Issuu on Google+

s i l l k S You can do it yourself

Vol 1 No. 2

N300

PASSIONFORFASHION WINDOWS XP

INSTALLATION TUTORIAL

A LOOK AT INTERIOR DESIGN

9 COMMUNICATION WAYS TO IMPROVE

SKILLS

EASY STEPS TO

BAKING CAKES STARTING A WALLPAPERING BUSINESS -Justice Bonny

2009- 87678


Video tutorial Our tutorial CDs help you learn new computer skills with realistic, interactive, and complete computer training courses using easy to navigate lessons and chapters. These videos provide everything you need, and is perfect for beginning, intermediate, and advanced computer users!

Available training Cds • Dreamweaver training • FrontPage 2003 training • Flash Professional Cs5 training • HTML Fundamentals training • HTML Advanced training • Web Design training • Photoshop training • Windows Vista training * Home/Small Office Networking • MS Access 2007/2003 training

• MS Excel 2007/2003 training • MS PowerPoint 2007/2003 training • MS Publisher 2007/2003 training • Windows XP Professional • Windows XP training • MS Word 2007/2003 training

About the training video • Practice in a realistic simulation of the software • Hundreds of Learning Topics • 4 to 8 Hours of Training per Course • Realistic Simulations • Beginner to Advanced Topics • Self-Paced Learning Objectives • Introductions and Summaries • Interactive Exercises • Professional Voice Narration • End-of-Chapter Quiz Questions • Checkmarks for Completed Topics • Glossary, Index, and Search

EACH COURSE COSTS JUST N3,500 Start your training today in the most convenient way! To order for your copy, call 08137845812


SKILLS

CONTENTS Skills! General

Skills! Fashion

ð How to develop supervisory skills 5

ð Passion for fashion

ð 9 ways to improve your

ð Beauty beyond the face

7 10

ð Skills Event

49

communication skills 6 ð The power of solitude 46 ð Check our these website 15 ð Breast cancer 17 ð Battered women- winning the struggle 20 ð What career is right for me? 26 ð Safety in the carpentry workshop 27

Skills! Training ð Learn to double crochet ð Tassledpurse ð Simple baby beanie ð Windows XP installation tutorial

11 13 14 21

ð Welcome to general software

installation tutorial ð Easy steps to baking cakes

25 40

Skills! Entrepreneur ð What you need to know to run your

own business 29 ð A look at interior design 31 ð Starting a wall papering business 34 ð How to start a career as a photographer 39 ð An introduction to price action breakout trading system 48 3

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


From the publisher

H

ere we come again with another issue of the skills magazine. A number of additional article in improvement of the first both in quality and quantity. We started with interview of talented and successful entrepreneurs. It is our hope that by reading about their challenges, inspirations and efforts, you our dear reader, may be inspired to grow as an entrepreneur. Here is Mr. Justice Bonny, an entrepreneur who is successful in a variety of skills with specialization in wallpapering. We know pictures make a deeper and more lasting impression. For such undeniable fact many of them are included in this issue to help you visualize the skills as an aid to memory and a boost to ambition. In keeping with our aim of providing a skill that everyone can benefit from, there is a wide range of interesting articles in this issue to spice your interest. According to kazeem Adebiyi this issue is parceled to enable you “discover your inner power and keep up for greet success�.

David Edojah

Skills! Magazine Team Publisher David Edojah Editor-in-chief Kieni Ozi Website David Edojah Art Director David Edojah Editorial Support Kieni Ozi Edith Osaye Contributing Writers Kieni Ozi Kazeem Adebiyi Edith Osaye Nene Batebo Henly Egboh Ruth Akorhe Egboh Onyedikajah Advisory Support Imoh Okechukwu Brown

4

Write to us at email us at Info@skillsmagazine.org 08137845812, 080575785440

Picture Credits: supervisor, pg , www.illustrationsof.com banana, pg , Skills! magazine is licensed under www.everyonespictures.com TUSBORN GLOBAL SERVICES LTD woman, pg , by Jorge Meija 15 Uyiehierobo Street, Off Alohern Street, Peralta, Off Dumre 2 Road, Benin City, Edo State. www.commons.wikimedia.org abstract living room, pg , www.freeHemgbe Plaza, East/West Road, decorating-ideas.com By Wazobia FM, Rumuosi, guitar player, pg , by Timo Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Kozlowski, Tel: www.everyonespictures.com +234 813 784 5812, kid with camera, camera, lake, pg , +234 703 290 5257 www.photographyideashq.com cakes, pg , For Advert and feedback www.cakepicturegallery.com please call waiting for a moment, pg , by +234 813 784 5812, ^riza^, www.everyonespictures.com +234 703 290 5257 or email us info@skillsmagazine.org david_insh@yahoo.com

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS!GENERAL

HOW TO DEVELOP

SUPERVISORY SKILLS

S

upervisors, also known as managers or leaders, include individuals who take charge of a team to reach a common goal. The title warrants a certain level of respect from those who are supervised. Inherent skills and ongoing training determine a supervisor's effectiveness to encourage others to follow him.

TYPES There are two main types of supervisors: delegators and dictators. The delegator gets work done through his team by assigning tasks and following up once completed. Delegation requires a higher level of trust in the employees from the supervisor. The dictator manages by intimidation and ensures the completion of tasks by instilling a level of fear.

in their employees' lives.

WARNING Effective supervisors stay in the leadership role at all times. Inexperienced supervisors who fail often find themselves in the pitfall of becoming too close to employees on a personal level. Business relationships should be kept professional and not cross the line into friendship. If you are

2 Attend seminars to build your skills. Several organizations offer such seminars for professionals who wish to develop supervisory skills.

3 Invest in business-related motivational books written by professionals. Most of these books will advise you on basic techniques to develop supervisory skills.

4 Learn from supervisors in your organization. Choose a mentor with a proven track record of effective supervision.

5 Manage staff performance. Ask for written status reports on a weekly or semimonthly basis from your employees. Monitor and understand the duties of staff under your supervision. Follow up on projects and talk to the employee about how to improve his performance.

FUNCTION Supervisors get work done through others. They train employees to achieve goals efficiently and with company standards. Ongoing coaching and mentoring of others play an important role in a supervisor's job. Employees expect and appreciate the right tools and feedback to perform tasks correctly.

6 Hold staff meetings to build team building skills. Hold staff meetings consistently. Use agendas and make sure that minutes are recorded. This allows employees to provide an overview of activities they are working on and helps you to develop team building skills.

FEATURES Supervisors take on a role as subject matter experts in their field. Employees see them as problem solvers. Supervisors display confidence in all situations but also humility when uncertain. They exert compassion for those they intend to lead but also discipline when needed.

BENEFITS Supervisors feel a sense of accomplishment when their team achieves goals. In a position of leadership, members of the team will share personal stories and look to the supervisor not only for guidance but for someone to listen to them. Supervisors who truly care for those they lead always feel as if they make a difference 5

training courses in supervisory skills development to help you learn the fundamental skills and concepts needed to become a better supervisor.

7 considering career advancement, it is important for you to learn how to develop supervisory skills. Get prepared to accept additional responsibilities and relish the opportunity to grow professionally. Basic supervisory skills include good communication, consistency, motivation of employees and time management.

INSTRUCTIONS 1 Enroll at a local center offering

www.skillsmagazine.org

Improve your communication skills. Conduct staff meetings professionally, draft business e-mails well and always try to speak to the employees directly. Create a common form of communication that is effective and everyone is comfortable using.

8 Understand the fine details of a situation instead of working with general conceptualizations. Research the background of each situation and base your decisions on thoroughly researched information.[S] skills! Magazine


9

SKILLS!GENERAL

WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR COMMUNICATION SKILLS

C

ommunication is a vital tool in our everyday living. Its importance cannot be over emphasised. Communication skills are some of the skills you need to succeed in the workplace, in your businesses, relationships, family life and day to day interactions. Communication, therefore, is a process that involves at least two people – a sender and a receiver. And for there to be effective communication, the receiver must understand the message in the way that the sender intended. Apart from basic necessities of life, you need to be equipped with habits for good communication skill. And in order to develop these habits, you need to improve on your communication skills from time to time. You need to take stock of the ways you interact and the way in which your work and personal relationships are going. Our ability to communicate with clients, customers, subordinates, peers and superiors can enhance our effectiveness or sabotage us. Here are some ways to improve your communication skills. Make eye contact. Try to consciously look into your listeners eyes. When you stare off in a direction away from your listener, you end up sending a wrong signal, and you are perceived as incompetent by those with whom you consult or those with whom you do business with.

Listen attentively, with interest and without judgement when others speak. Do not try to dominate conversations. Listening attentively creates customers rapport and helps you to better understand what your customer or the other person wants. Avoid criticism because it can easily smother a conversation. Use gestures. The use of gestures make your whole body talk. For 6

individuals and small groups, use smaller gestures, but as the group increases, the gesture should get larger. But do not overdo them or else your message would not be interesting.

setting, we can make use of open ended questions, which is effective in identifying the actual need of our customers. The modern world today, calls for high scale effective communication skills in Speak clearly and pronounce order to win the heavy competition in all words clearly. When we pronounce spheres of life. It is the key to executing words articulately and avoid slurring our good management skills. But like we said words we dignify our speech and do a earlier, effective communication skill is kindness to our listener. People will judge vital in our family life, relationships and how competent you are through your in building our homes. vocabulary. If you are not sure how to Married couples should keep the lines say a word, don't use it. of communication open. Frank Look for compromise. We should communication can prevent not be dogmatic. Instead of always trying misunderstanding and misinterpretations. to win arguments, look for solutions that Endeavour to reach your mate's heart so meet everybody's need. And this you can that he or she can understand your do through compromise or a new solution feelings. Pattie Mihalik, a journalist in the that gives you both what you want most. United States, observed that, some say For communication to be healthy, find a “Words are cheap, but words can also be solution that both parties can be happy priceless. And while others might find it with. hard to express sentiment, the result can yield much more than money in the Have integrity and build trust. Avoid saying what you do not mean. Do bank.” Some relationships get stuck in not promise what you would not or peaceful co-existence, but without truly cannot fulfil. Follow through with any communicating, relating to each other commitment you make. Be the kind of and working together. While it may seem person that can be counted on as stable on the surface, lack of trustworthy. communication increases distance. For a Avoid sending mixed messages. relationship to be strong, you need not be Your facial expressions, tone of voice, fearful of conflict, rather you need to be gestures, words and message should safe to express things that bother you match. You don't smile when you are without fear of retaliation. reprimanding or disciplining an Honest, direct communication is a key employee. It sends wrong signals and part of any relationship. When couples therefore the discipline becomes feel comfortable expressing their needs, ineffective. fear and denies, trust and bonds are Slow down. Try to slow down when strengthened. Non verbal clues are talking. People perceive you as nervous critical to communication – body and not sure of yourself if you talk fast. language like eye contact, leaning But slowing down does not mean you forward or away, or touching someone's slow down to the extent that people begin arm. to finish your sentence just to help you No matter how old our marriage or finish. relationship is, spend quality time Use the question technique. To together. It is critical for your relationship to make time for yourselves. If you don't understand the other person's present have quality time together, situation better, be it a customer, our communication and understanding starts partner and those we interact with, we to erode.[S] need to ask questions. In a business

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


COVERSTORY

PASSION FOR

FASHION

A

lmost everyone loves to look good. Some people are just crazy about fashion (I mean that in a good way), so they may wonder: Can I succeed as a fashion designer? Fashion design is an exciting and glamorous career. And what is more, unlike other professions like medicine, law or education, you don't need upper level degrees to become successful at it. As a fashion designer you could design for a fashion house, work freelance, or be self-employed – perhaps even setting up your own fashion label. However, before you decide that fashion designing is for you, it is important that you love fashion, that you find joy in using your creative talent to produce beautiful and practical fashion. Also, take the time to understand what daily life will be like as a fashion designer. FASHION design is often seen as a career limited to red carpets, front rows at fashion week, and about big hairdos and make up, clunky shoes and outlandish outfits. This view is not entirely correct. In reality, fashion designers have their work cut out for them since they have to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. Their designs are influenced by the tastes and sensibilities of the customer – which can change at a moment's notice. Designers need to anticipate, or even better influence those opinions. To finish a design taking these factors into consideration requires time. Sometimes as much two years may be needed from the conceptualization of a design to producing the finished work. FASHION design is far more than the crafting of beautiful clothes. Fashion involves footwear design, leather goods, jewelry design, uniform designs, costume design, swim wear, formal wear, and casual wear for men, women and children. The skills you need to become a successful fashion designer are taught at many tailoring studios around the country. You will need to learn sewing, construction and pattern making as well as design history and aesthetic. If you spend time as an apprentice at such studios, you will also learn how to market or merchandise clothes and accessories. Decided that fashion designing is not the career for you but you are still interested in stylish clothing? Or are you a designer (whether a beginner or experienced)? Browse through the following pages. Maybe you'll find a style that brings out in you or your customer your inner fashionista!

7

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


Skills! Fashion

Fashion Designer Emmanuel E. Inyang -Emmany Designers 08066224643

Designed by Emmany Designers

8

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


Skills! Fashion

Plain English Suit Designed by Emmany Designers

Plain English Suit Designed by Emmany Designers

Designed by Emmany Designers

9

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS!FASHION

BEAUTY BEYOND THE FACE BLUSH Blush is something i like very much but i have seen the worst of it on people's faces. I have even seen people drop pink on their cheeks like they fell into paint. Blush can come in cream or powder form and it is usually applied on the apple of the cheeks when the individual is smiling. The blush should never come below the nose or under the eye area. When applying the blusher, use sweeping strokes towards the ear and blend into the hairline. If you applied too much blush, you can use a translucent powder to tone down the blush. One of my favourite blush palettes is coastal scents 28 colour blush. QUESTION; I don't use blushers because i am really scared it won't suit me. I am dark and i don't think blushers suit dark people. Will it suit me? ANSWER; Of course it will suit you; you just have to make sure that you are using the right colour. Since you are dark, i will tell you to avoid brown and peachy shades of blushes. You can rock red blushes, deep orange, coral or rose. Sleek coral blush is cool for you because i remember using it for a dark bride and she totally fell for it. Fair people can rock pink, peach and brown blushes but go soft on the pink so you don't look like a doll. TIPS; · When applying blush, do not apply in circular motion but with sweeping strokes to the ear. When it is done in circular motion, it looks too concentrated and artificial. · For a sexy finish, dab a little 10

shimmery blush to the highest point of the cheek bone (sleek Rose gold is what i use).

BLINK You can't help but love mascaras....it just makes your eyelashes stand out. I love the feel of it when I blink. There are different types of mascaras which its use varies depending on what you are set to achieve. We have lengthening mascaras which lengthen the eyelashes, voluminous mascara which give extra volume to the lashes and on and on. We also have waterproof mascaras which is ideal when you know that you have emotional day, like your wedding because it doesn't run down your face when you cry. This is my perfect seven list of mascara; · Max factors false lash effect mascara · L'oreal xplosion mascara · Bourjois volume clubbing mascara · Dior show mascara · Maybelline great lash · Lancome defincil high definition · Sleek voluminising clear mascara. QUESTION; I have oily skin and someone mentioned that i use an oil mattifier. What is that? ANSWER: It is a cream meant for controlling oil and excess shine on the face. It is applied before foundation and powder. You can look out for ponds oil control, MAC oil control or l'oreal studio mattifying primer. Marykay has one too. TIPS; · It is advisable that you change your mascara every 3 months · Do not pump your mascara, it makes it dry faster.

www.skillsmagazine.org

Your Lips It is amazing how much attention the lips can draw and that is why it is necessary to make it look pretty and well cared for. To care for your lips, make sure it is well moisturized with lip balm or petroleum jelly. Lip balms help lipsticks and glosses glide properly. Lip pencils vary in colour and should match or blend well with the shade of lipstick you are wearing. Lipsticks are for glamour and the best way to apply them is with a lip brush. My favourite lip palette is beauty factory 32 lip gloss palette, the colours are really pretty. After lining the lips, blend into lips so that the line is not obvious. Having an obvious line doesn't make the lips look well done. For pretty pink lips, try this; · Try pink rose sleek lip pencil, then fuscha sleek lipstick and finish with sleek sweet sixteen lip gloss high shine. However, i am against bright pink for dark people. Dark lip colours like blackberry, caramel, purple, currant, brown etc are usually great for dark people. TIPS; · You can exfoliate your lips by running toothbrush over your lips. · Never use black pencil on your lips JUST A LINE LAUGH; it will do you a world of good. Remember that beauty is beyond the face.[S] For questions and enquiries, Contact us at honeyluks@yahoo.com. Check www.facebook/Honey Luks.com Call 08135626674

skills! Magazine


Beauty & Fashion

SKILLS!TRAINING

LEARN TO DOUBLE CROCHET

T

he double crochet [abbreviated dc] is one of the most common basic crochet stitches. It is about twice as long as the single crochet and produces a fabric that is not stiff. So the double crochet is a good stitch to use for shawls, scarves, afghans, bags, and many other home dĂŠcor items. You can also combine the double crochet with other stitches to produce interesting and beautiful patterns.

4. Yarn over the hook and draw the yarn through two of the loops on your hook. You now have two loops on your hook. (See the figure below).

a) Incorrect

ROW 1: To make a double crochet, you need a ball of yarn (preferably a bright coloured yarn so you can see your stitches as you work them) and a 1.6mm crochet hook. The steps below will help you get started: (see the August 2011 issue of this magazine for information on foundation chains and turning chains) 1. Make a foundation chain by doing 15 chain stitches (ch 15). 2. Chain 3 more stitches for the turning chain, so that you have a total of 18 chain stitches. Now to make your first double crochet stitch: 1. Yarn over the hook (yo) (i.e. wrap the yarn over the hook from back to front). 2. Insert the hook between the 2 front loops and under the back bump loop of the fourth chain from the hook. (See the figure below).

5. Yarn over the hook and draw yarn through the remaining two loops on your hook. (See the figure below).

Well done! You have now completed one double crochet stitch. To finish the first row of double crochet stitches, repeat steps 1 to 5 in each chain stitch across the foundation chain. When you finish, count the number of stitches you have. You should have 16 double crochet stitches in row 1 (counting the turning chain as the first double crochet).

ROW 2: 3. Yarn over the hook and draw the yarn through the chain stitch onto the working area of your hook. You now have three loops on your hook. (See the figure below).

11

To make the second row of double crochet stitches, follow these easy steps: 1. Turn your work counterclockwise so that the backside of your work is facing you. 2. Chain 3 (ch 3; for the turning chain). The turning chain counts as the first double crochet. 3. Skipping the first double crochet in row 1, directly beneath your turning chain, insert your hook in the next double crochet. (see the figures below).

www.skillsmagazine.org

b) Correct 4. Repeat steps 3 to 5 from the previous section. 5. Repeat steps 1 to 5 from the previous section in each of the next 14 double crochet (dc) stitches. 6. Work 1 double crochet in the top of the previous row's turning chain. (see the figure below).

Good job. If you count your stitches, you should have 16 double crochet stitches in row 2 (counting the turning chain as the first double crochet). Repeat the steps for row 2 to make additional rows of double crochet stitch. When you finish, fasten off your work and weave the loose ends into the fabric. The photo below shows you how rows of double crochet look as a fabric.[S]

skills! Magazine


AFROTECH STAINLESS STEEL AND WROUGHT IRON DESIGN

Sales and installation of stainless steel and wrought iron for your staircases and balconies

We sell and install all kinds of Stainless steel and wrought iron. Our Product Ranges from : Combi Post Combi Pipe and Post Customized Balustrade Stainless Rail with glass Stainless Rail with sandblasted design Our Materials 304 Mirror Stainless Pipes 304 Stain Stainless Pipes 316 Stain Stainless Pipes Stainless Sheet of different millimeters We have the best of materials and they are corrosion Free and of industry standard.

Office Address: Rumuokoro Port Harcourt, River State. E-MAIL: afrotech7@yahoo.com Mobile No: 08038743386 08090979004


SKILLS!TRAINING

HAVE FUN PRACTISING YOUR DOUBLE CROCET STITCHES AND CREATE A BEAUTIFUL LITTLE PURSE FOR YOUR PHONE, CAMERA OR AS A GIFT FOR SOMEONE SPECIAL.

SKILL LEVEL:Easy FINISHED SIZE: 12cm x 8cm MATERIALS: · One ball each of two different colours of yarn. (pink & purple, and yellow & brown purses are shown here) · 1.6mm crochet hook or size needed to obtain gauge. · One coordinating button · Sewing thread · Sewing needle · Metal rings, triangles or other shape. · Lining material (optional)

13

GAUGE: 5dc st= 1in; 9 dc rows = 4 inches PATTERN NOTES: This purse is worked holding two different coloured strands of yarn together. Chain 3 at the beginning of a row counts as first double crochet PURSE Body Row1: ch 21, dc in 4thch from hook and in every chain across. Turn. (18dc). Row 2:ch 3 (counts as first dc), dc in 2nd st andin every st across. Turn. (18 dc). Row 3 – Row 21: rep row 2. Finishing Sew two sides together. Sew lining to the inside top of purse.

www.skillsmagazine.org

Rnd 22: Mark the centre back of top of purse.Ch 1, sc in each st around to marker, ch 16, sc in rem st around. Join with slst in beg ch-1. Sew button to centre front. Attach metal ring to side of purse. Cut 8 strands of yarn each 8 inches long. Fold strands in half around metal ring. Tie last cut strand around top of folded strands. Trim ends as desired.

' :To

make the purse bigger, maybe even turning it into a bag, add a few more rows. Or change the colour to one you like, perhaps using only a single colour.[S] TRY THIS

skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING

SIMPLE BABY BEANIE

THESE BEAUTIFUL BEANIES, CROCHETED WITH THE BASIC DOUBLE CROCHET ARE SUPER EASY TO MAKE. MAKE SEVERAL IN DIFFERENT COLOURS FOR THAT SPECIAL BABY

SKILL LEVEL: easy FINISHED SIZE: fits infant to 3 months old MATERIALS: · 1 balls of yarn (choose any colour you like) · 1.6mm crochet hook or size needed to obtain gauge GAUGE: 6dc st= 1in; 8 dc rounds = 3 inches

PATTERN NOTES: Chain 3 at the beginning of round counts as first double crochet. BEANIE Rnd 1: make a slip knot. Ch 3, work 9 dc in slip knot. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (10 dc)

Rnd 2: ch 3, dc in same st as ch 3,* 2 dc in next st*, rep from * around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (20 dc) Rnd 3: ch 3, 2dc in next st, *dc in next st, 2 dc in next st*, rep from * around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (30 dc) Rnd 4: ch 3, dc in next st, 2 dc in next st, *dc in each of next 2 sts, 2 dc in next st*, rep from * around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (40 dc) Rnd 5: ch 3, dc in each of next 2 sts, 2dc in next st, * dc in each of next 3 sts, 2 dc in next st*, rep from * around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (50 dc) Rnd 6: ch 3, dc in each of next 3 sts, 2

DAVID SCHOOL PORT HARCOURT

Name:

Sandra Peterson

Dept:

Primary Education Studies

Mat. No: 08/RT/PES/042 Level:

200 Level

Holder’s signature:

2010/2011 SESSION

dc in next st, * dc in each of next 4 sts, 2 dc in next st*, rep from * around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (60 dc) Rnd 7: ch 3, dc in each of next 4 sts, 2 dc in next st. *dc in each of next 5 sts, 2 dc in next st*. rep from * around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (70 dc) Rnd 8 – Rnd 12: ch 3, dc in each st around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (70 dc) Rnd 13 – Rnd 15: ch 3, *FP dc around next st, BP dc around next st*, rep from * around. Join with sl st to beg ch 3. Turn (70 dc). Do not fasten off Ear Flaps: make 2 on opposite sides of the beanie Row 1: ch 3, dc in each of next 13 st. Turn (14 dc) Row 2: ch 3, dc in each st across. Turn (14 dc) Row 3: ch 3, dec 1 dc in next 2 st, dc in each st across to within last 2 st, dec 1 dc in last 2 st. Turn (12 dc) Row 4: rep row 2 (12 dc) Row 5: rep row 3 (10 dc) Row 6: rep row 2 (10 dc) Finishing: work sc st around the edge of beanie. Fasten off. Weave in loose ends.

'

TRY THIS: to make a bigger beanie, work more double crochets into the slip knot, OR, continue increasing rounds until the circumference of the beanie is large enough.[S]

Print Your Bulk Plastic ID Card With Just N250

CALL NOW 08137845812


Check Out These Websites www.freelearningworld.com Description: Visit this site to learn about how to build your own PC, how to network computer systems, software installation tutorial, website design tutorial. it’s free. visit this site today www.studentspaper.com Description: Are you student and you don't know how to go about your seminar writing and presentation, report writing and projects? learn about how to write and present student papers. Visit this site today. www.anmakventures.com Description: We create job opportunities for you. Buy or register for Tahitian Noni Juice, Winalite Love Moon and Alive Max. For Wealth and wellness, Visit this site today. www.wiinalitecedar.com description: You can visit this website to buy or register for winalite Love Moon and start making your cool cash today

Website/blog submission form Increase traffic to your website or blog with just N8,000. Call 08137845812

To add your website/blog to the list above, fill this form and scan. Send to us at website@skillmagazine.org. Name:_____________________________________________________________________________ Town:_________________________________State:________________________________________ Email:_____________________________________________________________________________ Phone number:______________________________________________________________________ website/blog Name___________________________________________________________________ Brief description:____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Date_____________________________ PAYMENT DETAILS: Name of Depositor:__________________________________________________________________ Teller No.___________________________________Date:___________________________________

15

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


OKEMENA VENTURES ……………giving you a new taste of home

> Design and Supply of interlocking stones of all sizes > Manufacture and Supply of Block of all sizes > Fixing of interlocking stones > Supplier of professional tillers

Factory Address: Rumuagholu Road, by Bus Stop Rumuokoro Port Harcourt

For enquiries, Call us today: 08032715035

> Supplier of building materials and labor

We deliver goods to our client in and around Port Harcourt


SKILLS!HEALTH

BREAST CANCER -A WOMAN’S NIGHTMARE C

ancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases. It occurs when, for unknown reasons, cells become abnormal and divide without control or order. All parts of the body are made up of cells that normally divide to produce more cells, but only when the body needs them. With cancer, cells keep dividing, even when new cells are not needed. The change from normal to cancerous cells requires several separate, different gene alterations. Eventually, altered genes and uncontrolled growth may produce a tumor that can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tumors can invade, damage, and destroy nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor won't spread to other parts of the body, but local tissue may be damaged and the growth may need to be removed. Cancer cells can also break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. This is how the condition spreads within the body. When breast cancer spreads outside the breast, cancer cells often are found in the lymph nodes under the arm. They can also spread to other lymph nodes, the bones, liver, or lungs. Although it is not common, some people whose underarm lymph nodes are clear of breast cancer may still have cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body. Cancer that spreads to other parts of the body is the same disease and has the same name as the original cancer. For example, breast cancer that has spread to the bones is called metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer. Breast Cancer Symptoms Not everyone with breast cancer will have early symptoms of the disease. That is why breast cancer screening is so important. Screening before symptoms of breast cancer develop can help doctors find and treat cancer early. Also, breast cancer treatment is more likely to work well when cancer is found early. Common Symptoms of Breast Cancer Common signs and symptoms of breast cancer include: ? A change in how the breast or nipple feels · A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area 17

· Nipple tenderness · A change in how the breast or nipple looks. · A change in the size or shape of the breast · A nipple turned inward into the breast · Nipple discharge (fluid). Symptoms of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare type of breast cancer. In inflammatory breast cancer, the lymph vessels around the breast become blocked. Symptoms of this type of breast cancer include a red, swollen, and warm breast. The skin of the breast may also appear pink,

www.skillsmagazine.org

purple, or bruised, and it may have ridges or appear pitted, like the skin of an orange (called peau d'orange). These symptoms often occur quickly over a period of weeks. Another possible symptom is swollen lymph nodes under the arm, above the collarbone, or in both places. Often, a tumor cannot be felt, and may not be seen on a mammogram. Other Considerations Regarding Symptoms of Breast Cancer Early breast cancer usually does not cause pain. Still, a woman should see her healthcare provider about breast pain or any possible breast cancer symptoms as early as possible so that problems can>>> skills! Magazine


SKILLS!HEALTH father's family) may also increase a woman's risk. Certain Breast Changes Some women have cells in the breast that look abnormal under a microscope. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Having certain types of abnormal cells Breast cancer research has shown that (for example, atypical hyperplasia and women with certain risk factors are more lobular carcinoma in situ -- LCIS) can likely than others to develop the disease. increase the risk of breast cancer. A risk factor is something that may Gene Changes increase the chance of developing a Changes in certain genes can increase condition. Anything that decreases a the risk of breast cancer. These genes person's chance of developing a disease include BRCA1, BRCA2, and others. is called a protective factor. Breast Tests can sometimes show the presence cancer prevention involves avoiding the of specific gene changes in families with risk factors and increasing the protective factors that can be controlled so that the chances of developing cancer decrease. be diagnosed and treated. Most often, these possible symptoms are not actually due to cancer, but to other, less serious health problems.

Specific Risk Factors Studies have identified the following breast cancer risk factors: · Age (most cases occur in women over 60) · Personal history of breast cancer · Family history of breast cancer · Certain breast changes · Gene changes · Reproductive and menstrual history · Radiation to the chest · Breast density · Taking DES (diethylstilbestrol -- a synthetic estrogen) · Being overweight or obese · Lack of physical activity · Excessive consumption of alcohol. More Information on Breast Cancer Risk Factors The following sections provide additional information on specific risk factors for breast cancer. Age The chance of getting breast cancer increases as a woman gets older. Most cases occur in women over age 60. This disease is not common before menopause. Personal History of Breast Cancer A woman who had the disease in one breast has an increased risk of getting cancer in her other breast. Family History of the Disease A woman's risk of breast cancer is higher if her mother, sister, or daughter had the disease. The risk is higher if her family member got breast cancer before age 40. Having other relatives with the condition (in either her mother's or 18

many women who have had breast cancer. Healthcare providers may suggest ways to try to reduce the risk, or to improve the detection of this disease in women who have these changes in their genes. Reproductive and Menstrual History When it comes to breast cancer and a woman's reproductive and menstrual history: · The older a woman is when she has her first child, the greater her chance of breast cancer · Women who had their first menstrual period before age 12 are at an increased risk for breast cancer · Women who went through menopause after age 55 can have an increased risk · Women who never had children are at an increased risk of breast cancer · Women who take menopausal hormone therapy with estrogen plus progestin after menopause also appear to have an increased risk · Large, well-designed studies have shown no link between abortion or miscarriage and breast cancer.

Women who have had radiation therapy to the chest (including breasts) before age 30 are at an increased risk of breast cancer. This includes women treated with radiation for Hodgkin lymphoma. Studies show that the younger a woman was when she received radiation treatment, the higher her chances of getting the disease later in life. Breast Density Breast tissue may be dense or fatty. Older women whose mammograms (breast x-rays) show more dense tissue can be at an increased risk of cancer. Being Overweight or Obese After Menopause The chance of getting breast cancer after menopause is higher in women who are overweight or obese. Lack of Physical Activity Women who are physically inactive throughout life may have an increased chance of breast cancer. Being active may help reduce the risk by preventing weight gain and obesity. Drinking Alcohol Studies suggest that the more alcohol a woman drinks, the greater her risk of breast cancer. Other Considerations Regarding Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Other possible breast cancer risk factors are under study. Researchers are studying the effect of diet, physical activity, and genetics on risk. They are also studying whether certain substances in the environment can increase a woman's chances of developing breast cancer. Many risk factors can be avoided. Others, such as family history, cannot. Women can help protect themselves by staying away from known risk factors whenever possible. But it's also important to keep in mind that most women who have known risk factors for breast cancer do not get the disease. Also, many women with the condition do not have a family history of it. In fact, except for growing older, most women with breast cancer have no clear risk factors. If you think you may be at risk, you should discuss this concern with your doctor. Your doctor may be able to suggest ways for you to reduce it, including breast cancer screening, and can plan a schedule for checkups.[S]

Radiation Therapy to the Chest

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


Skills! Magazine Advert Rates Here is an amazing opportunity for you to advertise your services, products, programs, events, etc. Take advantage of this great opportunity to move your company to the next level. Call 07032905257, 08137845812

Quarter Page N20,000

Full page N80,000

Classified boxes N10,000

Half Page N40,000

Two pages N150,000

SUBSCRIBE TO SKILLS! MAGAZINE (6 Editions) (12 Editions)

-

N2,500 save N500 N5,000 save N1000

Name:_______________________________________________________________________________________ Address:_____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ My Tel:_____________________________________Email:________________________Fax__________________ Payment: I enclose N_____________ in [ ] cash or [ ] cheque (cheques to be made payable to David Edojah). Start sending magazines from month_______________________________________________________________ Send this completed coupon with your payment to: Skills! Magazine, Hemgbe Plaza, East/West Road, By Wazobia FM, Rumuosi, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Tel: +234 813 784 5812, +234 703 290 5257

19

www.skillsmagazine.org

Skills! Magazine


RELATIONSHIP

BATTERED WOMEN -winning the struggle If you are experiencing battering in your relationship, take control! Try these tips to improve the situation

T

he relationship between a man and a woman is always interesting as long as both of them understand their roles in the union. Worldwide, many a man shows his prowess by how he handles his woman. To let her know who is in charge in the relationship he either batters or bullies her physically or verbally. In some part of the world, a man could go to prison for battering his wife or fiancée and in some other part of the world, battering a woman is a normal practice in a relationship. In this part of the world, it is not frowned at publicly. So, many women are battered by their lovely husbands, boyfriends, and fiancés and when they seek for help from other family members or friends all they hear is “endure”. “Don't worry, in time he will stop.” Or “maybe, you are the cause”. Here are two examples Nora and Martha. Nora is a lovely, beautiful woman. Her fiancé Mickel is the nicest man in her world. They have been courting for five years. She is a very sensitive woman who loves to be pampered and cherished. When the issue of wedding comes up, she wants Mickel to listen to her. She sometimes yells at him with the intention of infuriate him and possibly pushing him to fix a date for their wedding. Mickel hates to be pushed by anybody, let alone a woman. Her nagging has become too unbearable for Mickel. At a particular point, he cannot take it any longer. So to hush her he slapped her for a start. For the past six months it has progressed to real battering. Nora is frustrated and confused. Her friends encouraged her to leave Mickel. But leaving him means starting all over again. Staying with him is not a good choice either. What will she do? Martha is a responsible married woman with two kids – a boy and a girl. She is beautiful and has a soothing voice. She is a good receptionist and 20

everybody loves her because of her welcoming character. Her husband nick is calm, quit but very jealous. Her position at work puts her in a very tempting situation. Her welcoming character attracts the opposite sex in and outside her office. So when Nick asks her to quit her job, she just can't imagine quitting her beautiful job. Whenever there is an argument about her job, she receives slaps and outright blows from Nick. Martha loves her husband and her job. But at this instant she is torn apart. What will she do? Nora and Martha are just two examples of millions of women battered in their various relationships. The question now is: what attitude should a woman exhibit to prevent a man from slapping, shoving, hitting or outrightly striking her with violent blows? 1. Be calm: When an argument erupts in a discussion, remain calm and quit. Listen to him and don't interrupt. It does not mean you are a fool but it is just that you want him to win the arrangement which will increase his self-pride. 2. Be patient: Don't be in a hurry to explain yourself in the heat of an argument. All the man can think about at that point in time is that he is talking and you are talking back at him. There is plenty of time to explain yourself. Just let him have the moment. 3. Be assuring: Assure your man of your love and understanding. Tell him verbally that you understand his point of view. 4. Do not bring up the matter again at the moment. Distract him with something positive. 5. Be quick to apologize when you are wrong. 6. Be sweet and nice to him but do not cry 7. Give him something to eat, a snack or food, maybe a juice to drink. 8. Leave him alone to calm down and get busy with something meaningful. No sane man will strike a woman if she exhibits these qualities, during or after an

www.skillsmagazine.org

argument. If he is drunk do not tell him to his face. Be nice and lead him to the room to relax. If he is insane run away for your life but don't discuss the matter with anybody. When he has calmed down probably after a day or two bring up the matter in a polite manner over a glass of juice or wine. If you are experiencing battering in your relationship or your man is showing signs or hurting you physically, always remember that you can control the situation and eventually motivate your man to do whatever you want to do so as to maintain a good relationship. Tips on Good relationship by Mimi Please send your questions and comments to mimibaby2008@yahoo.co.uk 08188129627 skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING

WINDOWS XP INSTALLATION TUTORIAL T

o install Windows XP in your system, first you purchase your Windows XP cd. You can get this in one of this software market around you. We are going to demonstrate how to install Windows XP Professional. Windows XP home edition is very similar to the professional edition. Since Windows XP Pro is more advanced operating system, it will be used to demonstrate the installation procedure. The best way to install Windows XP is to do a clean installation. It is not difficult to perform a clean installation. Before you perform the installation I recommend that you check Windows XP Compatibility List to ensure that your hardware is supported by Windows XP operating system. If your hardware is not on the compatibility list you can check your hardware manufactures website to download the drivers for Windows XP. All versions of Windows XP CD are bootable. In order to boot from CD/DVD-ROM you need to set the boot sequence. Look for the boot sequence under your BIOS setup and make sure that the first boot device is set to CD/DVD-ROM, then make the second boot device set to IDE 1 (The harddisk). You can then perform the following steps to install Windows XP:

using a SCSI or SATA Hard drive then you must press F6 otherwise Windows will not detect your Hard Drive during the installation. Please make sure you have the Raid drivers on a floppy disk. Normally the drivers are supplied on a CD which you can copy to a floppy disk ready to be installed. If you are not sure how to do this then please read your motherboard

manuals for more information. NOTE- You can skip step 2 to step 5 and move on to step 6

Step 1 - Start your PC and place your Windows XP CD in your CD/DVD-ROM drive. Your PC should automatically detect the CD and you will get a message saying "Press any key to boot from CD". Look carefully so as not to allow the above display pass without pressing any key.

Step 3 - Press S to Specify that you want to install additional device.

Soon as computer starts booting from the CD you will get the following screen: Step 2 - At this stage it will ask you to press F6 if you want to install a third party Raid or SCSI driver. If you are using an IDE Hard Drive then you do not need to press F6. If you are 21

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING <Step 5 - You will see a list of Raid drivers for your HDD. Select the correct driver for your device and press enter.

windows application and using the other partition to store your personal files. So in the future if anything goes wrong with our Windows application such as virus, we can re-install Windows on C: drive and our data on E: drive will not be touched. Please note you can choose whatever size partition you like. For example if you have 300GB hard drive you can have two partition of 150GB each.

Step 6 - You will then get a Windows XP Professional Setup screen. You have the option to do a new Windows install, Repair previous install or quit. Since we are doing a new install we just press Enter to continue. Press C to create a partition. Step 8 - Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much you want to allocate for the partition you are about to create. I will choose 80000MB. You will then get the screen below. Notice it shows C: Partition followed by the size 80000 MB. This indicates a partition has been created. We still have an unpartitioned space of 40189MB. Next highlight the unpartitioned space by pressing down the arrow key. Then press C to create another partition. You will see the total space available for the new partition.

HOW TO CREATE PARTITION Step 7 - You will be presented with the End User Licensing Agreement. Press F8 to accept and continue

Step 8 - This step is very important. Here we will create the partition where Windows will be installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive you will get a screen similar to the one below. In our case the drive size is 124903MB. We can choose to install Windows in this drive without creating a partition, thus using the entire size of the drive. If you wish to do this you can just press enter and Windows will automatically partition and format the drive as one large drive. However for this demonstration I will create two partition. The first partition will be 80000MB (C: drive) and second partition would be 40000MB (E: drive). By creating two partition we can either have two windows operating system running in one computer or have one partition running 22

www.skillsmagazine.org

Just choose all the space left over, in our case 40180MB. Step 9 - Now you will see both partition listed. Partition 1 (C: Drive) 80000MB and Partition 2 (E: Drive) 40180MB. You will also have 8MB of unpartitioned space. Don't worry about that. Just leave it that way. Windows normally has some unpartitioned space. You might wonder what happened to D: drive. Windows has automatically allocated D: drive to CD/DVD-ROM.

skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING <Step 10 - Choose format the partition using NTFS file system.This is the recommended file system. If the hard drive has been formatted before then you can choose quick NTFS format. We chose NTFS because it offers many security features, supports larger drive size, and bigger size files. Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files as shown on the two images below : Step 13 - Type in your name and organization.

Step 14. Enter your product key. (The key is attached to eighter the cd or the case of the cd)

INSTALLING WINDOWS XP

Step 15 - Name the computer, and enter an Administrator password. Don't forget to write down your Administrator password. You can however choose not to enter any administrator's password.

Step 16 - Enter the correct date, time and choose your time zone. Step 11 - After setup is completed copying the files, the computer will restart. Leave the XP CD in the drive but this time DO NOT press any key when the message "Press any key to boot from CD" is displayed. In few seconds setup will continue. Windows XP Setup wizard will guide you through the setup process of gathering information about your computer.

Step 17 - For the network setting choose typical and press next.>>

Step 12 - Choose your region and language. 23

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING <Step 18 - Choose workgroup or domain name. If you are not a member of a domain then leave the default settings and press next. Windows will restart again and adjust the display.

Step 23 - Add users that will sign on to this computer and click next.

FINALIZING THE INSTALLATION

Step 19 - Finally Windows will start and present you with a Welcome screen. Click next to continue.

Step 24 - You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. Click finish

.

Step 25. Log in, to your PC for the first time. Step 20 - Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and press next.

Step 21 - Will this computer connect to the internet directly, or through a network? If you are connected to a router or LAN then choose: 'Yes, this computer will connect through a local area network or home network'. If you have dial up modem choose: 'No, this computer will connect directly to the internet'. Then click Next. Step 22 - Ready to activate Windows? Choose yes if you wish to active Windows over the internet now. Choose no if you want to activate Windows at a later stage.

24

www.skillsmagazine.org

Step 26 - You now need to check the device manager to confirm that all the drivers has been loaded or if there are any conflicts. From the start menu select Start -> Settings -> Control Panel. Click on the System icon and then from the System Properties window select the Hardware tab, then click on Device Manager. If there are any yellow exclamation mark "!" next to any of the listed device, it means that no drivers or incorrect drivers has been loaded for that device. In our case we have a Video Controller (VGA card) which has no drivers installed. Your Motherboard should come with a cd (driver cd) supplied by the manufacturer. You need to install these drivers using the automatic setup program provided by the manufacturer or you need to manually install these drivers. If you do not have the drivers, check the manufacturers website to download them. To install a driver manually use the following procedure: (a) From the device manager double click on the device containing the exclamation mark. (b) This would open a device properties window. (c) Click on the Driver tab. (d) Click Update Driver button. The Wizard for updating device driver pops up as shown below:>> skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING

Do you need a professional iron-bender? <You now get two options. The first option provides an We shall continue with automatic search for the required driver. The second option Windows Vista and Window7 allows you to specify the location of the driver. If you don't installation tutorial in our next know the location of the driver choose the automatic search edition. which would find the required driver from the manufacturer supplied CD or Floppy disk. Windows will install the Training required driver and may ask you to restart the system for by the changes to take effect. Use this procedure to install David Edojah drivers for all the devices that contain an exclamation mark. 08137845812 Windows is completely setup, there are no more exclamation marks in the device manager again.

WELCOME TO GENERAL SOFTWARE INSTALLATION TUTORIAL Installing a software greatly depend on the operating system running on the computer and the program being installed. Due to the different possibilities that exist in installing a software, we have therefore created below steps as guidelines for installing software programs.

The manuals for the program or the readme file located in the same directory as the install commonly contain exact instructions on how to install a program. 1.

PLEASE NOTE: This training is designed as a basic overview on how to install software programs, games, and utilities on your computer. If errors are encountered during the installation, this document will not cover those errors. General Tips on software installation

2.

The first tip is, 'FOLLOW ON SCREEN INSTRUCTIONâ&#x20AC;?. Carefully read any message that appear on your screen before click on a button. Make sure your computer meets the requirements of the program, game, or utility you are attempting to install.

25

08034760090

Career opportunity

Congratulation [S]

1.

Call me today on

After installation or during the installation, a program may need to install other programs, files, or utilities before it is able to run. If this is the case, the program will commonly prompt you to install the program or you may need to run a separate install before the program can be fully used.

2.

Carefully specify the drive, folder to install the program

3.

It is always a good idea first to close or disable any other programs that are running while installing a program.

4.

After installing a new program if it prompts you to reboot the computer, do it.

www.skillsmagazine.org

Skills! Magazine requires the services of the following > Marketing agent > Magazine Distribution agent in the following towns Aba, Asaba, Lagos, Warri, Bayelsa, Uyo, Eket,Port Harcourt, Benin, Calabar. Interested applicants should visit www.skillsmagazine.org and fill the form online For enquiries, call 07032905257

skills! Magazine


WHAT CAREER IS RIGHT FOR ME?

W

hen you ask the question "what career is right for me?" there are a number of things to take into

account: Personality: Is there a good match between your personality and chosen career? This can have a significant impact on whether you find your work fulfilling. There are two main aspects to take into account: whether the career matches your personality (that is, how much you work within your preferences) and to what extent you will need, at times, to stretch outside your preferred style. Motivation:This is one of the most important factors for long term career satisfaction. Find a job that motivates you and you've found the right career. Motivation covers a wider range of topics, such as: · Your interests · What gives you a "sense of

achievement" · Unconscious motivation factors Skills:Having the right skill set is the key that opens the door to many careers. The skills you acquire are the result of: Your innate ability or aptitudes, · developed by: · The training you receive Values: This might include: · The lifestyle you want · Your beliefs, religion or ethical guidelines you follow · The type of organisation or people you want to work for · The product or service you want to contribute towards Constraints: These might include: · Financial commitments or limitations · The geographical location where you can work · Family responsibilities · Physical disability or restriction · Your qualifications/education Ambitions: What are your long term

aims? This might include questions such as: · If and when you want to start a family and "settle down" · Whether you want a single job for the rest of your life or have the option to change career · Do you eventually want to set up your own business or climb the ladder inside a large organisation · When do you want to retire? Opportunities: Deciding what you want to do is of no use unless there are opportunities for you to pursue. You can find opportunities through actions such as: · Responding to advertisements for jobs or vocational training/sponsorship · Unsolicited approaches to organisations to see if there are any vacancies · Networking through people you know to get referrals · Creating your own business [S]

Write to our expert or e-mail us at Skills! Magazine career centre, Hemgbe Plaze, East/West Road, by Wazobia FM, Rumuosi, Port Harcourt, Rivers State or email us at career@skillsmagazine.org. Please Note that not all letters can be answered on this page and our expert cannot personally reply to letters.

26

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! SAFETY

SAFETY IN THE

CARPENTRY WORKSHOP

s

afety comes first in any carpentry job or project that you may come across. Without proper safety precautions carpenters get hurt, sometimes to the point where their carpentry career comes to an end due to their injury. I've seen this happen many times on different jobs. In my opinion, each time there were two people at fault - the employer and the employee - both guilty of negligence, not paying attention to the unsafe condition that resulted in an accident. According to some, most work related injury is related to rush. People rush to get the job done. I have experienced a couple injuries myself in the past. One was pulled back muscle. I could not move for a week because I was in so much pain. While I was laughing and joking with the foreman he asked me to pick up a small steel plate. The piece weighed 65 pounds. I thought it weighed only ten. That's when I pulled my muscle. I pulled another muscle laughing while picking up a sheet of gypsum board. Normally the weight of gypsum board 27

has no effect on me. I can pick it up all day. But the worst was when I dislocated my shoulder. I was out of work for months and my shoulder 3 years later still has pain every now and then. In carpentry safety it's the carpenter's duty to wear safety glasses and a hard hat if required at all times. It's a fact that the majority of work that carpenters do require safety glasses. One man told me he was screwing a metal stud and a piece of metal shaving went into his eye I asked him if he was wearing safety glasses and he told me no. The carpentry job has had an effect on my eyes to the point where I have to wear my safety glasses. Anytime I'm working or just on the job managing it I realize that things happen and it can get crazy. I have installed ceiling tiles, and out of nowhere a nice size piece of tile falls in my eye and it gets stuck there for one long hour. It really sucked. Carpenters may be swinging their hammer putting nails into wood. All it

www.skillsmagazine.org

takes is the wrong swing with the hammer and the nail is flying into some unknown direction. Without the proper protection someone can get hurt because they are not practicing carpentry safety. There are tons of rules, tips and techniques to follow All in all think before you lift; ask someone to help you if it is too heavy, be careful using the utility knife it can slice your finger. And be aware of your surroundings. Woodworking can be a safe and enjoyable hobby or vocation, IF you follow some very basic woodworking safety rules. All of the rules are common-sense ideas, but failure to follow these rules will greatly increase the chance of injury when working with your tools. The wood shop is not the place to be in a hurry or have an "it won't happen to me" attitude. Commit these ten rules to habit, and your woodworking experiences will be safer and much more enjoyable.

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! SAFETY 1. Always Wear Safety Equipment The first and most important rule of woodworking is to wear appropriate safety equipment. While hearing protection is necessary for some very noisy tools such as routers and surface planers, and latex gloves may be necessary when applying finishes, there is no time in the wood shop that you should be without your safety glasses. Put them on when you enter the shop, and don't take them off until you leave. Your eyesight is too important to take chances. 2. Wear Appropriate Clothing Whenever working in the wood shop, remember to avoid loose-fitting clothing, as you wouldn't want any of your attire to become entangled in a saw blade or cutting head. Wear clothes that are comfortable for the environment in which you're working, but also will protect your body from any wayward wood chips that might result from cutting. Before beginning, remember to remove any dangling jewelry such as neck chains or bracelets. 3. Avoid Drugs and Alcohol Intoxicating substances and woodworking are a dangerous mix. Stay out of the wood shop if you are even remotely under the influence of any intoxicants. While it may seem harmless for the weekend woodworker to crack open a beer (or six) while working on a project, avoid the temptation until you're finished with the woodworking. You're going to be much less likely to encounter a problem if you're clean and sober when working with your power tools. 4. Disconnect Power Before Blade Changes Whenever you need to change a blade

or bit on a power tool, always disconnect the electricity to the power tool before even beginning the blade change. (Don't just check to see that the switch is off, as a switch could get bumped or malfunction.) Many a woodworker has lost fingers (or worse) by forgetting this simple but very important rule. I've seen woodworkers even go as far as to affix the wrenches to the power cables so there is NO chance they'll forget to disconnect the power. 5. Try Using One Extension Cord Here's a tip I've used regularly in the past. For all 110-volt power tools in the shop, I use one heavy-duty extension cord. Not one per tool, but one TOTAL. This way, I'm forced to switch the cord from tool to tool before the tool can be used. In this manner, you are always remembering to plug and unplug the power when moving from one tool to another, and you'll be more cognizant of the need to disconnect the power when making bit or blade changes. 6. Use Sharp Blades & Bits This one seems like a no-brainer, but a dull cutting tool is a dangerous tool. If a saw blade is not as sharp as it ideally should be, the tool and the woodworker will have to work harder to complete the desired task. In such cases, the tool will be more likely to kick-back or bend. Besides, a sharper cutting tool will produce a cleaner cut, so there are more than just safety advantages here. Keep the blade sharp and clean of pitch, and you'll be safer and have better results. 7. Always Check for Nails, Screws and Other Metal Another no-brainer tip which doesn't bear mentioning, so that's why I'm going to mention it: Always check the stock you're preparing to cut for any metal (nails, screws, staples, etc.) before

beginning a cut. Nails and rapidly spinning saw blades are not a good mix. Not only can this damage the cutting head and the stock, but at the very minimum, can cause the stock to kick back, which is a common cause of injury. Inspect the stock (or better yet, use a metal detector) before cutting. 8. Always Work Against the Cutter Woodworking Power Tools are designed so that the direction that the wood moves through the tool (or the direction that the tool moves across the wood) is in the opposite direction of the movement of the cutting head. In other words, a router bit or saw blade should cut against the motion and not with it. The cutter should cut into the stock, not with the stock. 9. Never Reach Over a Blade to Remove Cut-Offs When working on a Table Saw, Miter Saw, etc., never put your hands anywhere near the moving blade, especially when attempting to remove waste or cut-offs. Wait until the blade has stopped moving and THEN reach for the cut-off. Better yet, once the saw blade has stopped, use a piece of scrap or a push stick to move the waste away from the blade. Remember that switches can be inadvertently bumped or malfunction, so just because the blade has stopped, don't relax and put your hands too close. 10. Avoid Distractions Distractions are a part of everyday life, and working in the wood shop is no different. When you are summoned or distracted while in the middle of performing an action with a power tool, remember to always finish the cut to a safe conclusion before dealing with the distraction. Taking your attention away from the woodworking tool is a recipe for disaster.[S]

Crossword Answer

www.skillsmagazine.org

ACROSS

28

DOWN

08137845812,07032905257

1. Accommodation 2. Healthy kidney 3. Slow down 9. Flash drive

CALL

1. Avoidances 4. Compete 5. Cancer 6. Make eye contact 7. Oxy-propane 8. Arc welding 10. Healthy bones 11. Compromise 12. Collaborate 13. Windows

FOR ADVERT BOOKING

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO

RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS

H

ave you ever thought that running your own business might be for you? Entrepreneurship has brought great success for some, but it's not a career path for all. Being in control is great, however the idea of owning and operating your own business is often more glamorous than the day-to-day realities. So, do you think you can handle the stress, hard work and emotional ups and downs that it has brought to others? A great idea alone is not sufficient for business success: The key to success is your entrepreneurial ability to produce results. So, before embarking on your first business, it's worth spending some time evaluating your own preparedness for entrepreneurship, as well as preparing a great business plan and then carefully evaluating whether the proposed business is likely to be viable. Entrepreneurial Capabilities Some of the most common questions on the subject of entrepreneurship are, "What characteristics determine who will be a successful business owner?" and "Why does one person take successful advantage of an opportunity while another person, who's equally knowledgeable, does not?" Do entrepreneurs have a different genetic makeup? Or do they operate from a different vantage point that somehow directs their decisions for them? While many studies have been done on the subject, there are no real definitive answers. What we do know is that successful business owners seem to have certain traits in common. These traits fall into four categories: · Personal Skills. · Interpersonal Skills. · Critical and Creative Thinking Skills.

29

· Practical Skills. We'll look at each category separately. Personal Skills The first things to look at are your personal characteristics, values, and beliefs. Do you have the inner spirit characteristic of successful entrepreneurs? · Vision – Can you see opportunities for improvement in things, and can you quickly see the big picture? · Drive and persistence – Are you highly self-motivated and energetic? And are you prepared to work very, very hard for a very long time? · Initiative – Do you instinctively start projects, and can you quickly see where improvements need to be made? · Commitment – Do you see projects through to completion? · Control – Do you enjoy being in charge and making decisions? · Risk tolerance – Are you able to make decisions when facts are uncertain? · Resilience – Can you recover from failure? · Self determination – Do you prefer situations where personal initiative determines success? While we are born with a certain temperament or personality, the traits listed here can certainly be fine-tuned. However, trying to change your personality completely is much more difficult – some might say impossible. When assessing your entrepreneurial personality, be aware of areas where you are completely at odds with the "average entrepreneur," as you'll need to be able to compensate for possible weaknesses in these areas. Perhaps the most important personal characteristic for an entrepreneur is the ability to accept your own mistakes. Many entrepreneurs only start succeeding on their second, third, or fourth businesses. You have to be able to withstand the disappointments and not let

www.skillsmagazine.org

them break you. Also, you can't get too stressed about individual project failures: Not everything does work out the way you expect. The key is to make sure that you've got a good supply of projects in the pipeline – some of them will work out, sometimes spectacularly. Interpersonal Skills Running your own business is all about working with people. You have to communicate with and satisfy employees, customers, suppliers, shareholders, investors and more. Your ability to communicate with them is critical to entrepreneurial success. The types of interpersonal skills you need to be good at are: · Communication skills – Are you competent with written communication? · Listening – Are you able to really hear what others are telling you? · Teamwork – Do you work well with others on projects, and are you able to delegate and empower others to get things done? · Leadership and motivation – Are you able to encourage and inspire others to follow you and your vision? · Conflict resolution – Are you able to work through your own conflicts with others and help others resolve conflicts among themselves? · Personal relations – Do you possess basic positive human traits like empathy, sociability, cooperation, consideration and tactfulness? · Negotiation – Are you able to collaborate with others to reach a win-win solution to differences in position? · Ethics – Do you have high standards and a record of dealing with people based on respect, integrity, fairness and the truth? Interpersonal skills are developed over time and some people are more gifted in this area than others.>>

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR <Fortunately, these skills can be learned and developed, and you have to be committed to changing your behaviors and reactions. The more you work with people, the better you become at deciphering the complexity of human relationships. The first skill you need is self-awareness, followed by effective goal setting and evaluation.

general knowledge in the main functional areas of a business (marketing, finance, operations)? · Entrepreneurial knowledge – Do you understand how entrepreneurs raise capital? · Opportunity-specific knowledge – Do you understand the market you are attempting to enter and what needs to be done to bring your Critical and Creative Thinking Skills product or service to market? Entrepreneurs need a well-developed · Venture-specific knowledge – Do set of critical thinking skills to organize you know what needs to be done to and administer a successful venture. As make your business successful? an entrepreneur, you must be able to find And do you understand the the necessary information to support specifics of the business you want wise decisions about a venture. to start? · Creative thinking – Are you able to Unlike personality traits, interpersonal see situations from a variety of skills and creative thinking, which perspectives and present original depend to some degree on inherent ideas? capabilities and aptitudes, you can · Problem solving – Are you able to develop your practical skills to whatever develop good solutions to the level your commitment takes you. problems you are facing? To gather the knowledge you need to operate a business, you can either learn · Opportunity identification – Do from the school of hard knocks, or you you recognize trends and are you can learn from others who have started able to generate plans for making companies similar to the one you are your ideas practical and doable? contemplating. Learning by starting your Creativity and innovation require discipline and are based on a discrete set own company is riskier but quicker, while working in someone else's venture of skills. This means that you can learn defers the time when you can start up on to improve your creative thinking skills your own, but can equip you with the and break out of traditional thinking knowledge and skills you need to make a patterns. Read our Introduction to Creativity Skills for specific methods to success of your own business. improve your creativity. Tip: Getting experience at someone else's expense is a great idea. If you want Practical Skills to run a restaurant, consider working as a The final components of waiter, maitre d' or restaurant manager, to entrepreneurial skills are the practical learn what works and what doesn't in that skills and knowledge you need to business. produce goods or services effectively, However, if you do choose to learn and run a company. more about your venture by working for · Goal setting – Do you regularly set another start-up, be aware of noncompete clauses in your employment goals, develop a plan to achieve contract. In some jurisdictions, these can them and then carry out that plan? · Planning and organizing – Do you be very restrictive, and you don't want to risk your future business by violating the understand the talents, skills and rights of another entrepreneur. abilities necessary to achieve your No one is born a great planner or goal goals? And can you co-ordinate setter. And nobody has innate knowledge people to achieve them efficiently of a business. You learn these things and effectively. through study and application. To learn · Decision making – Are you more, read our articles on Goal Setting, confident in the decisions you on Action Plans and on Decision Making. make and do you act on them effectively? Do you make Is Entrepreneurship for You? decisions based on relevant Armed with the general information information and by weighing the above about what makes a successful potential consequences? entrepreneur, it is your job to evaluate · Knowledge – Do you know enough yourself against these basic about business to be successful? characteristics. The harder you are · Business knowledge – Do you have willing to work to fill in the gaps, the 30

www.skillsmagazine.org

more successful you will likely be. Having said that, there are many successful entrepreneurs who are impulsive, vulnerable to risk, and belligerent with employees and customers; others have no business knowledge and have simply hired the talent they needed. The desire to be an entrepreneur probably trumps all the characteristics mentioned. Alone, though, this desire is not sufficient. This is where your analysis comes in. · Talk to as many successful entrepreneurs in your community or industry as possible, and find out to what they attribute to their success, and how they see the world. · Using the list above and any new attributes you gather, identify your own talents, skills and qualities. · Reflect on each and identify areas of weakness. · Develop goals to improve your skills and capitalize on the strengths you currently have. · Look at your skill areas and ask yourself: · How can these work together? · What is realistic for me? · What is my lifestyle preference? As you work through your analysis, a decision will probably come to you. You may feel you are ready to take the plunge into your own venture. You might decide to wait and develop your skills further. You may even decide that entrepreneurship is not for you. Whatever your choice, it has to be the right one for you. Owning one's own business is not for everyone. Go through the analysis now instead of risking a lot of capital and time, only to find out later that this career option doesn't fit with your desires and innate talents. Key Points: While there is no one "right" set of characteristics for being a successful entrepreneur, there are general traits and practical skills that are indicative of the potential for success. By examining your own personal strengths and weaknesses and comparing these against those of a "generalized" entrepreneur, you can get a sense of how well this career path will fit with your personality and general nature. Remember, becoming an entrepreneur is a career decision like any other. Do your homework, look at your needs and desires, and then decide whether this is the career for you.[S] skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

A LOOK AT INTERIOR DESIGN

T

he design business enjoys strong demand as people continue to buy or move into new homes, and remodel old ones. The interior design business is a goout of your house kind of home business. While doing the business aspects inside the home, most of the sales will be done at the client's home or office as you evaluate the space, match color swatches

31

to existing furniture and measure windows for draperies, etc.

INTERIOR DESIGNER OR DECORATOR? An Interior Designer is someone "professionally trained to create a functional and quality interior environment. Qualified through education, experience and examination, a professional designer can identify, research and creatively resolve issues

www.skillsmagazine.org

and provide a healthy, safe and comfortable physical environment." The keywords here are "professionally trained and qualified." It is expected that only those who have met or exceeded a certain level of accredited education, and in some case are licensed, can be called an Interior Designer. If you do not have the qualifications and education, you can still work on the interior design business but you would call yourself as a Decorator instead.>>

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR TYPES OF INTERIOR DESIGNERS The design business is multi-faceted. You can either work as a product-driven designer or as a design consultant. The product-driven designer is a hands-on designer who combines the task of conceptualizing the look of the given space with marketing a wide variety of products. This is the common track of start-up designers. The designer often markets various products and even offers free design advice if the client buys all of the products from him or her. Buyers of their products are often allotted a certain number of hours of free design advice; if more time is needed, a per hour fee is charged. A

specifying of interior materials and products used in private residences. In terms of scope and contract amount, residential jobs are often smaller, but offer a higher profit margin particularly if you are marketing the products to be used in designing the rooms. Commercial jobs, on the other hand, are often much bigger in scope but the bidding that often accompanies the contract can push down your profit margin. Commercial design covers a wide variety of specialties, such as entertainment (e.g. movies, theater, videos, theme parks, clubs, dramatic and musical theater); facilities management (e.g. office moves or

N2000. You also need to buy books of samples, which are the lifeblood of a design business. Manufacturers of wallpapers, paint and carpets produce samples costing about N4000 to N6000 each representing various products in all sorts of design and colors. Try negotiating with sales representatives, as they can give some of these sample books for free, particularly if they see the potential that you can sell their product. When looking for samples, be careful of companies that will require you to purchase preselected samples on a monthly basis - even if you don't need it. The assumption is that you run a showroom to keep all the unused samples. Wallpaper and large fabric companies are particularly notorious for this practice.

PRICING STRUCTURE

product-driven designer also charges a per hour rate to customers who seek their advice but buys products from another company. A hefty percentage of the designer's income is generated from product sales. If you have worked in the business for a long time with an established reputation and a long list of references, you can focus on offering designconsulting services instead. You will not sell or market any product, but instead offer advice about the design of a room or an office. You are selling your design expertise, and not any product.

MARKET FOR INTERIOR DESIGN There are two types of market for interior design: residential and commercial. Residential interior design focuses on the planning and/or 32

expansions); government/institutional (e.g. government offices, embassies, museums), health care (e.g. hospitals, nursing homes, long term care facilities); retail or store planning (e.g. boutiques, department stores, malls, food retailing centers); hospitality/restaurant (e.g. country clubs, hotels, cruise ships); and offices

START-UP COSTS An interior design business requires basic office supplies and equipment such as computers, telephones, and fax. In addition to the standard word processing and spreadsheet software, invest in AutoCAD software to present more professional looking design solutions to clients with threedimensional realism. AutoCAD software can cost from N1000 to

www.skillsmagazine.org

Fee structures vary widely, depending on the designer, complexity of the project, geographical location and a host of other factors. Some of the ways interior designers charges for their services include: 路 Fixed fee (or flat fee) -- The designer identifies a specific sum to cover costs, exclusive of reimbursement for expenses. One total fee applies to the complete range of services, from conceptual development through layouts, specifications and final installation. 路 Hourly fee - Some designers charge based on the actual time spent on a project or specific service, with fees ranging from N15,000 to N30,000 per hour. 路 Percentage fee -- Compensation is computed as a percentage of construction/project costs. 路 Cost plus -- A designer purchases materials, furnishings and services (e.g., carpentry, drapery workrooms, picture framing, etc.) at cost and sells to the client at the designer's cost, plus a specified percentage agreed to by the client. The service charge often varies.>> skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR 路 Retail - Others charge their clients the retail price of furnishings, furniture and all other goods they get wholesale, keeping the difference as designer's fee and services. Retail establishments offering design services commonly use this method. With this method, clients get the designers services at a price no greater than he or she would have paid for the products at retail. 路 Per square foot - Often used for large commercial properties, the charge is based on the area of the project. Some other designers require a retainer fee before the start of a design project. A retainer is an amount of money paid by the client to the designer and applied to the balance due at the termination of the project. Designers that offer free cost estimates charge for the measurements made, if customers do not intend to use the designer plan and request for the measurements.

INCOME POTENTIAL What is unique about the interior design business is that you never do the same job twice. It will be hard to place a specific price on individual projects. What you will earn from a job that requires redecoration of an entire room from the carpet, wallpaper to upholstery will be different from a job that requires you to put up drapes to ten windows.

MY MARKET STRATEGY: If you are trying to create a message that appeals to anyone that may be interested in any form of Interior Design, you are spinning your wheels and wasting your resources. The best way to gain awareness is by marketing through the strategy of developing your niche. The biggest objection most have to this idea is that they do not want to box themselves into a narrow offering. However, this is not the case when you use a niche to create awareness. I have a list of 5 different strategies to develop a niche: 1) By Industry There are dozens of industries that you can focus on to develop a market for your company. Here are only a few: Law offices, medical offices, health care, hotels, restaurants, day care centers and much more. 33

2) By Product Office Furniture, Kitchen Cabinets, Window Treatments, Color, Antiques, Artwork and Residential Furniture are just a few that fall under marketing with a product focus. 3) By Style When you sell by style, you sell based on your own unique talent. Examples of style include: Modern, Traditional, Classic, Youthful, Tailored and Elegant. 4) By Demography You can target a certain group of the market such as: Retiring Baby Boomers, Newly Divorced, those relocating for their work, Those moving to a new apartment and those planning for occasion. 5) By Solution A clever way to finding your niche is through offering great solutions to common and difficult problems. You can specialize in: Home Staging and offering solutions to the Disabled, assisting in decoration that is not yours. Now let's address the objection of limiting your offerings and narrowing your market

Niche Marketing Creates Awareness I propose that you look at each of these niche opportunities as potential marketing strategies rather than a narrow product offering. You can actually have several marketing strategies working at the same time. Your decision to choose any one of these niches is not a lifetime decision. If you find that a particular niche is unsuccessful; you can cut your losses and focus on a new strategy. In fact, as you will soon see, you will want to rotate your niche strategies in order to grow your business. The idea of having a niche is to create awareness about your company, and awareness happens when you can create a story. It's a fact that stories sell, just providing information does not. The beauty of working with niches is that you can create awareness on several fronts at the same time. It is a marketing strategy, not a straight-jacket. Let's try putting together a few marketing strategies based on the above options. You can put together a campaign that appeals to the Retiring Baby Boomers with a message about the importance of color in the home. You have a great demographic and a message about color that will create awareness about your company.

www.skillsmagazine.org

How about appealing to Realtors with the concept of Home Staging? This is a great way to network with Realtors, a great source of potential referrals. Even if you do specialize, in let's say window treatments, you can generate awareness by taking advantage of the growing interest in smart homes. As you can see, using a niche as a way to develop a market strategy is an effective way to bring awareness to the target market that you exist. Look at your strengths and find a strategy that will make the world take notice.[S]

PLACE YOUR

ADVERT HERE skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

STARTING A WALL PAPERING BUSINESS JUSTICE BONNY OF RECHYGRANT GLOBAL LOGISTICS SERVICES Justice Bonny is the director of Rechygrant Global Logistics Services. Rechygrant Global Logistics Services is a creative production company that specializes in skill acquisition training of persons who wants to be self employed, but don't have a fortune to spend in the process. In this interview, Mr. Justice Bonny tells us what Wall papering is all about, how he started, the challenges he faced, how he overcame them and what it entails to start up a wall papering business. By Edith Osaye

What kind of business ae you into? I am into wall papering, perfume making, making of liquid soaps and paints. Let's talk about wall papering, what is it all about? Wall papering is an uncommon skill; it's a kind of wall finishing that is not well known in Nigeria. It gives your home a beautiful look. It is much more superior to paint. What inspired you to go into wall papering? I tried looking for construction contracts from one Government offices to another, but non was forthcoming, until a friend of mine who learnt wall papering in Ghana told me about it. I was instantly interested. How did you start off this line of business? I started by learning the skill with a wall papering establishment in Abuja. How long does it take one to learn? I have passion and zeal for the business so it took me just four days to master it. Just like any other business, you need to have passion and love to for it to succeed. So without passion and love for wall papering, you can spend as long as six months without making headway. How long has your company been in operation? Two and a half years. What does it take to get this line of business of the ground? Like I said earlier, you need to have passion for the business. You need also to have good communications skill to be able to convince your client that you are good at what you do. You can start off with little or no cash. All you need do is to convince your clients to have their homes, offices and hotels wall papered, get the money for the materials from them and you proceed from there. 34

What are the challenges you faced and how did you overcome them? Convincing people that wall papering is superior to painting was really a challenge. How do you convince somebody that has not heard of or seen a papered wall before? It wasn't an easy task. I had to go from one office to another, one hotel to another and one building to another trying to get people to give me wall papering contract. Thank God I am not a shy person, so I was bold in approaching them. I had to use different marketing strategies to be able to overcome the challenges I faced. In wall papering, we have what is called pattern matching. It takes skill to be able to match patterns perfectly well. It should blend so well that you cannot tell where one roll ended and where another started. If you misplace the patterns, your work comes out looking very ugly. You said something about the uniqueness of wall papering compared to wall painting, how is it unique? Wall papers come with wonderful designs, it does not peel off easily, and it can last for as long as 30years. You don't need to paint your walls virtually every year. It cleans easily, even when kids write on them, all you need do is soak a piece of cloth in water and wipe off the stains and it is back to normal. It perfectly covers up blemishes on walls, like cracks or uneven masonry work. What is your educational background? Right now I am doing a part-time programme in Public Administration at University of Port Harcourt.[S]

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

GRAPHIC WALL PAPER

For advert booking call 07032905257

Public opinion This month’s public opinion is: “What is The Role of Skills in a Sustainable Development?” You can write to Skills! Magazine, skillsopinion@yahoo.com. Tel: +234 813 784 5812, +234 703 290 5257 Please include your full name, address and phone number. Letters without these details would not be published. We do not, however, print full addresses in the magazine, but only indicate the city.

35

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

CARPET PATTERN WALL PAPER

REFLECTIVE FLOWER PATTERN

36

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

PATTERNED AND PLAIN BORDER WORK

BRICKS WALL PAPER PATTERN

37

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


BRICKS WALL PAPER PATTERN

TWO COLOURED BORDER WORK

Showcase your skill Call GRAPHIC WALL PAPER

08137845812 07032905257


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

HOW TO START A CAREER

AS A PHOTOGRAPHER

T

ry to imagine getting a brand new digital camera then buying a few megabytes memory card to store all the pictures you will take in and you surely see yourself getting to take some really good shots all over the place, taking photos of everything: the street, your garden and your neighbor's house etc. Got the idea? Your family wouldn't want you and the printer anymore because you will probably consume all the costly inks. You would surely want the ideal photo printer with full colors and high resolutions printing plus the benefit of you printing directly from the memory card you have. These factors are all possible these days. If you are the type of person who just wants to show off the photos you have taken right there and then to your relatives, it will be better for you to have one of those portable photo printers. It is best if you have your own, avoiding denial of usage of the printer that the family owns. The disadvantage to this is that you would get different quality compared to those printed from a greatly efficient printer. But, it will still be really close.

For your Student Project, Report Writing and Seminar Presentation visit www.studentspaper.com 39

Moreover, you will have the photos on hand and on the spot as soon as you have them taken. Here are some of the features you should have to check if you are looking for a portable photo printer: At least 4800 x 1200 resolution Ability to print heavy papers. Photo enhancing abilities should be included in the driver A handy photo display and editing software. It is also good to have additional tools such as the tiniest LCD screens to preview the photos before you even have them printed. Make sure to have a media card reader to be able to print directly from your memory card. Another useful thing would be the capability of the printer to connect to the digital camera. And to achieve best results, it would be better to have borderless printing avoiding borders that seem to widen the photos. Every photography enthusiast should consider the things mentioned above in order to achieve the best results in your newly-acquired hobby that others may not want to share with you. You never can tell what you could do in the future regarding photography.[S]

Marketers wanted RYSE AFRIKA LIMITED is looking for competent result orientated Marketers.

www.skillsmagazine.org

ADVERTISE HERE

Advertise your company, goods and services in any of this boxes with N10,000 only To advertise, call: 08137845812 07032905257 All applications should be forwarded to applicationryse@yahoo.com RYSE AFRIKA LIMITED 197, Okporo Road, Rumuodara. Junction. Top Floor, Coca cola Depot For enquiry: Call 07030603434 skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING

EASY to

STEPS BAKING

CAKES By Ruth Akorhe -Ruthies Oven

T

here are few who can resist the temptation of a slice of cake and many confess an addiction to it. Cake baking is a useful skill that can add value to the life of any who develops a passion for it. Cakes are associated with celebration, joy, and fun.

Here is a basic recipe for an 8 inch cake. Margarine 250grams (1 cup) 5 eggs Sugar 250grams (1 cup) Flour 2 cups Lemon rind, 1 teaspoon Vanilla flavor 2 teaspoons Baking powder 2 teaspoons Mixed fruit I/2 cup (optional) Brandy 1/8 cup (optional) Milk 1 or 2 teaspoons Method Soak mixed fruit in brandy 12 to 24 hours before you begin baking. 1. Cream margarine and sugar until light and fluffy 2. Gradually add the beaten eggs, creaming continuously. If the mixture begins to curdle, add a little flour. 3. Sieve the flour and baking powder together. 4. Fold in the flour gently, using cutting and folding motion. Do not 40

over mix as this will result in a tough cake. 5. Add the flavor, lemon rind, milk and mixed fruit. 6. Mix gently until just blended. The consistency should be soft enough to drop from the spoon. 7. Pour the batter in the cake tin already greased and lined with baking paper. 8. Bake at 160 degrees Celsius for 1.5 hrs 9. Lower the temperature and bake for a further fifteen minutes. 10. Insert a clean knife or a skewer into the center of the cake and if it comes out clean, the cake is ready! Flavour Variations Chocolate: for the recipe above, replace ¼ cup of flour with ¼ cup of non alkalized cocoa powder. Coconut: add 100 grams of desiccated coconut. Tips on Baking Cakes 1. Collect all apparatus needed before hand. Grease cake pans with margarine, line with grease proof paper and grease the paper. 2. Use accurate measurements. Weigh all ingredients carefully 3. Always work in a clean and hygienic environment.

www.skillsmagazine.org

4. Use good quality ingredients, eggs must be fresh and flour should be dry. Make sure all ingredients are at room temperature. 5. Always follow the recipe carefully; never guess quantity, time or temperature. 6. Allow cake to cool in the tin. This makes handling easier Cake Icing There are three basic types of cake icing ·Royal icing ·Buttercream icing ·Fondant icing Royal Icing Recipe: Icing sugar 500g Eggs 2 egg whites ¼ teaspoon of lemon juice Method Put the egg whites in a bowl and whisk slightly. Measure the lemon juice and add it to the bowl containing egg whites. Sift in the icing sugar a portion at a time. Using a wooden spoon stir the mixture and add sufficient icing sugar to get a thick cream and beat well. Leave to stand for an hour before using>> skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING

Buttercream icing Recipe Icing sugar 500 grams Solid white shortening (Crisco) I cup Milk 2 teaspoons Vanilla flavor a few drops Method Cream the shortening until fluffy Add vanilla and cream well stir in the icing sugar and beat well after each addition

3 tablespoons of liquid glucose Icing sugar 1kg Method Dissolve gelatin in hot water Add liquid glucose Sift icing and make a well in the center Pour the gelatin solution into the sugar and mix into a ball. Knead lightly on an icing sugared board until smooth silky and pliable Store in a sealed polythene bag in a fridge

Fondant Icing Recipe Gelatin 1 tablespoon plus 1 teaspoon 9 tablespoons of hot water

Cake Icing Tips · Use good quality ingredients · Always sieve icing sugar before

41

www.skillsmagazine.org

use · Use paste colours to colour icing delicately. Liquid colours make fondant sticky · Remember that strong colouring makes iced cakes look cheap and inferior · Be sure that the cake to be iced is firm and cold. Always coat your cakes with jam, buttercream, apricot glaze or boiled water before covering with sugar paste. This will help the paste stick to the cake. Future articles will deal with cake decorating techniques.[S] skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING

42

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS!TRAINING

43

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


44

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


ZIMZIM Liquid Soap

For all types of washing and cleaning

de i Few drops, many wash. Foams and takesncare w o i t of stains and dirt. Na d Multi-purpose zimzimante Marketed by RYSE AFRIKA LIMITED Office Address: 197, Okporo Road, Rumuodara Junction. Top Floor, Coca cola Deport Port Harcourt

s or t bu i r st i D

W


MOTIVATION

THE POWER OF SOLITUDE “Only in quiet waters do things mirror themselves undistorted. Only in quiet mind is adequate perception of the world”- Hans Margolius

W

hen was the last time you were alone? I mean really alone – no people, no noise, no technology, no distractions whatsoever. Just you and your thoughts. Every living thing needs an atmosphere that is conducive for development. Even plants need the right condition to grow, if you want to get the best results or harvest. In the same vein, anyone who wants to achieve greatness needs to be mindful of maintaining a conducive atmosphere for mental development through being alone in a quiet environment. Inspiration which is the catalyst for unique intelligence requires quietness. Every one of us needs plenty of quietness to get the most out of this precious gift called the mind. Many of us need to take a trip from the crowd, the hustle and bustle of life to find answers to that nagging issue and locate the way out. Bill Gates Discovered a Way Out 46

If you take a careful look you will identify this trait in virtually every man of outstanding greatness. You can't live in the midst of noise and make the most of this treasure called the mind. The story went of how one day, William Henry , Bill Gates III (business magnate) was busy in one corner engaged in serious mental repositioning exercise and his mother went looking for him everywhere. She called out, 'Bill! Bill! Where are you”? No sound, no response. When she located him in his corner, she asked him what he was doing there; his response was, “I am thinking! Don't you think? Today, we can see the results of those times of being quiet and alone by himself. This story goes to show how time spent alone underlies greatness. Austin Phelps, in the Still Hour, wrote, “It has been said that no great work in literature or in science was ever wrote by a man who did not love solitude.” Great visions come from being quiet, still, often alone, to spend time in solitude and reflection. We live in a crazy rat-race world. Find a place where you can enjoy

www.skillsmagazine.org

quietness. In a quiet place will come your best ideas; for visions build themselves in quietness, not in the hustle and bustle of life. According to Ralph W. Emerson, “none of us will ever accomplish anything excellent or commanding except when he listens to his whisper which is heard by him alone.” The greatest riches we posses can be found in the heart of that silence, for it allows us to connect with our inner needs and it is only then we can hear the whisper of our hidden wishes. Home Grown Thoreau said “I never found the companion that was as companionable as quietness.” What I mean by solitude (quiet time) is time spent alone being quiet enough that thoughts and inspirations can come up. A time of solitude is a time when you are not focused outward. It is time spent unwinding and rebalancing ourselves. Do you spend time along with yourself or are you one of those people who never stops…….. always running, skills! Magazine


MOTIVATION time of solitude. That's a time of the day no one is allowed to disturb you seeing it is used to tackle priority items on your schedule. I am someone who needs solitude as much as I need to eat, sleep and breathe. If I don't have the time and space to think then I begin to feel I am slowly unraveling. I absolutely must have a time of solitude. Without it, I become scattered, fragmented and superficial. I greatly agree that people have to find their own balance between time alone and time spent with others, because not everyone thrives in the same environment. Sometimes it's hard to stay quiet and alone. In fact, most of us don't have more than a minute or two that's quiet the whole day. Unless we are taking a test at school, an interview or busy on the job, we are always talking to someone or listening to the radio or watching the television. But, spending time by yourself in quietude is something that everyone needs to do every day. If you are unable to spend time with yourself then you begin to be dependent on others to fill the space in between. Treasure in the Woods Determine to locate specials places which can be used for silence; within the home, within walking distance, within a few minutes' walk in the woods or in the very centre of a community. Being alone gives us the power to regulate and adjust our lives. It can teach us fortitude and the ability to satisfy our own needs. A restorer of energy, the stillness of alone experience provides us with the much needed rest. It brings forth our longing to explore, our curiosity about the unknown, our will to be an individual, our hopes for freedom. Alone time is fuel for life. Brink of Extinction In a world where almost everyone conforms to and joins the crowd, the individuality of individual is fast becoming history. For the man who wants to achieve anything worthwhile, he should not forget we come into the world alone, we die alone and all during life there are hundreds of thousands of moments when we are alone with our own thoughts, feelings, discouragements and despair and it is in that very aloneness that we get to sit with ourselves, know ourselves, talk to ourselves and grow into stronger people. Sometimes, you don't have to listen to 47

what anybody else says, you just have to listen to your inside. With a worry free mind you can accomplish more than you ever thought possible. Take time to be quiet and reflective for a few minutes each day. Who Calls the Shots? We live in a rat-race world where everyone is in a rush to get somewhere. Whenever you find yourself hurrying, call a halt. It is never easy to shift into neutral, slow down and turn off the adrenal rush of daily survival. However, rushing here and there does not mean we are moving forward. In honesty, like a

“The great man is he who in the midst of the crowd, keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.” - Ralph W. Emerson caged animal, most of us are going in circles. Stop and take stock time. Doing this allows you to reinvent yourself into your heart's dream. The saying that “those who refuse to think today, will sink and stink tomorrow” rings true. Retreat. Think. Reflect. You are destined for greatness in life. Ralph W. Emerson said, “The great man is he who in the midst of the crowd, keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.” Set quality time aside to think about creative ways to improve your present position and move forward to peak performances come through pondering. When you are alone and relaxed brainstorm your present position. You will be amazed at the ideas that spring to light. Although good relationships are valuable, don't underestimate the importance of solitude; the ability to enjoy and find creative strength in your own company. To be alone with yourself is a necessary component of many creative activities that requires you to draw from your own inner depth. Every achiever must know that importance of disciplining himself to be alone. By now, the point should be obvious: to be a great achiever you must discipline yourself to find times of silence and solitude.

www.skillsmagazine.org

Without exception, the men and women I have know who make the most rapid, consistent and evident growth as achievers have been those who develop a daily time of being alone with themselves. This habit is not easy to develop because we lead busy lives. Jim Elliot, a missionary martyr said, “I think the devil has made it his business to monopolize on three elements; Noise, hurry, crowds. Satan is quite aware of the power of silence.” Our days are usually filled with more than enough noise, plenty of hurry and demanding people. Unless we plan for daily times of silence, these things will rush in to fill our time like water into the titanic. The Diamond Field To different people, quiet time can mean having time to reflect on life's journey and mystery or to be in the presence of God. For some, it is simply a chance to experience silence or to encounter nature. This write up is to enable you discover the vast potential you have been endowed with by God. A time of solitude enables you to ponder questions you cannot find time or space to address elsewhere. Those who spend time alone by themselves return to the world better and stronger persons. They are renewed and bring to their lives a heightened sense of balance and focus. Alone time then is essential for living life well – to the fullest. Benefits of Solitude 1. Alone time enable you to become alert, more responsive and more aware of your potential and capabilities. Some of the greatest men have had quiet time. This is so true that no further explanation is necessary to illustrate what a focused mind can do. 2. It allows us to function more efficiently, creatively and happily in all facets of life. 3. It allows the opportunity to weed out the accumulative residue of meaningless living so as to reestablish significance in life. So, friends, quit the crowd today, discover your inner power and kit up for great success![S]

By: Kazeem Adebiyi Author: “FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION. 7 Positive Steps to Greatness”. 08068738091 skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

AN INTRODUCTION TO PRICE ACTION BREAKOUT TRADING SYSTEM You don't need a fancy trading station, nor do you need any expensive indicators that will simply confuse you and trick you into entering bad trades. With price action trading breakout, all you need is a single chart, and a few trend lines. Anything more than this and you will only make trading more difficult. Here at Price Action breakout system, we teach price action trading, which will work on any chart and in any market, as well as, on any time frame. There simply is no "better" way to trade. Using price action as your main trading tool will clean up your charts and remove the clutter that normally creates confusion and indecision for traders. Basing your trades on price action aids you in finding reliable reasons to enter a trade, while also giving you clear and precise trading information. What is Price Action Trading? Price action trading is the art and skill of making all of your trading decisions

BY EGBOH ONYEDIKAJAH

off of a stripped down or “naked” price chart. Most indicators are derived from the actual prices on the chart, so they are in fact, giving you information on past price movements. All economic data that leads to price movement within a market is first turned into a belief in the human mind about how this data will affect the market and this belief is then turned into an action from a trader which reflects itself via price action on a price chart. In this way price action trading reflects all variables of any market for any given period of time. This is also the reason why using lagging price indictors like stochastics, MACD, RSI, and others is just a flat waste of time. Price movement provides all the signals you will ever need to develop a profitable and highprobability trading system. Why would you want to base your trades on past information, when the most important factor in trading is what prices are doing right now, and what they are most likely to do in the very near future? There are some traders and some large institutions that actually

fake the indicator movements for the sole reason that so many losing traders use them to base their trade decisions. That alone should tell you that they are a losing game in most cases. How do I apply price action to the forex market? The first step you need to take to apply price action trading to the forex market is to setup a clean “naked” price chart, take off all indicators. Messy charts vs. clean “naked” price action charts If you have been trading for a while you are probably using numerous lagging indicators on your charts that are no doubt confusing you and are one of the main reasons why you are still unsuccessful. Take a look at the two charts below and ask yourself which one seems more logical and less stressful to make trading decisions from? A messy chart with some of the most popular lagging indicators.

A messy chart with some of the most popular lagging indicators.

61

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! ENTREPRENEUR

A clean price action only chart.

Doesn't it seem a little silly to use a messy chart when you could learn to trade off a clean price action only chart? Trading is hard enough with out a messy chart full of lagging indicators, stop fooling yourself by believing they are helping you. Price action setups are the best predictor of future price

49

movement, all markets operate in â&#x20AC;&#x153;future timeâ&#x20AC;?, this means market participants enter trades based on what they believe will happen to a certain security in the future. Price action break out is the best indicator of the aggregate belief of all market participants. What happened in the past is the past, lagging

www.skillsmagazine.org

indicators only analyze past data and display it to you in a second-hand format that is less clear and less precise than price action. The bottom line is that there is just no logical explanation for using lagging indicators. Price action break out analysis takes into account all market variables.

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! EVENTS

Collins Ohwavborua Will not let go

THIS JOWEL!

For your events, call skills! Events Today 08137845812, 07032905257 50

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


SKILLS! EVENTS

Odoh Blessing Ohwavborua

&

Collins Ohwavborua 51

www.skillsmagazine.org

skills! Magazine


Davidinsh Technology .......Client satisfaction is our ultmost concern

Website Design Get your professional website within 7 working days. Move your business to the internet and get a wider business coverage than you ever imagined.

ORDER FOR YOUR SITE TODAY With Just N20,000 For enquiries call 08137845812 enquiries@davidinsh.com www.davidinsh.com


SKILLS MAGAZINE VOLUME TWO