“How the Other Half Lives” - Jacob Riis (1890) Jacob Riis’ “How the Other Half Lives” displays the living condition of the New York City slum tenements. In a space of only 350 sqft, 7 to 8 people reside together. Grand Parents, Parents, Uncle and Aunt, and Children all shared the little space sharing culture and ideas.
The transgenerational quality that has been found through this shared space among the three generations was not intended by choice. They were sharing the space and thus, sharing culture and ideas driven by individual poverty and lack of zoning regulations from the city.
The sight of a Bohemian Cigarmakers family in their tenement
The sight of a family making artifical flowers
JANE JACOBS & ROBERT MOSES
Jane Jacobs vs. Robert Moses
Title 1 allowed Robert Moses to demolish and clear selected slums in New York City and rebuild the area with healthier developments.
In early 1900’s, Jane Jacobs’ Proximitiy and Robert Moses’ Slum Clearance movements clashed with different perspectives on what New York City needs in terms of transgenerational qualities.
STUYVESANT TOWN 1942 - 1947
Robert Moses/MetLife - 1940â€™s Stuyvesant Town
Stuyvesant Town is one of the first Towers-in-the-Park developments in New York City led by Robert Moses and MetLife. This PrivatePlublic development was built to provide a healthy living place for the post-war veterans. The development ignores the existing city grid set out by the Commissionerâ€™s Plan of 1811, and creates open spaces and parks.
LINCOLN CENTER 1955 - 1969
Lincoln Center (1955-1969)
The existing community was called San Juan HIl, NYCl. It was originally not included under Title 1 Slum Clearance area; however, the neighborhood was later titled a slum from huge lobbying and planning under the master mind of Robert Moses.
The plan was to create an art performing center to prevent the Middle-Income Population from moving out of New York City into the suburbs.
In order to build Lincoln Center, San Juan Hill, which became a slum, was demolished. The San Juan Hill population was driven out in order to keep the other population in New York City.
Construction of Lincoln Center
The design for Lincoln Center included an European inspired plaza in the center. The plaza was served to encourage transgenerational activities and encounters.
Despite the unpleasant story behind the development, Lincoln Center has grown to be the iconic development of transgenerational quality. Lincoln Center is a now a place of bondage for all races, cultures, and ages, and a cultural necessity for New York City.
WASHINGTON SQUARE 1955 - 1963
Battle Over Washington Square Park (1960â€™s)
Washington Square Park was car-accessible park in New York City before 1960â€™s with bus stops and even parkings available.
Robert Moses planned to run expressways through Washington Square Park to ease the traffic in Lower Manhattan.
Above render is the proposed expressway through Washington Square Park.
Robert Mosesâ€™ plan to run expressways through Washington Square Park has been prevented by activists led by Jane Jacobs and Shirley Hayes.
Washington Square Park is closed off from traffic entirely in 1963. The park is intended to be shared among all three generations sharing of culture and ideas by choice.
CO-OP CITY 1966 - 1973
Co-Op City (1966-1973)
Co-Op City was built over Freedomland, Bronx, which operated from 1960 to 1964. This cooperative housing was supported by Michelle Lama housing law.
The community is the most diverse in culture, age, and races in Bronx, NY except that they were all middle-income population.
United Housing Foundation and Herman Jessor, the architect, built the community in the Towers-in-the-Park style with a lot of opened shared spaces and diverse programs including shopping retails, religious institutions, medican centers, and educational institutions.
Naturally Occuring Retirement Community (NORC)
Many of Towers-in-the-Park residential/cooperative housings that were built during the period of Urban Renewal are turning into NORCs (Naturally Occuring Retirement Communities). The residents who bought the properties during Urban Renewal were young families who have grown into seniors without moving out of their places.
NORCs include Co-Op City and Penn South. Co-Op City is the largest NORC in the United States in population number with 8,500 out of 55,000 of its population is above 62.