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September 29, 2011

Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

Relationship Between Post-UME Scores And Performance In The First Year Of Study In A Nigerian University

THE ALPHA EDUCATION FOUNDATION (Dedicated to Excellence in Education)

Author

Tosanwumi Otokunefor Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt Nigeria E-mail: tvotokunefor@yahoo.com

Abstract The admission credentials of 148 students admitted into the department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt in the 2009/2010 session were examined. They included 27 candidates admitted through the University’s basic studies programme and 121 candidates selected through the Joint Admission and Matriculation Boards’ (JAMB) University Matriculation Examination (UME)/post-UME screening exercise. The UME scores, the PostUME scores and the first year Cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of all candidates were analyzed for any possible relationship. Candidates admitted through the basic studies programme performed better in the first year of university with a majority (59.26%) attaining CGPA range of 2-2.99 compared to 1-1.99 for the majority (52.89%) admitted through the UME/post-UME exercises. The scores obtained in the UME showed inverse correlation with those obtained in the post-UME screening exercise (R=-0.1942) and with the CGPA obtained at the end of the first year of study (R=-0.208). A strong positive correlation was observed between post-UME screening test scores and first year CGPA (R=0.5362). All candidates with scores ≤100 in the post-UME screening test obtained first year CGPA less than 1.00 (mean, 0.48). The use of the aggregate of UME and post-UME scores for admission purposes, and concessional admissions, are largely responsible for the admission of a large number of candidates who performed poorly in the post-UME and consequently in the first year of study at the university. The consequences of admission policies and their implementation on the quality and performance of Nigerian University graduates are discussed. Key words: University Matriculation examination (UME); Post-UME screening test; Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA); Basic Studies Programme; Correlation

Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

Introduction In order to qualify for admission into the Nigerian university, a candidate must satisfy some minimum requirements. In the first place, he or she must obtain five relevant credits in the senior secondary school certificate examination including English and in some cases, mathematics. In addition such a candidate must sit for and obtain a minimum pass mark in the University Matriculation Examination conducted by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) as well as pass an additional post university matriculation examination screening test (post-UME) conducted by the selected university. Notwithstanding these stringent requirements for admission, the Nigerian students still perform badly in their semester examinations, indulging in a variety of examination malpractices which make the conduct of examinations a tedious chore that may degenerate into a life threatening ordeal at the worst. Malpractices committed by candidates to make up for their deficiency in knowledge include using prepared materials brought in by candidates as hard copies hidden in obscure parts of the body or as a soft copy stored in the memory of sophisticated handsets, sourcing answers from outside the hall through the medium of text messages, using of mercenaries to write examinations illegally and writing examinations for which they are not registered, just to mention a few. When they manage to graduate as they ultimately do through a variety of unacceptable practices, they are most often regarded as substandard and largely unsuitable for employment. This investigation was prompted by an encounter with a student in the first semester examination conducted by the department of microbiology at the University of Port Harcourt during the 2010/2011 session. The candidate, a year two microbiology student estimated to be about 30 years old (official age, 26) was found writing an examination for which he was not registered as far as the records are concerned. Investigations showed that he was officially on academic probation and hence could not register for more than 15 credit units of courses per semester. Further investigations revealed that he was admitted through the UME/post-UME process with scores of 211 and 80 respectively, and a mean of 146. An examination of his computerized spread-sheet for year one (2009/2010) session showed a CGPA of 0.14. He later revealed that he had been out of school for about 10 years before finally gaining admission through “concession” to read microbiology. The observation that the candidate had a very low score in the Post-UME screening test, and still gained admission, prompted this study which aims to investigate the relationship between the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) in the first year of study and performance in the university conducted Post-UME screening test, a major parameter for admission. The study also seeks to investigate other parameters which may have bearing on the performance of candidates in the department of microbiology during the first year of study at the university.

Materials and Methods A total of 148 students admitted into the department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt in the 2009/2010 session were included in the study. They consist of 27 candidates admitted through the science based remedial programme (Basic Studies) and 121 candidates admitted through the combination of the University matriculation examination conducted by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board and the post-UME screening exercise conducted by the University of Port Harcourt’s examination committee. Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

All candidates possessed the minimum of five credits in the senior secondary school certificate examination in not more than two sittings at the time of admission. All the candidates registered for the 2009/2010 session and had grades in courses taken in both first and second semesters as indicated in their individual spread sheets. Their cumulative grade point averages (CGPA) at the end of the session were also recorded from the individual spreadsheets automatically generated from the computerized departmental examination results. Additional information on the candidates especially their scores in the UME and post-UME screening tests were obtained from the records of the University of Port Harcourt Examination Committee. Where such data was not available for any candidate, such candidate was excluded from further analyses.

Results Relationship between mode of admission of students into the department of microbiology and performance at the end of the first year of study during the 2009/2010 session

Percentage of candidates

Figure 1 shows the details of the relative performance (as measured by the cumulative grade point average, CGPA) of the candidates admitted into the department of microbiology at the end of the first year at the university. The orange triangles represent the CGPA of all students in the department. 70 About one fifth (21.62%) of Basic (n=27) all candidates obtained CGPA Jamb (n=121) 60 59.26 of between 0 and 0.99 while Total (n =148) 52.89 50 the majority of the 49.32 candidates (49.32%) had 40 CGPA ranging from 1.0 and 33.33 1.99. About 25% of the 30 candidates had CGPA ranging 26.45 25 from 2.0-2.99 while the 21.62 20 17.36 remaining candidates (about 3%) attained CGPA ranging 10 7.41 from 3.0-5.0. On the other 0 hand, candidates admitted 0-0.99 1.0-1.99 2.0-2.99 3.0-3.99 4.0-5 through the University’s Cummulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) remedial programme (Basic Figure 1: Comparative academic performance (Cummulative Studies) who accounted for Grade Point Average) of Microbiology students at end of year about 18% of the students’ one admitted through the UME/Post UME and those population in the class admitted through the University Basic Studies Programme. presented a clearly different pattern from the one described above (Red squares). None of the candidates admitted through the basic studies programme obtained a CGPA less than one while the majority (approximately 60%) obtained a CGPA between 2 and 2.99. On the other hand, more than a quarter of the UME admissions (26.45%) obtained CGPA of between 0 and 0.99, while the majority of the students (52.89%) obtained a CGPA of between 1.0 and 1.99. Only 17.36% of the UME admissions obtained a CGPA of between 2 and 2.99 (blue diamonds). Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

Is there any relationship between performance in the university matriculation examination and the post-UME screening test during the 2009/2010 admission exercise To find out if there is any relationship between performance of candidates in the university matriculation examination and the scores obtained in the post-UME screening test, the respective scores of the students admitted into the department of microbiology in the 2009/2010 admission session in the two assessment tests were plotted in a scatter diagram (figure 2). The regression line generated showed a negative correlation with an R value of 0.1942. This indicates that students who scored the highest marks in the UME generally performed poorly in the post-UME exercise.

Correlation between UME scores, the Post-UME test scores, and performance at the end of first year of study at the university

UME scores

The blue diamonds in figure 3 reflect the scatter diagram of the relationship between the UME scores in the year 2009 and the corresponding CGPA obtained at the end of the first year of study at the University. The regression line indicates a negative correlation with R value of -0.208. This shows 300 that the candidates that obtained the highest scores in 250 the university matriculation examination obtained the 200 lowest grades at the end of the R = - 0.1942 R² = 0.0377 first year at university. The red 150 squares in figure 3 on the other hand show the scatter diagram 100 of the relationship between the post-UME scores obtained in 50 the year 2009 and the corresponding CGPA at the end 0 of the first year of study. The 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 regression line indicates a Post UME scores positive correlation with R Figure 2: Relationship between the scores obtained in value of 0.5362. This indicates the university matriculation examination and the postUME screening test a direct and strong positive correlation (53.62%) between the post-UME scores and performance in the first year of study at the university as measured by the CGPA. As expected, those candidates that obtained low scores in the postUME performed poorly in the first year of study at the department of microbiology, University of Port Harcourt. The reverse is also true that candidates who performed well in the post-UME screening exercise, performed well in the first year of study.

Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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September 29, 2011

Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

Scores in UME & PUME respectively

In addition to these general 300 observations, three specific B points are also highlighted in R (UME)= -0.208 R² (UME) = 0.0431 figure 3 (circles A, B and C). 250 Circle A at the bottom left corner of figure 3 encloses all C six candidates whose scores 200 in the post UME were equal R (PUME)= 0.5362 R² (PUME)= 0.2875 to or less than 100 (≤25%) but nevertheless gained 150 admission into the department of microbiology; 100 their CGPA at the end of the A first year were all below 1.00 UME thereby placing them PUME 50 squarely on academic Linear (UME) probation. Circle B shows a Linear (PUME) lone red square which 0 represents the best 0 1 2 3 4 5 performing candidate in the Cummulative Grade Point Average (First Year) post-UME with a score of Figure 3: The relationship between University Matriculation 268, but who performed : Examination (UME) score, post-UME score test score, and woefully in the first year of cummulative grade point average (CGPA) obtained at the end of study at the university with a First year by the U2009 students of the department of Microbiolgy, CGPA of 1.06, barely escaping Uniport. academic probation. This is an obvious deviation from the general trend represented by the regression line. Circle C encloses a single red square representing the best performing candidate in the first year in the department of microbiology with a CGPA of 4.13. This candidate performed consistently well in both the UME and the post-UME with a score of 217 and 220 respectively. His score of 217 rated among the lowest in the UME and would have been denied admission into the department of microbiology but for the intervention of the post-UME screening exercise. The occurrence of this point along the regression line shows that the candidate’s performance is consistent with the general trend observed between the post-UME score and the academic performance of students at the end of the first year of study at the department of microbiology, University of Port Harcourt.

Strong correlation between grouped post-UME test scores, and candidates’ CGPA at the end of first year of study at the department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt Figure 4 presents the degree of correlation between the grades obtained at the end of the first of study (CGPA) and the scores obtained in the post-UME screening exercise grouped into seven with each group representing an interval of 25 points. Students with the lowest scores in the post-UME (ranging between 75 and 100) obtained the lowest mean CGPA of 0.48 at the end of the first year. The corollary is also true that students with the highest Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

scores in the post-UME (>226) obtained the highest mean CGPA of 2.26 at the end of the first year of study. This is reflected in the very strong correlation of 96.33% in the regression line as shown in figure 4. Students who attained a score of ≥ 176 in the post-UME screening test on the average obtained a CGPA of greater than 2.0 at the end of the first year of study in the department of microbiology. However, this group represents only 30% of those admitted through the UME/post-UME process. The strong correlation suggests that performance in the post-UME screening exercise of 2009/2010 session can be used to reliably predict performance in the first year of study at the university.

Discussion

Mean CGPA of students

The University of Port Harcourt has been in the fore-front of reforms to improve the quality of candidates admitted and by extension, the quality of graduates turned out. The University of Port Harcourt admits candidates into its degree programmes from two sources namely, the University Matriculation Examination conducted by JAMB, and the University of Port Harcourt remedial programmes consisting of the basic studies programme and the various certificate programmes. Since the successful struggle to introduce the post-UME screening exercise and the conduct of the first screening exercise which was judged to be largely devoid of examination malpractice in 2005, admission through the UME is now strongly supported by the post-UME exercise. Though it has had mixed fortunes with the post-UME examination 3.00 MEAN CGPA since then, it still conducts R = 0.9633 one of the best post-UME 2.50 2.26 screening exercises in the 2.20 2.07 nation’s tertiary institutions. 2.00 The post-UME exercises conducted by the University 1.42 1.40 1.50 of Port Harcourt are 1.09 patterned after JAMB’s 1.00 University Matriculation Examination using a data 0.48 0.50 bank derived largely from JAMB’s past questions. 0.00 However it differs from the 75-100 101-125 126-150 151-175 176-200 201-225 >226 JAMB exercise in having Grouped post-UME Scores fewer questions (100 in all), lasts for only one hour 15 Figure 4: Correlation between the grouped scores of candidates minutes and more in the post UME screening exercise and mean cummulative importantly and in contrast grade point average (CGPA) at end of first year of matriculation to the JAMB exercise, is largely free from examination malpractice due to stringent control measures. However, the performance of students in the university’s semester examinations and well as the quality of graduates from the university does not appear to have improved correspondingly. The current observation that candidates admitted into the Bachelor of Science programme in microbiology through the basic studies programme performed generally better than those who gained admission through the UME process is contrary to expectations. The basic studies programme is usually patronized by candidates who could not pass the UME Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

and or the post-UME screening test, and hence usually considered inferior academically to those admitted through the UME/post-UME process. A likely explanation is that the basic studies candidates having spent one year in the programme have become acclimatized to the university environment including the mode of teaching and examination and hence more likely to perform better in the first year in the degree programme. If this is the case the environmental advantage should have been removed at the end of the year. It will be interesting to know the situation of this set of candidates at the end of the second year of study. In addition, these obviously handicapped candidates have been made to undergo a year of remedial studies during which their academic status is significantly upgraded. Furthermore, they have been subjected to one of the best controlled selection examinations in the university system following which only the few successful candidates (usually not more than 40% of the original intake) are offered admission to fill the quota reserved for them in the degree programmes in the university. It therefore appears that the combination of environmental advantage, additional training and the rigorous selection process through which these candidates have passed is responsible for their apparently better performance in the first year of study at the university. While it may be said that the UME candidates have also been subjected to a rigorous selection process during the postUME screening exercise which is conducted by virtually the same group of examiners, it is obvious that the final selection process may not depend on their performance in the postUME screening exercise. This line of thinking is based on the presence in this study group of candidates that scored less than 25% in the post-UME screening exercise. Such candidates who performed poorly in the post-UME may nonetheless maintain a respectable aggregate score when combined with the highly inflated scores from JAMB’s UME (as demanded by JAMB) and hence secure admission ‘legally’. Another possible explanation is the creation of the “illegal” category of “concessional admission” by unscrupulous university administrators to accommodate candidates who performed below the required standard in the UME/postUME process. Beneficiaries of such concessional admissions usually include children of highly placed government officials, politicians, big wigs in the business community as well as children of members of staff of the university. Afolabi et al., (2007), in a study of 376 students admitted into a first year medical programme in 1999 also observed that students admitted through the university’s pre-degree programme performed better in their first year medical programme than those admitted through the university matriculation examination (UME). However, it may be premature to conclude that basic studies students are better than the UME/post-UME candidates. The overall best students at the end of the first year of studies are those admitted through the post-UME process. The current study has confirmed that there is no positive relationship between the performance in the UME and scores in the post-UME screening exercise. On the contrary, a slight negative correlation was actually observed. This suggests that though the two examinations are closely related in terms of the content and the degree of difficulty, the outcome is totally different. The only variable here is the mode of conduct. The poorly performing candidates according to the JAMB selection process turn out to be the best performing candidates based on the post-UME exercise. This is not surprising since the University of Port Harcourt’s post-UME screening exercise has acquired the reputation over the years of a transparent and highly reliable selection process devoid of the high level malpractice that has bedeviled JAMB’s UME exercises over the years. Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

In addition to the reverse correlation between performances in the JAMB’s UME and the post-UME screening exercise, the current study also observed a negative correlation between JAMB’s UME performance and the cumulative grade point average at the end of first year of university studies. All these simply mean that attainment of high scores by candidates in the UME conducted by JAMB does not translate into good performance in the first year of study at the university. This strongly suggests that such high scores in the UME were obtained by unfair means, and further suggests that the efforts by JAMB to exterminate the menace of examination malpractice have not yielded sufficient results. This observation is similar to that of Adeniyi et al., (2010) who noted that the dropout rate at the end of the first year of medical school at the Benue state University, Makurdi (2004/2005 and 2005/2006 class) was higher among students admitted with higher UME scores (≥ 240) than those with lower scores (< 240) thus suggesting that those who scored less than 240 in the UME actually performed better in the first year of medical school than those who scored higher. Another study involving medical students admitted to the Lagos State University College of medicine in the 1998/99 session observed a non significant correlation between UME scores and student performance at 100 level and pre-clinical sciences (Salahdeen and Murtala, 2005). However, another study, much larger in scope than the one above, involving 9,062 candidates admitted into six Nigerian universities between 1998 and 2000, concluded that there was a positive and significant correlation between performance in First Year University Education (First year GPA) and UME scores though the level of correlation was quite low (r= 0.168) (Ojerinde and Kolo, 2009). Such correlation was not seen in the present study, instead, a negative correlation was actually observed. On the contrary, there was a positive and significant correlation between the performance in the post-UME and cumulative grade point average obtained at the end of first year of study of candidates admitted in 2009 into the department of microbiology, University of Port Harcourt. The level of significance is highlighted by the observation that all six candidates with scores ≤100 in the post-UME were not able to meet the continuation requirement (CGPA 1.0) and were all placed on academic probation. This indicates that the post-UME screening exercise as conducted by the University of Port Harcourt in 2009 largely reflects the true academic ability of the candidates and could have been used to reliably predict students’ performance during the first year of study in the university. A study by Adeleke et al., (2009) of 30 first year university students (year of admission not stated) observed no relationship between first year CGPA and performance in UME and Post-UME respectively. These differences in observations reflect the large variations in the content and the conduct of the post-UME screening exercise in the Nigerian universities as well as the organization and conduct of the semester examinations in the studies reported. The post-UME tests carried out by the different Nigerian universities are not standardized in terms of content. For some institutions, it is basically an aptitude test that has no bearing on the course of study of the candidate in the university, while for others; it is a miniaturized version of JAMB’s UME with emphasis on the subjects required for admission into the candidate’s discipline. The mode of conduct may also vary from a highly subjective oral interview adopted by some universities to the more objective, well controlled written test with elaborate efforts to avoid the malpractices that characterize the UME. Even within the same institution, the mode of conduct may vary from year to year depending on the Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

individuals saddled with the responsibility of carrying out the exercise. All these may have serious consequences on the reliability of the post-UME screening exercise for selection of candidates for admission into the university. The post-UME holds the greatest potential of being a transparent, free, fair and reliable process for the selection of candidates for admission into the tertiary institutions in Nigeria. However, it must be controlled in terms of content and conduct in order to achieve the desired objective all the time. Another study of third year science education students at the Delta state University, Abraka observed a non-significant difference in CGPA of students admitted through Post-UME screening and those admitted through UME scores (Ajaja, 2010). This study however compared the performance of the students in their third year of study as against the first year that was evaluated in the current study. Just as there are variations in the content and conduct of the post-UME screening tests in the various universities, there are also variations in the conduct of the semester examinations in the various universities and between the various departments in the same university. In some universities and some departments within the same universities, the problem of examination malpractice is still a dominant factor in the performance of students in the semester examinations. In many cases, the conduct of the semester examination is still in total shambles with little or no planning, no idea of the number of candidates registered for the courses and very poor and grossly inadequate invigilation occasionally by unqualified personnel. Furthermore, many â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;busyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or lazy lecturers have abdicated their responsibility of grading and releasing results to surrogates who often turnout to be their children, post graduate students or some other people with questionable motives and abilities. In such instances, the performances of the candidates even in a well organized post-UME exercise would most likely not correlate with the first year CGPA. Notwithstanding the observed predictive value of the post-UME scores for the performance in the first year of study in this study, a large number of the students still performed relatively poorly at the end of the first year of study with nearly 70% obtaining a CGPA of between 0 and 1.99. One of the factors which appears to be responsible for this is the admission of a large number of candidates with poor performance in the post-UME exercise into the degree programme. Over 57% of the candidates under consideration in the present study scored less than 40% (<160) in the post-UME screening test but most of them still maintained respectable mean scores when combined with the highly inflated UME scores as demanded by JAMB. Some of the students on probation whose post-UME scores were under 40% claimed that they were admitted on concessional basis. It may be interesting to note that over 84% of the 32 candidates on probation at the end of the first year of study in the department of microbiology scored below 40% in the post-UME screening test. It therefore appears that the relatively poor performance of the candidates admitted through the JAMB-UME/post-UME process compared to those admitted through the basic studies programme may be attributed to the large number of candidates admitted in spite of their poor performance in the post-UME screening exercise. Admission of candidates with poor performance in the post-UME is encouraged by JAMBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s insistence that the mean scores of candidates in the UME and post-UME tests be used for the purposes of admission. This gives an undue advantage to academically weak candidates who obtain high scores in the UME exercise through examination malpractice and hence a higher mean score than Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Correlation between Post-UME Scores and First Year CGPA in The University

academically sound candidates who do not participate in examination malpractice. Unless this rule is rescinded, JAMB may be unwittingly encouraging examination malpractice in its UME since those scores go a long way to offset the poor performance of such candidates in the following post-UME screening exercises.

Conclusion The data presented here shows that the scores in the post-UME screening exercise correlated positively with performance in the first year of study (as measured by the cumulative grade point average, CGPA) in the department of microbiology, University of Port Harcourt. On the other hand, scores in the UME correlated negatively with the CGPA at the end of the first year of study. The combination of the UME and post-UME scores for admission purposes is largely responsible for the admission of a large number of candidates who performed poorly in the post-UME and consequently in the first year of study at the university. Introduction of concessional admissions also appeared to be responsible for the inclusion of some candidates who performed very poorly in the post-UME screening exercise and subsequently in the first year of study at the university. Based on these observations it is recommended that admission through the joint admissions and matriculation board should be based solely on the performance in the post-UME screening exercise which must be regulated in terms of content and conduct. Furthermore, concessional admissions should be prohibited since it is both unfair and illegal and places an unnecessary burden on the receiving departments.

References Adeleke, R.A., O.Y. Halid, and O.D. Ogunwale (2009). “On Regression Analysis of Students’ Academic Performance”, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 10: 207-210. Adeniyi O.S, Araoye,M.A., Amali E. O, Eru, E.U., Ojabo C. O, and Alao, O.O (2010) Effect of Using Combination of O’level Result With JAMB Score on Student Performance in The First Two Years of Medical School in Benue State University, Makurdi, Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 13: 189 -195 Afolabi, A.O., Mabayoje V.O., Togun V.A., Oyadeyi A.S., and Raji Y. (2007) The effect of mode of entry into medical school on performance in the first two years. J. Medical Sci., 7: 1021-1026 Ajaja O. Patrick (2010) Three Years of Post UME Screening: Influence on Science Education Students’ Achievement, in Delta State University, Abraka Int J Edu Sci, 2: 29-40 Ojerinde, Dibu and Thomas N. Kolo (2009) Prediction of First Year University Education Performance from Entry Academic Performances Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB), Abuja, Nigeria. Being a paper presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Education Assessment in Africa (AEAA), Yaounde, Cameroun from 24th – 28th August, 2009. Salahdeen H. M. and Murtala B. A. (2005) Relationship between Admission Grades and Performances of Students in the First Professional Examination in a New Medical School African Journal of Biomedical Research, 8: 51 – 57

Alpha Education Foundation Educational Monograph Series No 5 pp 1-10

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Relationship Between Post-UME Scores And Performance In The First Year Of Study In A University  

In order to qualify for admission into the Nigerian university, a candidate must satisfy some minimum requirements. In the first place, he o...

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