ABPL 30048 Studio One Stephen Khalek 538235 tutor: David Lister
expression of interest
a. Case for innovation
b. Design Approach
c. Project proposal
a.1. Architecture as a discourse a.2. Computational architecture a.3. Parametric modelling a.4. algorithmic explorations a.5. conclusion a.6. learning outcomes
B.1. Design focus b.2. case study 1.0 b.3. case study 2.0 b.4. technique: Development b.5. technique: prototypes b.6. technique: proposal b.7. learning objectives and outcomes b.8. algorithmic sketches
c.1. gateway project: design concept c.2. gateway project: tectonic elements c.3. gateway project: final model c.4. learning objectives and outcomes c.5. algorithmic sketches
a. Case for innovation
a.1. Architecture as a discourse
Arguably one of the most important phrases in current architectural practise is the ‘Avant-Garde’. With the allusion to concepts such as critical architecture, the formal typology of tectonic form and most importantly architectural discourse, the term: Avant-Garde, quintessentially captures the constructive feedback loops within architectural communication. At this point, it is crucial to clarify that architectural communication is not limited to constructed projects. Critical communication is also found within unconstructed concepts such as Sant’Elia’s 1914 Futurist manifesto of architecture or El Lissitzky’s 1925 Cloud Hangers1. The value of these will later be discussed in relation to Hill’s coined term of immaterial architecture. Furthermore, architectural communication is also the verbal and written critiques of constructed and immaterial projects in relation to society, culture and history2. Coincidently, this will also form the definition throughout this semester’s exploration for the term architectural discourse.
become well established, if not mainstream architectural practise and therefore demonstrates the value of the Avant-Garde in creating architectural discourse that will benefit the future.
Without critical architecture, discourse is a near impossibility. Schumacher discusses the autonomous, self-constructive network of communication within architecture as an autopoietic system5. He theorises that architecture is a self-perpetuating, heuristic system that is based off an evolutionarily cyclical growth principle. However, if this were to be true, and discourse was non-inclusive of multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional factors, then surely it would be limited by the parameters of its current paradigm. For example, if the field of architecture was constrained by vernacular materiality and techniques we would only be constructing buildings out of bricks, timber and steel, however, with composite development, new forms of concrete, plastics and fabrics have developed and entered the industry through developments in cross-institutional fields. 3 Williams describes the actions of the Following the theory of the closed autopoietic Avant-Garde as a force for moral critique of system, these inputs would have been neglected, however, architectural discourse design. It encapsulates more than the artistic expression of a construct’s typology whilst has learnt to adapt from more wide spanning complementarily critiquing the symbolic realm institutions. Lynn’s radical proposition of and the spatial experience. ‘blobitecture’6 is inclusive of multi-disciplinary thought. Lynn’s suggests a revolution to the The beginnings of this non-superficial ideology architectural movement whereby, form should was discussed by Kenneth Frampton4 who organically respond to its environment and not sought beauty in structure and believed that it to preconceived building mentalities. Lynn’s should not be hidden by an artificial aesthetic work will be revisited in the investigation of skin, which had previously been done. He computational and parametric architecture. explored this throughout the prioritisation of ‘tectonics’ in architecture. This is a case in which a relatively revolutionary paradigm has 5
A.1.1 Precedence Plug-In City (Right) Walking City (Below)
Peter Cook, Archigram 1964
In commerce, a multi-disciplinary change is known as a change to institutional logic7. This occurs when an individual not only draws on their own knowledge but also that of their relevant institution as well as their industry to attempt to be industry leaders. Although this may seem far afield from architecture, Williams8 notes that architecture is not just for the mind of an artist but it is often restrained by clients’ desires and budget, making economic parameters highly relevant to the constructability of architectural projects. Therefore it should be noted that architectural discourse should respect the symbolic realm and spatial experience to produce something more than art. For example, 8th August 2013, HASSELL, Herzog & De Meuron’s proposal won the redesign competition for Flinders Street Station9 and was respected for its architectural integrity. However, the Victorian government has not yet pledged to construct the “$1 to $1.5bn”10 project, therefore questioning the economically viability of the proposal. Although this should never constrain the creativity of any proposal, further justification to the public and cliental (in this case the Victorian State Government) is necessary to justify the cognitive practicality
of the project and to convey the symbiotic practicality11. Unfortunately financial constraints shall always define parameters to design within, therefore, idealistically, the strongest architectural discourse should occur within the bounds of the finances.
Nagakin Capsule Tower
Kisho Kurokawa Tokyo, Jspan, 1972
Archigram’s radical idea proposals are a good summary of Hill’s immaterial architecture12. Although the projects were unconstructed, it was the insemination of ideologies into architectural discourse that allowed future, more refined versions, such as the Japanese metabolist movement to become reality. The process of societal shocking worked as a wake up call. The issues addressed were too invaluable to ignore. However, architects before Archigram addressed similar issues of overpopulation of settlements. Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation and his urban plan for Cité Radieuse offered solutions to the housing crisis in France between 1935-1952. It was Archigram’s radical approach, which allowed them to revolutionise the way in which the public undertook critical analysis of the projects. They had a long lasting affect to the discourse of housing redevelopment in which Le Corbusier could not achieve.
Furthermore, it was Archigram’s movement that laid the building blocks for the Metabolist’s movement with Kisho Kurokawa’s Nagakin Capsule Tower. Although the artistic deliverance may not have been aesthetically ideal, the symbolic importance of a building whose components are interchangeable and expendable once either obsolete or depleted allows for an adaptable environment. Cook13 discusses the value of “mass-produced expendable component dwellings” for the foresight of automated and mass-customised housing arrangements. This is an example of a critically analysed architectural design problem that only an architect who has balanced creativity and cognition could generate to contribute to the architectural discourse14.
a.2. Computational architecture
It is critical to the design process that computational design is integrated within due to the balance of design and pragmatism that will allow an effective design process to unfold to encourage architectural discourse. With the development of computational competencies, avant-garde designers have been able to progress architectural discourse. Williams15 discusses that effective discursive action should be for consumption rather than production. He refers to consumption as the understanding of symbols and signs as well as the consumption of the spatial experience. It is possible to realise that architecture’s modern demands requires symbiosis between these factors whilst maintaining an “aesthetic brilliance”16. Although Kalay mentions, “design is the epitome of intelligent behaviour”17, to fully engage with three such comprehensive topics, computational design has emerged to provide the critical foresight and directionality that is necessary to create a project. It can therefore be argued that the process of computational creation is an extension of our desire to creatively solve problems, as it allows constant monitoring and a reduction of strain on the human intellect to consider the analytical, allowing greater focus to be directed towards creative problem solving.
Considering computation is a relatively nascent introduction to design, in comparison to the expansive history of the architectural field, it is still in early development stages. To bridge the gap between analogue design processes and computational design, computerisation was a stepping-stone but 10
is now often creates blurred definitions. Peters’18 definition for computerisation in architecture stipulates that computers are only integrated into the design process after form and geometric creation has occurred. For example, Frank Gehry’s design for the Guggenheim museum, Bilbao, was generated through a series of rough sketches and paper models that were later scanned in 2D and 3D. This process is useful for fine tuning results and quickly generating images, schematics and working drawings. Alternatively, computational design is purely created on the computer. The computer is utilised to extend the abilities of the designer to deal with highly complex situations19. However, the process of computational design necessitates the generation of code and datasets, requiring the coined term: ‘algorithmic thinking’20. Kalay notes that computation is only viable if a theme and project directionality have been considered and evaluated in depth prior to any initiation21. The complexity of the computational process is eventually beneficial to the designer as it allows for minute detail, unfathomable information storage in he form of data points and sets22 and programming theoretical situations, such as lighting, weather or environmental affects onto the design and testing it before construction23. In total, I believe that this will allow for the construction of more radical and interesting designs that shall aim to test the threshold of the construction and social expectation as theoretical possibilities can be tested digitally and form optimisation can occur to create uncontainable architectural discourse.
A.2.1 Precedence Guggenheim Museum
Bilbao, Spain, 1997
Above: http://www.pixhd.net/travel%20n%20living/View/1/preview15.html Below: http://illustradolife.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/GUGGENHEIM-MUSEUM-BILBAO.jpg
A.2.2 Precedence Grid-Shell Pavilion
City Form Lab & ARUP Singapore, 2013
Computation can be seen in the Singapore pavilion, whereby each piece has been individually manufactured to precise details to construct an eventual optimised geometric mesh surface. This pavilion has used computational processing in multiple stages of its design. Firstly, during the design phase the design team configured the algorithmic processing to account for minimal volume to enclose, and therefore to derive the most efficient surface area, reducing material wastage and making the project more sustainable. Furthermore, the complex form of a double curved surface could only be bent optimally via computation, something that would have nearly been impossible without. Secondly, during the construction phase, since there were over three thousand unique plywood pieces and six hundred marginally different metal sheets, a CNC machine could simply cut and form the structureâ€™s components based off only a single drawing. This whole process
was accelerated exceptionally by computation and demonstrates how the process is a intelligent design system24. Due to the simplicity of construction, this whole project is far more sustainable as it is only designed to be a temporary shelter. This pavilion truly encapsulates Kalayâ€™s thoughts of entering this design process with a formulated goal, which matched the spatiotemporal context of the design problem25. It is critical that light and temporary structures such as this are constructed because it not only tests the bounds of the current architectural constraints but it also demonstrates to the public just how fast discourse is progressing.
a.3. Parametric modelling
Rate of Change in Architecture
When the leading parametric designers in the world struggle to clearly and comprehensively define a term such as ‘parametric’ or, ‘parametricism’, it then becomes evident that there probably is not an easy way to describe it. Based of the progression of architectural communication from analogue architecture, to computerised architecture, progressing into computational architecture and today arriving at parametric design, it is possible to observe two things. Firstly, architecture is rapidly progressing at an exponential rate. The rate in which we have progressed the last three stages is overwhelming to the analogue
architect. Secondly, it’s the growth of the architectural field. With the rate of change in architecture increasing, the fields in which architecture has begun to explore is highly expansive, creating buildings that have multisensory responses, or buildings that have now apparent structural form, returning to the ideas of Greg Lynn’s ‘Blobitecture’26. From the rate of growth and the rate of expansion, we can conclude one thing; architectural discourse has never thrived so prominently.
A.3.1 Precedence Galaxy Soho
Zaha Hadid Architects (ZHA) Beijing, 2012
As the one of Zaha Hadid’s leading architects, Patrik Schumacher undertakes and disseminates his perception of parametric design in a very literal sense of his own parameters; let’s call it ‘Patrametric’ design. Patrametric design assumes that parametricism is its own style rather than a process. Although he may use parameters to constrain his design whilst using algorithmic thought, he breaks the fundamental suggestions for computational architecture put forth by William’s, that critical architecture should be a art, a sign and an urban and social experience. However, when all of the proposals’ form coming from Zaha Hadid’s office are nearly identical, then it becomes increasingly challenging to identify how his architecture is parametric, ergo, the term ‘Patrametric’.
ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion The research pavilion undertakes a detailed parametric model that highlights that aesthetic form is not the key driver towards architectural discourse. This umbrella like formation was a finely tuned and optomised surface in which the tension of the individidually spanning members were under the least strain and could span the greatest distance. Through the process of parametric design and rapid prototyping, it was possible to quickly generate realistic models to test the load bearing capacity of each member. The research pavilion achieves its strength through the varied manipulation of each section. The mesh that controls the 80 different types of sectioned strip patterns, must account for the flexibility of the wood and the way in which they will be laid out, therefore demonstrating a high level of sophistication, thus showing the strengths of parametric modelling.
Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) and the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) at the University of Stuttgart (2010)
a.4. Algorithmic Exploration
The ICD/ITKE Research pavilion demonstrates the strengths of sectioning in Parametric architecture. It allows for the perfect balance of lighting, as design programs can very simply factors this in for any time of the day at any stage of the year, at completely different longitudinal and latitudinal coordinates. This shows how comprehensive the design phase is that it creates a perfectly day lit enclosure. This inspired me to attempt to create something similar in form and an irregular arching canopy. Despite the many methods one might undertake to achieve such a form, I attempted the use of a Delaunay mesh function. However, since this is a triangulation, it does create angled edges rather than curved edges.
a.4. Algorithmic Exploration
There are many advantages of undertaking a parametric and a computational design approach as it is a holistic approach to designing. Firstly, it allows inquiry into deeper fields. Expanding upon this point, it allows architects to focus on the efficiency of the smallest details without losing site of the whole project. Secondly, it creates a unified design process, and this is the element I would like to expand upon. By having a holistic perspective of the design it is possible to integrate all elements. Architectural design should no longer be a production line of idea creation passed to engineers who approve it to be constructed; all three of these steps should be combined. Although it may have once been a farce to conceive that this could happen, it is the most efficient method of design. City Form
& ARUP have clearly demonstrated the streamlining efficiency of combining all factors together in their Grid-shell pavilion. Due to their intelligent tessellation system they can integrate engineering strength with architectural aesthetic and intelligence, then use a CNC machine to manufacture the form. In this design they clearly highlight the structural and aesthetic advantages of tessellated form. Therefore, due to the fundamental nature of the tessellated form, it will be an appropriate system to employ throughout the Expression of Interest: II. Tessellation is a highly relevant field since it is historically well developed and design has centralised around its forms. Therefore, I intend to investigate my own form of discourse to integrate the historic system of tessellation into parametric modelling.
Bibliography 1. Curtis, William, J,R. “Modern Architecture Since 1900.” New York: Phaidon Press Limited. (2012) 2. Hill, Jonathan (2006). ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55 3. Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116. 4. Kenneth Frampton, cited Williams 5. Patrik Schumacher, ‘Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System’, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), pp. 1 - 28. 6. Lynn, Greg (1998) “Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy”, in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), pp. 169182. 7. Thornton & Ocasio, 2008 8. Williams, 2005 9. Carey, Adam. 8th August, 2013. Flinders Street redesign competition won by HASSELL + Herzog & de Meuron. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/flindersstreet-redesign-competition-won-by-hassell--herzog--de-meuron-20130808-2rhou.html. 10. Carey, 2013 11. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25; 12. Hill, 2006 13. Cook, P. 1963. “Editorial” from Archigram 3. 14. Kalay, 2004 15. Williams, 2005 16. Kalay, 2004 17. Kalay, 2004 18. Brady Peters (2013) Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought in Architectural Design, pp8-15. 19. Brady, Peter (2013) Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56 - 61 20. Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 – 15 21. Kalay, 2004 22. Kalay, 2004 23. Peters, 2013 24. Kalay, 2004 25. Kalay, 2004 26. Lynn, 1998
B. EOI II: Design Approach Tessellation
B.1. Design Focus
Tessellation has been a critical form to use within architecture for the creation of uniform strength. Some of the strongest structures, natural or man made resemble tessellated forms. Naturally, the honeycomb structure is a quintessential demonstration of uniform internal structure. The hexagonal pattern, that has replicating equal length members separated and butting to other members with the same 120째 interior angles means that there is no single point that is weaker than another. Furthermore, by replicating the structure with small but many iterations rather than big but few iterations, means that the each member can withstand larger tensile and compressive forces before deformation occurs. Thus justifying the structural advantage of naturally tessellated shapes. However, the adaption of tessellating shapes to create strength is not a new concept. The formulation of truss structures demonstrates the load dispersing capabilities of tessellation. Truss structures are one of the strongest man made structures as it channels loads in compression and tension throughout its members to create an extremely efficient strength to weight ratio.
The self-contained strength possessed within tessellated structures allows the construction of innovative forms. Despite frequent association between tessellation and self-contained strength, we looked further into the properties of tessellation to direct our investigation. In our hope to utilise a tessellated form to create rigid origami, we further plan to leverage the strength of member construction rather than plane or wall construction to integrate the ornamentation of the project. Curtis1 states that the modernist movement attempted to create ornamentation through the exaggeration of industrial metaphors such as chimneys, silos and turbines as seen in Sant’ Elia’s Ciudad nueve as stipulated by his futurist manifesto de architectura in 19122. This was the first step to prioritising the materials and technologies in architectural facades. However, today’s parametric design allows us to create revolutionary and innovative forms that capitalise upon the strength of new materials and technologies. One such technology is the use of lightweight tessellated structures.
This therefore removes the necessity to have a superficial façade with decorative ornamentation and instead gives ornamentation and aesthetic appeal to the structural forms as supposed by Moussavi & Kubo3. For this proposed reason, we believe that the us of parametrically designed, irregular tessellated shapes will create an innovative form and therefore an appealing ornamentation. However, what we hope to achieve is not a regularly tessellating shape with a uniform aesthetic, but instead a parametrically designed form that is malleable to create interactive architecture. The way we hope to achieve this eventual outcome is through the creation of rigid origami. With inspiration from designers such as Tomohiro Tachi, we hope to emulate their form of tessellation and create our own interactive rigid origami for the highway gateway from Wyndham to Melbourne.
Bionic Research Pavilion
The ICD/ITKE Bionic research pavilion 2011 is an exemplification of built tessellated form. This structure develops the idea of tessellation as it mergers hexagons with differing dimensions. Although each iterative cluster is largely varied, the overall form is still relatively linear. This therefore requires closer interaction to be able to appreciate the design intricacies and complexities only achievable through parametric design. Further evidence of parametric modelling becomes apparent as each plywood cluster is perfectly fabricated with finger jointing which traditionally is a sign of intricate craftsmanship, usually reserved for fine detailing of valuable woodwork. However, due to the use of
parametric design coupled with robotic fabrication, this fantastically elaborate tessellated form could be constructed with relative simplicity. This demonstration of tessellations exemplifies the confluence of structure and aesthetic as the finger jointing and the irregular tessellating hexagons show beauty in its fabricationâ€™s complexity. This sophistication is inspiring for creating an eye-catching image and a long lasting appeal. This therefore deserves further exploration into the form finding process. An understanding of how this pavilion is designed should open our perspectives and lead our enquiry into the realm of tessellated assemblies.
B.1. Precedence Aegis Hyposurface
The Aegis Hyposurface designed by dECOi architects is the first example that we examined that exemplified a literal dynamism in its form. The Hyposurface has a pre-programmed visual demonstration that manipulates what appears to be a singular surface, which in fact is a triangulated pattern. With small pneumatic arms, the surface will morph and curve to put on a show that attracts audiences. It is displays such as this which invites people to be intrigued by the design and therefore have a desire to interact. However, the major limitation of the Hyposurface for our design intention is that it only stimulates a visual connection with the user. For our design intent we intend to create a physically interactive
design that will encourage a deeper sensory interaction with the gateway, thus making it far more memorable than a mere visual interaction. However, the Hyposurfaceâ€™s sheened metal means that as the form changes, it is emphasised by the use of lighting. The metal not only reflects light better than other surfaces but also dims the negative spaces to enhance the overall realism of the manoeuvrable surface. The Hyposurface is an inspiring construct for our gateway proposal as it exemplifies the advantages of an interactive and dynamic structure that further manipulates light flows.
B.1. Precedence Resonant Chamber
The Resonant Chamber, designed by rvtr Architects is an inspiring look into the built form of rigid origami. The resonant chamber is a reminder to a childâ€™s chatterbox that will open and close its varying elements. This chamber however, has proposed a much larger scale with visual and auditory benefits. As the robotic envelope opens the acoustic absorption will change to dampen or enhance the auditory pleasure. However, it is the base tessellated form that inspires this idea of the rigid origami form that enables all elements to be fixed, but instead, the jointing system that will manipulate the form. The patterning that is required
within this rigid origami form is extremely complicated but most importantly it inspires a childlike reaction as if it were a chatterbox. Seeing an exaggerated dynamism compared to what was seen in the Aegis Hyposurface does create a greatly elevated interactive ideal to the proposal. Further, instead of just being visually responsive, this rigid origami creates a multisensory reaction, which we hope to further extend when we research and develop our concepts.
Freeform Rigid Origami
Freeform Origami Tesselation
Origami Tesselation Torus
XOR Variation Origami 34
Tomohiro Tachi Japan
Origami Hemisphere http://www.flickr.com/photos/tactom/
It is not only the 2D geometric and tessellating patterns that are intriguing to contribute to our conception of our own tessellated assembly, but also it is the intriguing geometric prisms that result in a 3D form. Tomohiro Tachi’s work into rigid origami using the parametric design program ‘grasshopper’ and the physics-simulating program of ‘Kangaroo’ is unparalleled. His ability to conceive and manipulate forms is, in my opinion, currently at the forefront of the discourse into interactive tessellated forms. Being able to manipulate a surface into a solid in
limitless combinations creates ingenious endless variety in his designs. Often, his proposal of surfaces has little resemblance to what the three-dimensional form will be, therefore creating a pursuing intrigue to track the dynamic changes. Tomohiro Tachi’s freeform rigid origami effectively summarises our intrigue into creating a dynamic structure that heavily integrates the attention of the user and therefore creates an interactive platform for a rewarding design experience.
B.1. Design Focus
P A TTERNING
TE S S E L L A TION
RIGID ORIG A MI
P L A C E M A K ING
ENRI C HMENT
DYN A MI S M
INTER A C TION
From these precedence projects it is possible to associate some of the key attributes of the brief to the different design motifs. We are looking to highlight four elements in our phases of construction.
1. Firstly, that our installation shall be eye catching as a result of the endlessly dynamic form.
2. Secondly, it shall have a sense of place making, enabled through the interactive capabilities of the design. 3. Thirdly, the design shall enhance its physical environment by creating an aesthetically intriguing design through formwork inspired by rigid origami.
“EYE CATCHING INSTALLATION... THAT INSPIRES AND ENRICHES THE MUNICIPALITY”
“ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT THROUGH THE INTRODUCTION OF A VISUAL ARTS COMPONENT” INSTRUMENT BY ONE USER
“ACCESSIBLE TO A WIDE PUBLIC AND SHOULD EXPLORE PLACEMAKING ASPECTS AND QUALITIES” INSTRUMENT BY ONE USER
“HAVE LONGEVITY IN ITS APPEAL, ENCOURAGING ONGOING INTEREST IN THE WESTERN INTERCHANGE” Wyndham City Gateway project guide
4. Fourthly, the design shall have longevity in its appeal as a result of the modernist ideology that proposes to merge the strong tessellated form with the ornamentation of the design, removing superficial components of the design, making it functionalist.
These four attributes shall be explored throughout our case study 1.0 and 2.0 as well as throughout the technique development, prototyping and proposals. We can therefore converge our design focus to exemplify the following: “We intend to utilise tessellated forms to explore rigid origami patterns with the intention of creating a dynamic and interactive project for the Geelong highway gateway from Wyndham to Melbourne.” 37
B.2. Case Study 1.0 Voltadom
However, before constructing our own tessellated structure it was critical that we firstly manipulated pre-existing forms to attempt to understand the parametric design process of a tessellated structure. It would be counterintuitive and counterproductive to be ignorant of previous parametric tessellated forms as discourse can only occur once an understanding of the relevant design field has been achieved. The VoltaDom installation by Skylar Tibbits is a creation that is emulative of historically vaulted ceilings of cathedrals (Design Playground citing, 2013). Fitting to the metaphor of tessellating shapes, VoltaDom mergers doubly curved but individual parabolic shapes with smallscale iterations to develop an outcome that plays with the notion of uniform tessellation. As before mentioned,
the preconceived mentality towards tessellation is that it must be uniform to minimise points of weakness. However, this ornamented element of individual vaults demonstrates a high level of parametric modelling as each element specifically and purposefully ties in together whilst the design explores the differences between the length of the conjoining members, the radius of the vault, the height of each vault and the oculus (the penetration through the material) contained in specific vaults. This therefore made for an interesting case study to analyse in our attempt to create a tessellating form that tends towards creating rigid origami.
B.2. Case Study 1.0 Voltadom
Demonstration of Species E
Demonstration of Species F
The fundamental principle behind the VoltaDom algorithmic definition is that it measures the interaction between two layers of overlapping cones. When the base layer meets the upper layer, then a horizontal section is cut, removing the top of the cone, creating an oculus. When these cones are multiplied over a seeded plane, the cones begin to interact, and it is this interaction that allows the flowing vault like structure of Skylar Tibbitsâ€™ project. The initial exploration for VoltaDom was investigating the differences between separate (species A) and conjoining (species B) conical shapes. This allowed us to investigate the clustering affect of the interactions. For example, in species B, to interact, there needed to be more than 45 seeds to the pattern, resulting in a higher density of cones before any interactions occurred. Species C, investigated the affect of increasing the seed patterns and the manipulation of cone size, and species D manipulated the oculus size. The affect of species E was achieved through manipulating the inputs. Instead of having two layers of cones, instead, it was rearranged to be a cone with the
restraints of a cylinder. This affected the penetrations, changing the sloping penetrations to clear-cutting vertical penetrations. This created a lot more form segmentation, but also generated many more interesting shapes. In species F, we experimented with the overlapping of base geometric forms to create pockets of increased density. The process simply mapped the same cones into a smaller space, resulting in a higher concentration of cones in the centre, creating a dispersing affect as tending away from the centre. From this matrix, we learnt the ways in which the interactions vary within the VoltaDom Project. Most critically, this project exemplified a built form of nonuniform tessellations. This is the first step in progressing into rigid origami, as we now know that we do not have to have conventionally built patterns in order to construct our architecture. This will allow us to explore into a new and innovative range of design solutions.
B.3. Case Study 2.0 Bionic Research Pavilion
The VoltaDom project by Skylar Tibbits introduced us to the practices of tessellating irregular shapes to create parabolas, however, the learning outcomes were limited by the restrictions of the pre-constructed definition. Through analysis of the Bionic research pavilion it was possible to decipher different methods to analyse the composition of a built form. Therefore, case study 2.0 will firstly look at prioritising the variability between each cluster. Secondly, we will focus on the accurate recreation of the hexagonal form. The first attempt to create the Bionic research pavilion tracked the development of a 2D surface that was
populated with a voronoi component and then when the centresâ€™ of the voronois were found, then a metaball component was integrated as the foundation for creating the oculus. Once this was achieved, the overall pattern was mapped to a 3D lofted surface. As mentioned above this created a reasonably varying result that still tessellated and had an oculus within each tessellation. However, the limitation of this design process was that the process of mapping a 2D geometry to a 3D surface resulted in a curved 2D surface. This means that there is no volume to the shell and without depth, such a concept would be not be constructible.
B.3. Case Study 2.0 Bionic Research Pavilion
Therefore, we investigated the construction of the Bionic research pavilion through the process of morphing. This allowed us to create a true tessellation and repetitive pattern, compared to the random formation of a voronoi component. As we changed the base geometry as an input we began to find more success in morphing geometries to a lofted surface. Although mapping and morphing seem relatively similar, morphing allowed us to create 3D base geometries that could be recreated multiple times and would be fit to a distorted grid across the lofted surface. This meant that although there was a singular geometry as an input, due to the transformation there was still variation within the tessellated design outcome. By the third attempt, we had found a base geometry that fit well with the morphed surface and it allowed us to begin our
further investigation into the varying techniques. Although the morphing technique was a stronger way of recreating the Bionic research pavilion, it was still limited by the lack of variety. However, it does allow us to progress towards the image of creating a rigid origami pattern as the input patterns begin to become more interesting, as will be discussed in the technique development. The process of case study 2.0 allowed us to investigate some of the properties of tessellation. We learnt that it would be possible to alter some of the properties to distort a simple input geometry to create a varied design, however, the idea of a dynamic design had not yet emerged.
B.4. Technique: Development Morphing Technique
Throughout our technical development we further investigated the technique of morphing. As we had yet to find an idea that allowed the exemplification of dynamism and interaction within our design, we began to observe the consequence of each base geometry housing the dynamic elements within and the tessellation as the basis of the structure. By using geodesic mapping we could find more efficient paths over the surface that we could then apply the box morphing technique. The generative outcomes began to track the development of plausible dynamic elements. However, investigation into the constructability of each type of base geometry was necessary. This led us to investigate base geometric forms through prototyping to find the most practical geometry before we could continue the parametric design process. Prototyping was necessary as the base geometryâ€™s ability to hold the dynamic elements of the model may limit the design outcomes and therefore directly affect the form or the box morphing technique that we would use.
B.5. Technique: Prototypes Tessellated Base Geometric forms
The first stage of prototyping encouraged the exploration into base geometric form. Through observing patterns conducive to tessellation based off Tomohiro Tachiâ€™s rigid origami, we began to create structures that, if hinged correctly, could open to allow the integration of light into the structure. Although appearing to only be a minute element to the design, the base geometric form will determine the limitations of the construct and the parameters of movement. For example, on the left, this repetitive triangulated structure would allow our base geometric
form to undertake a triangulated mesh, something similar to what was seen in the Aegis Hyposurface design. The second prototype investigated the use of a hexagonal 2D geometry. Despite, the overhang of the star-like prisms, the edges will form a hexagonal base, suggestive of the technical development seen earlier.
B.5. Technique: Prototypes Exploring Dynamism
However, it became apparent that the design would largely be constrained by the directionality of the folding system. If the proposed hexagonal system was constructed then it may not be able to fold out, whereas having a central pivot point proved to be extremely challenging to construct to be structurally stable.
B.6. Technique Proposal
From what was learnt throughout our analysis of the VoltaDom project, the recreation of the ICD/ITKE Bionic research pavilion 2011, the investigation into mapping and then into box morphing and eventually base geometry development, we were able to converge on the design aspiration: â€œWe intend to utilise tessellated forms to explore rigid origami patterns with the intention of creating a dynamic and interactive project for the Geelong highway gateway from Wyndham to Melbourne.â€? To create a sophisticated and holistic concept it is critical that each cornerstone element is individually analysed and assessed for practicality. Intractability creates memorable longevity. As discussed in the Aegis Hyposurface and the Resonant chamber, the audience can appreciate and be entertained by a dynamic experience. The concept of having a movable and interactive structure in architecture is still something nascent. As the forefront of tessellation, we propose to create a tessellated geometric form that has elements that are manually moveable by its audience. For example, if the interior chamber has a series of pulley systems, as explored in our previous modelling, which allows the movement of
panels, a positive imprint is more likely to be embedded on the minds of our users. By creating a multi-sensory reaction for our users, we are more likely to create a project of meaningful significance that we leave a lasting impression compared to a simply visual reaction. With a stronger lasting impression for the users of our gateway, people are more likely to create an association between the gateway and Wyndham, otherwise unseen in many non-interactive highway projects throughout Victoria. However, there has to be an appealing element to motivate the initial interactions with our gateway project. The brilliance of pivoting prisms or geometries will allow the illumination of the interior with shadows and streams of light dependent on time of day and how many panels are open. However, with appropriately sized panels, this will not just create an affect for internal users but as the geometries open, they will allow panels to emerge to the exterior. As planned, each geometry will have a single pulley system to be operated and the systems will be able to be locked open or closed. As there will be multiple iterations of the geometries allocated by the process of box morphing, there will be close to endless combinations of open and closed geometries.
B.6. Technique Proposal
For example, on a three by four grid of hexagonal geometries, we have laid out nine possible combinations of opened and closed elements; however, this is nine out of a possible 1,495 different combinations. If there were a new combination each day, this would total to over 11 years of variable designs. Returning to dynamism creating and preserving interest in a design, we believe that the possible variations that could be demonstrated will create an eye catching interest, especially for road users who often travel the same
way each day. This has the potential for creating place making as people can drive past and attempt to notice in a glimpse, the variations within the puzzle like geometries. As they do this, an association will begin to be constructed, consciously or subconsciously that associates the dynamic tessellated geometric structure as the iconic gateway for the city of Wyndham.
B.6. Technique Proposal
Returning to conclude about the base geometric forms, we propose the geometry to be a pivotal hinge system. Through the stages of prototyping, we discovered this to be the most effective solution that has the potential to account for weight distribution. Depending on where the hinge will be located, it is possible that the system can have a near 50-50% weight distribution, meaning that minimal effort would be required to
open or close the geometric forms. This would allow it to be appropriate for all age groups. One consideration that will have to be undertaken in the construction of such a system is the possible danger to young children who may be tempted to climb the pulley systems, thus requiring them to have a high factor of safety and weight bearing tolerance.
B.7. Learning Objectives & outcomes Post Mid-Semester Presentation
In summary of the EOI:II, the process of developing the gateway project has heavily investigated and explored at range the possibilities of tessellation as a system, the patterning derived from rigid origami and the dynamic interface. It has observed many precedence projects which has greatly aided the development of the design solution. In response to the mid-semester presentation, it was a good opportunity to show case our design focus, concept and proposal and receive the relevant feedback. Constructively, we intend to continue into part C of the report with a few strong focuses. Firstly, we hope to showcase a working model of our chosen form of geometry. As demonstrated above we have decided on a hinging system to emulate the dynamism seen in rigid origami. Secondly, once we have set the parameters of the base geometry, such as how far each cluster can open, how much light they will let through and the movement system, it will then be possible to refine the form to be contextually responsive. This was not possible to investigate before since it would have been misinformed, and as previously mentioned, discourse is unlikely if one is ignorant of current design limitations. The form shall be responsive to the site context. Thus far we have planned to be on site B which has access from the petrol station, however, that will bring
about possible design conflicts; if this is a gateway project that children will especially fancy, we should consider how safe the environment would be for them. Furthermore, if the cluster movement system (whether it be pulleys or some alternate mechanism) should be easy enough for children to use but not to harm themselves. These are new and real parameters that should not be ignored in an effective design solution, and is something to highly consider. However, with the investigation into tessellating shapes, my parametric designs skills a developing, however, it is confined to a relatively small spectrum of concepts, which makes learning more complex solutions far more challenging. For instance when attempting to create a rigid origami structure the definitions became very intricate very quickly. When attempting to find resolutions to this problem on forums, I found that due to my narrow knowledge of the expansive range of tools, that leaders in rigid origami, such as Tomohiro Tachi, had undertaken completely different methodologies. Nonetheless, I am certainly feeling far more confident in my intrigue and my experimentation is becoming more successful, far more frequently, which will hopefully allow for the development of our structureâ€™s form.
B.8. Apendix - Algorithmic Sketches 3D Voronoi Pattern
Data Tree Analysis
Whilst proceeding with the progression of the Gateway project it was crucial to constantly innovate and think of new ways to construct a suitable form for construction. Throughout this process the was experimentation into creating 3D Voronoi shapes with the intention of curving them to a surface which proved to be a lot more challenging than previously thought. Also, an investigation was undertaken that integrated the use of geodesic surfaces to optimise the lofted surface and then the paths were piped and the intersections were constructed as points to have piping circle them. This was an early thought process of con-structing a suitable surface for the tessellated form, however, it was unsuccess-ful due to the static nature of the form.
Options for Patterning
B. Bibliography 1. Curtis, William, j.r. (2013) Modern Architecture since 1900. Pp. 330-350 2. Curtis, 2013 3. Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornamentation (Barcelona:Actar), pp. 5-14. 4. http://www.dezeen. com/2011/10/31/icditke-research-pavilionat-the-university-of-stuttgart/ 5. http://www.raphaelcrespin.com/ works/11-05-2/ 6. http://www.archdaily.com/227233/ resonant-chamber-rvtr/ 7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ tactom/ 8. http://www.evolo.us/architecture/ voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/
C. Project Proposal
C.1. Gateway Project Design Concept
The mid-semester critical evaluation of our interactive tessellated structure identified form, materiality and constructability as areas that required development to contribute to the successful generation of our final concept. In part C of this report, I shall demonstrate how our team explored the ideas proposed throughout the critique, show how we generated conceptual solutions to each element and then demonstrate how we converted the digital concept into a practical project through the prototyping of the final model. Our intent was to use the guidelines of the critique and pair them with our initial design intentions that were prescribed by Wyndham council. These specifically intend to develop our project to suffice the following requirements: To be; eye-catching, place making, visually artistic, inspiring and enriching, accessible, constructing longevity, and enhancing the physical environment.1 In summary of what is to come, we created a 120m long and 20m wide highway structure that intends to be 68
located on site B. We intend that the operable clusters will create a desire for people to interact with the structure. They will be able to see their affect to the dynamic structure through our use of selective panelling and a form that encourages circulation through and around the structure via the undulating sides that sporadically touch the ground. The integration of colour into each panel will add depth to an otherwise onedimensional design proposal. The choice to use selective panelling was inspired and abstracted from Benjamin Gilbertâ€™s work with the Agency of Sculpture and our substructure form and materiality was inspired by Tom Wiscombeâ€™s Dragonfly project. The combination of the panelling and substructure creates a sleek form that intends to grow and emerge out of the ground as drivers approach the instalment. It will continue to make a lasting impression as they will observe the human interaction with the dynamic form and they can appreciate the changes no matter how frequently they pass the instalment.
C.1. Gateway Project Form finding
At the end of EOI:II we had arrived at the design concept of tessellated assemblies and decided upon interactive modular elements that fit into a fixed substructure. However, the overall form was undecided and this was especially highlighted during the crit. Although it would be apparent in most design processes that form be at the forefront of the design process, due to the advantages of parametric design as specified by the MacLeamy curve2. (Look for the map of the design process from week 1 or whatever) we were able to reprioritise the design phase to suit our needs. We chose our modular elements to be the controlling factor of our design, so that form would follow function. To reiterate, the intractability of our structure intends to create a more memorable experience for users, who in turn will retain a longer lasting positive association to Wyndham. However, if we prioritised the form, we may have had to sacrifice some elements of intractability. Since the modules were to be a design parameter, the form had no choice but to celebrate the modules without subtracting from their ability to function successfully. Our initial form finding process was relatively abstract and therefore was not constricted by parameters. However, as we developed our form, we realised the necessity to set and adhere to parameters. Therefore the following
informal parameters were established: The form must house hexagonal modules; all modules must be operable from the interior; no module should overlap onto another; and the modules shall not be inhibited from opening to a 90째 angle. In turn this meant that our team rationalised our form finding process to focus on functionality and our ability to service our users. We further looked into the elements of site circulation, interactions with the interior space and external perception of the design to control our form creation. We believe that the form proposal achieves the following: - Circulation: raised sides for movement - Internal affect: long structure for lasting affect with selective panelling to allow users to appreciate the affect of their interactions - External affect: Streamlined and emerging structure at 100km/h whereby drivers can observe people interacting with the instalments interior creating intrigue Accounting for these factors would maximise the visual affect and the purpose of the overall form.
C.1. Gateway Project Design Concept
C.1. Gateway Project Substructure
Once we had concluded upon a desirable form, our team needed to formulate a method of designing the substructure. For this, we looked to Tom Wiscombe and partner Buro Happold whose work its highly tessellated and organically inspired. Wiscombe creates his morphology through biomimicry and biomorphology of organic structures in parametric design programs. In SCI-Arc’s 2007 installation of Dragonfly3 Wiscombe mimics a dragonfly’s wings. He appreciates the cell density, cell shape and cell depth that defines the aerodynamic properties, mechanical
strength, composite performance and structural lightness of the dragonfly’s wings. As he adapts this to his structure and changes the materials, the properties of his structure are likely to change, requiring incremental alterations to prevent structural elements buckling or collapsing. Due to the size of our intended instalment, our team sought similar properties. Despite the Dragonfly project only measuring 15.2m and therefore only 12% of size of our instalment, it required the aggregation of the strength of the cells to offer optimal strength. We appreciated that we would have to minimise the weight of the structure and maximise the
Tom Wiscombe & Buro Happold DragonFly
strength of each cluster to make such a large structure self supported. However, in Wiscombeâ€™s Dragonfly he was able to be flexible in the use of panelling, as his priority was attempting to create uniform strength through biomimicry. Alternatively, we were restricted by our necessity to install operable hexagonal clusters in many of the cells, therefore requiring a change to our design path in order to design a non-collapsible structure. In turn, this became advantageous, as we were able to capitalise on the uniform strength of the honeycomb patterning to allow for the constructability of our instalment to be simplified.
C.1. Gateway Project Substructure
Tom Wiscombe & Buro Happold DragonFly
In Dragonfly, the substructure was fabricated in 4â€™x8â€™ aluminium sheets through a CNC milling machine. We wanted to use the same type of construction and therefore intend to use CNC milling in the actual construction of our instalment. Instead of using aluminium, we intend to use structural stainless steel for its reduced malleability and therefore increased strength capacities. However, for prototyping purposes we used CAM
card cutters and laser cutters to construct our boxboard prototype that aims to recreate the properties of the steel cells. This will later be demonstrated in our prototyping construction. The use of CAD/ CAM demonstrates a simple and logical process for manufacture as all elements were digitally unrolled and cut straight to sheeting. This will allow us to accurately convert our parametrically designed surface into a real prototype.
Dragonfly unrolled & Cut
Wyndham Module unrolled & Cut
C.1. Gateway Project Scale & Site
At the mid semester presentation, the critiquing panel recommended that along with form, we focus our efforts on scaling and siting our instalment. There were two controlling factors, the first being visibility and the second being accessibility. Without a combination of the two, the instalment could not fulfil its function to be a representative gateway for Wyndham. Therefore we felt the only way to gauge the necessity for scale and site positioning was to experience the site through the perspective of our users. By first driving past the location, we experienced how much viewing time we were allowed and how visible the various sites were. Secondly, by stopping at the petrol station and walking the lengths of the different sites, it was possible to gauge the necessity of the scale required for the project and also how people would interact with the instalment once sited. Whilst passing the various sites at 100km/h, it was possible to deduct that we would have approximately 20 seconds from the start of site C until the end of site A (travelling North-East towards Melbourne). We also wished to account for the viewing from afar and found that site B offered the longest range of viewing down the freeway. This also offers to justify Caltexâ€™s choice to site their petrol station there, proving it would be an effective choice to site our instalment. We wish people to easily and safely access the instalment and therefore we
concluded that site B would also offer the best protection, as it was easy to access from the adjacent petrol station. However, once on site we realised the expansiveness of the 230m long and 140m wide site. Our criteria prioritised the visual maximisation of the instalment, which made scale important. To be an effective gateway we proposed implementing an imposing structure. Measuring 60m in length and widening to 20m we felt confident our form would offer an imposing scale. For the height we wanted to balance the need to operate the modules which reduced the height and the necessity to be viewed which would increase the height. Therefore we made the height increase relative to the increase in width, rising to 5m high. However, when we covered our proposed form in the modules we acknowledged that the project would be financially infeasible to cover a 60m structure in operable modules and it would also be visually overwhelming. If we increased the seeding of the modules, then the instalment would have been too complex to operate. Alternatively, if we increased the size of each module (which already stood at 200cm diameter each) then the construction methods and materials used would become obsolete as they would not be strong enough. We therefore brainstormed ideas to attain a large-scale instalment without sacrificing constructability.
Benjamin Gilbert Agency of Sculpture
In Benjamin Gilbertâ€™s lecture on public art and sculpture he presented an array of projects undertaken by the Agency of Sculpture that suggested an illusion of form. Many of their sculptures are naturalistic but leave an element of creativity as much of the art is only partially covered rather than massed in its construction. This is clearly demonstrated in Pole Vault, a dynamic pole-vaulting sculpture inspired by the commonwealth games and Brumby, which is sited at Mt Hotham. Coupling partially covered structures with rough construction finishes; the sculptures may at first appear unfinished but instead encourages user intractability by letting the mind fill in the gaps. In both examples he laid a substructure which generally defines the dynamism in the form and then adds panelling to some surfaces to enhance the portrayed image. We found this to be an inspiring design concept and hoped to abstract the idea of utilising a complete substructure and partially panelling it with modules. In our attempt to do this we needed to look at
varying panelling options. However, we also wished to respond to one of our mid-semester critiques that encouraged the users inside to be able to see what changes they are making to the exterior and people driving past would be able to see how people on the interior were affecting the openings of the panels. Whilst our overall form offered a raised sides to allow people to observe users on the interior, we found that selective panelling would allow users to see through the substructure to see how their alterations changed the structureâ€™s form. This development intends to better engage the users interactions and allow an appreciation for the dynamism of the structure. Furthermore, as mentioned before, in order to construct an imposing large scale instalment we thought that selective panelling would offer a cost-effective method of construction that would create greater incentive to the City of Wyndham to value our design proposal.
Design Concept Modules
By subdividing the hexagonal modules into six equilateral triangles we could effectively lay Perspex on the underside of each module. This would offer reinforcement to the structure and offer an effective way to install colour into our design whilst still prioritising intractability and form. The integration of the Perspex will require
a layered approach. Firstly, to each hexagonal cell, each of the six corners would require a bracket. On top of the bracket will sit a single six-pointed steel star with a circular hole in the middle that would allow the nylon cord to be drawn through. Next, the Perspex can be attached to the upper side of the steel star with the nylon cord running over the top.
Module Detail Topside
Module Detail Underside
C.1. Gateway Project Materiality
It was key to our design that colour was not just an after thought but instead an integral element and a new dimension. Throughout our experimentation we explored various arrangements of colour. We soon realised that if we prioritised colour for the driver that our interior users would be neglected of the experience. Considering the interior users are already the most interactive, we wanted to reward that by allocating the light to come inside. This would further create an element of mystery for the drivers who would be able to see glimpses of light through the selective panelling and the raised centre. If all panels were shut at an instance this would heighten the sense of surprise even more as the drivers would only experience the vibrancy of the colours once passing the structure. This, in the 100km/h eye, would change the whole perception of the structure as it would appear to be a monochromatic plywood form until there was a flood of colour, hence creating a startling appearance.
In our initial experimentation into interactive modules, we were looking at multiple design systems that would move in two or more ways. With the critical analysis of the mid semester presentation, we were recommended to constrict our span of dynamic elements and focus on one. This would be advantageous as it would create a more practical system for construction and an overly complex system would be incomprehensible at 100km/h. As we refined the moduleâ€™s form we also merged the design recommendation of integrating colour to excite the users. As we developed
the modules, we agreed that integrating colour variation between modules would increase excitement for the users, stimulating a more rewarding response as they a bathed in coloured light. However, once constructed, it proved challenging to rotate the modules as there was too much friction and the turning force was too small. Therefore, we would recommend that a puilley and rolling track system (as seen on the right) should be installed to assist both of these elements to make the modules open with ease.
C.1. Gateway Project Materiality
Steel Structural Framing
As discussed above, materiality and colour are closely intertwined on this instalment. There are three main components that construct the layers of this instalment. The steel substructure has critically been chosen for its strength without relevance to the colour, however it does complement the green-blue Perspex arrangement. The Perspex layerâ€™s main purpose is aesthetic, however, it shall also provide some weather protection as it spans a large surface area across the selected modules. Finally the outer plywood layer has been chosen for lightness of material but good strength to
weight ratio. The plywood would need to need to be sealed and varnished before being installed to preserve the longevity of the instalment and minimise latter maintenance costs that the Wyndham city council would have to endure. Other basic components would also be required in the construction. These would include nuts, bolts and hinges to attach the plywood panels to the steel. Also the panels would open through nylon cord.
C.1. Gateway Project Design Definition
As discussed above, the choice of our structureâ€™s form was dictated by our manually assigned parameter to prioritise the intractability of the modules over the priority of form. Nevertheless, within this parameter we attempted to create the most aesthetically pleasing form that appears to emerge from the ground but also maximises the visibility of the interior at a 100km/h view and allow visibility to the exterior. These parameters controlled our design for the form which were a series of lofted surfaces.
From here we subdivided the surface into a hexagonal grid system. This was carefully controlled to regulate the sizes and shapes of the hexagons. Even though each hexagon is slightly differentiated, we required the hexagons to follow a relatively regular form so that we fit our modules to the interior. This was controlled by the amount of rows and columns that we had. We chose a 10 x 44 grid pattern in order to limit the maximum cell size to slightly over 200cm. This meant that we could use the same construction method for all of the cells. If the cells were any larger, we would have had to consider methods of reinforcement and redesign our pulley system to account for added module weight.
We then had to design a system that would allow the modules to be parametrically operable. From our prototyping we found that operating the modules would already be challenging. So, whilst we intended to preserve the hexagonal cell form, we subdivided them into six individual triangles that meet in the centre of the hexagon and open to the exterior. This meant that we would never have any conflict between triangles as they opened. This triangulated system allows precise fabrication and construction.
In order to operate the triangulated hexagons a definition was created that assured no overlap and precision opening. Resultantly, we could control the opening of each hexagon’s triangles between 0° – flat position and 90° – fully open system. The parameter was set to 90° to ensure that two adjacent systems would touch when fully open. This will reduce the chance of misuse of the system once constructed.
C.1. Gateway Project Design Definition
One concern that we raised throughout this design process was towards the alteration to the visual attractiveness of the structure as its modules were opened and closed. Although we designed the initial form, where all modules are closed, to be visually pleasing, until this stage we did not precisely know what the appearance would be once the modules had opened. We therefore, were able to integrate a definition that would allow us to select an array of modules and open them to varying degrees. This meant that we could quickly create various patterns to appreciate a multitude of visual affects.
Although the earlier part of the definition assisted us creating a visual affect, it was only a massed visual affect. We needed to create a system that was for to each specific cell. We therefore added the definition to the left which allowed us to capitalise on the advantage that no two cells are identical. This meant that we could open and close each cell and test its validity as a component in the overall definition.
A problem that arose with this definition was that each cell may be able to operate parametrically in Grasshopper, however, when it came to fabrication, the triangulated panels may not have been able to open as there would have been limited space. In this part of the definition we accounted for a factor of safety. These components allow a steel six-sided star to be installed into each substructure. Their intention is to offer a resting platform for the triangulated modules. These computer machined elements offered tremendous rigidity to the structure but also allowed access to the elements of each module. We also had to consider that if this were to be constructed, that it would have to be maintained. This system offers a chance for maintenance crews to interact with faulty or failed systems. If the instalment can be maintained then we could ensure the longevity of the structure and continual intractability, preventing dilapidation and the formation of a negative association to the instalment and therefore the city of Wyndham.
Thus far, the grasshopper definition of our substructure has only prescribed a two dimensional plane. In order to construct our system we needed to offset the substructural steel framework. Based from what we learnt from Tom Wiscombeâ€™s Dragonfly instalment we concluded to design the offset to be 250mm in depth, however this could easily be altered with further testing. 89
C.1. Gateway Project Final Design Definition
C.1. Gateway Project
Design Definition Rendered Outcome
The modular variations were a crucial aspect to our design. Hence the reason we wanted to show so many differing views throughout our design definition. We wanted to ensure that each iteration and variation of openings would create a differing aesthetic appeal. With our graded colour system and ability to open the modules to varying degrees there is an assurance that no two viewings will be exactly the same. As seen in the renders to the left, we can experience a completely streamlined structure that is
relatively monochromatic, only exposing the closed plywood modules and the steel substructure. Alternatively as the modules are progressively more altered, the structure deviates more from its original streamlined form to unveil an embellished design of a vibrant graded colour system.
C.2. 1:50 Scale model Fabrication - Substructure
Initially we had to fabricate the offset steel mesh substructure. Once we had completed the design definition as specified in C.1, we could then begin preparation for fabrication.
We then extracted the surfaces of the hexagon by unrolling the structure. We chose to extract columns rather than individual hexagons for strength in the construction. This allowed us to have double thickness boxboard in place to support each hexagon.
15 13 14
Following, we identified where each element would need to bend and placed a score mark to allow precision in construction.
All the striped surfaces were laid out and numbered so we could match our construction drawings to each printed element. This was then sent to the card cutter. This was cut on 1.5mm box board and the reinforcing edges were cut to 3mm box board.
C.2. Gateway Project
Fabrication - Hexagon modules
We also had to fabricate the 1:50 modules to fit to the interior of the substructure.
We first had to abstract each individual module.
The modules were then unrolled so that they could fit to the surface of the substructure.
The unrolled modules were then numbered and placed on boards to be sent to the card cutter. This was cut on 1mm screenboard.
We first attempted to cut some of the elements using the student card cutter, however due to a blunt blade it was tearing at the finer corners, especially on the screenboard and therefore sent the components to the FabLab cutter for a more precise finish.
Once the elements were cut, we could begin construction. We first printed a 1:50 A0 page with the plan view image so we knew where each element matched. Then, each printed strip was held in place with paper clips.
Using a glue gun we undertook the timely process of gluing and sticking each double thickness steel structure first to each other and then to a thickened edge piece and base.
Although we printed the 1:50 modules, we found due to the insufficient structural integrity of the box board, we did not have sufficient strength between the strips to be able to construct a fully rigid structure. Therefore, the hexagons did not perfectly match and therefore could not fit. Although this was a problem when constructing our box board model, at a 1:1 scale, the structural steel that would be used would not offer any torrsion and therefore would allow the modules to be precisely installed. This stood true with our construction 1:5 detail, there was sufficent structural strength. 96
C.2. 1:50 Scale model Fabrication
C.2. 1:5 Detail model Fabrication
Similar to the process for the 1:50 model, we first picked the structure that we wanted to create.
We then extracted the modules. For the 1:5 detail, so that we could effectively demonstrate our proposal we constructed the hexagons to be regular and on a flat plain for the most effective method of proposal, however, at 1:1 scale, each module would slightly differ.
The modules were then extracted and unrolled into their components. This comprised of the replicated steel star and steel strips to be constructed from 3mm box board and the modules to be constructed from 1mm screen board.
Once cut, the net of the modules could be folded up an glued. A pillar drill was then used to drill the holes for the hinges, this constructikon attempted to emulate realistic construction techniques that are relevant for the material. However, due to the flammable nature of our replica material instead of welding our components, we used a hot glue gun.
The hinges were then bolted to the modules and to the steel substructural frame.
The modules were all folded on their score lines and the two half modules were glued together and reinforced with an exterior structural bracket, as well as the interior structural bracket intended for the sixsided star to be adhered.
The holes for the nylon cord was drilled above each hinge to maximise the turning moments. Two pieces of nylon cord were installed on each module opening to reduce force needed to open the module and increase stability whilst opening. We used scaled 4.5kg 0.12mm nylon fishing line.
1:5 Detail model Fabrication
C.3. Gateway Project Final Model
C.3. Gateway Project 1:500 Site Map
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C.3. Gateway Project
1:250 Contoured Site Map
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C.3. Gateway Project
Final Model Vector Line Drawing
**Note: Height: 5m
1:5 Detail Scale model
C.3. Gateway Project 1:5 Detail Scale model
C.3. Gateway Project 1:50 Scale model
C.3. Gateway Project Day & Night time renders
C.4. Learning Objectives & Outcomes
The final presentation to the critique panel was a collaboration of our work to date. Our final proposal seemed to be well received and the critiquing panel positively responded to our integration of many of their previous ideas. Overall, their mid-semester critique was critical for our further investigation as their insight provided us with a clear direction in which we chose to proceed. We were able to create a solution that pertained a lot more depth and holisim than what our previous design path would have dictated. This meant that we could more effectively respond to our initial design brief: “We intend to utilise tessellated forms to explore rigid origami patterns with the intention of creating a dynamic and interactive project for the Geelong highway gateway from Wyndham to Melbourne.”
We were able to create a substructural layer that defined the form of our instalment for the city of Wyndham. Although we used a manually created form, we aligned it with a hexagonal grid system that allowed us to maximise the strength of the tessellated form whilst being able to house modules inside to allow our structure to be interactive and dynamic.
Rigid origami patterns:
Through the creation of the modules that were housed in the substructural form, we were able to abstract the idea of rigid origami for our freeway instalment. Through the creation of opening modules, our form captures the dynamism that we
found to be so attractive in works such as Tomohiro Tachi’s rigid origami or dECOI’s Aegia Hyposurface.
Dynamic & Interactive Structure:
Very few architectural structures are designed to be dynamic, and fewer are designed to be stimulated by its occupants. Our design incorporates both of these elements to offer a design solution that is a 120m large freeway playground. Through designing and modeling a pulley based system that would be humanly operable, we feel like we have maximised the interaction for the purpose of creating an icon for Wyndham city. The structure will not only be interactive for the interior users but should also appeal to people driving past as they can inquisitively looked towards the structure to see the almost endless variations of the instalment.
Conclusively, we feel as though we have addressed each of our design elements effectively in order to create a gateway that is an... ...eye-catching, place making, visually artistic, inspiring and enriching, accessible, longevity constructing, and environmentally enhancing5 ... for Wyndham city.
Initially in our experimentation into developing opening and closing modules we attempted to create the definition above that would house a hexagonal geometry into a grid mesh system. However, this was faulty since it could only map a square to the grid despite our intention to map the specific hexagon
to the grid. Although this was a crucial stepping stone to the development of our algorithmic definition, it failed to do what we intended. With the assistance of our tutor, we were able to realise that we needed to use a hexagonal cell.
Bibliography 1. Wyndham City Gateway project guide 2. Davis, Daniel (2011). ‘The MacLeamy Curve’, www.danieldavis.com/macleamy. 3. Wiscombe, Tom (2007). ‘Tom Wiscombe Design - Dragonfly’, http:// tomwiscombe.com/project_28.html 4. Gilbert, Benjamin (2013). Agency of Sculpture’, http://agencyofsculpture.com/ ` 5. Wyndham City Gateway project guide
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