STUDIO AIR PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION BRIGIT SKILBECK 2018 SEMESTER 1 - DAVID WEGMAN
A1 Design Futuring
A2 Design Computation
A4 & A5
References & Figures
Hi! My name is Brigit, I’m a third year Architecture student. My current experience of digital design theory and tools is minimal: my experience with computers is best described as “proficient in Microsoft Office.” I loved learning basic coding in RStudio to perform statistical analyses in Ecology, I am familiar with InDesign, acquainted with Photoshop, vaguely aware of Rhino, and have never used the Noah’s Ark of Rhino add-ons (grasshopper, ladybird, kangaroo, etc). My favourite use of digital tools thus far was creating a Rhino-drawn laser cutting template for a project (Fig 1). I am interested in holistic, zero waste design, so decided to use all components of the sheet of paper in projects throughout the course of a semester: the precision and efficiency of laser-cutting from this template enabled me to fabricate models without wasted material. The embodied energy of the project was however sky high, since laser cutting demands far more energy than hand-cutting. I used digital tools early in the design process and quickly abandoned them: formfinding processes were intuitive, analog and grounded in experimenting with structural and haptic qualities of physical models. Given my current understanding of digital design theory, I feel conflicted: society seem to both over and underestimate the role of computers in future landscapes of design. On the one hand, like all fads, digital design’s role seems exaggerated. While practitioners enthuse about complex geometries made possible by a computer, I see incomparable beauty and crisp geometry in Antoni Gaudi’s Sagrada Familia, and in
the intricate murqanas of the Agra Red Fort - both created without an inkling of the digitised world to come. On the other hand, computers and artificial intelligence may pose an existential threat to humanity: perhaps we underestimate their power and the risk they pose to the fabric of society, democracy, health, meaningful work, and ecology. Honestly, my skepticism runs deeper than this: I am totally, unrepentantly in love with the handmade and the vernacular. I feel that there is spirit and resonance in objects made by human hands which is completely lacking in objects made by a machine - whether digitally or mechanically. Maybe it’s that the beauty of imperfection is lacking in digitally manufactured objects: digital design reveals the problem with holding Platonic forms as ideals. I find digitally designed objects are beautiful in a transient sense: lacking the deep artistry and inspiration to hold my attention or to engage my thought for longer than a flashing thought: “that’s cool!” No computer or machine can make a painting like Mark Rothko, who sweated and scrubbed paint into the canvas. Not even a Rothko print can begin to convey the power of the original. The art, design, ideas, and buildings that last in my mind are all products of nature or shaped by the human hand: tactile, complex, and beautifully imperfect. I am however very open to new, challenging ideas, and I feel very motivated to expand my mind, and learn new skills and disciplines. For me, the saving grace of computers is music: if Paul Kalkbrenner can make electronic music that sounds exactly like the feeling of a foggy Berlin morning, there must be something in the digital realm capable of inspiration. I am interested to explore the ideas of Achim Menges in integrating the structural qualities of materials into formfinding processes, and am intrigued by the art processes of Daniel Crooks and Ollie Lucas who bridge digital and material realms.
FIG.1: PREVIOUS WORK - RHINO LASERCUTTING TEMPLATE AND 4 RESULTING MODELS
On a practical level, Iâ€™m interested in using algorithmic modelling to create sustainable buildings and learning from nature; on an artistic level, I hope to explore glitching, impossible numbers, and nondeterministic algorithms - to
discover how computers can be used as a surrealist tool. Since I often most love the things I initially dislike, I invite this studio to change my mind!
A1 DESIGN FUTURING
“By speculating more, at all levels of society, and exploring alternative scenarios, reality will become more malleable and, although the future cannot be predicted, we can help set in place today factors that will increase the probability of more desirable futures happening”1 Design futuring seeks to develop a culture and methods of design which stem the tide of the contemporary, unsustainable defuturing condition. 2 Despite technology and industry enabling the present critically defutured state of the world, Fry proposes that technology can be repurposed to bring about a new sustainable, designed future, able to cope with the twin terrors of climate change and mass extinction. Critical design asks us to question the neoliberal status quo and translate this questioning into materiality, 3 whilst speculative design allows us to explore not “The Future”, but to provoke thought and discussion around myriad futures: probable, plausible, possible and preferable.4 The realm of speculative design “lies somewhere between reality and the impossible”5 1 Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2013) p. 6. 2 Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford, New York: Berg, 2008), pp. 1–16. 3 Dunne & Raby, pp. 34-35 4 Dunne & Raby, pp. 2-5 5 Dunne & Raby, p. 3
DIAGNOSIS & CRITIQUE OF SOCIETY
Throughout the 20th century, speculative architecture often termed paper architecture - played a significant role in the evolution of both designed form, and sociopolitical values. Today, the term paper architecture ironically seems all too material: paper architecture has become the stuff of the real, physical humanitarian projects of Shigeru Ban (eg Paper Log Houses), whilst quasi-possible speculative works have moved to the realm of the digital. Is the speculative digital architecture of Jack Self and Roland Snooks the 21st century equivalent to the radical paper architecture of Archigram, Vladimir Tatlin, or Hans Scharoun? Architecture involves the translation of ideas into physical reality. The process of praxis, (in some ways equivalent to ‘baking’ geometries in Grasshopper) creates static final objects - effectively removing/neutralising their speculative aspect. Although Dunne and Raby indicate that “for us, critical designs need to be made physical,”6 I propose that critical design projects at their speculative stage are particularly interesting and relevant to emerging digital design practice precisely because by being unable to interact with a real haptic object, we are led to more carefully contemplate the conceptual message of an architectural proposal. 6
Dunne & Raby, p. 43
THEORY OF ALTERNATIVES (WHERE WE WANT TO GO)
THEORY OF TRANSFORMATION (HOW TO MAKE ALTERNATIVES ACHIEVABLE) FIG.3: PROCESS OF CRITICAL DESIGN, ADAPTED FROM ERIK WRIGHT (DUNNE & RABY P 44)
FIG.2: NEW YORK TIMES SPECIAL EDITION BY THE YES MEN, AN EXAMPLE FROM DUNNE AND RABY OF CRITICAL DESIGN (
FIG 4: FRIEDRICHSTRASSE GLASS SKYSCRAPER PROPOSAL, MIES VAN DER ROHE, 1921
FIG 5: LONDON SHARD, RENZO PIANO, 2009
From Archigram’s Plug In City, to Jack Self’s (the REAL Foundation) Empire Hotel, these unbuilt proposals are often radical, possibly unpalatable, and frequently riddled with practical problems, yet the provocation expressed by good speculative architecture stimulates thought and pushes the conversation of design practice in a new direction. Speculative provocations often inform future material projects, albeit in diluted form, for instance Mies Van Der Rohe’s Friedrichstrasse glass skyscraper proposal (1921) informed the design of the real Seagram Building (1958), and inspired a whole generation of glass skyscrapers, the echo of which is still seen today in Renzo Piano’s London Shard (2009). Both Plug In City and Empire Hotel examine nomadic patterns of living and challenge existing ways of thinking relating to space, belonging, and permanence. Peter Cook’s Plug-In City (1964) forms part of a series of provocations by London’s Archigram which reimagined the cityscape as flexible and capable of constant reconfiguration - an idea
FIG.6: PLUG IN CITY, ARCHIGRAM/PETER COOK, 1964
materialised today at an inane level in hot-desk offices and in the impermanent study spaces of the msd. Cook’s relish of obsolescence and discarding old components reveals values highly conformist with the history of extractivist human settlement, especially applying consumerist views to nature, yet the proposal’s promotion of a nomadic life challenged 1960s Londoners to reconsider establishment, both physical and social.7 50 years later, Jack Self’s speculative Empire Hotel: Death on Credit concept proposes to Londoners a life so nomadic that people relinquish their home and nationality. 8 By paying annual membership for the mixed blessing of living in any of a global collection of hotel cells, for a maximum of three 7 MoMA, Plug-in City: Maximum Pressure Area (New York, MoMA, 2018) < https://www.moma.org/collection/works/797> [accessed 15 March 2018]. 8 S AM Schweizerisches Architekturmuseum Jack Self - REAL foundation [YouTube video], 3rd October 2016 < https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=FlqEifJfybg> [accessed 12 March 2018].
FIG.7: EMPIRE HOTEL, THE REAL FOUNDATION/JACK SELF, 2015
months in any given place, permanence is not allowed and the idea of a physical home is erased. Self seeks to challenge models of ownership, from usufruct to dominion, and redesign the unacknowledged limiting parameters of finance on architecture. Both Self and Cook seek to propose new modes of freedom through spatial fluidity. As neither project is physical, both use manifesto, imagery and publication to communicate ideas. It is possible to imagine a change in praxis, to imagine a world where material, designed ‘final’ objects retain the fluidity of form and concept enabled by parametric tools, but also perhaps offer a greater sense of belonging than the futurism of Self and Cook. This idea is at an embryonic stage with the development of operable buildings, and responsive sensor lighting.9 Parametricism invites us to go deeper in changing the static 9 Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 (2013), pp. 8-15 (p.14).
outcomes of praxis: to imagine a shapeshifting building, a building that builds itself, a building that dismantles itself, a building which repairs itself - knitting itself back together like a wound, or a chimeric building which fundamentally changes its genetic/structural expression in response to inputs (whether external conditions or inhabitants). It proposes the dissolution of traditional typologies, building components and construction methods, as gridshells and space frames propose structural possibilities which challenge received ideas of columns, rectilinearity, trabeated structures, and massing. To echo the economic concerns of Self, parametric thinking even invites us to consider a world in which the income of the wealthiest is limited as a proportion of the income of the poorest,10 moving our concept of economic structure from fixed numerical quantities to ratio relations between ever-changing parameters. 10 Mason, Rowena, ‘Corbyn calls for wage cap on bosses at government contractors’, The Guardian, 11 January 2018, <https://www.theguardian. com/politics/2017/jan/10/corbyn-proposes-maximum-wage-for-allgovernment-contractors>.
A2 DESIGN COMPUTATION
The introduction of computers to design practice has led to both the computerisation of existing design methods, and new computational design methods. Achim Menges describes computation as “the processing of information and interactions between elements which constitute a specific environment...a framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets of information, with the capacity to generate complex order, form and structure.”11 Computation can be either analog - for instance Gaudi’s Sagrada Familia achieving structural optimisation of catenary curves via a physical model of hanging chains - or digital as is the case of Menges’ algorithmically derived pavilions. Ironically, Gaudi’s plans are now being computerised as researchers attempt to replicate his work from existing drawings and models. Computation proposes several opportunities for the world of design: from structural optimisation, sociopolitical engagement, improved communication, and changing of the workforce and power structures. Menges’ ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 evinces nuanced computational design methods, embedding the material properties of plywood, and its response to bending force, into an algorithm to determine optimal structural form.12 The algorithmic integration of material properties and engineering principles through Rhino’s Kangaroo parametric plugin allows designers to explore structural possibilities and optimise structural responses: setting existing views of traditional building components aside to explore the structural potential of all materials. 11 Peters, p. 10. 12 Achim Menges, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 <http://www. achimmenges.net/?p=4443> [accessed 12 March 2018].
FIG.8: SAGRADA FAMILIA HANGING MODEL DEMONSTRATES ANALOG COMPUTATION OF CATENARY CURVES
FIG.9: ACHIM MENGES’ RESEARCH PAVILION 2010
FIG 10: DIGITAL COMPUTATION OF STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION IN MENGES’ RESEARCH PAVILION 2010
FIG.11:PHYSICAL MODEL OF FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON
Menges’ pavilion differs considerably from Gehry’s ‘computerised’ Fondation Louis Vuitton, originating from intuitive dream-like handdrawings, which were physically modelled13 and finally structurally developed with BIM software.14 Computation was involved in the final realisation of the building via parametric modelling,15 but computation was not integral to the Fondation’s initial conception. A more radical possibility: design computation enables deeper engagements by architects with contemporary society and politics. Computation expands the role of design in critical and political dialogue, by formulating digital responses to a digital, data-centric world. For instance, Forensic Architecture’s practice explores the potential of architectural tools and analytical processes to be deployed forensically, specifically in the investigation of human rights abuses. Its investigation of the 2014 bombing of Gaza situates fine grained data set within interactive maps to create new understandings of conflict and space,16 13 Fondation Louis Vuitton, The Building <http://www. fondationlouisvuitton.fr/en/l-edifice.html> [accessed 13 March 2018].. 14 Tekla, Fondation Louis Vuitton: A dream come constructable <https:// www.tekla.com/references/fondation-louis-vuitton-dream-comeconstructable> [accessed 13 March 2018]. 15 Peters, p. 13. 16 Forensic Architecture, The Gaza Platform < http://www.forensicarchitecture.org/case/the-gaza-platform/> [accessed 14 March 2018].
FIG 12: GEHRY’S INITIAL SKETCHES FOR FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON
illustrating how computation can “gladly search through and correlate facts buried in...endless heaps of information”17 Its investigation of the 2017 bombing at Al Jinah mosque, using innovative forensically-derived digital building models, furnished evidence of malfeasance in combat by US troops.18 Its use of forensic evidence to create a digital simulation of fire in a Pakistani textile factory clarified how the fire developed, and generated multiple proposals for how to redesign the buildings to protect the lives of inhabitants.19 By conceiving of computation as a new toolkit which enables architects to not only generate new geometric form, but to more deeply analyse space and formulate new spatio-political understandings and responses, we open up opportunities for computation to develop regenerative systems and create social change. Computers enable the interaction of ideas. They facilitate greater communication and collaboration among designers, and allow designers to gain understanding from experts in other fields. Connecting with people working at the 17 Yehuda Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25 (p. 2) 18 Forensic Architecture, Al-Jinah Mosque <http://www.forensicarchitecture.org/case/al-jinah-mosque/> [accessed 14 March 2018]. 19 Forensic Architecture, Outsourcing Risk, http://www.forensicarchitecture.org/case/outsourcing-risk/ [accessed 14 March 2018].
FIG 13: TEKLA’S PARAMETRIC BIM MODEL OF FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON
FIG 14: FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON
FIG 15: FORENSIC ARCHITECTURE’S DIGITAL SIMULATION OF FIRE IN A FACTORY
FIG 16: FORENSIC ARCHITECTURE’, AL-JINAH MOSQUE DIGITAL RECONSTRUCTION
forefront of knowledge and emerging issues (from fields as disparate as physics, ecology, social sciences, horticulture or economics) is essential to develop a design practice which counteracts the unsustainable state of current civilization. Schumacher goes further, to suggest that architecture is itself an autopoetic communication system, with the role of digital practice as a new communication system which ‘upgrades’ the existing system. 20 20 Patrik Schumacher, The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), pp. 1-28 (p. 8).
The idea of open-source designs and tools, such as Grasshopper 21, is a powerful counterforce to those who seek to privatise and limit access to information. Computeraided communication can broaden our collective mind, and amplifies the potential of speculative design practice.
Peters, p. 11.
The concept of composition refers to methods of deliberate, outcome-driven traditional architectural practice which include considering proportion, symmetry, balance, style, symbolism, etc. The ornate Swaminarayam Akshardham temple in New Delhi illustrates design via composition: created in congress with 8 sadhus, this traditional composition evinces a direct relationship with its 10,000 year-old Hindu civilization. 22
22 Swaminarayan Akshardham, New Delhi, What is Akshardham < http://akshardham.com> [accessed 14 March 2018].
The temple is laid out according to vastu shastra spatial planning system, and conforms with Hindu temple typology: constructed via trabeated stonemasonry without steel reinforcement, and bedecked in flora, fauna, and Hindu deities. Thousands of skilled craftspeople and volunteers were involved in its construction, and the familiar symbolism speaks a known design language to those who enter. The composition creates for visitors a traditional, architecturally familiar space for contemplation and devotional practice. Recently constructed (2005), this temple represents the enduring role of composition in contemporary cityscapes and design practice.
FIG 17: SWAMINARAYAM AKSHARDHAM TEMPLE, NEW DELHI
Generative design, on the other hand, employs mathematical rules, algorithms, and processes to generate form; focus on formal outcomes is in many ways surrendered, as designers shift focus to the processes of form generation. Parameters of form generation may be determined digitally or naturally or in Neri Oxman’s Silk Pavillion (2013), an interplay of both. The dome is created from 26 subtly varied, parametricallyderived polygonal panels of silk thread laid via CNC router, over which 6,500 live silkworms are unleashed to “3D print” the remaining skin-like surface. 23 No two domes are the same, and tiny variations in the original panels manifest in significant variation of the pattern of the outcome due to silkworm behaviour. The meaning of the Silk Pavillion is procedural, and invites us to contemplate the relationship between nature and artifice, rather than speaking a familiar symbolic language, or conforming to existing compositional cultures. Oxman 23 Mediated Matter, Silk Pavillion < http://matter.media.mit.edu/ environments/details/silk-pavillion> [accessed 15 March 2018].
proposes that this design language is shared, not with the public, but with scientists: “Molecular biologists can now share pieces of the DNA code with designers, for example. It creates a common language that is not only metaphoric but rather explicit.”24 Ceding of control of outcomes to computational algorithms may give rise of the myth of a ‘ghost in the machine.’25 Although AI may eventually reach the singularity - the vertiginous point at which AI will be capable of consciousness and self-generation - at present designers retain control of essential elements of process. In fact, ceding control of outcomes to focus on generation processes is not a new idea: it was integral to Surrealist art and literature. Whereas in Surrealism, inspiration was believed to originate from the 24 Noam Dvir, Neri Oxman is Redesigning th Natural World (Surface Mag, 2016) < http://www.surfacemag.com/articles/neri-oxman-material-ecology/> [accessed 15 March 2018]. 25 Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Robert A. Wilson and Frank C. Keil, eds, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press, 1999), p. 12.
FIG 18-20: SILK PAVILION, NERI OXMAN, 2013
subconscious, in generative design, inspiration (if it can be called that) originates from an external algorithm which can be programmed, for instance to mimic biological process. Generative design offers opportunities to expand design processes, learn from nature, and express freedom of thought, but it also has significant downfalls. It is unclear how digital enthusiasts account for the full costs of digital design and fabrication: high embodied energy in both design and fabrication stages, reliance on gadgets made from a cocktail of unethically-mined and toxic rare earth minerals, e-waste, non-biodegradable resin-based sheet materials derived from fossil fuels, patented commercial monopolyowned tools, and insidious surveillance. These issues seem (hopefully) surmountable, but at present, generative design processes tend to demand far greater natural resources than composed designs, and fail to acknowledge this problem.
Oxman’s Silk Pavilion gives rise to a further question: is it right to enslave animals and nature in the process of creating artefacts for human use? What are the implications of interfering with autonomous self-regenerating natural ecologies? There are opportunities for learning from natural systems, but digital design risks developing that all too familiar human megalomania and dominion complex, in bizarre attempts to exert control over autonomous natural systems which do not want, seek, nor require, human intervention. In particular, we display both megalomania and a dearth of imagination if we can more easily imagine an artificially designed ‘second nature’ 26 of 3D printed coral reefs and bird-boxes assembled from MDF, than imagine a world in which we curb greenhouse gas emissions to levels which allow reefs to regenerate autonomously, and stop chopping down trees to retain natural habitats.
26 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, eds. Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), pp. 1–10 (p. 8)
“You can’t have pleasure in life without skill. But it isn’t an unpleasant task to learn a skill, if the teacher in the first place gets you fascinated with it...You see, you have inspiration but you have to have technique to incarnate, to express your inspiration. That is to say, to bring Heaven down to Earth. Of course they are really one.“ Alan Watts I have started to make peace with computers, curiously, through the lens of deep ecology. All matter and energy in the world is in a constant state of flux, recycling and regeneration, and all forms of life have intrinsic value. We used to believe that humans were separate from nature, yet discoveries about the microbiome recalibrated our understanding of ourselves, blurring boundaries between human and the rest of the world. Similarly, the distinction between artificial and natural worlds is increasingly unclear: computers form part of this world, and the digital realm is an integral part of the giant cycle of life in its present, and probably future, incarnations. I hope to develop skills to use computation to nurture life rather than unnecessarily interfere with it or destroy it. The role of design is one of incarnation and reincarnation: transforming ideas into physical reality and further ideas. Learning digital skills will be challenging, but I look forward to it: technical skills are essential to express an idea through any medium, and can become meditative. Learning to practice a rigorous discipline and developing a rhythm of learning form part of my approach to this project. In this studio I hope to explore paradoxes: virtual and material, deterministic and non-deterministic, ordered and chaotic, spiritual and physical. My project will aim to find ways to explore and transcend these paradoxes, creating spaces for haptic, intuitive, contemplative thought via digital tools. I hope to integrate ecologically sensitive design parameters, and to develop a playful, speculative approach that broadens the sociopolitcial parameters and multiplies the possible futures of the design.
A5 LEARNING OUTCOMES
“The only real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes” Marcel Proust, A la recherche du temps perdu I’ve learned to consider digital design as an emerging field of practice which offers new tools, and suggests new possibilities to designers. These tools offer designers a lot of power, but instead of using tools with brute force, I want to learn how to use them mindfully and meaningfully. Had I known then what I know now, I would have been interested to model and integrate material qualities and natural processes into past projects. For example, one of the projects depicted in Fig. 1 was designed to be constructed from timber; parametric tools would have facilitated modelling the structural capacity of the timber over time, embedding material qualities of timber to determine the optimal size of members, and how interactions with moss and other environmental elements would affect the structure.
FIG.21 EXOBIOTANICA, AZUMA MAKOTO, 2014
REFERENCES Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2013)
Mediated Matter, Silk Pavillion < http://matter.media.mit.edu/ environments/details/silk-pavillion> [accessed 15 March 2018].
Dvir, Noam, Neri Oxman is Redesigning th Natural World (Surface Mag, 2016) < http://www.surfacemag.com/articles/nerioxman-material-ecology/> [accessed 15 March 2018].
Menges, Achim, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 <http:// www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443> [accessed 12 March 2018]
Fondation Louis Vuitton, The Building <http://www. fondationlouisvuitton.fr/en/l-edifice.html> [accessed 13 March 2018] Forensic Architecture, The Gaza Platform < http://www. forensic- a rch itec t u re.org /ca se/t he - g a za-pl at for m/> [accessed 14 March 2018]. Forensic Architecture, Al-Jinah Mosque <http://www. forensic-architecture.org/case/al-jinah-mosque/> [accessed 14 March 2018].
MoMA, Plug-in City: Maximum Pressure Area (New York, MoMA, 2018) < https://www.moma.org/collection/works/797> [accessed 15 March 2018] Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert, eds. Theories of the Digital
in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 (2013), pp. 8-15
Forensic Architecture, Outsourcing Risk, http://www.forensicarchitecture.org/case/outsourcing-risk/ [accessed 14 March 2018].
S AM Schweizerisches Architekturmuseum Jack Self - REAL foundation [YouTube video], 3rd October 2016 < https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlqEifJfybg> [accessed 12 March 2018].
Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford, New York: Berg, 2008), pp. 1–16
Schumacher, Patrik, The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley, 2011), pp. 1-28
Kalay, Yehuda, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5-25.
Swaminarayan Akshardham, New Delhi, What is Akshardham < http://akshardham.com> [accessed 14 March 2018]
Mason, Rowena, ‘Corbyn calls for wage cap on bosses at government contractors’, The Guardian, 11 January 2018, < https://w w w.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jan/10/corbynproposes-maximum-wage-for-all-government-contractors>
Tekla, Fondation Louis Vuitton: A dream come constructable <ht t ps://w w w.tek la.com/references/fondat ion-lou isvuitton-dream-come-constructable> [accessed 13 March 2018]. Wilson, Robert A. and Keil, Frank C eds, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press, 1999), pp. 11-12.
FIGURES Fig 1: Author’s own image, 2016. Fig 2: The Yes Men, New York Times Special Edition (2009) Brian Holmes, ‘The Affectivist Manifesto’ Continental Drift, <https://brianholmes.wordpress.com/2008/11/16/theaffectivist-manifesto/> [accessed 14 March 2018] Fig 3: adapted from ideas in: Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2013) Fig 4: Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper Project, Berlin-Mitte, Germany (Exterior perspective from north), (1921) MoMA, Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper Project, Berlin-Mitte, Germany (Exterior perspective from north), < https://www.moma.org/ collection/works/787> [accessed 14 March 2018] Fig 5: Getty Images, The Shard (n.d.) Allen, Felix, ‘Where is The Shard, is it the UK’s tallest building, what restaurants are there and who designed the London skyscraper?’ The Sun, 4 December 2017 < https:// www.thesun.co.uk/travel/5065043/shard-london-landmarktallest-renzo-piano-restaurants/> [accessed 14 March 2018] Fig.6: Archigram/Peter Cook, Plug In City, (MoMA, 1964)
MoMA, Plug-in City: Maximum Pressure Area (New York, MoMA, 2018) < https://www.moma.org/collection/works/797> [accessed 15 March 2018]
Fig.7: The REAL Foundation, Empire Hotel (2013) Jack Self, Empire Hotel <http://www.jackself.com/empire> [accessed 16 March 2018] Fig.8: Antoni Gaudi, Sagrada Familia Model (n.d.) Author’s own photograph, 2017. Fig.9: Achim Menges, Research Pavilion 2010 (2010) Menges, Achim, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 <http:// www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443> [accessed 12 March 2018] Fig 10: Achim Menges, Research Pavilion 2010 (2010) Menges, Achim, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 <http:// www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443> [accessed 12 March 2018]
Fig 11: Frank Gehry, Fondation Louis Vuitton Model (n.d.) Author’s own photograph, 2017. Fig 12: Frank Gehry, Fondation Louis Vuitton Sketch (2006) Fondation Louis Vuitton, The Building <http://www. fondationlouisvuitton.fr/en/l-edifice.html> [accessed 13 March 2018] Fig 13: Tekla, Fondation Louis Vuitton BIM Model (n.d.) Tekla, Fondation Louis Vuitton: A dream come constructable <ht t ps://w w w.tek la.com/references/fondat ion-lou isvuitton-dream-come-constructable> [accessed 13 March 2018]. Fig 14: Fondation Louis Vuitton Fondation Louis Vuitton, The Building <http://www. fondationlouisvuitton.fr/en/l-edifice.html> [accessed 13 March 2018] Fig 15: Forensic Architecture, Outsourcing Risk (n.d.) Forensic Architecture, Outsourcing Risk, <http://www. forensic-architecture.org/case/outsourcing-risk/> [accessed 14 March 2018]. Fig 16: Forensic Architecture, Al-Jinah Mosque (2017) Forensic Architecture, Al-Jinah Mosque <http://www. forensic-architecture.org/case/al-jinah-mosque/> [accessed 14 March 2018]. Fig 17: Swaminarayan Akshardham Temple, New Delhi Swaminarayan Akshardham, New Delhi, What is Akshardham < http://akshardham.com> [accessed 14 March 2018] Fig 18-20: Neri Oxman, Silk Pavilion (2009) Mediated Matter, Silk Pavillion < http://matter.media.mit.edu/ environments/details/silk-pavillion> [accessed 15 March 2018]. Fig 21: Azuma Makoto, Exobiotanica (2014) Strategy, Johnny ‘Makoto Azuma Uses the Stratosphere as a Backdrop For His Latest Floral Art’ This is Colossal, 22 July 2014 <http://www.thisiscolossal.com/2014/07/makotoazuma-uses-the-stratosphere-as-a-backdrop-for-his-latestfloral-art/> [accessed 14 March 2018] CONCEPTUALISATION 21