaye Par Vachan Na Jaye (1974), but it was dropped in the final version of the movie. However, it became an O.P. classic, and it won Asha a Filmfare Best Playback Singer Award. According to some critics, O.P. did not choose his movies well and wasted some of his superb tunes on B-grade actors like Joy Mukherjee, Biswajeet, and Babita. Though O.P. was still active in his musical career in the 1960s and '70s, to the regrets of his fans, O.P. did not compose music for the then superstar Rajesh Khanna or budding Amitabh Bachchan. O.P. also did not provide music for movies starring heroes of the day like Sanjeev Kumar, Shashi Kapoor, and Jitendra. Again, with the exception of Rekha, O.P. did not compose music for heroines like Hema Malini, Rakhee, or Zeenat Aman, who were all well known around the time he could have made a re-entry as a top composer. O. P. gave music to only one movie with Raj Kapoor (Do Ustad). Another Bollywood maestro, S D Burman, was far more successful as a composer. Twenty years Opee's senior, the mild mannered Sachin Dev Burman composed exquisite tunes for a succession of Bollywood stars despite a long-lasting breakup with Lata Mangeshkar. With Asha Bhosle singing for Nargis his mellifluent composition, Koi Aayaa Dhadkan Kehti Hai in Lajwanti, S D Burman had all but declared that he was Asha's new mentor. O.P. held Burman in high esteem and was reported to have said that the Burman-Lata solo for Waheeda Rehman in Guide, Aaj Phir Jeeneki Tamannaa Hai, was the best ever song in Hindi for its sheer evocative beauty and matching lyrical lines. Apart from Hindi films, O.P. also composed music for a few South Indian movies, including Neerajanam in Telugu. Even though in 1988 Neerajanam was a flop at box office, the music was such a rage that it created a record for the most sold album in south until over taken by A.R.Rahman's Roja. O.P. faded from the Bollywood scene in early 1970s, though he made a comeback attempt in the 1990s --- "Mangni" and "Nishchaiy" in 1992 and "Zid" in 1994.

Personal life During his retirement, O.P. stayed in touch with only a few select friends. Gajendra Singh and Ahmed Wasi were two among them. Gajendra Singh included Opee as a judge for his successful TV show, Sa Re Ga Ma Pa. Ahmed Wasi interviewed O.P. twice for Vividh Bharati and presented his life-sketch through six hour-long episodes collectively titled as Mujhe Yaad Sab Hai Zaraa Zaraa. For some years before his death, O.P. had been estranged from his family members to the extent that he had requested that they be not allowed to attend his funeral. Following the estrangement, he had moved out of his house at Marine Drive in Mumbai (Bombay), leaving his family behind, and begun to stay at a friend's place in the suburb of Virar. A month before his death, he had moved to yet another friend's place in Thane. O.P. died on 28 January 2007 through cardiac arrest. He is survived by his wife, three daughters, and a son. On his death, tributes came from many prominent Bollywood figures, including Lata Mangeshkar, B R Chopra, Shammi Kapoor, Sharmila Tagore, Mumtaz, Mahesh Bhatt, Khayyam, Shakti Samanta, Sonu Nigam, Ravindra Jain, and Anu Malik.

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O. P. Nayyar

Partial filmography The following are a few of his major hits in Alphabetical order: • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

12 O'Clock (1958) Aasman (1952) Aar Paar (1954) Aisa Bhi Hota Hai (1971) Akalmand (1966) Baap Re Baap (1955) Baaz (1953) Bhaagam Bhaag (1952) Badey Sarkar (1957) Basant (1960) (Bajewala, A Tribute Song to Indian Cinema, in which shares tribute with S. D. Burman, Shankar JaiKishan and Naushad) Bin Maa ke Bachche (1979) Baharen Phir Bhi Aayaegi (1966) Chacha Zindabad (1959) (Great Comedy with Om Prakash and Kishore Kumar) C.I.D. (1956)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

C. I. D. - 909 (1967) Chham Chham Chham (1952) Choo Mantar (1956) Dhake Ki Malmal (1954) Dil Aur Mohabbat (1968) Do Dilon Ki Dastan (1967) Do Ustad (1959) Duniya Rang Rangilee (1957) Dus Lakh (1966) Ek Bar Muskurado (1972) Ek Musafir Ek Hasina (1962) Farishta (1957) Heera Moti (1978) Hong Kong (1962) Howrah Bridge (1958) Humsaaya (1968) Hum Sab Chor Hain (1956) Jaali Note (1960) Johnny Walker (1956) Kabhi Andhera Kabhi Ujaala (1958) Kahin Din Kahin Rat (1968) Kalpana (1960) Kaneez (1949) (Debut or First Film) Kashmir Ki Kali (1964) Kismet (1968) Khoon Ka Badla Khoon (1978) Love and Murder (1966)

• Mangni (1992) • Mangu (1954) • Mai Baap (1957)

286


O. P. Nayyar • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Mere Sanam (1965) Mehbooba (1954) Miss Coca Cola (1955) Mitti Mein Sona (1960) Mohabbat Zindagi Hai (1966) Mr. and Mrs.'55 (1955) Mr. Lambu (1954) Mr. Quartoon M.A. (1958) Mujrim (1958) Musafir khana (1955) Muqadaar Ki Baat (Listen to Pushpa Paghdhare) Nasihat (1967) Naya Andaaz (1956) Naya Daur (1954 or 1957) Neeranjanum (1988) (Telugu Film) Nishchaiy (1992) Phagun (1958)

• • • • • • • • • • •

Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon (1963) Pran Jaye Par Vachan Na Jayae (1974) Qaidi (1957) Raagini (1958) Sab Se Bada Rupaiyaa (1955) Sawan Ki Ghata (1966) Sambandh (1969) Shrimanji (1968) Shrimati - 420 (1956) Sone ki Chidiya (1958) Taxi Driver (1973) (Listen to Lata Mangeshkar, who he mentioned will always be a number 1 singer in an Interview with Ameen Sayani) The Killers (1969) Tumsa Nahin Dekha (1957) Ustad (1957) Yeh Raat Phir na Aayegi (1966) Zid (1994)

• • • • •

Non-Filmy Album Labels as follows: • • • • • • • • •

Main Gabhru Punjab Da (2008) Eight (Stages Of Love) (2006) Movie "Don" (2006) Essential Chant Of Shiva (2005) Greatest Flute Maestro Pt. Pannalal Ghosh (2005) Hot Hot DJ Mix (2005) Bhajan Sree - M. S. Subbulkshmi (2004) Hanuman Chalish & Others Bhajans & Aarti (2004) Kabhi Kabhi - Classic Hits Remix (2004)

• Sree Ram Chale Vanwas (2004) • Shree Sankat Mochan Hanuman Astak (2004) • Golden Moments - Brian Silas Vol-2 (2003)

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O. P. Nayyar • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Sampoorna Sundar Kand Vol.3 (2003) The Greatest Hits of Pt. Hariprasad Chaurushiya (2003) Uttare Ei HAOA - Yeh DasGupta (2003) Movie "Bollywood/Hollywood" (2002) BhajanAmrita - Sandhya Mukherjee (2001) Music For Reiki - Pt. Hariprasad Chaurasia (2001) A Journey With Jagjit Singh / Chitra Singh (2000) Ghazal --- Vaada --- Amjad Ali Khan (2000) Mohdi Hussain - The Finest Ghaza (2000) The Golden Moments - Begum Akhtar - Yeh Ankhon Ki Alam (2000) The Golden Moments - Parvez Mehdi - Toot Jaye Na Bharam (2000) Movie "Cotton Mary" (1999) 50 Glorious Remix Years (1999) Sai Geeth Mala (Songs On Sri SaiBaba Bhajans) (1999) Izhar-E-Gham-Mirza Sikandar Ali (1998) R A V I (1998) Ravi Kichlu: Dastan-E-Mohabbat (Ghazals) Cassette-1 (1996)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Cry for cry - Music by Jagjit Singh (1995) The Golden Collection - Jagjit / Chitra Singh (1992) Vintage Ghazals - Jagjit / Chitra Singh (1992) Instrumental Hits From Films (1991) Pankaj Mullick - Piya Milan Ko Jana (1991) Dil Padosi Hai: Asha / RD Burman / Gulzar (1987) Bhajnashram (1986) Best Of Jagjit Singh & Chitra Singh (1984) Muqabila - Nasihat - Naat (1984) Silk Soft Remixes (Compilation) Ustad Salamat Ali Khan The Best Of O. P. Nayyar Vol. 1 to Vol. 6 Parichay - Introduction To India's Musical Geniuses (O. P. Nayyar) OP Nayyar-Penaz Masani - Dekho Mohabbat Ka Dastoor OP Nayyar-Penaz Masani - Jaane Do (1990) OP Nayyar-Ashok Khosla - Naye Kapde Badlkar OP Nayyar-Ashok Khosla - Ajnabi Shehar Mein OP Nayyar-Runa Laila - Allah Ne Is Dil Ne OP Nayyar-Runa Laila - Kehdo Is Raat Se OP Nayyar-Runa Laila - Wadiyan Wadiyan Golden Collection - O. P. Nayyar (Compilation) O. P. Nayyar, Asha Bhosle - Sunheri Yaadein

288


O. P. Nayyar

References [1] http:/ / www. mohdrafi. com/ meri-awaaz-suno/ o-p-nayyar-immortal-relationship-with-mohammad-rafi. html

External links • O. P. Nayyar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006211/) at the Internet Movie Database • SACHINITI the website with active participation from the largest collection of his fans (http://sachiniti. wordpress.com/2006/04/16/opnayyarnot-forgotten/) • List of hindi songs composed by O. P. Nayyar (http://www.bollango.com/cgi-bin/akf_search.tcl?key=song& music_director=o+p+nayyar) • Brief Biography (http://www.hindilyrix.com/musicians/musician-nayyar.html) • http://in.rediff.com/movies/2003/feb/04dinesh.htm

289


Pran

290

Pran Pran Born

Pran Krishan Sikand 12 February 1920 [1] New Delhi, India

Residence

Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Other names Pran Sahaab Occupation

Actor

Years active

1940−2003

Spouse

Shukla Sikand (1945−present)

Children

Arvind Sikand Sunil Sikand Pinky Sikand Website

http:/ / www. pransikand. com

Pran (born Pran Krishan Sikand on 12 February 1920) is a multiple Filmfare and BFJA award-winning Indian actor, who is one of the most popular villains of Hindi cinema.[2] He has appeared in over 350 films. Pran played the leading man in films like Halaku (1956), Dharma(1973), Jangal Mein Mangal (1972), Gaddar and Ek Kunwari Ek Kunwara (1973). His pivotal roles in the films such as Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai (1960), Victoria No. 203, Manoj Kumar’s Upkaar (1967) and Purab Aur Paschim, Aurat(1967), Half Ticket (1962), Zanjeer (1973), Amar Akbar Anthony (1977), Don (1978), Chori Mera Kaam, Johny Mera Naam, Duniya and Maan Gaye Ustaad are considered to be among his best performances. In 2010, he has been named on the list of CNN's "Top 25 Asian actors of all time".[3] [4] He won the Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award in 1967, 1969, and 1972 and was awarded the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 1997. In 2001, he was honoured with the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India, for his contribution to Indian cinema. Contrary to the villainous characters he played in his early films, he is very social, a member of various organizations, and even has his very own football team, 'Bombay Dynamos Football Club'.

Personal life and education Pran was born in Ballimaran, Old Delhi,[1] into a wealthy family. His father, Kewal Krishan Sikand, was a civil engineer and a Government civil contractor, his mother was Rameshwari, and the couple had four sons and three daughters.[5] He was academically gifted, especially in mathematics. Since his father had a transferable job, he studied in various places, including Dehradun, Kapurthala, Meerut and Unnao (Uttar Pradesh), finally completing his matriculation from Raza High School, in Rampur. Thereafter, he joined A. Das & Co., Delhi as an apprentice as he wanted to become a professional photographer. This job took him first to Simla, where he played Sita to Madan Puri's Ram in the local staging of "Ramlila".[6] Pran married Shukla Ahluwalia on 18 April 1945, and has two sons, Arvind and Sunil, and a daughter, Pinky.


Pran

291

Career (1940−2007) Early career (1940−1966) A chance meeting with the writer, Wali Mohammad Wali, who worked for Dalsukh Pancholi, at a shop in Hira Mandi, Lahore, led to Pran winning his first role as a villain in Dalsukh Pancholi's Punjabi film Yamla Jat (1940), a big hit in that year. This was followed by Chaudhary and Khajanchi. Soon he established a name for himself as a villain in the Lahore film industry, with other noted villains of time, Ajit and K. N. Singh. Later, Pancholi cast him in Khandaan (1942), which was the first Hindi movie in which Pran became a hero, opposite Noor Jehan, who had earlier acted with him as a child artist.[7] [8] [9] Pran had acted in 22 films as a villain before his career experienced a brief pause, due to the partition in 1947. He left Lahore and arrived in Bombay on 14 August 1947, though films didn't come his way; months of wait and unsuccessful hunting followed, after which he moved to smaller hotels and eventually ended up in Delmar Hotel, Marine Drive. Eight months later, in 1948, he got a chance to start all over again, with the help of writer Saadat Hasan Manto and actor Shyam, he got a role in Bombay Talkies film, Ziddi (with Dev Anand and Kamini Kaushal as leads), directed by Shaheed Latif, which launched his career in Bombay. This film was also Dev Anand's big break as a hero, and there was no turning back for Pran from then on.[5] [10] Within a week, he signed three more films, S M Yusuf's Grihasti, a diamond jubilee hit, Prabhat Films's Apradhi and finally Wali Mohammad, who had first lured him into movies in 1940, had by then also moved to Bombay, turned a producer and set up office at Famous Studios, near Mahalaxmi Racecourse, offered him Putli.[11] [12] Pran was regularly offered the role of the main villain or negative character in the films with Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand and Raj Kapoor as the lead hero in the 1950s and 60s. Pran's performance as the negative character was very much appreciated in Dilip Kumar starrers like Azaad, Madhumati, Devdas, Dil Diya Dard Liya, Ram Aur Shyam and Aadmi and films with Dev Anand as the lead man like Ziddi (1948), Munimji (1955), Amar Deep (1958) etc. and with Raj Kapoor in Aah, Chori Chori, Jagte Raho, Chhalia, Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai, Dil Hi Toh Hai. Subsequently in the sixties and early seventies, even though he was in his forties, being slim and fit, his demand in the film market never went down and he was given pivotal roles as a character age 25 to 30 in films with Shammi Kapoor, Joy Mukherjee, Rajendra Kumar and Dharmendra as the lead hero. Whereas Dilip Kumar and Raj Kapoor's careers as the young hero started to decline from the late sixties (as both of them had put on lot of weight) although they were younger than Pran. But Pran's association with Dev Anand continued even beyond the 60s with super hits like Johny Mera Naam, Warrant and Des Pardes. His film with him as the lead hero, Halaku in 1956, was big hit too. Pran always had a significant role in comedy films starring Kishore Kumar and Mehmood Ali in the lead roles. Pran's memorable collaborations with Kishore Kumar as the leading man include Naya Andaz, Aasha, Bewaqoof, Ek Raaz and Jaal Saz and with Mehmood in Sadhu Aur Shaitaan, Lakhon Me Ek. The most memorable films of Kishore Kumar and Pran together remains Half Ticket and Man-Mauji.

Later career (1967−2007) In the late 1960s, with the character of Malang Chacha in Manoj Kumar's Upkaar in 1967, he turned to positive character roles, wherein the popular Kalyanji Anandji song, "Kasme vaade pyaar wafaa" was picturised on him. In this movie Kamini Kaushal also moved to character roles. Manoj Kumar continued to cast him in his films as the lead hero like Shaheed, Purab Aur Pachhim, Be-Imaan, Sanyasi, Dus Numbri and Patthar Ke Sanam. Many roles with him playing the supporting role to the hero were released and this way he reinvented himself as a character actor from being earlier the main villain. Pran from 1967 till 1997 became a well-known character actor in Hindi films and the most famous are the roles in Humjoli, Parichay, Aankhon Aankhon Mein, Jheel Ke Us Paar, Zinda Dil, Zehreela Insaan, Hatyara, Chor Ho To Aisa, Dhan Daulat, Jaanwar(1983), Raaj Tilak, Insaaf Kaun Karega, Bewafai, Imaandaar, Sanam Bewafa, 1942: A Love Story, Tere Mere Sapne(1997), Lav Kush. His films


Pran

292 with Shashi Kapoor as the lead actor, too were big hits, notable being Biradari, Chori Mera Kaam, Phaansi, Shankar Dada, Chakkar Pe Chakkar, Rahu Ketu, Apna Khoon and Maan Gaye Ustaad. In the 1970s, Pran was offered the role of leading man in films like Dharma(1973), Ek Kunwari Ek Kunwara, Jangal Mein Mangal, Rahu Ketu. Since the fifties till late eighties, Pran was often cast with Ashok Kumar, to play either the role of friends, around whom the story revolved, in films like Victoria No. 203, Chori Mera Kaam, Chor Ke Ghar Chor, Apna Khoon, Aap Ke Deewane and Raja Aur Rana or as characters in films like Pooja Ke Phool, Purab Aur Pachhim, Adhikar, Naya Zamana and Aansoo Ban Gaye Phool. The veteran actors were very close friends in professional and real life and have acted in 17 films together. Pran recommended newcomer Amitabh Bachchan to Prakash Mehra for the character of Vijay in Zanjeer, which was earlier offered to Dev Anand and Dharmendra but was rejected by them. Pran acted with Amitabh in 15 films, the most notable being Zanjeer, Don, Amar Akbar Anthony, Majboor, Dostana, Naseeb, Kaalia and Sharaabi. He was at the peak of his career in the 1970s,when he acted in action thriller, Don, and in those days Pran was paid much more than Amitabh Bachchan. The actors to be paid higher than Pran was Rajesh Khanna in the 1970s and 80s; in the 50s and 60s it was the trio of Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand and Raj Kapoor along with Rajendra Kumar. Pran remains the only male actor in Hindi cinema to have tasted many box office success throughout his active career without any dip or low phase in his long career. Pran had started accepting more of versatile roles since the late 1960s; he occasionally accepted the role of a bad man in the 70s, 80s and 90s in films like Kab? Kyoon? Aur Kahan?, Gaddar, Andhaa Kanoon (1983), Duniya (1984), Hoshiyar, Dharm Adhikari and Azaad Desh Ke Ghulam. Director Prakash Mehra always casted Pran in most of his directorial ventures in his career like in Ek Kunwari Ek Kunwara, Zanjeer, Aan Baan, Khalifa, Jwalamukhi, Sharaabi, Jaadugar. Pran was a hot favourite with Manmohan Desai, having directed Pran regularly in his directorial ventures like Chhalia, Bluff Master, Dharam Veer, Naseeb, Amar Akbar Anthony. Subhash Ghai casted him in Vishwanath, Karz and Krodhi. In the late nineties, Pran started rejecting film offers citing age-related problems. But in the nineties when Amitabh was going through the bad patch in his career, he requested Pran to do roles in his home productions Mrityudaata and Tere Mere Sapne and Pran made an exception by acting in them. Pran's legs had begun to shiver in 1997 so his character in Mrityudaata was modified accordingly to justify his legs' in Tere Mere Sapne, his shots were taken with him seated. Post 2000, he made few guest appearances. The legendary "Villain of the Millennium" has had a marathon six-decade career in Hindi cinema and is one of the most celebrated actors of the industry. So effective was his acting that it said that people stopped naming their children 'Pran' because of his villain roles, while the industry had started calling him 'Pran Sahab'.[13] His favourite line "Barkhurdaar" became immensely popular. His biography, ...and Pran was so named because, in most of the movies that he acted in, his was the last name in the cast portion of the credits, with the words "...and Pran" and sometime "..above all Pran".[14]


Pran

293

Awards and honours Filmfare Awards • • • •

1967 - Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award for Upkaar 1969 - Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award for Aanso Ban Gaye Phool 1972 - Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award for Be-Imaan (Pran refused to accept) 1997 - Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award

Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards • 1961 - BFJA Awards: Best Actor in a Supporting Role: Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai [15] • 1966 - BFJA Awards: Best Actor in a Supporting Role: Shaheed [16] • 1973 - BFJA Awards: Best Actor in a Supporting Role: Zanjeer [17]

Other awards and recognitions • 1973 - Chitrlok Cine Circle Ahmedabad: "Best Character Award".[18] • 1976 - Bombay Film Award: Most Versatile Actor. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1978 - Bombay Film Award: Most Versatile Actor. 1978 - North Bombay Jaycees: Best Character Actor. 1983 - Kala Bhushan Award presented by Punjabi Kala Sangam. 1984 - "Extra Ordinary Special Award as Wizard of Acting" by Bombay Film Award. 1984 - "Viyayshree Award" presented for enriching Human Life and Outstanding Attainments India Int. Friendship Society). 1984 - "Ars Gratia Artis" for excellence in emotive Art. 1984 - Filmgoers Award: Reigning "Abhinay Samrat". 1987 - North Bombay Jaycees: Outstanding Performance of Decade. 1990 - Kala Rattan Award presented by Punjabi Kal Sangam for 50 glorious Years. 1990 - Punjab Association: an Award for 50 years in the Industry. 1990 - Southall Lion's Club London: "In recognition of Invaluable Services to Charity at the Celebration of Golden Jubilee of his services tot Film Industry. 1991 - Cinegoers Award: "Abhinay Samrat Golden Jubilee Award". 1992 - Outstanding contribution to Indian Film Industry, Indian Motion Pictures Producers' Association.[18] 2000 - Star Screen Lifetime Achievement Award 2000 - Zee Cine Award for Lifetime Achievement [11] 2000 - "Villain of the Millennium" by Stardust Award.[8] 2001 - Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian award from the Government of India.[19] 2004 - Lifetime Achievement Award instituted by the Maharashtra Government.[8] 2010 - Phalke Icon and Legendary Cine Versatile Cine Star Award by Dadasaheb Phalke Academy. [40] [41]

Selected filmography • Pran also worked in numerous Bengali films in 1960-1970, however they are not listed.


Pran

294

Khandan (1942)

Milan (1967)

Dharam Veer (1977)

Ziddi (1948)

Upkar (1967)

Des Pardes(1978)

Barsaat Ki Ek Raat (1948)

Safar (film)(1968)

Don(1978)

Bari Behen (1949)

Brahmchari (1968)

Ganga Ki Saugandh (1978)

Sheesh Mahal" (1950)

Anjaana(1969)

Vishwanath (1978)

Biraj Bahu (1954)

Tum Se Achcha Kaun Hai (1969) •

Aap Ke Diwane (1980)

Azaad (1955)

Pyar Hi Pyar (1969)

Dostana(1980)

Munimji (1955)

Ganwaar(1970)

Karz (1980)

Chori Chori (1955)

Tum Haseen Main Jawan(1970)

Kaalia (1981)

Halaku(1956)

Gopi (1970)

Naseeb (1981)

Devdas (1956)

Heer Raanjha (1970)

Andha Kanoon(1983)

Tumsa Nahin Dekha(1957)

Humjoli (1970)

Naukar Biwi Ka(1983)

Madhumati(1958)

Johny Mera Naam (1970)

Souten(1983)

Chhalia (1960)

Purab Aur Paschim (1970)

Nastik (1983)

Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai (1960) •

Guddi(1971)

Sohni Mahiwal(1984)

Jab Pyar Kisi Se Hota Hai (1961)

Naya Zamana (1971)

Insaaf Kaun Karega (1984)

Dil Tera Diwana (1962)

Ek Bechara (1972)

Raaj Tilak (1984)

Half Ticket (1962)

Parichay (1972)

Sharaabi (1984)

Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon(1963)

Victoria No. 203 (1972)

Bewafai(1985)

Mere Mehboob(1963)

Jangal Mein Mangal (1972)

Dosti Dushmani (1986)

Kashmir Ki Kali (1964)

Zanjeer(1973)

Paap Ki Duniya (1988)

Rajkumar (1964)

Bobby (1973)

Shukriya(1988)

Mere Sanam (1965)

Jugnu (1973)

Shahenshah(1988)

Shaheed (1965)

Gaddar (1973)

Sanam Bewafa(1990)

Do Badan (1966)

Jheel Ke Us Paar (1973)

Hosa Raaga (1991, Kannada)

Dil Diya Dard Liya (1966)

Majboor(1974)

Isi Ka Naam Zindgi (1992)

Love in Tokyo(1966)

Zehreela Insaan(1974)

1942: A Love Story (1994)

An Evening In Paris(1967)

Sanyasi(1975)

Tere Mere Sapne (1996)

Pathar Ke Sanam(1967)

Dus Numbari (1976)

Mrityudata (1997)

Ram Aur Shyam (1967)

Amar Akbar Anthony(1977)

References [1] Pran as a person (Official biography) (http:/ / www. pransikand. com/ ) [2] Encyclopaedia of Hindi cinema, by Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) Pvt. Ltd, Gulzar, Govind Nihalani, Saibal Chatterjee. Published by Encyclopaedia Britannica (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2003. ISBN 8179910660. [3] http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Big-B-in-CNN-s-top-25-Asian-actors-list/ H1-Article1-515456. aspx [4] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ pictureStory. php?galId=768& pg=2& view=2 [5] Pran (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=TO6Fmi8FraUC& pg=RA1-PA89& dq=Pran+ Sikand& as_brr=0) Bollywood: yesterday - today - tomorrow, by Ramesh Dawar. Published by Star Publications, 2006. ISBN 190586301. Page 89. [6] Padma Bhushan Pran -- Fine actor, finer man (http:/ / hindu. com/ thehindu/ 2001/ 01/ 28/ stories/ 14282185. htm) The Hindu, 28 January 2001. [7] Pran chosen for Raj Kapoor award (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 779639. cms) The Times of India, 15 July 2004. [8] A lifetime of villainy (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20040725/ spectrum/ main6. htm) Prerana Trehan, The Tribune, 25 July 2004. [9] Villains (http:/ / www. bollywoodprofilesite. com/ villians. html) bollywoodprofilesite.com. [10] My Best Year - PRAN:1948 (http:/ / archives. digitaltoday. in/ indiatoday/ 20060703/ cover4. html) India Today, 3 July 2006. "When Bombay Talkies approached me, all I could say was that I needed an advance." [11] ..In March 2000, he was honoured with the Zee Lifetime Achievement Award (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2000/ apr/ 05pran. htm) Rediff, 5 April 2000. [12] Bollywood: a history, by Mihir Bose, page 161, published by Lotus Collection, Roli Books, 2007. ISBN 8174365087. [13] Pran is eighty - His is the kind of life (pran) life will always be proud of (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ feb25/ film6. htm). Screen. [14] Reel evil (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2004/ 20041024/ spectrum/ book8. htm) The Tribune, 24 October 2004." Bimal Roy presents, Madhumati, starring Dilip Kumar, Vyjayanthimala, Johny Walker, Tiwari ... and Pran."


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295 [15] 1962:25th Annual BFJA Awards - Awards For The Year 1961 (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196225. htm) BFJA Awards website. [16] 1967:30th Annual BFJA Awards - Awards For The Year 1966 (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 196730. htm) BFJA Awards website. [17] 1974: 37th Annual BFJA Awards - Awards For The Year 1973 (http:/ / www. bfjaawards. com/ legacy/ pastwin/ 197437. htm) BFJA Awards website. [18] Awards (http:/ / www. pransikand. com/ awards. htm) [19] Lata, Bismillah Khan get Bharat Ratnas (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ 2001/ jan/ 25josy. htm) Rediff.com, 25 January 2001. "The Padma Bhushan...veteran actor Pran,".

Further reading • ...and PRAN, a Biography, by Bunny Ruben. HarperCollins, India, 2004. ISBN 81-7223-466-X. • The Life of A Villain-Pran by Chobay Gill (2005), HarperCollins New Delhi, 446 pages. ISBN 81-7223-466-X

External links • PRAN - The legend of Hindi Cinema - Official Website (http://www.pransikand.com) • Pran receive Dadasaheb Phalke honour (http://www.bollywoodworld.com/bollywood-news/ dev-anand-pran-receive-dadasaheb-phalke-honour-110281.html) • Pran (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0695199/) at the Internet Movie Database • Interview with Pran Kishen Sikand (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2000/apr/05pran.htm) at Rediff.com


Prithviraj Kapoor

296

Prithviraj Kapoor Prithviraj Kapoor Born

3 November 1906 Lyallpur, Punjab

Died

29 May 1972 (aged 65)

Years active 1929–1971 Spouse

Ramsarni "Rama" Mehra (1923/24–1972)

Prithviraj Kapoor (Hindi:पृथ्वीराज कपूर, Pṛithvīrāj Kapūr), 3 November 1906 – 29 May 1972) was a pioneer of Indian theatre and of the Hindi film industry, who started his career as an actor, in the silent era of Hindi cinema, associated with IPTA and who founded Prithvi Theatres, a travelling theatre company based in Mumbai, in 1944.[1] He was also the patriarch of the Kapoor family of Hindi films, five generations of which family, beginning with him, have played active roles in Hindi film industry. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1969 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1971 for his contributions towards Indian cinema.

Early life Prithviraj was born on November 3, 1906 at Samundri[2] [3] near the town of Lyallpur (currently Faisalabad, Pakistan) in Punjab, then under British colonial rule to a middle-class Hindu Punjabi Khatri[4] family that seem to have settled some time earlier in Peshawar.[5] Prithviraj could speak Hindi, Punjabi, and Hindko.[6] [7] His father, Dewan Basheswarnath Singh Kapoor, was a sub-inspector of police. Prithviraj received his initial education at Khalsa College Lyallpur and at Lahore. His paternal grandfather, Dewan Keshavmal, was a powerful influence during his childhood. Baseshwarnath was posted at Peshawar, and so Prithviraj received his higher education at the Edwardes College, Peshawar, Pakistan and joined a one year program in Law to become a Lawyer. It was here that his talents on stage first received expression. Prithviraj's son Shammi recollects[2] that Prof. Jai Dayal, a member of the faculty, was instrumental in nurturing his talent. The professor was in love with an English lady by the name of Nora Richard, who in turn was a theatre aficionado with a passion for Shakespeare and Ibsen. The couple found Prithviraj the perfect material for many roles in the plays they mounted. This was his grounding in the art of the theatre.

Career Prithviraj did his B.A. at Edwardes College, Peshawar, a feat that few of his descendants were destined to match. He also studied law as a graduate student for one year, but his heart was in the theatre. In 1928, with the help of a loan from his aunt, Prithviraj moved to the city of Bombay (present-day Mumbai) which is the hub of the Hindi film industry. He acted as an extra in his first film role, though he grew up to get a lead role for his third Cinema Girl in 1929.[8] After featuring in nine silent films,[9] Kapoor did a supporting role in India's first film talkie, Alam Ara (1931). His performance in Vidyapati (1937) was much appreciated. His best-known performance is perhaps as Alexander the Great in Sohrab Modi’s Sikandar (1941). He also joined the only English theatrical company called 'J. Grant Anderson' which remained in India for a year.[8] Through all these years Prithviraj remained devoted to the theatre and performed on stage regularly. He developed a reputation as a fine actor on both stage and screen.


Prithviraj Kapoor

Prithvi Theatres By 1944, Prithviraj had the wherewithal and standing to found his own theatre group, Prithvi Theatres, its premiere performance was, Kalidasa's "Shakuntala" in 1944. His eldest son, Raj Kapoor, had already struck out on his own; the films he produced had been successful and this was also an enabling factor. Prithviraj invested in and founded Prithvi Theatres, a travelling troupe which staged memorable productions across India. In over 16 years of existence, the theater staged some 2,662 shows. Prithviraj starred as the lead actor in every single show.[10] By the late 1950s, it was clear that the era of the travelling theatre was past; that art-form had been irreversibly supplanted by the cinema. No longer was it financially feasible for a troupe of up to 80 people (as Prithvi theatre was) to travel the country for four to six months at a time with their tons of stage props and equipment, living in hotels where possible and at campsites otherwise. The financial returns, through ticket sales and the rapidly diminishing largesse of patrons from the erstwhile princely class of India, was just not adequate to support such an effort. Many of the fine actors and technicians that Prithvi Theatres nurtured had found their way to the movies. Indeed, this was the case with all of Prithviraj's own sons. As Prithviraj progressed into his 50's, he gradually ceased theatre activities and accepted occasional offers from film-makers, including his own sons. Later, under his son, Shashi Kapoor, and his wife Jennifer Kendal, it merged with the Indian Shakespeare theatre company, "Shakespeareana", and the company got a permanent home, with the inauguration of the "Prithvi Theatre" in Mumbai 5 November 1978.[11] Postage stamp In 1996, the 'Golden Jubilee year' of the founding of Prithvi Theatre, India Post, issued a special two Rupee, 'commemorative' postage stamp in New Delhi,[12] it featured the logo of Prithvi Theatre 1945-1995, and an image its founder 'Prithviraj Kapoor', without the name, as just his face seemed enough, being the legend that he had become in his lifetime and beyond in Hindi theatre.[13] The first day cover, (stamped 15-1-95) showed an illustration of performance of travelling theatre in progress, on a stage that seem fit for a travelling theatre, as Prithvi theatre was for sixteen, till 1960.[11]

Later years His filmography of this period includes Mughal E Azam (1960) where he gave his most memorable performance as the Mughal emperor Akbar, Harishchandra Taramati (1963) where he played the lead role and unforgettable performances as Porus in Sikandar-e-Azam (1965) and the stentorian grandfather in Kal Aaj Aur Kal (1971) where he appeared with his son and grandson Randhir Kapoor. Kapoor starred in the legendary religious Punjabi film Nanak Naam Jahaz Hai (1969), a film so revered in Punjab that there were lines many kilometers long to purchase tickets. He also starred in the Punjabi films Nanak Dukhiya Sub Sansar (1970) and Mele Mittran De (1972).

297


Prithviraj Kapoor

Awards and honours In 1954, he was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, and in 1969, the Padma Bhushan by the government of India. He remained Nominated Rajya Sabha Member for eight years.[9] After his death in 1972, he was posthumously awarded the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for the year 1971. He was the third recipient of that award, the highest accolade in Indian cinema.

Legacy Prithviraj Kapoor's descendants have contributed richly to the Hindi film industry and he is thus reckoned the patriarch of the 'first family of Hindi films.' All three of his sons became noted actors and film-makers and two of his daughters-in-law worked in the same field. Nearly all his grandchildren, including Randhir Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor, Rajiv Kapoor, Karan Kapoor, Kunal Kapoor, and granddaughter Sanjana Kapoor have worked in the field of films, either as actors or film-makers or both. Karisma Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor, two of the top film-stars of today, are Prithviraj's great-granddaughters, being the granddaughters of his eldest son Raj Kapoor. His great-grandson Ranbir Kapoor, son of Rishi Kapoor, the fourth generation of leading heroes, made his debut in the Hindi film Saawariya in 2007.

Personal life As was customary in that era, Prithviraj married at a young age. At age 17, Prithviraj married the 14-year-old Ramsarni Mehra, in a match that was arranged by their families. Their eldest child, Raj Kapoor, was born in December 1924. By the time Prithviraj moved to Bombay in 1928, the couple were the parents of three children. In 1930, Ramsarni joined Prithviraj in Bombay. The following year, while she was pregnant for the fourth time, the couple suffered the tragic loss of two of their three children in the space of one week.[14] One of their children, Devi, died of double pneumonia while the other child, Nandi, died of poisoning in a freak incident when he swallowed some rat-poison pills strewn in the garden. He is the cousin of film Producer Surinder Kapoor. The couple went on to have four children further. All three of their surviving sons, Raj Kapoor, Shammi Kapoor and Shashi Kapoor, were to become famous actors and film-makers in their own right. They also had one daughter, Urmila Sial. After his retirement, Prithviraj settled in Bombay, in a cottage near Juhu beach. The property was later to be converted into a small, experimental theatre, the Prithvi Theatre. Both Prithviraj and Ramsarni suffered from cancer in their declining years and died within a fortnight of each other. Prithviraj died on 29 May 1972 and was followed by his wife of 63 years on 14 June the same year.

Selected filmography • • • • • • • • •

Alam Ara (1931) Vidyapati (1937) Sikandar (1941) Ishara (1943) Awaara (1951) Anand Math (1952) Pardesi Mughal-e-Azam (1960) Zindagi (1964)

• Sikandar-e-Azam (1965) • Daku Mangal Singh (1966) • Nanak Naam Jahaz Hai (1969)

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Prithviraj Kapoor • Heer Raanjha (1970) • Kal Aaj Aur Kal (1971) • Sakshatkara - (Kannada) (1971)

Further reading • Shashi Kapoor presents the Prithviwallahs, by Shashi Kapoor, Deepa Gahlot, Prithvi Theatre (Bombay, India). Roli Books, 2004. ISBN 8174363483. • The Kapoors: the first family of Indian cinema, by Madhu Jain. Penguin, Viking, 2005. ISBN 0670058378.

Notes [1] Prithviraj Kapoor Resource page and photo gallery (http:/ / www. bollywood501. com/ classic_m/ prithviraj_kapoor/ index. html) [2] Prithviraj, My father (http:/ / www. junglee. org. in/ pk. html) by Shamsherraj (Shammi) Kapoor [3] "Legend of cinema Prithiviraj Kapoor From Lyallpur to Bombay" (http:/ / punjabiworld. com/ Punjab-Worldwide/ kapoor-prithiviraj. html). Network. November 04,2009. p. 1. . Retrieved 13 February 2011. [4] "Prithviraj Kapoor" (http:/ / www. oomphbollywood. com/ profiles/ profiles. aspx?id=150& title=Prithviraj Kapoor). http:/ / www. oomphbollywood. com. & #32;p. 1. . Retrieved 13 February 2011. [5] "Prithviraj Kapoor: A centenary tribute" (http:/ / www. statsvet. su. se/ publikationer/ ahmed/ artiklar_2006/ 41_prithviraj_kapoor. htm). Daily Times / University of Stockholm. . Retrieved 2007-11-03. [6] "Bollywood's First Family" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ feb/ 02slide1. htm). Rediff. . Retrieved 2007-09-08. [7] Daily Times: Peshawarites still remember the Kapoor family (http:/ / www. dailytimes. com. pk/ default. asp?page=story_29-12-2003_pg7_25) [8] Kissing the firmament with Prithvi Theatre (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mp/ 2004/ 11/ 22/ stories/ 2004112201500100. htm) The Hindu 22 November 2004. [9] Tribute to Prithvi Raj Kapoor (1906-1972) (http:/ / www. iffigoa. org/ iffi2006/ tribute-det_aid_2. php) International Film Festival of India website. [10] Prithviraj's biography at the IMDB (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0004432/ bio) [11] India: Prithvi Theatre (http:/ / www. andreas-praefcke. de/ carthalia/ world/ ind_prithvi. htm) [12] Prithvi Theatre Stamp (http:/ / www. indianpost. com/ viewstamp. php/ Alpha/ P/ PRITHVI THEATER) India Post. [13] Genes and Genius (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=JQi967RIRh4C& pg=PA300& lpg=PA300& dq="Prithvi+ Theatre"+ commemorative+ "stamp"+ issued& source=web& ots=P-hGg49yMG& sig=mAFV5md_nQ1t6cnEcrwW4pSex9M& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=5& ct=result) The Book I Won't be Writing and Other Essays, by H. Y. Sharada Prasad, Orient Longman, 2003. ISBN 8180280020. Page 300. [14] Ramsarni Devi Kapoor (http:/ / www. junglee. org. in/ mother. html)

References • • • •

Prithviraj Kapoor (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004432/) at the Internet Movie Database Prithviraj, My father (http://www.junglee.org.in/pk.html) by Shamsherraj (Shammi) Kapoor Detailed biography of Prithviraj Kapoor (http://www.upperstall.com/people/prithviraj.html) Peshawarites still remember the Kapoor family (http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default. asp?page=story_29-12-2003_pg7_25) • Prithviraj Kapoor @ SPICE (http://www.spicevienna.org/showPerson.php?p=4636)

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Rahul Dev Burman

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Rahul Dev Burman R.D. Burman Birth name

Rahul Dev Burman

Born

June 27, 1939

Origin

India

Died

January 4, 1994 (aged 54)

Genres

Film score

Occupations Music director Years active 1957–1994

Rahul Dev Burman (Bengali: রাহুল দেব বর্মন, Hindi: राहुल देव बर्मन pronunciation) (27 June 1939 – 4 January 1994), commonly known as R. D. Burman, nicknamed Pancham da (पंचम दा) or simply Pancham, was a Indian music composer.

Biography Early life Rahul Dev Burman was born in Calcutta.[1] According to some stories, he was nicknamed as Pancham because, as a child, whenever he cried, it sounded in the fifth note (Pa) of the Indian musical scale. The word Pancham means five (or fifth) in Bengali. Another version is that when the veteran Indian actor Ashok Kumar saw a newborn Rahul Dev Burman uttering the syllable Pa repeatedly, he nicknamed the boy Pancham. After coming to Mumbai, he learnt sarod from Ustad Ali Akbar Khan.[2] He received his early education at Ballygunge Government High School, Kolkata.[3] When he was nine years old, he composed his first song, Aye meri topi palat ke aa, which his father used in the film Funtoosh (1956). The tune of the song Sar jo tera chakraaye was composed by him as a child. His father loved the tune and included it in the soundtrack of Guru Dutt's Pyaasa. In 2004, the soundtrack for Pyaasa was given an award for "The Best Music in Film" by Sight & Sound, the British Film Institute magazine.[4] As a child, Pancham also played the Harmonica (mouth organ) in the famous song Hai apna dil to aawara (from film Solva Saal - 1958, starring Dev Anand). Out of his 331 released movies 292 were in Hindi, 31 in Bangla, 3 in Telugu, 2 each in Tamil & Oriya and 1 in Marathi. RD also composed for 5 TV Serials in Hindi and Marathi. He also scored a large number of non-film songs in Bangla (also known as Pooja songs or modern songs), which are available in different albums. R D Burman started his career as assistant to his father, Sachin Dev Burman. He assisted his father in Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958) and Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959), and his first music interlude, in his father composition, was for the song, Jaane Kya Tune Kahi, sung by Geeta Dutt, for film Pyaasa (1957).[5] His first film as a music director was Guru Dutt's Raaz (1959).


Rahul Dev Burman

1960s Burman's first released movie as a music director was Mehmood's Chhote Nawab (1961). Mehmood once said that he gave the movie to Burman because he got tired of Burman denting his car with the persistent drumming of his fingers. The song brought together S. D. Burman and Lata Mangeshkar who had stopped recording together since 1957. Burman continued to work as his father's assistant in movies like Bandini (1963), Teen Deviyaan (1965) and Guide (1965). Mehmood gave him his second movie as a music director in 1965 - Bhoot Bangla. The soundtrack is notable for a sedate "Jaago sonewalo" sung by Kishore Kumar and a contrasting "Aao twist karein", sung by Manna Dey,[6] a Desi version of Chubby Checker's "Let's Twist". In the movie, Burman also acted alongside Mehmood. He also composed the music of Teesra Kaun in 1965. Burman's first hit movie was Teesri Manzil (1966). Burman gave credit to lyricist Majrooh Sultanpuri for recommending him to Nasir Hussain, the producer and writer of Teesri Manzil.[7] Vijay Anand also said that he had arranged a music session for him before Nasir Hussain.[8] After hearing his music, Nasir Hussain made him the music director of Teesri Manzil. Initially, Shammi Kapoor (hero of the movie) was unhappy over choice of Burman. He wanted the tried and tested Shankar-Jaikishen, who had composed music for most of his films. However, after hearing R. D. Burman's music, he had no problems. The songs "O haseena" and "Aaja aaja" belonged to a genre that Indian music lovers were unaware of. Mohammed Rafi sang all six songs, four of them were duets with Asha Bhosle. Nasir Hussain went on to sign R D Burman and lyricist Majrooh Sultanpuri for six of his films including Baharon Ke Sapne (1967), Pyar Ka Mausam (1969) and Yaadon Ki Baaraat (1973). In 1967, Burman composed music for the movies Chandan Ka Palna and Baharon Ke Sapne but neither film did particularly well at the box office, even though Burman's compositions such as "Chunari Sambhal Gori, Udi Chali Jay Re" became generational favorite. Meanwhile, he continued to work as his father's assistant for movies like Jewel Thief (1967) and Talash (1969). In 1968, Burman had his second major box office hit after Teesri Manzil titled Padosan. His music for the comedy film was much appreciated. In 1969, Waris and the musical hit Nasir Hussain's Pyar Ka Mausam (where he also acted in a supporting role) were released. For Aradhana (1969), Burman was credited as associate composer. When S. D. Burman fell ill during the recording of Aradhana's (1969) music, his son completed the music.

1970s R D Burman was India's most popular composer in 1970s (Hindi Cinemas's superstar era), famous for his hippy tunes. He teamed up with singers Mohammed Rafi, Asha Bhosle, Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar and others to churn up some of the biggest hits in the Filmi music history. In 1970, R D Burman composed music for six movies, of which Kati patang (a Rajesh Khanna starrer) was a musical hit, this was the beginning of a series of films that were directed by Shakti Samanta in the 70s. Kati Patang songs like 'Yeh Shaam Mastani' and 'Yeh Jo Mohabbat Hai' became chartbusters. He also worked in Bhoot Bangla & Pyar ka Mausam Eleven more movies with R D Burman as music director were released in 1971. Of these, Amar prem, Buddha Mil gaya, Caravan, and Hare Rama Hare Krishna were musical hits. Amar prem is noted for intricate songs based on Indian classical music such as Raina beeti jaaye (sung by Lata Mangeshkar) was also in this film. The Kishore Kumar sung songs (Chingari Koi Bhadke, Yeh Kya Hua and Kuch To Log Kahenge) in the film were also very successful. The film also established Anand Bakshi to be a lyricist of great repute and he went on to work for a large number of films with Burman. Buddha mil gaya had simple, peppy numbers like Raat kali ek khwab mein aayee and Bhali bhali si ek soorat. It also had a classical song Aayo kahan se Ghanshyam?. Caravan had the best Bollywood cabaret ever - Piya tu ab to aaja, picturized on Helen and sung by Asha Bhosle and R D Burman ("Monica! O my

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Rahul Dev Burman darling"). He also received his first Filmfare Best Music nomination for "Caravan." The title song of Hare Krishna Hare Rama sung by Asha became the hip-hop anthem for the youngsters. The song is used in Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories soundtrack, titled Dum Maro Dum for Radio Del Mundo in 2006. Over the years the song has been given cult status. Other songs like Phoolon ka taaron ka and Kaanchi re were also popular. Paraya Dhan also featured some memorable songs like 'Tera Mera Juda Hona' and 'Haye Mera Dil.' 'Koi Maane Ya Naa Maane' from Adhikar is also notable. In 1972, R D Burman composed music for nineteen films. Seeta aur Geeta, Rampur ka Lakshman, Mere jeevan saathi, Bombay to Goa, Apna Desh and Parichay were musically successful. The high-pitched Asha-R D Burman duet Duniya mein logon ko from Apna desh became popular. Songs like Beeti na beetayi raina and Musafir Hoon Yaron from Parichay marked the beginning of a fruitful association between R D Burman and lyricist Gulzar which would go on till the late eighties. Rajesh Khanna's Mere jeevan sathi had beautiful evergreen Kishore Kumar numbers like O Mere Dil Ke Chain. Also released in 1972 Jawaani diwaani was a hit. Songs like Abhi nahi, Jaan-e-jaan dhoondhta phir raha and the title track were all chart-busters that year. Bombay to Goa, a comedy had hilarious songs like 'Dekha Naa Haye Re.' Seeta aur Geeta was the first film where Ramesh Sippy worked with Burman. Subsequently all his films till the end of the 80s would have Burman's music. 1973 saw fourteen more R D Burman soundtracks, of which the most successful ones were Nasir Hussain's Yaadon Ki Baraat, Shareef badmash, Heera panna and Anamika, whose 'Bahon Mein Chali Aa' and Meri Bheegi Bheegi' became popular. Yaadon Ki Baaraat was a musical with numbers such as 'Chura Liya Hai', 'Yaadon Ki Baarat', 'Lekar Hum Diwana Dil', 'Meri Soni Tamanna.' In 1974, sixteen movies with R D Burman music were released. Aap ki kasam and Ajanabee were major hits. In 1975, there were nine movies with R D Burman soundtracks including the superhit Sholay, Deewaar ,Aandhi, Khushboo and Dharam karam. In Sholay, he sang Mehbooba mehbooba, picturised on Helen and Jalal Agha and for which he received his sole Filmfare nomination for playback singing. Aandhi had classic Gulzar songs sung by Kishore-Lata - Is mod se jaate hain, tum aa gaye ho, Tere bina zindagi se koi and others. Khushboo was another R D Burman-Gulzar masterpiece with songs like O manjhi re. He did a song for a small documentary film called Maa Ki Pukaar, in 1975. R D Burman also completed the music of Mili (1975) after his father went into coma and died. In 1976, there were 8 movies with R D Burman as music director, of which Mehabooba (1976) was a classic musical film based on reincarnation, where Rajesh Khanna played double role as Singer (Classical and Modern) with a very sophisticated way. Nine more movies were released in 1977. Naam gum jaayega (Kinara, 1977) is another of R D Burman-Gulzar gems, but it was "Kya Hua Tera Wada"(Nasir Hussain's Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin, 1977) rendered fascinatingly by Mohd. Rafi that became one of the most popular songs ever. Although, Kishore Kumar still continued to be the dominant male playback singer for R.D. Burman's songs, the success of "Kya Hua Tera Wada" enabled Burman to use Rafi more frequently. In 1978, nine more R D Burman releases, including Shalimar and Kasme vaade. Shalimar included hits like Hum bewafa hargiz na the (Kishore Kumar) and the title track (Asha Bhosle). The title track, Mile jo kadi kadi and Aati rahengi baharein of Kasme Vaade were very popular. The title track and Raju chal Raju of Dharmendra-starrer Azaad were also moderately popular. Ghar was a huge hit for R.D. Burman-Gulzar duo with songs like Tere bina jiya jaaye na, Aaj Kal paon zameen par, Phir Wohi Raat hai. 1979 was a relatively full year for R D Burman, although he composed music for ten films. His biggest hit was Golmaal. The most popular songs were Aanewala pal (Kishore Kumar) and the title track (Golmaal hai bhai sab golmaal hai) sung by R D Burman and his assistant Sapan Chakraborty. Few other R D Burman hit songs in 1979 were Jeevan ke har mod pe (Jhoota kahin ka), Rim jhim gire saawan (Manzil), Saawan ke jhoole pade (Jurmana) and Do lafzon ki hai dil ki kahani (The great gambler, sung by Asha Bhosle and actor Sharad Kumar).

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Rahul Dev Burman

1980s In 1980, there were ten releases. The song "Humein Tumse Pyar Kitna" was recorded twice with a male singer (Kishore Kumar) and a female singer (Parveen Sultana), who received the Filmfare Best Female Playback Award.[9] R D Burman orchastrated for songs like The burning train and Shaan. The burning train included Sahir Ludhianvi qawwali sung by Asha Bhosle and Mohammed Rafi - Pal do pal ka saath hamara. The film is also noted for Teri hai zameen, sung by Sushma Shrestha and Padmini Kolhapure as child-singers. Shaan had songs like Pyar karne wale pyar karte hain shaan se (Asha Bhosle), Doston se pyaar kiya (Usha Uthup) and Yamma yamma (duet sung by Rafi and R D Burman). R D Burman also composed for Alibaba aur 40 chor (Приключения Али-Бабы и сорока разбойников in Russian), an Indo-Russian collaboration. Actor Rekha made her singing debut under R D Burman with the song Kaayada kaayada in Khubsoorat (1980). The lyrics were penned by Gulzar. Other songs included Sun sun didi tere liye (Asha Bhosle) and Piya bavari (Asha and Ashok Kumar). The score is noted for Rafi-song Maine poocha chaand se, in which R D Burman modernised his father Sachin Dev Burman's tune. The years 1981 saw R D Burman composing for fifteen films. He created two soundtracks with lyricist Gulshan Bawra and Universal Music India (then called Music India) - Satte pe satta and Yeh vaada raha. Amitabh Bachchan-starrer Satte pe satta was a story of 7 brothers and their 7 brides. The songs picturized on the seven brothers were sung by R D Burman, his assistants Basu and Sapan Chakravorty, lyricist Gulshan Bawra, Bhupendra, Anand Kumar C and Kishore Kumar. The songs for the ladies were sung by Asha Bhosle, Annette and Dilraj Kaur. The songs include Dukki pe dukki ho, Pyar hamein kis mod pe, Dilbar mere and Zindagi milke bitaayenge. R D Burman's song in 1981 was Sanam teri kasam. The soundtrack included Kitne bhi tu kar le sitam, Jaan-e-jaan and Dekhta hoon koi ladki haseen among other songs. He received his first Filmfare Award for Best Music for this film, after being nominated for 12 years. received In 1981, R D Burman also composed music for Rocky (Sanjay Dutt's debut movie) and Love story (debut film of Sanjay Dutt's brother-in-law, Kumar Gaurav). Fourteen more R D Burman soundtracks were released in 1982. The team of Nasir Hussain, R D Burman and Majrooh Sultanpuri (which had started with Teesri Manzil (1966)) presented Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai in 1982. Rafi would be heard in a Nasir Hussain-R.D. Burman-Majrooh Sultanpuri collaboration. Ashok Kumar's last song Chalo haseen geet (Shaukeen, 1982) was composed by R D Burman. Angoor (1982) is noted for R D Burman's spoof on the O. P. Nayyar song Preetam aan milo, sung by Sapan Chakravorty. In 1983, there were fifteen R D Burman soundtracks, including Masoom and Agar Tum Na Hote. He also received his second consecutive Filmfare Award for Best Music for "Masoom." In 1984, fourteen R D Burman soundtracks were released. This year, Gulshan Kumar's T-Series made its entry into the arena of original film soundtracks. The company's first major music rights acquisition were for Pramod Chakravorty’s bi-lingual Jagir(Hindi)/Teen Murti(Bengali). The film's music was composed by R D Burman. Kumar Sanu was given his first break by R D Burman in Yeh desh (1984) as voice of Kamal Haasan. Abhijeet was given his major break by R D Burman in Anand aur Anand (1984). Although he made his debut a long time ago, Hariharan was first noticed in a duet with Kavita Krishnamurthy, Hai mubarak aaj ka din (Boxer, 1984), which was composed by R D Burman. In 1985, Mohammed Aziz, a Rafi clone of 1980s, made his debut with Shiva Ka Insaaf (1985) under R D Burman. Hussain defended Burman to the press: "I disagree that RD gave weak music in (Zamane Ko Dikhana Hai (1982) and Manzil Manzil (1984)). He was passing through a lean phase during Zabardast."[10] Hussain stopped directing films and handed the reins over to his son Mansoor Khan, who hired other music directors. Hussain put a positive spin on it at the time by saying, "We did not ‘drop’ Pancham – Mansoor felt that he could not possibly tell Pancham Uncle to change his style for him. Pancham will come back the day I direct again, which I plan to do soon."[10] The partnership between Hussain and Burman which had started nearly twenty years ago with Teesri Manzil (1966) ended. After 1986, he started getting less work. The year 1987 saw only 5 releases including Ijaazat. Ijaazat included songs like Choti si kahani se, Khaali haath shaam aayi hi, Katra katra and Mera Kuch Samaan (which won Asha Bhosle

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Rahul Dev Burman the National Award as Best Singer). Noted lyricist, Gulzar, R.D. Burman and Asha Bhosle, came together in 1987, to create a double album, titled, Dil Padosi Hai, which was released on 8 September 1987, Asha Bhosle's birthday.[11] R D Burman also produced private albums, including one based on the samba, and also collaborated with Boy George. He has also composed music for an album called Pantera produced by Pete Gavankar in 1987 whose lyrics were written by Jose Flores. 1988 saw some four more R D Burman soundtracks of which Libaas had songs, but the producer refused to release the film. R D Burman gave music for 6 more movies in 1989, including Parinda and Joshilaay.

1990s R D Burman's last years were not very pleasant. The few films he composed music for flopped at the box office. Subhash Ghai promised him Ram Lakhan but gave it instead to Laxmikant-Pyarelal. This greatly upset Pancham. He suffered from a heart attack in 1988 and underwent heart surgery. During this period, he composed many tunes, which were never released. R D Burman gave music for few mediocre movies in 1990 (two), 1991 (three) and 1992 (six). In 1994, there were four more releases, of which 1942: A Love Story (released after his death) has an unforgettable score. The film won him the third and last of his Filmfare Awards. The music of Janam Se Pehle (1994) was also composed by R D Burman. Thenmavin Kombath, a Malayalam film by Priyadarshan was the last film he signed, but he died before he could score for the film.

Legacy After his death, in the mid 1990s, the remix versions of R D Burman's hits ruled the Indian music scene. Even today, most of the Indian remix songs are his tunes remixed. Gang (2000) was released long after R D Burman's death. He was also credited for music of few more films after his death. For example, Monsoon Wedding (credit for Chura liya hai) and Dil Vil Pyaar Vyaar (2002), which had R D Burman songs "recreated" by one of his assistants Babloo Chakravorty. Jhankaar Beats (2003 movie)starring Sanjay Suri, Rahul Bose, Juhi Chawla & Rinke Khanna was sort of a tribute to RDB, wherein Suri & Bose play musicians who revere RDB & his music & whose music is influenced by Burman. There was a remixed version of Burmans popular Kishore Kumar number "Humein tumse pyaar kitna" which was integral to the film. Both the films, Dil Vil Pyaar Vyaar and Jhankaar Beats paid tribute to R.D. Burman, and his music.[12] "Jhankaar Beats" features one of his famous tunes from the movie, Kudrat while paying tribute to him. In, 1995, Filmfare Awards, constituted a new award in the memory of R D Burman, Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent, given each year, to new music directors and singers in Hindi cinema. Before that an Indian Television proramme Superhit Muqabala's SUMU Award for R D Burman also started. Though that Award was not continued in later years as producers of the programme had some problems. The Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent is awarded to upcoming music talents. In 2008 on 26 April 113 Minute documentary film, titled 'Pancham Unmixed - Mujhe Chalte Jana Hai', was premiered at IIFLA (ArcLight Hollywood), in Los Angeles.[13] The film takes an incisive look into the Pancham’s reflective artistry and buoyant-but-also-lonely inner being. Featuring a host of close friends, colleagues and admirers, the film attempts to evoke awe, admiration and nostalgia the way most of his music does, till date.

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Rahul Dev Burman

Personal life Pancham married Rita Patel in 1966, but they were divorced in 1971. He then married Asha Bhonsle in 1980. Together, they recorded many memorable tunes and also staged many live performances. After his father died in 1975, he took care of his mother. After Pancham's death, his mother eventually ended up in an old-age home but returned to her late son's house to die on 15 October 2007.[14] Burman had financial difficulties, particularly later in his life. There have been wide discussions about the disconnect between the success of his music and his financial success.

Music style Pancham was comfortable with all types of music, be it the romantic Raat kali from Buddha Mil Gaya (1971), the sexy cabaret Piya tu ab toh aaja from Caravan (1971), the ultimate hippie anthem Dum Maro Dum from Hare Rama Hare Krishna (1972) or the classical Raina beeti jaaye. It is said that Dev Anand did not include the complete version of Dum Maro Dum in Hare Rama Hare Krishna, as he was worried the song would overshadow the film. At times, RD doubled up as a singer too. His most famous song as a singer was Mehbooba from Sholay. This song is inspired from the traditional Cypriot song "Ta Rialia". Pancham was a very creative person. His percussion included a spoon against a glass (Chura liya hai from Yaadon Ki Baaraat"). Pancham has also directed music for some regional films, including Bangla, Oriya, Telugu, Tamil, and Marathi. He also acted in one of the Bengali film named Gayak (starring Amit Kumar and Debasri Roy), where RD plays himself and 'discovers' Amit singing on a beach. Pancham's non-filmi music comprises few albums, including Pantera - the international album for which he shares credit with Latin American composer Jose Flores. In the only experiment of its kind he recorded the light version of Hume tumse pyar kitna in the voice of playback singer Kishore Kumar while the classical version in the voice of Parveen Sultana. He recorded a variety of songs rendered by Kishore Kumar notably the classical song Mere naina sawan bhado, the sad song Chingari koi bhadake, the philosophical song Aanewala pal, the piano song Pyar diwana hota hai, the romantic song O mere dil ke chain, the hummable wonder Raat kali, the separation song Zindagi ke safar me, the rainy song Rimjhim gire saawan. He recorded Tum bin jaun kahan in the voices of Kishore Kumar and Mohd. Rafi separately. Notable musical assistants to Burman include Manohari Singh and Sapan Chakraborty.

Inspirations He also used some of the popular western songs to compose his own tunes. One of his hit songs Mehbooba Mehbooba is inspired from the song "Say You Love Me", traditional Cyprus song, arranged and sung by Demis Roussos.[15] His songs were also inspired from musical styles of ABBA,the popular Swedish Band [16]

Awards and Nominations Awards Filmfare Awards • 1983 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Sanam Teri Kasam • 1984 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Masoom • 1995 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - 1942: A Love Story

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Rahul Dev Burman

Nominations • • • •

1972 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Caravan 1974 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Yaadon Ki Baraat 1975 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Aap Ki Kasam 1976 • Filmfare Best Music Director Award

• Khel Khel Mein • Sholay • Filmfare Award for Best Male Playback Singer - "Mehbooba Mehbooba" from Sholay • 1977 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Mehbooba • 1978 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award • Hum Kisi Se Kum Nahin • Kinara • 1979 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Shalimar • 1981 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Shaan • 1982 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Love Story • 1984 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Betaab • 1985 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Jawani • 1986 - Filmfare Best Music Director Award - Saagar

References [1] Ranganathan Magadi (2006). India Rises in the West. p. 360. [2] RD Burman - Profile (http:/ / www. upperstall. com/ people/ rd-burman) Upperstall.com. [3] R.D. Burman, who had been Dilshad Khan's classmate in St Xavier's School, Kolkata. (http:/ / entertainment. oneindia. in/ music/ news/ parveen-film-music-fast-food-121007. html) entertainment.oneindia.in, 12 October 2007. [4] Olivier Assayas (September 2004). "The Best Music in Film" (http:/ / www. bfi. org. uk/ sightandsound/ filmmusic/ detail. php?t=d& q=6). Sight & Sound. . Retrieved 2009-04-26. [5] "Dada felt Guru Dutt was spoiling me" - R.D. Burman (http:/ / www. bollywoodhungama. com/ features/ 2008/ 01/ 24/ 3503/ index. html) www.bollywoodhungama.com. 24 January 2008. [6] The rare Pancham (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ jun/ 27burman. htm) Rediff.com, 27 June 2002. [7] R D Burman - My God, That's My Tune (http:/ / www. panchamonline. com/ articles/ thatsmytune. pdf) [8] Screen The Business Of Entertainment-Films-Nostalgia (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ 20020412/ fnost. html) [9] 1st Filmfare Awards 1953 (http:/ / deep750. googlepages. com/ FilmfareAwards. pdf) [10] Screen The Business Of Entertainment-Films-Tribute (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ 20020322/ ftribute. html) [11] Dil Padosi Hai, release (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=uwTBsElMeuw) [12] Pulsating Pancham (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ thehindu/ mp/ 2007/ 06/ 27/ stories/ 2007062750020100. htm) The Hindu, 27 June 2007. [13] Pancham Unmixed : A Salute to the Boss - R.D. Burman (http:/ / passionforcinema. com/ pancham-unmixed-a-salute-to-the-boss-rd-burman/ ) passionforcinema.com. [14] S.D. Burman's wife Meera dead - Music India OnLine (http:/ / www. musicindiaonline. com/ n/ i/ top_stories/ 2396/ / ) [15] "chronicles of plagiarism in Indian film music R D Burman [Hindi (http:/ / www. itwofs. com/ hindi-rdb. html)"]. . [16] "The World's Premiere Online Theater – Dingora" (http:/ / passionforcinema. com/ rd-burman-a-music-composer-of-unparalleled-talent/ ). Passionforcinema.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-19.

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Rahul Dev Burman

External links • Rahul Dev Burman (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0005983/) at the Internet Movie Database • R D Burman the man the music, a fascinating biography of Burman. (http://harpercollins.co.in/BookDetail. asp?Book_Code=2749) • A Worth Watching Documentary on R D Burman. (http://www.bobbytalkscinema.com/recentpost. php?postid=postid010510062652)

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Raj Kapoor

308

Raj Kapoor Raj Kapoor Born

Ranbir Raj Kapoor 14 December 1924 Peshawar, British India Permanent Residence: Chembur, Mumbai, India

Died

2 June 1988 (aged 63) Chembur, Mumbai, India

Other names

The Show Man

Occupation

Actor, Producer, Director

Years active

1935–1985

Ranbirraj "Raj" Kapoor (Pashto: ‫ﺭﺍﺝ ﮐﭙُﻮﺭ‬, Hindi: राज कपूर, Punjabi: ਰਾਜ ਕਪੂਰ, Rāj Kapūr, 14 December 1924 – 2 June 1988), also known as The Show-Man, was an Indian film actor, producer and director of Hindi cinema.[1] He was the winner of nine Filmfare Awards, while his films Awaara (1951) and Boot Polish (1954) were nominated for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. His performance in Awaara, was ranked one of the "Top-Ten Performances of all time", by the Time Magazine.[2] The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1971 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1987 for his contributions towards Indian cinema.

Early life and Background Raj Kapoor was born in Peshawar, British India (present day Pakistan), to actor Prithviraj Kapoor and Ramsarni (Rama) Devi Kapoor (née Mehra). He was the eldest of six children in a Punjabi[3] family.[4] [5] [6] He was the grandson of Dewan Basheshwarnath Kapoor and great-grandson of Dewan Keshavmal Kapoor, part of the famous Kapoor family. Two of Raj's brothers are actors Shashi Kapoor (a.k.a. Balbir Raj Kapoor) and the late Shammi Kapoor (aka Shamsher Raj Kapoor); the other two died in infancy. He also had a sister named Urmila Sial. Raj Kapoor attended Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun in the 1930s.

Raj Kapoor birth place at Dhaki Munawar Shah, Peshawar, Pakistan

Career At the age of eleven, he appeared in films for the first time, in the 1935 film Inquilab. After acting in several other films the next 12 years, Raj Kapoor's big break came with the lead role in Neel Kamal (1947) opposite Madhubala in her first role as a leading lady. In 1948, at the age of twenty-four, he established his own studio, R. K. Films, and became the youngest film director of his time making his directorial debut with the film Aag. Aag marked the first of many films in which he and Nargis appeared together. In 1949 he co-starred alongside Dilip Kumar in Mehboob Khan's blockbuster Andaz which was his first major success as an actor.


Raj Kapoor He went on to produce, direct and star in many box office hits such as Barsaat (1949), Awaara (1951), Shree 420 (1955), Chori Chori (1956), Jagte Raho (1956) and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (1960). These films established his screen image as The Tramp modeled on Charlie Chaplin's most famous screen persona. In 1964 he produced, directed and starred in Sangam which was his first film in colour. This was his last major success as a leading actor. Outisde of his home productions his other notable films were Anari (1959), Chhalia (1960) and Teesri Kasam (1963). He produced, directed and starred in his ambitious film, Mera Naam Joker (My name is Joker), which took more than six years to complete. When released in 1970, it was a box office disaster. In 1971 he launched his eldest son Randhir Kapoor in Randhir's acting and directorial debut Kal Aaj Aur Kal which also starred Raj's father Prithviraj Kapoor as well as Randhir's would-be-wife Babita. He launched his second son Rishi Kapoor's career when he produced and directed Bobby (1973) which was not only a huge box office success but also introduced actress Dimple Kapadia, later a very popular actress, and was the first of a new generation of teen romances. Dimple wore bikinis in the film which was quite unique for Indian films then. In the latter half of the 1970s and early 1980s he produced and directed films which focused on the female protagonists: Satyam Shivam Sundaram (1978) with Zeenat Aman, Prem Rog (1982) with Padmini Kolhapure and Ram Teri Ganga Maili (1985) which introduced Mandakini. He acted in fewer films by the late 1970s and early 1980s and focused on producing and directing films. He starred alongside Rajesh Khanna in Naukri (1979) and played the title role alongside Sanjay Khan in Abdullah (1980). Raj Kapoor's last major film appearance was in Vakil Babu (1982) where he appeared with his younger brother Shashi. His last acting role was a cameo appearance in a 1984 released British made-for-television film titled Kim.

Death Raj Kapoor suffered from asthma in his later years; he died of complications related to asthma in 1988 at the age of 63. At the time of his death, he was working on the movie Heena (an Indo-Pakistan based love story). The film was later completed by his sons Randhir and Rishi Kapoor, and narrated by his brother Shammi Kapoor. The movie was released in 1991 and became a huge success at the Box Office. When he was given the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, where his brothers Shashi Kapoor and Shammi Kapoor were also present, the crowd was Main gate of Raj Kapoor's birth place at Dhaki Munawar Shah, Peshawar, Pakistan clapping around when President Venkataraman, who saw Kapoor's discomfort, came down the stage to give the award to the legend in the middle of thundering claps where he was breathing his last breath. And suddenly Kapoor collapsed, and was rushed to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences for treatment. The country's top cardiologists tried their best, but could not save him.[7]

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Raj Kapoor

Legacy Raj Kapoor is appreciated both by film critics and ordinary film fans. Film historians and movie buffs speak of him as the "Charlie Chaplin of Indian cinema," since he often portrayed a tramp-like figure, who, despite adversity, was still cheerful and honest. His fame spread worldwide. He was adored by audiences in large parts of Africa, the Middle East, the former Soviet Union, China, and Southeast Asia; his movies were global commercial successes. Raj had the knack of getting the best out of any one, since he had mastered all departments of film making and even marketing them. When Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru died in 1964 coinciding with release of Sangam, he took the opportunity to create a scene when Gopal ashes were immersed in Ganges, like Pandit Nehru described in his poetic will. His films reflected the Era in which it was made. He had a great understanding of the public taste and a great sense of Box-Office. He was one of the pioneers of the Indian cinema, who talked about the potential of Hindi cinema emerging as a great revenue earner from the world market in fifties, which has become a reality today.[8] Many of Raj Kapoor's movies had a patriotic theme. His films Aag, Shree 420 and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (In the country where the Ganges flows) celebrated the newly independent India, and encouraged film-goers to be patriots. Raj Kapoor commissioned these famous lyrics for Mera Joota Hai Japani, a song from the movie Shree 420: Mera joota hai Japani (My shoes are Japanese) Ye patloon Inglistani (These trousers are English) Sar pe lal topi Roosi (The red cap on my head is Russian) Phir bhi dil hai Hindustani (But still, however, my heart is Indian) The song is still extremely popular and has been featured in a number of movies since Shree 420 was released. Indian author Mahasweta Devi stopped the show with her inaugural speech at the 2006 Frankfurt Book Fair when she used these lyrics to express her own heartfelt patriotism and debt to her country. Raj Kapoor was a canny judge of filmi music and lyrics. Many of the songs he commissioned are evergreen hits. He introduced the music directors Shankar-Jaikishan and the lyricists Hasrat Jaipuri and Shailendra. He is also remembered for his strong sense of visual style. He used striking visual compositions, elaborate sets, and dramatic lighting to complete the mood set by the music. He introduced the actresses Nimmi, Dimple Kapadia, Nargis and Mandakini, as well as launching and reviving the careers of his sons Rishi, Randhir and Rajiv.

Personal life The Kapoor family hailed from Peshawar and were Hindkowan Punjabis but they were also landowners in the canal colony of Lyallpur, British India, which is now called Faisalabad in the Punjab province of present-day Pakistan where the family lived for a while. He was married to Krishna Kapoor, sister of actors, Rajendra Nath and Prem Nath.[9] [10] Kapoor is also known to have had a longtime romantic relationship with the renowned actress Nargis during the 1950s. The couple starred in several films together, including Awaara and Shree 420. Due to the common rumors about the personal lives of entertainment stars it is impossible to separate the truth from gossip in these domains. Three of Kapoor's grandchildren are currently stars in the Bollywood film industry. His granddaughters are Karisma Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor, the daughters of Raj's son Randhir Kapoor and his wife Babita. His grandson Ranbir Kapoor is son of Rishi Kapoor and his wife Neetu Singh.

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311

Awards Kapoor had received many awards throughout his career, including 3 Filmfare Awards and 19 nominations. His films Awaara (1951) and Boot Polish (1954) were nominated for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. His acting in the former was rated as one of the "Top-Ten Performances of all time", by the Time Magazine.[2] His film Jagte Raho (1956) also won the Crystal Globe award at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1971 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1987 - the highest award for cinematic excellence in India. In 2001, he was honoured with “Best Director of the Millennium” by Stardust Awards. He was named “Showman of the Millennium” by Star Screen Awards in 2002. In June 2011, Noah Cowan, Artistic Director of TIFF Bell Lightbox, and Sabbas Joseph, Director, Wizcraft along with members of the Kapoor family came together to pay tribute to the life and work of Indian actor, director, mogul and legend Raj Kapoor, as presented in partnership by TIFF (Toronto International Film Festival), the International Indian Film Academy (IIFA), and the Government of Ontario.Indian Mirror [11] Reports suggest Kapoor will be inducted onto the Brampton Walk of Fame in Ontario, Canada.[12]

Association with other artists Shankar-Jaikishan Shankar-Jaikishan were his music director of choice. He worked with them in 20 films in all including 10 of his own films from Barsaat until Kal Aaj Aur Kal. (Jagte Raho with Salil Chowdhury and Ab Dilli Dur Nahin being two exceptions in this period). Only after Jaikishan died, did he turn to a different music director - Laxmikant-Pyarelal for Bobby, Satyam Shivam Sundaram, and Prem Rog (later on his children used Laxmikant-Pyarelal for Prem Granth also) and Ravindra Jain for (Ram Teri Ganga Maili and Henna). It is interesting to note that Raj Kapoor acted in a movie with music by Madan Mohan only once i.e. Dhoon (1953) which featured duet Hum pyar karenge by Hemant Kumar and Lata Mangeshkar, only instance Hemnat Kumar giving playback to Raj Kapoor, and did only one movie with O. P. Nayyar (Do Ustad). List of films with Shankar-Jaikishan: (18 Films) •

Barsaat (1949)

Anari (1959)

Sangam (1964)

Aah (1953)

Kanhaiya (1959)

Teesri Kasam (1966)

Awaara (1951)

Main Nashe Men Hoon (1959)

Around the World (1967)

Boot Polish (1954) •

Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (1960) •

Diwana (1967)

Shree 420 (1955)

Aashiq (1962)

Sapnon Ka Saudagar (1968)

Chori Chori (1956) •

Ek Dil Sao Afsane (1963)

Mera Naam Joker (1970)

Nargis • Raj Kapoor and Nargis worked together in 16 films including 6 of his own productions. • • • •

Aag (1949) Andaz (1950) Barsaat (1949) Pyaar (1950)

• • • •

Jan Pehchan (1950) Awaara (1951) Amber (1952) Anhonee (1952)

• • • •

Ashiana (1952) Bewafa (1952) Aah (1953) Paapi (1953)

• • • •

Dhoon (1953) Shree 420 (1955) Chori Chori (1956) Jagte Raho (1956)


Raj Kapoor

Mukesh Mukesh was Raj Kapoor's almost exclusive singing voice in almost all of his films. Also, when Mukesh died, Raj had said, Main ne apni aawaaz ko kho diya... (I have lost my voice...). However Manna Dey has also sung many notable and super-hit songs for Raj Kapoor, for instance in Shree 420 and Chori Chori. Examples of such songs are best illustrated by the following list: • • • • • • • •

"Dil Ka Haal Sune Dil Wala" (Shree 420) "Aaja Sanam Madhur Chandni Mein Hum" (Chori Chori) "Jahan Mein Jati Hoon Wahin Chale Aate Ho" (Chori Chori) "Yeh Raat Bhigi Bhigi, Yeh Mast Fizayen" (Chori Chori) "Masti Bhara Hai Samaan" (Parvarish) "A Bhai Zara Dekh Ke Chalo" (Mera Naam Joker) "Pyar Hua Iqrar Hua Hai" (Shree 420) "Laga Chunri Mein Daag" (Dil Hi To Hai)

Further reading • The Kapoors: the first family of Indian cinema, by Madhu Jain. Penguin, Viking, 2005. ISBN 0670058378.

References [1] Allmusic biography (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p425570/ biography) [2] http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ specials/ packages/ article/ 0,28804,1953094_1953150_1954766,00. html [3] Gibson, Pamela Church; Bruzzi, Stella; Dwyer (14 Dec 2000). "11 Bombay Ishstyle" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ Fashion-Cultures-Theories-Explorations-Analysis/ dp/ 0415206855/ ref=sr_1_1?s=books& ie=UTF8& qid=1297588286& sr=1-1). In Rachel. Fashion cultures: theories, explorations, and analysis (1 edition ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 181. ISBN 0-415-20685-5. . Retrieved 13 February 2011. [4] "Bollywood's First Family" (http:/ / specials. rediff. com/ movies/ 2006/ feb/ 02slide1. htm). Rediff. . Retrieved 2007-09-08. [5] "Prithviraj Kapoor: A centenary tribute" (http:/ / www. statsvet. su. se/ publikationer/ ahmed/ artiklar_2006/ 41_prithviraj_kapoor. htm). Daily Times / University of Stockholm. . Retrieved 2007-11-03. [6] "Prithviraj Kapoor:" (http:/ / www. junglee. org. in/ pk. html). Kapoor Family Page. . Retrieved 2007-11-03. [7] "Remembering Indian cinema's greatest showman.'" (http:/ / movies. rediff. com/ column/ 2010/ jun/ 03/ raj-kapoors-22nd-death-anniversary. htm). movies.rediff.com. . Retrieved 22 Oct 2010. [8] Raj Kapoor – The man, who foresaw the overseas business (http:/ / www. thebhopalpost. com/ index. php/ 2010/ 07/ raj-kapoor-the-man-who-foresaw-the-overseas-business/ ) [9] Farewell Rajendra Nath : Laughter has left the building (http:/ / passionforcinema. com/ farewell-rajendra-nath-laughter-has-left-the-building/ ) passionforcinema, February 13, 2008. [10] "Bye bye, Bina" (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1091213/ jsp/ 7days/ story_11857115. jsp). The Telegraph (Kolkata). December 13 , 2009. . [11] http:/ / indianmirrormag. com/ raj-kapoor-tribute/ [12] "'Raj Kapoor Crescent'" (http:/ / www. asianimage. co. uk/ news/ world/ 9072919. _Raj_Kapoor_Crescent___/ ). Asian Image (Lancashire UK). 9 June 2011. . Retrieved 19 June 2011. "The city will also like to induct Shri Raj Kapoor into the Brampton Hall of Fame, having a star placed there in his honour.."

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Notes • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul. Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. London: British Film Institute; New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994 • Kishore, Valicha. The Moving Image. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1988

External links • Raj Kapoor (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004292/) at the Internet Movie Database • 12 Indians who are famous in Russia (http://indrus.in/articles/2011/08/02/ 12_indians_who_are_famous_in_russia_12823.html)

313


Rajendra Kumar

314

Rajendra Kumar Rajendra Jublee Kumar Born

20 July 1929 SANKHATRA Sialkot,Now in pakistan Punjab, British India

Died

12 July 1999 (aged 69) Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Occupation

Actor, Producer, Director

Years active 1950–1998 Spouse

Shukla

Children

2 Daughters and son Kumar Gaurav

Rajendra Kumar (20 July 1929 – 12 July 1999) was one of the most successful Indian Bollywood actors in the 1960s and 1970s. He also produced several films in the 1980s starring his son Kumar Gaurav. was born in a Punjabi Hindu family in Sialkot, in the West Punjab province of British India, currently in Pakistan.

Career Rajendra Kumar made his debut in the 1950 film Jogan in which he starred opposite Dilip Kumar and Nargis. He then shot to fame in the blockbuster hit Mother India in 1957 in which he played Nargis's son. His first major success as a romantic leading man was in Amit Saxenas's musical superhit Goonj Uthi Shehnai (1959), co-starring Ameeta. The 1960s saw Rajendra Kumar rise like no other star had risen. The songs of his films in Mohammed Rafi's voice became mega hits. There were times when he had six or seven films running in their silver jubilee weeks at the same time. Rajendra Kumar was soon known as "Jubilee Kumar". He had many successful box office hits including Dhool Ka Phool (1959), Mere Mehboob (1963), Sangam (1964), Arzoo (1965), Suraj (1966) and Ganwaar (1970).[1] He received the Filmfare Nomination for Best Actor for Dil Ek Mandir (1963), Ayee Milan Ki Bela (1964), Arzoo (1965), and as Best Supporting Actor for Sangam (1964).[2] He was considered a golden boy for the movie producers as he could recover their money in a matter of weeks. From 1972 onwards, he faced stiff competition in the form of the phenomenal Rajesh Khanna. Several of his films bombed at the box office. The dry spell ended when he was offered an interesting role in the film Saajan Bina Suhaagan opposite Nutan. The film was a huge blockbuster of 1978. Rajendra Kumar had regained his 'Midas touch'. He then switched to character roles in the late 1970s and 1980s. He also starred in a number of Punjabi films like Teri meri ek jindari. In 1981 Rajendra introduced his son Kumar Gaurav in the film Love Story which he produced, directed and also starred in. The film was declared a blockbuster.[3] But the success was short-lived as Kumar Gaurav's later films were huge disappointments at the box office and his son's career declined as soon as it began. Rajendra produced several other films starring his son which did not do well. In 1986 he produced Naam with his son and his son's brother-in-law Sanjay Dutt in leading roles which was a box office success. His last attempt to revive his son's career was with the 1993 film Phool where he once again acted alongside him; this film was also a box office failure. Rajendra appeared in only a few films after this and his last film appearance was a minor role in Deepa Mehta's critically acclaimed film Earth in 1998.


Rajendra Kumar

Personal life He married Shukla and had a son and two daughters. His son Kumar Gaurav married Namrata Dutt, the daughter of actors Sunil Dutt and Nargis and sister of actor Sanjay Dutt. Rajendra acted with Sunil Dutt and Nargis in the blockbuster film Mother India (1957) where Sunil Dutt and Rajendra Kumar played natural sons of Nargis. He had a special relationship with Sunil Dutt, who is quoted as having said that "Even though Rajendra Kumar did not win any award through out his career, he was one of the most genuine human beings I have ever encountered. When I was struggling with the troubles related to the arrest of my son Sanjay Dutt and my house was repeatedly being searched by means of numerous police raids, Rajendra Kumar was the one who came to my rescue by staying at my house and ensuring that raids were conducted using due procedures, false evidences were not planted in the house and valuables were not stolen." He was a gentleman to the true sense of the word — very disciplined on film sets and polite with his co-stars. Meena Kumari was a legendary actress paired with him in a number of films. Although, being a major star at the time, he would modestly address Kumari as 'Mem Sahab'. Rajendra Kumar lived his life astutely and conserved his resources very well. He died on 12 July 1999 of cancer, eight days before his 70th birthday. He was known to never have taken medicines in his life.

Honours and recognitions • Rajendra Kumar was honoured with the Padma Shri Award in 1969. • He was also conferred with Justice of Peace honour and served as Honorary Magistrate. • He was awarded the National Honour by late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru simultaneously for “Kanoon” (Hindi) and “Mehandi Rang Lagyo” (Gujarati film). • He received a special Shastri National Award and was associated with several charity schemes.[4]

Awards and nominations Rajendra Kumar was nominated for Best Actor category three times.

Trivia • • • • •

Father of Kumar Gaurav. Films started coming his way when he played the role of a son of Nargis in Mother India. His daughter-in-law (Namrata) is Sunil Dutt's and Nargis Dutt's daughter. Started as an assistant director before getting a role in Vachan. Was nicknamed as "Jubilee Kumar" by the trade people because majority of his movies used to do either Silver or Golden Jubilee. • He used to actively participate in campaigning for friend, Sunil Dutt, whenever the latter used to contest for elections. • For the premier of his first movie, Vachan, he was asked if he wanted any seats for his relatives or friends, and thinking that it would be complimentary, he answered ten. After some days when he went to get his fees from the producer's accountant, he was given a lesser amount and when he asked why he was told that the money was deducted for the seats he took for his relatives and friends. He took this lesson as a principle of production and when he produced Naam, he deducted some amount from Amrita Singh's fees for the long calls she had made from Hong Kong to India. • Was best friends with Raj Kapoor, so much so that his son Kumar Gaurav was engaged to the latter's daughter, Reema Kapoor. However, this friendship could not last long after their children broke the engagement.

315


Rajendra Kumar

Filmography Actor: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Earth (1998) .... Refugee police Diya Aur Toofan (1969) "Andaz" (1995) TV series Phool (1993) .... Dharamraaj Insaaf Ka Khoon (1991) .... Judge Kumar Clerk (1989) .... Rahim U. Khan Main Tere Liye (1988) .... Shiva Lovers (1983) .... Christian Priest Rustom (1982) .... J. D. Mehta Yeh Rishta Na Tootay (1981) .... Police Inspector Vijay Kumar Saajan Ki Saheli (1981) .... Barrister Avinash Kumar Love Story (1981) .... Vijay Mehra Oh Bewafa (1980) .... R.K Dhan Daulat (1980) .... Raj Saxena Badla Aur Balidan (1980)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Gunehgaar (1980) Bin Phere Hum Tere (1979) .... Jagdish Sharma Saajan Bina Suhagan (1978) .... Raj Kumar Aahuti (1978) .... CID Inspector Ram Prasad/Rocky Sone Ka Dil Lohe Ke Haath (1978) .... Shankar Daku Aur Mahatma (1977) Do Sholay (1977) Shirdi Ke Sai Baba (1977) .... Doctor (Pooja's husband) Mazdoor Zindabaad (1976) (uncredited) .... Ram Singh Do Jasoos (1975) .... Karamchand Jasoos Rani Aur Lalpari (1975) .... Rani's dad Sunehra Sansar (1975) .... Chandrashekhar Teri Meri Ik Jindri (1975) .... Jaggar Singh Fauji Do Sher (1974)(Punjabi Movie) .... Shera Dukh Bhanjan Tera Naam (1974) .... Boatsman Lalkar (The Challenge) (1972) .... Wing Commander Rajan Kapoor Aan Baan (1972) .... Suraj Gaon Hamara Shaher Tumhara (1972) .... Brij "Birju" Bhushan Gora Aur Kala (1972) .... Karan Singh/Kali Singh (Kalua) Tangewala (1972) .... Rai Bahadur Kishandas/Raju/Dilbahadur Khan Aap Aye Bahaar Ayee (1971) (as Rajinder Kumar) .... Rohit Kumar Verma Dharti (1970) .... Bharat Ganwaar (1970) .... Gopal Rai Geet (1970) .... Suraj 'Sarju' Kumar Mera Naam Joker (1970) (as Rajender Kumar) .... Mahender Kumar Anjaana (1969) .... Raju Shatranj (1969) (as Rajinder Kumar) .... Jai/Vijay/Shinranz

• Talash (1969) .... Raj Kumar 'Raju' • Jhuk Gaya Aasman (1968) (as Rajinder Kumar) .... Sanjay/Tarun Kumar 'Battu' 'Pappu' Saxena • Saathi (1968) .... Ravi

316


Rajendra Kumar • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Aman (1967) .... Dr. Gautamdas Palki (1967) .... Naseem Baig Suraj (1966) .... Suraj Singh Arzoo (1965) (as Rajinder Kumar) .... Gopal/Sarju Ayee Milan Ki Bela (1964) (as Rajinder Kumar) .... Shyam Sangam (1964) .... Magistrate Gopal Verma Zindagi (1964) .... Rajendra "Rajan" Akeli Mat Jaiyo (1963) (as Rajendrakumar) .... Prince Amardeep Amar Rahe Yeh Pyaar (1963) Dil Ek Mandir (1963) .... Dr. Dharmesh Gehra Daag (1963) .... Shanker Hamrahi (1963) (as Rajender Kumar) .... Shekhar Mere Mehboob (1963) .... Anwar Aas Ka Panchhi (1961) .... Rajan 'Raju' Khanna Dharmputra (1961) (uncredited) .... Special appearance Gharana (1961) .... Kamal Pyaar Ka Saagar (1961) .... Kishen Chand Gupta

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Sasural (1961) .... Shekhar Zindagi Aur Khwab (1961) .... Inspector Manoj Kanoon (1960) .... Advocate Kailash Khanna Maa Baap (1960) .... Raj Kumar 'Raju' Mehndi Rang Lagyo (1960) .... Anil Patang (1960) (as Rajender Kumar) .... Dr. Rajan Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan (1959) .... Dr. Anand Dhool Ka Phool (1959) (as Rajinder Kumar) .... Mahesh Kapoor Do Behnen (1959) Goonj Uthi Shehnai (1959) .... Kishan Santan (1959) Devar Bhabhi (1958) Ghar Sansar (1958) .... Deepak Khazanchi (1958) .... Harish Mohan Talaaq (1958) .... Ravi Shankar Chaube Mother India (1957) .... Ramu Ek Jhalak (1957) Aawaz (1956) .... Ashok Toofan Aur Deeya (1956) .... Satish Sharma/Master-Ji Vachan (1955) .... Kishore Jogan (1950) .... Vijay's friend

Producer: • • • • •

The Jungle Book (1994) (co-executive producer) (co-producer) Phool (1993) (producer) Jurrat (1989) (producer) Naam (1986) (producer) Lovers (1983) (producer)

• Love Story (1981) (producer) Presenter:

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Rajendra Kumar • • • •

The Train (1970) Ganwaar (1970) Talash (1969) Phool Aur Patthar (1966)

Editor: • Jurrat (1989) Director: • Love Story (1981) Soundtrack: • Mere Mehboob (1963) (performer: "Mere Mehboob Tujhe", "Allah Bachaye", "Tere Pyar Mein Dildar", "Janeman Ek Nazar", "Yaad Mein Teri", "Tumse Izhar e Haal", "Mere Mehboob Mein Kya", "Ae Husn Zara Jaag", "Yaad Mein (revival)") Thanks: • Mera Naam Joker (1970) (acknowledgment) (as Rajender Kumar) Self: • • • •

Raj Kapoor (1987) .... Himself (during funeral) Star (1982) .... Himself (Guest Appearance) Shrimanji (1968) .... Himself Kala Bazar (1960) .... Himself

Archive Footage: • Film Hi Film (1983) (uncredited)

Footnotes [1] [2] [3] [4]

http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ topactors. htm 1st Filmfare Awards 1953 (http:/ / deep750. googlepages. com/ FilmfareAwards. pdf) http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ 1981. htm Arts Tribune (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 1999/ 99jul16/ art-trib. htm)

External links • Rajendra Kumar (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006348/) at the Internet Movie Database • On Rajendra Kumar's Contribution to Indian Cinema (http://stationhollywood.blogspot.com/2007/12/ jubilee-kumar-rajender-kumar.html) • Rajendra Kumar profile (http://www.rediff.com/entertai/2002/jul/09dinesh.htm) at Rediff.com

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Rajesh Khanna

319

Rajesh Khanna Rajesh Khanna Born

Jatin Khanna 29 December 1942 Amritsar, Punjab, India

Other names Jatin Khanna Kaka RK Occupation

Film actor and producer

Years active

1966–present (actor) 1991–1996 (politics) 1971–1995 (producer)

Spouse

Dimple Kapadia (1973–1984 separated)

Children

Twinkle Khanna Rinke Khanna

Rajesh Khanna (Hindi: राजेश खन्ना pronunciation; Punjabi: ਰਾਜੇਸ਼ ਖੰਨਾ, Urdu: ‫( )ﺭﺍﺟﻴﺶ ﮐﮭﻨﮧ‬born Jatin Khanna on 29 December 1942) is an Indian actor of from Hindi films,[1] and has been Hindi film producer and an Indian politician. During his career, he appeared in over 160 films of which 96 had him as the solo hero and 17 were two hero projects.[2] He won three Filmfare Best Actor Awards and was nominated for the same fourteen times. He received the maximum BFJA Awards for Best Actor (Hindi) - four times and nominated 25 times. He was awarded the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005. Khanna is referred to as the “First Superstar” of Hindi cinema.[3] [4] [5] He made his debut in 1966 with Aakhri Khat and rose to prominence with his performances in films like Raaz, Baharon Ke Sapne, Ittefaq and Aradhana.

Early life Khanna was born in Amritsar on 29 December 1942. He was adopted and raised by foster parents who were relatives of his biological parents. Khanna lived in Thakurdwar near Girgaon. Khanna attended St. Sebastian’s Goan High School in Girgaum, along with his friend Ravi Kapoor, who later took the stage name Jeetendra. Their mothers were friends.[6] Khanna gradually started taking interest in theatre and did a lot of plays in his school and college days and won many prizes in the inter college drama competitions.[7] Khanna became a rare newcomer who struggled in his own MG sports car to get work in theatre and films in the early sixties.[8] Both friends later studied in Kishinchand Chellaram College(KC).[9] When Jeetendra went for his first film audition, it was Khanna who tutored him. Khanna's uncle changed Khanna's first name to Rajesh when Khanna decided to join films. His friends and his wife call him Kaka.[10]

Adult life In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Khanna fell in love with the then fashion designer and actress Anju Mahendru.[11] They were in the relationship for seven years. Mahendru states that the couple did not speak to each other for 17 years after the breakup.[12] Later Khanna married Dimple Kapadia in 1973 and has two daughters from the marriage.[13] Khanna and Dimple Kapadia separated in 1984 as his schedule kept him away much of the time and Dimple became interested in pursuing an acting career,[14] and thereafter lived separately, but did not complete the divorce proceedings.[15] In the eighties Tina Munim was romantically involved with Khanna till the time she decided to leave the industry to pursue her higher studies.[16] Years of separation brought about mutual understanding between Rajesh Khanna and Dimple Kapadia.[12] Reporter Dinesh Raheja stated that “the bitterness between Rajesh and Dimple washed away", noting that they are seen together at parties and that Dimple campaigned for Khanna's


Rajesh Khanna election and also worked in his film.[17] Their elder daughter Twinkle Khanna, an interior decorator and a former film actress, is married to actor Akshay Kumar[18] while their younger daughter Rinke Khanna, also a former Hindi film actress,[19] is married to London-based investment banker Samir Saran.[20]

Early career (1966–1975) Rajesh Khanna was one of eight finalists in the 1965 All India Talent Contest organised by United Producers and Filmfare from more than ten thousand contestants.[21] Subsequently Khanna won the contest.[22] He made his film debut in the 1966 film Aakhri Khat directed by Chetan Anand, followed by Raaz directed by Ravindra Dave both of which were a part of his predetermined prize for winning the All-India United Producers’ Talent Competition.[23] G.P. Sippy and Nasir Hussain were the first to sign Rajesh Khanna after he won the contest.[24] Khanna in an interview to Hindu newspaper said,"Though “Aakhri Khat” is my first film, I received my first break as a leading actor in Ravindra Dave's, “Raaz” in 1967. My heroine was Babita, already a popular actress then. Though I had lots of confidence, I was shy in facing the camera initially. In my first three shots, I had to perform with stress on my body language and dialogue delivery. Though I was right with my dialogues, my movements were not up to the mark. Ravindra Dave explained me my scenes and movements very clearly correcting my way of walking".[25] Being under contract with United Producers, he got projects like Aurat, Doli and Ittefaq.[26] He was then noticed for his performances in films like Baharon Ke Sapne, Aurat (1967), Doli, Aradhana and Ittefaq. Later Waheeda Rehman suggested Asit Sen to take Khanna for the lead role in Khamoshi.[27] Through Aradhana he rose to "instant national fame" and film critics referred to him as the first superstar of India.[28] [29] In that film, Rajesh Khanna was cast in a double role (father and son) opposite Sharmila Tagore and Farida Jalal. The film also saw the resurgence of Kishore Kumar, who eventually became the official playback voice of Rajesh Khanna. The Kishore Kumar-Rajesh Khanna combination worked miracles and it was almost impossible to see them as separate identities. They became a singer-actor duo and together they gave many songs till 1991.[30] Then in year 1971, Haathi Mere Saathi became the biggest hit and also became the biggest grosser ever till then.Khanna is also credited with giving Salim Akhtar and Javed Akhtar their first chance to become screenplay writers by offering them work in Haathi Mere Saathi.[31] Javed Akhthar accpeted in an interview "One day, he went to Salimsaab and said that Mr. Devar had given him a huge signing amount with which he could complete the payment for his bungalow Aashirwad. But the film's script was far from being satisfactory. He told us that if we could set right the script, he would make sure we got both money and credit."[32] Rajesh acted alongside Mumtaz in eight successful films.[33] They were neighbours and got along very well, and as a result they shared a great on-screen chemistry. After Khanna married, Mumtaz decided to marry millionaire Mayur Madhwani in 1974. At the time, she was doing three films Aap ki Kasam, Roti and Prem Kahani with Khanna. She decided to quit movies only after completing these films. When she left films Khanna felt very lost. In one of her interviews, Mumtaz was quoted saying "I would pull his leg and tease him about his fan following. Whenever Rajesh entered a hotel in Madras, there was a queue of 600 girls waiting to see him at midnight. As a result, even I would get some importance, as people would ask for my autograph as well. He was very generous with his associates, and would party a lot." During the peak of his career he would be mobbed during public appearances. Fans kissed his car, which would be covered with lipstick marks, and lined the road, cheering and chanting his name. Female fans sent him letters written in their blood.[34] There used to be a line of cars of his producers and hysterical fans outside his bungalow every day. Actor Mehmood parodied him in Bombay to Goa where the driver and conductor of the bus were called 'Rajesh' and 'Khanna'. Even today, he remains the favourite of mimicry artists, who copy his trademark style and dialogue delivery. During the filming of Amar Prem there was a scene that needed to be filmed at Howrah Bridge with a boat carrying Khanna with Sharmila moving under the bridge. The authorities ruled this scene out as they realized that if the public found out that the hero of the film would be there, it may create problems on the bridge itself, and that it might collapse due to the amount of people trying to get a glimpse of their favourite actor.[35] Film critic Monojit

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Rajesh Khanna Lahiri remembers “Girls married themselves to photographs of Rajesh Khanna, cutting their fingers and applying the blood as sindoor. Rajesh was God, there has never been such hysteria.”[36] Several songs sung by Kishore Kumar in the 1970s were based on Rajesh Khanna. During the filming of the song 'Mere Sapnon Ki Rani' in Aradhana, Sharmila Tagore was shooting for a Satyajit Ray film and director Shakti Samanta had to shoot their scenes separately and then join the scenes together. The BBC made a film on him, titled Bombay Superstar, in 1974, the shooting for which began the same time when he got married and his film Daag premiered.[37] In the video it can be noticed that Khanna was shooting for Aap Ki Kasam. A textbook prescribed by the Bombay University contained an essay, 'The Charisma of Rajesh Khanna!'.[38] Sharmila Tagore said in interview to India Express, “Women came out in droves to see Kaka (Khanna). They would stand in queues outside the studios to catch a glimpse, they would marry his photographs, they would pull at his clothes. Delhi girls were crazier for him than Mumbai girls. He needed police protection when he was in public. I have never seen anything like this before and since.”[39] Music remained one of the biggest attractions of all Rajesh Khanna films throughout his career. Many of the musical scores for Khanna's films were composed by Sachin Dev Burman, R.D. Burman and Laxmikant-Pyarelal. The trio of Rajesh Khanna, Kishore Kumar and R.D. Burman went on to make a number of popular films, including Kati Patang, Amar Prem, Shehzada, Apna Desh, Mere Jeevan Saathi, Aap Ki Kasam, Ajnabee, Namak Haraam, Maha Chor, Karm, Phir Wohi Raat, Aanchal, Kudrat, Ashanti, Agar Tum Na Hote, Awaaz, Hum Dono and Alag Alag. Rajesh Khanna had 15 consecutive hits between 1969 to 1972, which is still an unbroken record in Indian film history.[40] The commercial success of his films declined during 1976–78. Khanna considered Guru Dutt, Meena Kumari and Geeta Bali as his idols.Khanna dislosed in an interview," My inspirations include, Dilip Kumar's dedication and intensity, Raj Kapoor's spontaneity, Dev Anand's style and Shammi Kapoor's rhythm."[25]

1976–1978 Between 1976 and 1978, Khanna acted in nine films that were not commercially successful. Seven of these were rated highly by critics upon their release and have achieved strong cult status over the years among the viewers and these films included Mehbooba,[41] Bundal Baaz, Tyaag, Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein, Naukri, Chakravyuha and Janata Havaldar which were directed by Shakti Samanta, Shammi Kapoor, Din Dayal Sharma, Meeraj, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Basu Chatterjee and Mehmood Ali, respectively. Khanna persuaded Samanta to cast his sister-in-law Simple Kapadia opposite him in Anurodh.[42] Films starring Rajesh Khanna and directed by Shakti Samanta tended to be commercially successful, but Mehbooba was an exception.[43] [44] K. Balachander then remade his film Arangetram in Hindi as Aaina with Mumtaz in the lead and Khanna in a cameo appearance in 1977. This film was also unsuccessful. The change from romantic and social movies to action oriented multi-starrers caused the decline of Khanna's career in terms of box office ratings to some extent. The declaration of emergency in India had angered the masses and this helped films having the lead character revolting against corruption becoming success.[45] Actor Joy Mukherjee made Chhailla Babu, a suspense thriller in 1977, which became the only successful film of his as a director[46] and the unexpected success of the Chhailla Babu gave a boost to the career of Khanna.[47] However, Khanna continued basically in solo hero social sober household meaningful films during this era and played a variety of characters in films of various genres. During this phase too he had box office hits like Maha Chor,[48] Chhailla Babu,[49] Anurodh and Karm.

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Rajesh Khanna

Later career (1979–present) After 1978, Khanna starred in critically acclaimed commercially successful films[50] such as Amardeep, Phir Wohi Raat, Bandish,[51] Thodisi Bewafaii, Dard, Kudrat, Dhanwan, Avtaar, Agar Tum Na Hote, Souten, Jaanwar, Asha Jyoti, Awaaz,[52] Naya Kadam,[53] Hum Dono, Babu, Aaj Ka M.L.A. Ram Avtar,[54] Shatru,[55] Insaaf Main Karoonga, Anokha Rishta, Nazrana, Angaarey, Adhikar (1986) and Amrit. Director Bharathiraja decided to remake his 1978 Tamil box office hit film "Sigappu Rojakkal" in Hindi with Khanna playing the role of a psychopath.[56] Kamal Haasan who played the same role in Tamil won South Filmfare Best Actor Award for his portrayal.[57] But the Hindi movie was seen as controversial by traditional and orthodox Hindi moviegoers and was not a commercial success, although Khanna's performance has been rated later higher by critics than the original.[58] Tina Munim and Rajesh Khanna became the leading on and off screen couple of the 80’s with hits like Fiffty Fiffty, Suraag, Souten, Aakhir Kyun, Bewafai, Insaaf Main Karoonga and Adhikar(1986).[59] Ram Awatar Agnihotri wrote that Tina Munim showed the first sparks of the dedicated actress she would become in the films "Alag Alag" and "Adhikar", both with Khanna.[60] He also acted in the Marathi hit film "Sundara Satarkar" in 1981.[61] He has performed in the least number of multi-starrer films in comparison to his contemporaries and portrayed the central character in the few multistarrers he acted. Khanna delivered multi-starrer superhits like Rajput, Dharam Aur Kanoon,[62] Zamana, Dil-E-Nadan, Ashanti, Awam (film) and Ghar Ka Chiraag. He did three potboiler movies with Jeetendra, which were blockbusters-Dharam Kanta,[63] Nishaan and Maqsad.[64] Aaj Ka M.L.A. Ram Avtar is one of the memorable political films of Rajesh Khanna. Khanna played the character of a corrupt politician in this film. Viewers praised his role in the film.[65] The year 1985 saw him turn a producer with Alag Alag. Eleven films, with Khanna in the lead, released in 1985 and seven of these became hits and in addition had three films with him in special appearance.[66] Before joining politics one of his last films as the lead hero was Swarg released in 1990. David Dhawan regards Swarg as his most favorite directorial venture and said in an interview " Swarg did well. Though a serious film, people even today talk about it as it struck a chord. I was working with Rajesh Khanna for the first time. I shared a good rapport with him. He never threw tantrums on the sets."[67] He experimented with films of different genres like tragedy in Babu as a rickshaw puller, thriller in Redrose as a psycopath, political adventure in Awam, negative roles in Dhanwan and Redrose, fantasy in Bundalbaaz and Jaanwar, crime in Phir Wohi Raat and Angarey, suspense in Chakravyuha and Iteefaq, comedy in Hum Dono and Masterji, action in Ashanti, family dramas like Aanchal and Amrit and Agar Tum Na Hote, variety of social films like Avtaar, Naya Kadam, Akhir Kyun and with different themes like reincarnation theme in Kudrat, patriotism in Prem Kahani, immature young love theme handled in different ways in films like Anokha Rishta, Nazrana and Dil E Nadan and did college romance in Bandish. He has played variety of characters as the lead hero - as a postman in Palkon Ki Chaon Mein, as a lawyer who proves that his senior has committed a rape 25 years earlier in Kudrat, as a politician in Aaj Ka MLA Ram Avtaar , as a young musician forced by fate to marry two women in Asha Jyoti, as professional advocate in Awaaz, fisherman in Prem Bandhan, a revolutionary patriot who is torn apart by love and policeman like in Prem Kahanai, as a righteous farmer in Bandhan etc. He shared a very close relationship with R.D. Burman[68] and Kishore Kumar. The trio were very close friends and have worked together in more than thirty films.[69] Work of Pancham with Khanna is regarded as legendary and far superior than any other actor-music director combinations.[70] The king of playback singing Kishore Kumar had even credited Rajesh Khanna for his resurgence, so much so that he sang for Alag Alag, the first film produced by Rajesh Khanna without charging anything.[71] [72] In 1985 Pancham found himself being sidelined after failure of few films but Rajesh Khanna was among the few who continued to stand by him.[73] Rajesh and Pancham worked together even after the death of Kishore in the films Jai Shiv Shankar, the unreleased film Police Ke Peechhe Police (both produced by Khanna ) and Sautela Bhai. Khanna even helped Leena Gangully and Amit Kumar in completing Mamta Ki Chhaon Mein, the last film directed by Kishore who died before the completion of the film. Actors who were part of the cast of most of his films include Ashok Kumar, Sujit Kumar, Prem Chopra, Madan Puri, Asrani, Bindu, Vijay Arora, Roopesh Kumar, Dina Pathak and A. K. Hangal, who remained part of his " working

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Rajesh Khanna team" since the start until the late eighties. The lyricist whom he preferred for his movies was Anand Bakshi. Films by Shakti Samanta with Khanna in the lead, music by Pancham and lyrics by Anand Bakshi had people swooning over. The films Samanta directed without Khanna in the eighties were duds.[74] [75] His other close friends from the film industry include Raj Babbar, J. Om Prakash and Jeetendra. Pyarelal quoted in an interview that “Rajesh Khanna was lucky for us and we were lucky for him too. From the 1969 Do Raaste to the 1986 Amrit, we gave hits together both as films and as music scores.... When we went on our first overseas concert tour in 1984, he came and danced to three songs. He was very particular about his music and would take a tape home if he could not assess a song. He would then give his feedback after a day or two. But if he liked a song at the sitting, he would loudly shout “Wah! Wah!” in appreciation…. It was God’s blessing that we came up with such a vast range of hit songs for him, including in his home productions Roti and films like Chhailla Babu, Chakravyuha, Fiffty Fiffty, Amar Deep and Bewafai. Incidentally, he had a stake in Mehboob Ki Mehndi too. He had great interest in music and a terrific sense of melody too. His music is dominated by Pancham (R.D. Burman) and us and we accepted Shakti Samanta’s Anurodh only because Rajesh Khanna had some misunderstanding with Pancham then and did not want to work with him.”[33] Khanna would always request music directors to fit in Kishore Kumar wherever possible. In fact, Kishoreda was very reluctant to sing "Waada Tera Waada" in Dushman and suggested Laxmikant Pyarelal to get it sung by Rafi. Then Laxmikant made Kishoreda meet Rajesh Khanna and Khanna winked at Laxmikant and told Kishoreda that in that case the song should be scrapped. On hearing this Kishore immediately agreed to sing it by himself for Khanna.[33] Celebrities of the post-2000 era, like Madhur Bhandarkar, say that they take at least three or four turns in Carter Road even today only to see Khanna.[76] The younger generation stars like Imran Khan still regard Rajesh Khanna as someone who would take the top slot as the most romantic hero of all time.[77] Shahrukh Khan idolises Rajesh Khanna and has opined,"Rajesh Khanna you can’t touch".[78] Actor Tom Alter confessed “I still dream of being Rajesh Khanna. For me, in the early 1970s, he was the only hero — romantic to the core, not larger than life, so Indian and real — he was my hero; the reason I came into films and he still is.”[79] Actor Irrfan Khan accepted in an interview, "The kind of craze witnessed by Rajesh Khanna has not been duplicated by anyone. He was the biggest and the most real star Bollywood has produced. I'd say stardom is that feeling of being possessed by your idol; you are so overwhelmed with euphoria you lose touch with reality."[80] Rajesh Khanna was the last superstar to set fashion trends.[81] The trend of wearing guru kurtas and belt on shirts became famous in seventies and eighties because of Khanna.[82] Akshay Kumar was a fan of Khanna since his childhood and later when he became Khanna's son-in-law, he told "Look at what destiny had in store for me. I married my idol's daughter! I still can't believe it. Who wasn't his fan in the 1970s? I remember queuing up for hours to watch Aradhana, Amar Prem, Kati Patang. These are among my favourite films of all times."[83] When Action Replayy, a film starring Akshay in the lead released in 2010, Akshay ensured that Rajesh Khanna was the first person to watch the film in theaters. On the eve of the film's release Akshay said "The film is set in the era that belongs to my father-in-law. I am proud of being part of the family now. Mr Khanna will be the first person to watch the film. I'm determined about that."[84] Action Replayy was a film which paid homage to the decade when Rajesh Khanna ruled.[85] Amitabh Bachchan, while presenting the lifetime achievement award to Khanna at the IIFA awards of 2009 acknowledged, "The word superstar in the Indian film industry was for the first time coined for him".[86] From the early nineties onwards he stopped acting and served as M.P. of New Delhi Constituency from 1991 to 1996. During that period, he returned to acting, appearing in Khudai(1994). He made a comeback as a NRI in Aa Ab Laut Chalen(1999), and Kyaa Dil Ne Kahaa(2002). In September 2007, he officially announced his planned return to the big screen, signing a contract for several new films, including some television serials.

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Rajesh Khanna

324

Television He is a life member of the International Film And Television Research Centre, the International Film And Television Club and the Asian Academy of Film & Television.[87] He is the Guest Faculty of 'Specialized Cinema Courses At Asian School Of Media Studies'. On April 10, 1999 Khanna inaugurated the live concert of S.P. Balasubramanyam held at Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, Hyderabad as a tribute to Pancham.[88] In 2001 and 2002, Rajesh played the lead in two television serials: Aapne Parai (B4U & DD Metro) [89] and Ittefaq (Zee TV).[90] He performed in a video album based on Tagore's songs (Rabindra Sangeet) without payment, and is currently in the process of creating his own music channel "R.K. Music Channel".[91] He also endorsed Star se Superstar tak - a talent hunt programme in 2007 and donated a Gold Trophy of Rs.1 crore. In its Silver Jubilee Episode on 14–15 March 2008, K for Kishore aired a Rajesh Khanna special. He signed on to star in a TV serial with Creative Eye Banner (Dhiraj Kumar) in 2007, and in 2008 performed in a TV serial, Bhabhima, with Leena Ganguly as his co-star. His successful TV serial Raghukul Reet Sada Chali Aayi began in November 2008 and ended in September 2009.[92] Khanna cites the lack of good roles for actors like him in the films these days. He said in an interview on being queried about his decision to do TV serials, "The reach of TV is much more than cinema today and one episode of my serial is likely to be watched by more people than a super-hit film".[93] In 2009, on his 67th birthday, Shemaroo Entertainment released his films and a song collection titled Screen Legends-Rajesh Khanna-the Original Superstar.[94]

Political and business career Rajesh Khanna was a member of Parliament for the Congress Party, from the New Delhi constituency, where he won the 1992 by-election, retaining his seat until the 1996 election.[95] He has since been a political activist for the Congress Party. Khanna and a group of foreign investors have bought land in Shirdi on which they plan to build a religious resort for disciples of Sai Baba of Shirdi.[96]

Filmography Producer Year

Co-Producer

Film

1985

Alag Alag

1989

Police Ke Peeche Police

1990

Jai Shiv Shankar


Rajesh Khanna

325

Year

Film

1971

Mehboob Ki Mehndi

1974

Roti

1995

Barsaat

Playback Singer • • • • • •

Baharon Ke Sapne (1967) Raja Rani (1973) Amar Prem (1972) Daag (1973) Ajnabee Souten (1983)

References [1] [[The Tribune (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2009/ 20090612/ ttlife1. htm)], Chandigarh, India - The Tribune Lifestyle] [2] Emotional Rajesh Khanna thanks Amitabh Bachchan (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2009/ 06/ 15/ stories/ 2009061556591800. htm) The Hindu Monday, Jun 15, 2009 [3] Bollywood: popular Indian cinema (http:/ / books. google. co. in/ books?id=egxlAAAAMAAJ& q=Rajesh+ Khanna+ First+ Superstar+ of+ India& dq=Rajesh+ Khanna+ First+ Superstar+ of+ India& hl=en& ei=3_GhTMq9LJDyvQO_) Lalit Mohan Joshi, pub 2002 [4] Lifetime achievement award honour for Rajesh Khanna at IIFA 2009 | TopNews (http:/ / www. topnews. in/ lifetime-achievement-award-honour-rajesh-khanna-iifa-2009-2173193) [5] Pratiyogita Darpan (August 2009). Pratiyogita Darpan (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=HCKXK1kt8U0C& pg=PT22). Pratiyogita Darpan. pp. 22–. . Retrieved 16 July 2010. [6] "Jeetendra-Actors-Bollywood-Celeb Interview Archives-Indiatimes Chat" (http:/ / chatinterviews. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 1258826. cms). The Times Of India. . [7] "Aan Milo Sajna : Birthday Bumps : Rajesh Khanna - Photogallery - Movies News - IBNLive" (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ photogallery/ 3005-1. html?from=movies). Ibnlive.in.com. 2011-05-10. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [8] The hundred luminaries of Hindi cinema (http:/ / books. google. co. in/ books?ei=r_OhTP_vM4G4vgOrrpHTAw& ct=result& id=HixlAAAAMAAJ& dq=rajesh+ khanna+ + became+ that+ rare+ newcomer+ who+ struggled+ in+ his+ ) [9] Designed, Developed ABJI Solutions Kandivali (W). "KapolSamaj.com. Build better life together" (http:/ / www. kapolsamaj. com/ arts. html). Kapolsamaj.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [10] "Amar Prem : Birthday Bumps : Rajesh Khanna - Photogallery - Movies News - IBNLive" (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ photogallery/ 3005-0. html?from=movies). Ibnlive.in.com. 2011-05-10. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [11] rediff.com: Rajesh Khanna, the phenomenon (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ dec/ 28sli1. htm) [12] RAJESH KHANNA - 1987 (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ fullstory. php?content_id=7148) [13] rediff.com, Movies: The different avatars of Rajesh Khanna (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2002/ sep/ 13dinesh. htm) [14] Rajesh Khanna's life in pics » NDTV Movies (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ PhotoDetail. aspx?Page=5& ID=6523) [15] Flash News Today – Online News Magazine » Rajesh-Dimple: Complicated! (http:/ / flashnewstoday. com/ index. php/ rajesh-dimple-complicated/ ) [16] Bollywood Divas (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ news/ specials/ slideshows/ 80s/ tinamunim. htm) [17] Sinha, Seema (2010-09-13). "Rajesh-Dimple: Complicated!" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ Rajesh-Dimple-Complicated/ articleshow/ 6541166. cms). The Times Of India. . [18] I hated my job, says Twinkle Khanna (http:/ / www. expressindia. com/ news/ election/ fullestory. php?type=ei& content_id=30722) [19] Screen The Business Of Entertainment-Films-Cover Story (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ 20020426/ fcover. html) [20] rediff.com, Movies: Jhankaar Beats: R D Burman comes alive... again! (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2003/ mar/ 27sld2. htm) [21] "Terrific 25 - 1/5" (http:/ / www. filmfare. com/ articles/ terrific-25-15-770. html). Filmfare. 2010-04-24. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [22] India's First Superstar - Retiring Room: Rajesh Khanna (http:/ / entertainment. in. msn. com/ gallery. aspx?cp-documentid=4155691& page=3) [23] The original superstar - Rajesh Khanna (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ The-original-superstar/ 327356/ ) [24] Screen The Business Of Entertainment-Films-Tribute (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ 20020322/ ftribute. html) [25] "My First Break - Rajesh Khanna" (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ arts/ cinema/ article2032058. ece). The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2011-05-19. . [26] Screen -The Business of Entertainment (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ 20010216/ cover. htm)


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[53] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?ei=zWkxTPjZN8KB8gbBzNWLAw& ct=result& id=Q5UqAAAAYAAJ& dq=naya+ kadam)#search_anchor [54] "Bollywood's Bihar connection" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ News-Feed/ cinema/ Bollywood-s-Bihar-connection/ Article1-599305. aspx). Hindustan Times. 2010-09-12. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [55] "Pancham - Rahul Dev Burman" (http:/ / www. panchamonline. com/ ). Panchamonline.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [56] "Bharathiraja - Kallar The Caste who makes the History of Tamilnadu" (http:/ / kallar. weebly. com/ bharathiraja. html). Kallar.weebly.com. 1941-07-17. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [57] Chennai Alerts - Kamal Haasan's life in 55 pics (http:/ / www. chennaialerts. com/ movies. php?movieid=83) [58] 17 Nov, 2007, 02.14AM IST, Ravi Balakrishnan,TNN (2007-11-17). "A rose by any name - The Economic Times" (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ Business_of_Bollywood/ A_rose_by_any_name/ articleshow/ 2547342. cms). Economictimes.indiatimes.com. . 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Rajesh Khanna [59] rediff.com: Rajesh Khanna, the phenomenon (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ movies/ 2007/ dec/ 28sli4. htm) [60] Agnihotri, Ram Awatar (1992). Artistes and their films of modern Hindi cinema: cultural and sociopolitical impact on society, 1931-1991 (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=jv5kAAAAMAAJ). Commonwealth Publishers. p. 92. ISBN 9788171691838. . Retrieved 6 July 2010. [61] "Chandru Sadarangani case baffles Marathi filmmakers" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ chandru-sadarangani-case-baffles-marathi-filmmakers/ 294700/ ). Screenindia.com. 2008-04-11. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [62] "Boxofficeindia.com" (http:/ / boxofficeindia. com/ cpages. php?pageName=top_actors). Boxofficeindia.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [63] "Boxofficeindia.com" (http:/ / www. boxofficeindia. com/ showProd. php?itemCat=188& catName=MTk4Mg==). Boxofficeindia.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. 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[74] The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - The Tribune Lifestyle (http:/ / www. tribuneindia. com/ 2009/ 20090411/ ttlife1. htm) [75] Golden banner (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ Golden-banner/ 333458/ ) [76] "Madhur Bhandarkar" (http:/ / www. thefilmstreetjournal. com/ 2010/ 08/ madhur-bhandarkar/ ). The Film Street Journal. 2010-08-19. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [77] "Rajesh Khanna Is The Most Romantic Hero Of Indian Cinema, Says Imran Khan | TopNews" (http:/ / www. topnews. in/ rajesh-khanna-most-romantic-hero-indian-cinema-says-imran-khan-2265436). Topnews.in. 2010-06-24. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [78] "'Films Are For Entertainment, Messages Are For The Post Office'" (http:/ / www. outlookindia. com/ article. aspx?235838). www.outlookindia.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [79] "‘I still dream of being Rajesh Khanna'" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ mag/ 2009/ 07/ 12/ stories/ 2009071250040200. htm). The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2009-07-12. . 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Sify.com. 2010-10-28. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [85] Jha, Subhash K. "First show booked for Rajesh Khanna: Akshay" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ entertainment/ bollywood/ news-interviews/ First-show-booked-for-Rajesh-Khanna-Akshay/ articleshow/ 6819844. cms). The Times Of India. . [86] "Love epic tops Bollywood awards" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 8099114. stm). BBC News. 2009-06-13. . [87] "Rajesh Khanna's Life in Pics » Rajesh Khanna's New Amar Prem? » NDTV Movies" (http:/ / movies. ndtv. com/ PhotoDetail. aspx?Page=32& ID=6523#talk). Movies.ndtv.com. 1942-12-29. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [88] The Music Magazine - India's hit music e-zine (http:/ / www. themusicmagazine. com/ yehshaam. html) [89] "Rajesh Khanna < Bollywood Actors And Actresses By Sunita" (http:/ / www. bollywood-actors. in/ rajesh_khanna. php). Bollywood-actors.in. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. 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327


Rajesh Khanna [92] "Rajesh Khanna signs 8 films" (http:/ / movies. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 2682478. cms). Times of India. 8 January 2008. . Retrieved 7 August 2009. [93] "SOUTH ASIA | Bollywood stars turn to TV" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 780005. stm). BBC News. 2000-06-06. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [94] "Shemaroo celebrates Superstar Rajesh Khanna’s 67th Birthday" (http:/ / www. indiainfoline. com/ Markets/ News/ Shemaroo-celebrates-Superstar-Rajesh-Khannas-67th-Birthday/ 4741831325). Indiainfoline.com. . Retrieved 2010-09-21. [95] Mahendra Singh Rana (1 January 2006). India votes: Lok Sabha & Vidhan Sabha elections 2001-2005 (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=yInZdHn-pKoC& pg=PA493). Sarup & Sons. pp. 493–. ISBN 9788176256476. . Retrieved 16 July 2010. [96] Rajesh Khanna is planning a multi-crore resort in Shirdi (http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ entertainment/ 2009/ oct/ 261009-rajesh-khanna-shirdi-resort. htm)

External links • * Rajesh Khanna (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004435/) at the Internet Movie Database

328


Ram Gopal Varma

329

Ram Gopal Varma Ram Gopal Varma

Born

Penmetsa Ram Gopal Varma 7 April 1962 Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

Occupation

Film director, producer and writer

Years active 1989–present Spouse

Ratna (Divorced) Website http:/ / rgvzoomin. com/

Ram Gopal Varma (Telugu: రామ్ గోపాల్ వర్మ, better known as RGV, born 7 April 1962) is an Indian film director, screenwriter and producer. Varma has directed, written and produced films across multiple genres-psychological thrillers, underworld gang warfare, politician-criminal nexus, and musicals in multiple languages. Shiva was his first film as a director and Not a Love Story (2011) is his most recent one. He gained recognition in Hindi cinema, with the straight Hindi version of Shiva in 1990 and Rangeela (1995). The next film he directed was Satya (1998), which won six Filmfare Awards, including the Critics Award for Best Film. Satya, together with his 2002 film Company (which he directed and which won seven Filmfare Awards) and the 2005 film D (which he produced), form an "Indian gangster trilogy". Other acclaimed films that Varma directed include Kshana Kshanam (1991), Gaayam (1993), Anaganaga Oka Roju (1997), Kaun (1999), Jungle (2000), Bhoot (2003), Sarkar (2005), Sarkar Raj (2008), Rakta Charitra (2010) Katha Screenplay Darshakatvam Appalaraju (2011) and Dongala Mutta (2011).[1] His upcoming films include, Department and Bezawada Rowdilu, starring Rana Daggubati and Naga Chaitanya respectively.


Ram Gopal Varma

330

Early years Ram Gopal Varma was born in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India to Krishnam Raju Penmetsa and Suryavathi Raju Penmetsa. In an interview to Tehelka, Varma talked about his relationship with his parents, and the reasons behind his decision to become a filmmaker. From my parents’ perspective, I looked like a useless bum. It was the truth. I had no objective. I was just fascinated by people, so I used to study their behaviour. I was most fascinated by the bullies in my classroom. They were like gangsters for me. They had the guts to push around people, do things I couldn’t— perhaps did not even want to do myself. But I’d want a friend like that (laughs). I used to adulate them like heroes. That was my first touch with anti-socialism. Over a period of time, I developed a low-angle fascination for larger than life people. I was always a loner — not because I was unhappy, but because I live away from myself, not just others. I like to study myself — the way I am talking, behaving. My constant obsession with studying myself and other people is perhaps the primary motivation for me to be a filmmaker.[2] Varma completed BE in civil engineering from V.R.Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada. Even during this period, Varma remained a film buff, through his uncle. Varma would skip classes often and watch films instead. He would watch the same film repeatedly "just to watch certain scenes which interested him."[3] According to him, that is how he learned film direction. After a brief stint as a site engineer, for a hotel in Hyderabad, he then put his dreams on the back burner and decided to go to Nigeria to make some money. It was at this moment that he visited a video rental library in Hyderabad. He loved the idea and decided to start one of his own at Ameerpet in Hyderabad, through which he slowly developed connections with the film world.[4] Without being successful as a fourth assistant director in B. Gopal's film, Collector Gari Abbai, Varma directly ventured into film direction, in Nagarjuna's 1989 film Shiva.[5]

Career in Telugu cinema Before Varma started his film career in the Telugu film industry, he lingered on the sets of films such as Raogaarillu and Collectorgari Abbai. His father was a sound recordist at Annapurna Studios, Hyderabad which is owned by Akkineni Nageswara Rao. Varma managed to meet Nagarjuna and narrated a scene to the actor which impressed him.[6] The result of their collaboration was a film on the criminalization of student politics - Shiva. The film was a blockbuster with Varma demonstrating his technical expertise and story-telling skills. The success of the film in Telugu led to a Hindi remake with similar success.[7] Varma's next film was Kshana Kshanam with Venkatesh and Sridevi which got him noticed by Bollywood critics. The film was dubbed into Hindi as Hairaan. Then he made films such as Raatri and Antham. While Gaayam with Jagapathi Babu and Anaganaga Oka Roju with J.D. Chakravarthy were successful, Govinda Govinda with Nagarjuna and Sridevi proved to be a moderate success at the box office.[8] During this period, Varma also produced films such as Money and Money Money, and was the screen writer for Mani Ratnam's Tamil film Thiruda Thiruda.

Ram Gopal Varma in the sets of a Telugu film


Ram Gopal Varma

Career in Hindi cinema While Varma's first successful Hindi film was the remake of Siva. His next film was Drohi. The film that really put the spotlight on him was the blockbuster Rangeela.[9] The film won Filmfare Awards for Rahman and Shroff. The film, according to Varma, was dedicated to actress Sridevi.[10] His next film Daud (1997), however, sank without a trace.[7] In 1998, Varma was an executive producer for Dil Se, directed by Mani Ratnam and starring Shahrukh Khan, Manisha Koirala and Preity Zinta. The film won the NETPAC Award for Special Mention at the Berlin Film Festival, as well as two National Film Awards and six Filmfare Awards.[11]

Indian Gangster Trilogy In 1998 came his masterpiece, the critically acclaimed Satya, a film based on the Mumbai underworld. A script written by Anurag Kashyap and Saurabh Shukla, music by Vishal Bharadwaj and Sandeep Chowta, acclaimed performances by J. D. Chakravarthy, Manoj Bajpai and Urmila Matondkar, and Varma's directorial and technical brilliance, contributed to a film that was a landmark. The film won six Filmfare Awards, including the Critics Award for Best Film. In 2002 came his greatest commercial as well as critical success, Company, again set against the backdrop of the Mumbai underworld, in which he cut off the song-and-dance sequences, a commonplace in Bollywood films at the time. It was based on the real-life underworld organization, the D-Company. The film won seven Filmfare Awards and earned him a Filmfare Best Director Award nomination. Mohanlal debuted in Bollywood with this film. A prequel to Company was made in 2005, titled D, produced by Varma and directed by Vishram Sawant. Satya, Company and D are together considered an "Indian Gangster Trilogy". Satya and Company, in particular, were cited by British director Danny Boyle as influences on his Academy Award winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008), for their "slick, often mesmerizing portrayals of the Mumbai underworld", their display of "brutality and urban violence", and their gritty realism.[12] [13] [14]

Experimental films During the years between his "Indian Gangster Trilogy", from Satya in 1998 to D in 2005,[15] Varma experimented with different film genres. In 1999, he directed Kaun, a suspense thriller set entirely in one house and featuring only three actors, and Mast, a subversion of the Hindi cinema's masala genre.[16] In 2000, he directed Jungle, a film set entirely in a jungle, for which he was nominated for the Star Screen Award for Best Director. Following the success of Company in 2002, Varma's next film as director was Bhoot (2003), a psychological horror film, which was a major success. It starred Ajay Devgan and Urmila Matondkar, who earned a number of awards for her performance. Varma himself was nominated for the Filmfare Best Director Award for the film. Following the success of Bhoot, Varma produced two other experimental films: Sriram Raghavan's Ek Hasina Thi (2003), a psychological thriller, and Shimit Amin's Ab Tak Chhappan (2004), a film about an inspector in the Mumbai Encounter Squad famous for having killed 56 people in police encounters.[17] In 2005, Varma was nominated for the Zee Cine Award for Best Producer of the Year.

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Later films Varma's next film as director was Sarkar, released in June 2005, starring Amitabh Bachchan and his son Abhishek Bachchan. Amitabh played the character of Sarkar who is a self-righteous and powerful businessman cum social worker, while Abhishek played his son in the film. Sarkar was a loose adaptation of Mario Puzo's 1969 novel The Godfather.[18] Sarkar went on to become a critically acclaimed box office hit. In 2006, his next film as director was Shiva, which premiered at the New York Asian Film Festival, where a retrospective featuring several of his previous films was also staged. Alongside Shiva, the festival screened his earlier successful films Company, Ek Hasina Thi and Ab Tak Chhappan. While these three films were praised,[17] Shiva was a critical and commercial failure. In 2007, he directed Nishabd, followed by the ambitious Sholay remake, Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag, as well as Darling, all three were critical and box office disasters. He was written off by the media and public until June 2008, when he reclaimed, to some extent, his lost reputation with his much hyped venture, Sarkar Raj, a sequel to Sarkar; it was an average and met with good reviews. The primary cast featured Amitabh and Abhishek Bachchan reprising their roles from the prequel alongside Aishwarya Rai Bachchan. Supriya Pathak, Tanisha Mukherjee and Ravi Kale also reappeared in their respective roles from Sarkar. Unlike Sarkar, which was loosely adapted from The Godfather, Sarkar Raj had an original plot. Phoonk (2008) was of the horror film genre and met with mixed reviews, with more of them leaning to the negative side. However, the film was a major hit in comparison to its minuscule budget. Agyaat, which released on 7 August 2009, was again a commercial as well as critical failure. Next was Rann, a film about the media. It had Amitabh Bachchan, Kannada actor Sudeep, Ritesh Deshmukh and Paresh Rawal. Released on 29 January 2010, the film was praised by some critics, but was a commercial disaster. Then he began the promotion works for Phoonk 2, a sequel of Phoonk, which was released on April 16, 2010. Next came Rakta Charitra, a trilingual in Telugu, Tamil and Hindi languages. The movie was based upon the faction backdrop of the Rayalaseema in Andhra Pradesh. As the entire film lasted for about 5 hours, the film was released in two parts, with in a gap of three months. The film depicts the life of slain political leader Paritala Ravindra, played by Vivek Oberoi, with Tamil actor Surya Sivakumar, enacting the role of Maddelacheruvu Suri, Shatrughan Sinha, playing N. T. Rama Rao. Radhika Apte and Priyamani star in other pivotal roles. The film released to a good opening following Varma's clever pre-release marketing using the controversy surrounding the main characters to his advantage. A fortnight after the film's release, Maddelacheruvu Suri was shot fatally. Though the movie could not get a good reputation in Hindi and Tamil, it gained positive reviews in Telugu and the critics quoted "RGV is back". Varma's latest release had comedian Sunil as the lead. The film was titled Katha Screenplay Darshakatvam Appalaraju (Story Screenplay Direction AppalRaju, when translated to English). This is said to be a satire on Telugu Film industry mainly targeting directors. A song in the film covered almost all directors like Raghavendra Rao, E.V.V, Kodi Ramakrishna, B.Gopal, S.S Rajamouli, Sreenu Vaitla, Puri Jagannadh, Vinayak and Boyapati Seenu. On 25 February 2011, Varma reportedly filed a complaint against a Telugu news channel in Hyderabad. Varma has also announced another horror film titled Amma 3D. The film will be the first 3D horror film made in India and is reported to have Ritesh Deshmukh in a significant role. Varma has roped in Amitabh Bachchan for the lead role in his yet to be filmed movie Department, the plot of which shall revolve around the internal politics of the police department. He has been quoted saying that this film may be considered as "the other side of Company". Sanjay Dutt and Rana Daggubati are reportedly going to play supporting roles. It is a much anticipated collaboration of Sanjay Dutt with the director after their earlier venture "Daud".

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333

Autobiography Varma wrote an autobiography titled Na Ishtam, which discusses his thoughts and opinions.

Awards Filmfare Awards • Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie - Satya (1998) • Filmfare Best Story Award - Rangeela (1995) Filmfare Best Director Award (Telugu) • Shiva (1989) • Kshana Kshanam (1991) • Gaayam (1993)

Nandi Awards Nandi Award for Best Director • Shiva (1989) • Kshana Kshanam (1991) • Prema Kadha (1999)[19]

Bollywood Awards Bollywood Award for Best Director • • • •

Satya (1998) Jungle (2000) Company (2002) Bhoot (2003)

Filmography As director Year

Film

Language

1989 Shiva

Telugu

1991 Kshana Kshanam

Telugu

1992 Antham

Telugu

1992 Raathri

Telugu

1993 Gaayam

Telugu

1993 Govinda Govinda

Telugu

1995 Rangeela

Hindi

1996 Deyyam

Telugu

1997 Anaganaga Oka Roju

Telugu

1997 Daud

Hindi

1998 Satya

Hindi

1999 Prema Kadha

Telugu

Notes


Ram Gopal Varma

334

1999 Kaun

Hindi

1999 Mast

Hindi

2000 Jungle

Hindi

2002 Company

Hindi

2003 Bhoot

Hindi

2004 Naach

Hindi

2005 Sarkar

Hindi

2006 Shiva

Hindi

2007 Nishabd

Hindi

2007 Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag

Hindi

2007 Darling

Hindi

2008 Sarkar Raj

Hindi

2008 Contract

Hindi

2008 Phoonk - The Black Magic Story

Hindi

2009 Adavi/Agyaat

Telugu/Hindi

2010 Rann

Hindi

2010 Rakta Charitra-Part I

Telugu/Hindi

2010 Rakta Charitra-Part II

Telugu/Hindi/Tamil

2011 Katha Screenplay Darshakatvam Appalaraju Telugu 2011 Dongala Mutta

Telugu

2011 Not a Love Story

Hindi/Telugu

2011 Trishank

Hindi

Pre-Production

2011 Department

Hindi

Goes on floors on 20th June 2011.

2011 Amma 3D

Telugu/Hindi/Tamil/English Pre-Production

As producer Year

Film

Language

1992 Raathri

Telugu

1993 Money

Telugu

1995 Money Money

Telugu

1996 Gulabi

Telugu

1996 W/O V varaprasad

Telugu

1997 Anaganaga Oka Roju

Telugu

1998 Dil Se

Hindi

1999 Shool

Hindi

2001 Love Ke Liye Kuchh Bhi Karega

Hindi

2001 Pyaar Tune Kya Kiya

Hindi

2002 Road

Hindi

2003 Ek Hasina Thi

Hindi

Notes

Co-Produced with Mani Ratnam and Shekhar Kapur


Ram Gopal Varma

335

2003 Darna Mana Hai

Hindi

2004 Ab Tak Chhappan

Hindi

2004 Vaastu Shastra

Hindi

2004 Gayab

Hindi

2004 Naach

Hindi

2005 My Wife's Murder

Hindi

2005 Main Madhuri Dixit Banna Chahti Hoon Hindi 2005 D

Hindi

2005 James

Hindi

2005 Sarkar

Hindi

2005 Mr Ya Miss

Hindi

2006 Darwaza Bandh Rakho

Hindi

2006 Shock

Telugu

2006 Shiva

Hindi

2006 Darna Zaroori Hai

Hindi

2007 Nishabd

Hindi

2007 Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag

Hindi

2007 Go

Hindi

2008 Sarkar Raj

Hindi

2009 Adavi

Telugu

2009 Agyaat

Hindi

2010 Phoonk 2

Hindi

2010 Department

Hindi

Pre-Production

2011 Bejawada Rowdeelu

Telugu

Pre-Production

As writer Year

Film

1989 Shiva 1990 Kshana Kshanam 1992 Antham / Drohi 1992 Raathri / Raat 1993 Gaayam / Desam 1993 Govinda Govinda 1994 Thiruda Thiruda / Donga Donga 1995 Rangeela 1996 Deyyam 1997 Daud 1999 Shool 2006 Shock


Ram Gopal Varma

336 2006 Darna Zaroori Hai 2007 Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag 2008 Sarkar Raj 2010 Na Ishtam

References [1] Iyer, Meena (9 September 2007). "What's wrong with Ramu?" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 2351340. cms). Times of India. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [2] "'I need to change my approach to films'" (http:/ / www. tehelka. com/ story_main34. asp?filename=hub150907ramgopalverma. asp). Tehelka. 15 September 2007. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [3] Basu, Arundhati (2 July 2005). "Don of the big screen" (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1050702/ asp/ weekend/ story_4921623. asp). The Telegraph (Calcutta). . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [4] "'A filmmaker is like a journalist '" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 3932985. stm). BBC. 29 July 2004. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [5] "Lakshmi Talk Show with Ram Gopal Varma" (http:/ / 70mmonline. com/ WatchMovie. aspx?movieid=3279& movieName=Lakshmi Talk show with Ramgopal Varma). . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [6] "My best film is bhoot: Ram Gopal Varma" (http:/ / www. bollywoodsargam. com/ modules. php?name=News& file=article& sid=9208). Bollywoodsargam. 2004-07-31. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [7] Verma, Sukanya. "All you need to know about Company" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ entertai/ 2002/ apr/ 11ramu. htm). Rediff. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [8] "Different Strokes" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ old/ print. php?content_id=4023& secnam=films). Screen India. 30 May 2003. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [9] Raghavan, Nikhil (9 October 2010). "A saga in the making?" (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ todays-paper/ tp-features/ tp-metroplus/ article820926. ece). The Hindu. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [10] IANS (5 December 2010). "Acting! Who me? Never, says Ram Gopal Varma" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ article/ bollywood/ acting-who-me-never-says-ram-gopal-varma-70611). NDTV. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [11] "The Winners - 1998" (http:/ / filmfareawards. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ articleshow/ articleshow/ 368679. cms). Filmfareawards.indiatimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-12. [12] Amitava Kumar (23 December 2008). "Slumdog Millionaire's Bollywood Ancestors" (http:/ / www. vanityfair. com/ online/ oscars/ 2008/ 12/ slumdog-millionaires-bollywood-ancestors. html). Vanity Fair. . Retrieved 2008-01-04. [13] Lisa Tsering (29 January 2009). "‘Slumdog’ Director Boyle Has ‘Fingers Crossed’ for Oscars" (http:/ / www. indiawest. com/ readmore. aspx?id=860& sid=5). IndiaWest. . Retrieved 2009-01-30. [14] Anthony Kaufman (29 January 2009). "DGA nominees borrow from the masters: Directors cite specific influences for their films" (http:/ / www. variety. com/ index. asp?layout=awardcentral& jump=contenders& id=director& articleid=VR1117999259& cs=1). Variety. . Retrieved 2009-01-30. [15] Charlie (2005-08-24). "D: Final film in Indian Gangster Trilogy a Must See" (http:/ / www. cinemastrikesback. com/ index. php?p=562). Cinema Strikes Back. . Retrieved 2009-02-22. [16] "Against the Grain: Grady Hendrix on Bombay’s most successful maverick" (http:/ / www. filmlinc. com/ fcm/ so06/ ramgopalvarma. htm). Film Society of Lincoln Center. September–October 2006. . Retrieved 2009-02-22. [17] David (2006-06-16). "The Films of Ram Gopal Varma - An Overview" (http:/ / www. cinemastrikesback. com/ ?p=1202). Cinema Strikes Back. . Retrieved 2009-02-22. [18] Piyushroy (30 May 2008). "‘I have no interest in anyone’s career except mine’" (http:/ / www. screenindia. com/ news/ I-have-no-interest-in-anyones-career-except-mine/ 315649). Screen. . Retrieved 2009-05-03. [19] "Ram Gopal Varma - Biography" (http:/ / www. chakpak. com/ celebrity/ ram-gopal-varma/ biography/ 13969). . Retrieved 2011-09-12.


Ram Gopal Varma

External links • • • • •

Ram Gopal Varma's Official Blog (http://rgvzoomin.com) Ram Gopal Varma (http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0890060/) at the Internet Movie Database Ram Gopal Varma profile at Gomolo.in (http://gomolo.in/People/People.aspx?PplId=979) Interview with RGV (http://www.indiafm.com/news/2006/10/30/8112/index.html) Ram Gopal Varma At Taj by Chance (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Mumbai/ I_happened_to_be_at_Taj_by_chance_Ram_Gopal_Verma/articleshow/3779196.cms) • Timesofindia.indiatimes.com (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ Deshmukh_downplays_filmmaker_Verma_sons_visit_to_Taj/articleshow/377993)

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Rekha

338

Rekha Rekha

Bollywood actress Rekha at 4th Annual asiaSpa Awards Born

Bhanurekha Ganesan 10 October 1954 Madras, Madras State, India

Occupation

Actress

Years active 1966 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; present Spouse

Mukesh Aggrawal (1990 - 1991 his death)

Bhanurekha Ganesan, better known by her stage name Rekha (born 10 October 1954) is an Indian actress who has appeared in Bollywood films. Noted for her versatility and acknowledged as one of the finest actresses of Hindi cinema,[1] Rekha started her career in 1966 as a child actress in the Telugu movie Rangula Ratnam, though her film debut as a lead happened four years later with Sawan Bhadon (1970). Despite the success of several of her early films it was not until the mid-to-late 1970s that she got recognition as an actress. Since the late 1970s, after undertaking a physical transformation, she has been featured as a sex symbol in the Indian media.[2] Rekha has acted in over 180 films in a career that has spanned over 40 years. Throughout her career, she has often played strong female characters and, apart from mainstream cinema, appeared in arthouse films, known in India as parallel cinema. She has won three Filmfare Awards, two for Best Actress and one for Best Supporting Actress, for her roles in Khubsoorat (1980), Khoon Bhari Maang (1988) and Khiladiyon Ka Khiladi (1996), respectively. Her portrayal of a classical courtesan in Umrao Jaan (1981) won her the National Film Award for Best Actress. Though her career has gone through certain periods of decline, she has reinvented herself numerous times and has been credited for her ability to sustain her status.[3]


Rekha

Early life Rekha was born in Chennai (then Madras) to Tamil actor Gemini Ganesan and Telugu actress Pushpavalli. Her father enjoyed considerable success as an actor and Rekha was to follow in his footsteps.[4] Her parents were not married, and her father did not acknowledge his paternity during her childhood.[4] It was in early 1970s, when she was looking for a footing in Bollywood, that she revealed her origins. Later, at the peak of her career, Rekha told a magazine interviewer that her father's neglect still rankled and that she had ignored his efforts at reconciliation.[4]

Film career 1970s Rekha appeared as a child actress (credited as Baby Bhanurekha) in the Telugu film Rangula Ratnam (1966). Rekha made her debut as heroine in the successful Kannada film Goa dalli CID 999 with Rajkumar in 1969.[4] In that same year, she starred in her first Hindi film, Anjana Safar (later retitled Do Shikari). She later claimed that she was tricked into a kissing scene with the leading actor Biswajit for the overseas market,[5] and the kiss made it to the Asian edition of Life magazine.[6] The film ran into censorship problems, and would not be released until a decade later.[7] She had two films released in 1970: the Telugu film Amma Kosam and the Hindi film Sawan Bhadon, which was considered her acting debut in Bollywood. She had to learn Hindi, as that was not her naturally spoken language.[8] [9] Sawan Bhadon became a hit, and Rekha — a star overnight.[4] Despite the success of her films, she was often scorned for her looks. She subsequently got several offers but nothing of substance. Her roles were mostly just of a glamour girl. She appeared in several commercially successful films at the time, including Kahani Kismat Ki, Raampur Ka Lakshman and Pran Jaaye Par Vachan Na Jaaye, yet she was not regarded for her acting abilities.[4] Rekha recalls, "I was called the ‘Ugly Duckling’ of Hindi films because of my dark complexion and South Indian features. I used to feel deeply hurt when people compared me with the leading heroines of the time and said I was no match for them. I was determined to make it big on sheer merit."[10] Her first performance-oriented role came in 1976 when she played the role of an ambitious and greedy wife in Do Anjaane, co-starring Amitabh Bachchan.[11] The film became a hit as well as a critical success.[4] Her most significant turning point, however, came in 1978, with her portrayal of a rape victim in the movie Ghar. She played the role of Aarti, a newly married woman who gets gravely traumatised after being gang-raped. The film follows her character's struggle and recuperation with the help of her loving husband, played by Vinod Mehra. The film was considered her first notable milestone, and her performance was applauded by both critics and audiences. Dinesh Raheja from Rediff, in an article discussing her career, remarked, "Ghar heralded the arrival of a mature Rekha. Her archetypal jubilance was replaced by her very realistic portrayal..."[6] She received her first nomination for Best Actress at the Filmfare Awards.[4] [12] In that same year, she attained fame with Muqaddar Ka Sikander, in which she co-starred once again with Amitabh Bachchan. The movie was the biggest hit of that year, as well as one of the biggest hits of the decade, and Rekha was set as one of the most successful actresses of these times.[13] The film opened to a positive critical reception, and Rekha's performance as a courtesan named Zohra, noted for a "smouldering intensity", earned her a Best Supporting Actress nomination at the Filmfare.[4] [12]

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Rekha

1980s In 1980, Rekha appeared in Hrishikesh Mukherjee's comedy Khubsoorat, with whom she had developed a strong bond during their previous collaborations. She played Manju Dayal, a young vivacious woman who goes to visit her married sister at her in-law's house right the marriage. Khubsoorat was a success and Rekha was appreciated for her comic timing.[11] It won the Filmfare Award for Best Movie and Rekha won her first Best Actress award. The Tribune described the film as "a lively comedy," noting that "Rekhaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spunky performance gives the film its natural zing."[14] Rekha went on to star opposite Bachchan in a number of films, most of which were hits. She also had an alleged off-screen relationship with him, which was widely reported on in the media, as well as sharply criticised, as he was a married man.[15] This relationship ended in 1981, when they starred in Yash Chopra's drama Silsila.[15] The film was the most scandalous of their films together; Rekha played Bachchan's love interest, while Bachchan's real-life wife, Jaya Bhaduri, played his wife. This was their last film together.[15] The film-column gossip may have contributed to her success. However, even critics had to admit that she had worked hard to perfect her Hindi and her acting, and that she had transformed herself from a "plump" duckling to a "swan" in the early 1970s. Rekha's credits to this transformation were yoga, a nutritious diet, and a regular, disciplined life. In 1983, her diet and yoga practice were published in a book called "Rekha's Mind and Body Temple".[16] In 1981, she starred in Umrao Jaan, a film adaptation of the Urdu novel Umrao Jaan Ada (1905), written by Mirza Hadi Ruswa. Rekha played the title role of a courtesan and poetess from 19th century Lucknow. The film follows Umrao's life story right from her days as a young girl named Amiran when she is kidnapped and sold in a brothel. Rekha once confessed, "After reading the script, I had a strange feeling that I had Umrao in me." In preparation for the role, Rekha, who at the Rekha in Silsila (1981) beginning of her career did not speak Hindi, took the task of learning the finer nuances of the Urdu language.[8] Her portrayal is considered to be one of her career-best performances, and she was awarded the National Film Award for Best Actress for it.[11] [17] She played a courtesan with a heart of gold in several of her films; Muqaddar Ka Sikandar and Umrao Jaan were followed by a number of films which had her playing similar roles. In that same year, Rekha starred in Ramesh Talwar's family drama Baseraa, which saw her playing a woman who marries her sister's husband, after the latter loses her mental balance. She appeared as Sadhna in the commercially successful Ek Hi Bhool (1981), opposite Jeetendra, playing the role of a betrayed wife who leaves her husband. In 1982, she received another Filmfare nomination for Jeevan Dhaara, in which she played a young unmarried woman who is the sole breadwinner of her extended family. In 1983, she took the supporting role of a lawyer in Mujhe Insaaf Chahiye, garnering another Filmfare nomination in the Supporting Actress category. The early 1980s marked the time when Rekha was willing to expand her range. She started working in arthouse pictures with independent directors, mostly under Shashi Kapoor's production, in what was used to be referred to as parallel cinema, an Indian New Wave movement known for its serious content and neo-realism. Her venture into this particular genre started off with Umrao Jaan, and was followed by other such films as Shyam Benegal's award-winning drama, Kalyug (1981), Govind Nihalani's Vijeta (1982), Girish Karnad's Utsav (1984) and Gulzar's Ijaazat (1987), among others. In Vijeta she played a woman who struggles through her marital problems and tries to support her adolescent son, who, undecided about his future plans, eventually decides to join the Indian Air Force.[11] She described her performance in the film as one of her favourite from her own repertoire. For her

340