The Reporter The Journal of the New Jersey Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance
Intergrating Technology into Health and Physical Education Curriculum
THE REPORTER NJAHPERD EXECUTIVE BOARD 2007-08 PRESIDENT: Peter Rattigan, email@example.com PRESIDENT ELECT: Judy LoBianco, firstname.lastname@example.org PAST PRESIDENT: Klara Gubacs-Collins, email@example.com TREASURER: Joan Mariconda, firstname.lastname@example.org EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Jackie Malaska, email@example.com RECORDING SECRETARY: Arlene Dolegiewitz, firstname.lastname@example.org VICE PRESIDENT, HEALTH: Kimberly Weiss, email@example.com VICE PRESIDENT, PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Erik Myer, firstname.lastname@example.org VICE PRESIDENT, RECREATION: Rich Mann, email@example.com VICE PRESIDENT, DANCE: Sharon Phillips, Sharon.firstname.lastname@example.org VICE PRESIDENT, SPORTS AND ATHLETICS: John Zorzi, email@example.com VICE PRESIDENT, STUDENT DIVISION: Kari Post, firstname.lastname@example.org VP-ELECT, HEALTH: John Romano, email@example.com VP-ELECT, PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Michele DiCorcia, firstname.lastname@example.org VP-ELECT, RECREATION: Ben Schaffer, email@example.com VP-ELECT, DANCE: Sara Rakov, firstname.lastname@example.org VP-ELECT, SPORTS AND ATHLETICS: Ken Chlodnicki, email@example.com VP-ELECT, STUDENT DIVISION: Michele Mariski, firstname.lastname@example.org AWARDS COMMITTEE CHAIR: Jennifer Ellis, email@example.com CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS: Michele Fisher, firstname.lastname@example.org CREDENTIALS AND ELECTIONS: Domenica Desiderioscioli, email@example.com COUNTY COUNCIL COORDINATOR: Vacant LONG RANGE PLANNING: Theresa Cone, firstname.lastname@example.org NECROLOGY: Juanita Fieseler, JPFies@aol.com NJEA CONVENTION: Christine Baccarella, email@example.com EDITOR, THE REPORTER: Kathy Silgailis, firstname.lastname@example.org TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE: Barbara Huss, email@example.com ADVISOR TO THE STUDENT DIVISION: Carolyn Masterson, firstname.lastname@example.org DEPT. OF EDUCATION REP: Jim McCall, email@example.com RETIREES NETWORK: Mary Putman, firstname.lastname@example.org EDA REP, COUNCIL FOR CONVENTIONS: Vacant EDA REP, COUNCIL FOR SERVICES: Jill Goldman, email@example.com EDITOR, FYI: Peter Rattigan, firstname.lastname@example.org LEGISLATIVE ACTION COMMITTEE: Bruce Peragallo, email@example.com MEMBERSHIP: Lynn Vollmuth, firstname.lastname@example.org PARLIAMENTARIAN: Michele Fisher, email@example.com AMERICAN HEART ASSOC. REP: Nan Cashon, firstname.lastname@example.org COORD. LAKE CONFERENCE &HFH/JRFH: John Grzymko, email@example.com NJEA REP: Sharyn Robbins, firstname.lastname@example.org ADVOCACY: Theresa Purcell-Cone, email@example.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS President’s Message.........................................................................2 Peter Rattigan
Message from the Executive Director............................................3 Jackie Malaska
Thanks Joe!......................................................................................4 Peter Rattigan
Developing 21st Century Skills in Health and Physical Education.......................................................................5 James McCall
NJ Comprehensive Health Education and PE Curriculum Framework...............................................................7 New Jersey Department of Education
Physical Education and Technology: Is There a Connection?................................................................9 Bonnie Mohnsen
Technology - What We Can Do Now............................................13 Linda Guerrini
Make Your Class “Of the Web” Rather Than “On the Web”..17 Richard Blonna
A Healthy Tool Box for Today’s Students....................................23 Bonnie Zimmermann
Using Technology to Include Parents in Your Physical Education Program.....................................................27 Erik Myer
Gophers, Garbage, and Avocado: Technology Integration in a Health Curriculum Made Easy......................29 Starr Eaddy
Teaching Health Literacy Skills to an MTV Driven Generation: How Can Technology Help...................................33 Jewel C. Carter
Perfectly Practical Pedometer Perambulations..........................36 Michele DiCorcia & Peter Rattigan
Using Pedometers in Physical Education....................................40 Kathy Crossnohere
Health and P E Selected Internet Resources...............................41 Health and Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of the Non-Medical Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by School Children in New Jersey..............................47 Avery Faigenbaum, Jay R. Hoffman, Anne Farrell, Nicholas A. Ratamess, & Jie Kang
Making the Most of A Multi-Activity Curriculum: Learn to Love the Curriculum You Have.................................56 Susan Schwager, Karen Brzezinski, Danielle Carbone, Dennis O’Brien, Linda Harrison, & Leigh McKean
Use of Guided Imagery in Health Education..............................60 Shari Willis, Dawn Tarabochia, & Michele DiCorcia
Educating Youth on the Changes Expected During Each Trimester of Pregnancy..............................................................65 Consuelo Bonillas
George Washington and Proper Oral Care.................................72 Amanda Shull, Brynn H. Lilley, & Shari L. Willis
EDITORIAL BOARD EDITOR: Dr. Kathy Silgailis Dept. of EMS William Paterson University Wayne, NJ 07470 973-720-2708 firstname.lastname@example.org INVITED ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Dr. James McCall NJ Department of Education Coordinator, Health & PE 100 Riverview Executive Plaza Box 500 Trenton, NJ 08625 609-777-4809 email@example.com REVIEWERS: Dr. Klara Gubas-Collins Dept. of HPPERLS Montclair State University Lynn Holman Millstone Elementary School, Plainsboro Lynn Vollmuth Franklin Elementary School,Union Dr. Shari Willis Dept. of HES, Rowan University Bonnie Zimmermann Glen Rock High School, Glen Rock Printed by: Server Graphics, Inc., Wayne, NJ Advertisers welcomed and encouraged. Price list available from: Jackie Malaska Executive Director, NJAHPERD P.O. Box 2283, Ocean, NJ 07712 732-918-9999 732-918-2211 (fax) firstname.lastname@example.org Material published in this journal does not necessarilyreflect the views of the Editor or the policies of NJAHPERD.
President’s Message Setting The Standard: Using Technology for Learning Welcome to the latest edition of The Reporter, a quality publication that benefits NJ health and physical educators and those in the dance and recreation fields – pieces written for New Jersey professionals by New Jersey professionals! I hope you will enjoy reading the articles in this issue, that you will learn something new and that you will have the opportunity to apply what you learn. Technology is an inevitability in the lives of our students and clients. Many of us are from the generation that did not grow up with computers, cell phones, even heart rate monitors or pedometers. I remember purchasing one heart rate monitor about fifteen years ago to use in my high school classes. It was expensive, the budget only allowed one, and so I had a “test” student every day who got to wear it while the rest of us found our heart rates the old fashioned way… To our children, however, technology is their delivery mechanism of choice: video games, cell phones, instant messaging, iPods and lap tops, surprisingly recent inventions some of them, are ubiquitous. We must learn to use technology to benefit our students and clients – even if it means we must first learn to use it ourselves. However, the bottom line for technology is the same as for any educational tenet, tool, text or technique – the net result should be that it benefits our students’ or clients’ participation and learning. If it does not work, takes longer than the “old fashioned” way, or distracts or detracts from learning, if it is a bell or whistle only, and not a means to a noble end (namely edification), we should reconsider, retool or readjust. If it benefits our students and clients, on the other hand, we should consider it, even if we have to retool or readjust ourselves! I hope you find many opportunities to learn about useful technologies and techniques in this issue, and that you enjoy the process and the educational journey into the sea of possibilities technology can open if carefully navigated! Wishing you wellness, Peter Rattigan, NJAHPERD President
Message from the Executive Director CALENDAR OF UPCOMING EVENTS: Adapted Workshop October 8, 2007 Wayside School, Ocean Township, NJ Lake Conference October 12-14, 2007 Fairview Lake YMCA Camp, Stillwater, NJ Student Division Workshop November 4, 2007 E. Brunswick HS, E. Brunswick, NJ NJEA Convention November 8-9, 2007 Atlantic City, NJ Hands on Health Conference December 3, 2007 Crown Plaza, Jamesburg, NJ NJAHPERD Annual Convention February 24-26, 2008 E. Brunswick Hilton, E. Brunswick, NJ EDA Convention February 27- March 1, 2008 Newport, RI AAHPERD/EDA National Convention April 8-12, 2008 Fort Worth, TX
“Who Moved My Cheese?” They say change is difficult, unavoidable, and it is the law of life; NJAHPERD is embracing change. As I assume the responsibilities of NJAHPERD‘s first full-time Executive Director, I envision many changes that will be forthcoming in the next few months. In keeping with the theme of this edition of The Reporter, NJAHPERD recognizes the importance of technology in today’s world. Although we may perceive the obesity epidemic, in part, as a result of children’s fixation on video games, computers and television, and consider it “the enemy,” technology will remain a prevalent part of our daily lives. Therefore, we must “join forces” with the enemy and incorporate ways to engage our students in activities that are meaningful, beneficial and challenge them to lead more active lives. Dodgeball, 4 square and large group softball games may have been adequate activities in years past. Fortunately, the use of pedometers, heart rate monitors, Fitnessgram, Dance Dance Revolution, interactive websites and software are enhancing the replacement of traditional “gym” lessons with more sophisticated Physical Education lessons. I challenge you to incorporate technology into some of your lessons and witness the enthusiasm that this will generate in your students! Technology will also be a critical tool to assist the Association in providing our members with the programs, products and services that will reinforce New Jersey AHPERD’s reputation as a leader in the Health and Physical Education profession throughout the state and the nation. Access to on-line membership and convention registration, including credit card payment, are the top priorities. Updates to the Association’s website will be more frequent, and will provide extensive links to assist our members in providing NJ students with cutting edge programs. E-mail notices will keep you updated on legislative actions that affect our profession, as will notification of upcoming events in and around the state. We are also considering the on-line publication of the FYI and exploring membership interest in a new “blog.” Some members have already joined the NJAHPERD Yahoo group and shared numerous questions and answers concerning teaching tips, organizational hints and lessons. Convention speakers have also contributed their “handouts” electronically for inclusion in the Convention CD. Technology is everywhere! It is very clear that these changes will only be successful with commitment from our members. A correct e-mail address is of the utmost importance! Our database manager, Arlene Dolegiewitz, tries to decipher handwriting and keep our membership records current but, honestly, it is not an easy task. You can help by emailing your email address to me at email@example.com, especially if you have recently changed your address. On a personal note, my new position as Executive Director is an enormous change for me. After 30 years as an elementary health and physical educator, I am trading my sneakers in for business attire! My pedometer will not have the same 15,000 steps recorded during my teaching day, nor will I be greeted by students asking “What are we learning in PE today?” I have “moved my own cheese” and with the assistance of the passionate and professional NJAHPERD Executive Board, I am looking forward to the challenges ahead. Please contact me with any suggestions, comments or questions you have regarding our profession. Enjoy life and all the cheese that comes your way! Jackie Malaska Executive Director
Thanks Joe! Joe Locascio served as the Executive Director of NJAHPERD from 2002 to 2007. Because of his retirement on June 30th, I would like to take this opportunity as President of NJAHPERD to thank Joe for his five years of dedicated service to NJAHPERD. I have been involved with the Executive Board of NJAHPERD since 2003. During that time I have attended many EB meetings, state, regional and national conferences, and other events also attended by Joe. In all of those meetings and conventions, and in the hundreds of email messages from Joe that I have read over the last five years, he has always exhibited what sometimes seems to be becoming a scarce quality: class. Joe mentored me into the state organization and in the roles I have played on the Executive Board. He turned my mistakes into learning experiences, gave sound advice, and never spoke a negative word to me. In fact, I do recall Joe ever speaking or emailing a negative word to anyone. Oh yes, Joe has with me and with others on the board. We heated discussions on various topics at many and Joe has exhibited his class throughout. makes his point without put downs, in a with forethought, and always from a positive In our last Executive Board meeting in June, ED, Joe demonstrated his class yet again as though he was stepping down, he would not would stay involved in the profession and in there for us if we needed him. It was a say. Also at that meeting, Joe said two words stated elegantly to us, in a sincere and heartfelt say to us in “parting.” I would now like to to Joe, just as sincerely, for myself and on Thank you. Peter Rattigan, President, NJAHPERD
From all the members of the Executive Board and the NJAHPERD Membership, our heartfelt THANKS for all your contributions to NJAHPERD.
n o t
disagreed have had meetings – He always measured way, perspective.
Joe’s last meeting as he assured us that become invisible – he NJAHPERD and would be comforting thing to hear him to us, which he explained way, everything he wanted to say those two simple words back behalf of the Executive Board:
Developing 21st Century Skills In Health and Physical Education
Information regarding The Partnership for 21st Century Skills can be accessed at www.21stcenturyskills.org.
James McCall Coordinator Health and Physical Education New Jersey Department of Education
New Jersey Department of Education Internet Resources Schools have enormous potential for helping students develop the knowledge and skills they need to be healthy and achieve academically. Successfully preparing New Jersey teachers for the 21st century challenges requires changes in the curriculum and instructional process. Schools must develop curriculum standards that align with state standards and meet the highest level of rigor. Educators need to be empowered to connect their learning to what they teach and to incorporate new concepts and technologies into instruction. The New Jersey Department of Education has developed an array of quality internet resources to assist stakeholders in teaching and learning the state’s standards.
As the world becomes more competitive and complex, our nation’s future depends on the education and health of our young people. As technology advances at an exponential rate, we need to help schools identify the practices and processes that characterize high performing 21st century schools. It is critical to develop a systematic approach that provides a learning model that assures students will have the knowledge and skills needed to be healthy and succeed in today’s and tomorrow’s world. The National Partnership for 21 st Century Skills, the leading advocacy organization focused on infusing 21st century skills into education, has developed a unified, collective vision that can be used to strengthen American education. Health and wellness, information and communications technology, assessment and critical thinking skills have been identified by the Partnership as emerging areas of importance that contribute greatly to student achievement and future success. The ability to infuse technology, assessment, and critical thinking skills into health and physical education instruction can empower students to develop the knowledge and skills to live healthy, active and productive lives. Quality programs incorporate the use of technology and encourage students to research and use valid and reliable sources of health and physical education information. For example, using heart rate monitors makes aerobic exercise safer and more productive by helping the teacher and student individualize participation in physical activity. As a form of authentic education, this teaching tool enhances interdisciplinary technological instruction while allowing for a more objective estimation of a student’s effort and individual progress. Students are able to set goals, monitor/assess performance, and experience real gains in fitness status.
Comprehensive Health and Physical Education Core Curriculum Content Standards (2004) Comprehensive health and physical education are complimentary disciplines, sharing a similar yet distinct body of knowledge. The Comprehensive Health and Physical Education Standards provide a consolidated approach to instruction with wellness as the common theme. The aim of the Standards is to enable students to take responsibility for their actions using a sound, informed judgment while considering the impact of those actions for themselves, for their family, and for society at large. You can view and/or download this document at: http://www.nj.gov/njded/apa/cccs/chpe/
Technology Comprehensive Health Education and Physical Education Curriculum Framework (1998) The New Jersey Comprehensive Health Education and Physical Education Framework is a resource and guide that presents concepts and ideas for the effective development of curriculum and instruction in a vision of wellness. Aportion of Chapter 10 (Technology) can be viewed on pages 7 and 8 in this issue of The Reporter or downloaded at: http://www.nj.gov/njded/apa/cccs/chpe/
The New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards CD ROM (2006) The Newark Teachers Union and Seton Hall University collaborated with the New Jersey Department of Education to produce a searchable electronic version of all nine New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. Users can click on the subject or content area, which will take them to whatâ€™s expected for all students in that standard, corresponding cumulative progress indicators and framework activities with links to corresponding vignettes and inspiration templates/activities. A search engine was also designed to assist in locating information within and across all content areas. Just type a word into the search engine and it will locate all areas of the standards where that topic is addressed. This can also be viewed at http://www.ntuaft.com/njcccs/Webpage/ Main%20CCCS%20Page.htm.
New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards Comprehensive Health and Physical Education Horizontal Scope and Sequence Design Model Preschool through Grade Twelve The following model organizes the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards in Comprehensive Health and Physical Education into a horizontal scope and sequence. The primary purpose of this design is to demonstrate how specific outcomes/progress indicators align with
and build upon each other from grade level to grade level. This resource provides a guide for teachers and curriculum developers to use in constructing and/or revising local health and physical education curriculum. It can be accessed at http://www.nj.gov/education/aps/cccs/chpe/ framework/horizontal.xls.
Health Education Assessment Project (HEAP) HEAP Web-based Assessment Tool This project has developed a variety of materials and resources that assist in assessing student performance in health education. The materials in this project provide instructors the ability to link curriculum, instruction, and assessment to advance the implementation of quality health education. One of the major products developed is the HEAP Web-based Searchable Database which enables a user to search the health assessment item bank for content, skill, grade level, item type, and difficulty. The user can sort items to develop tests and save them to his/her computer. For more information regarding the Health Education Assessment Project, contact Jim McCall at firstname.lastname@example.org.
New Jersey Department of Education Standards Clarification Project The New Jersey Department of Education is in the process of developing a professional development strategic action plan that will focus on standardsbased education. In the initial phase, Grant Wiggins and the Understanding by Design team are working with the department in developing a selection of resources focused on providing user-friendly products that will help to clarify the standards and assist local districts in designing and implementing effective curriculum. Resources will include exemplar unit plans, assessment tools, video clips and sample student work. The second phase will infuse these resources into a state-wide professional development network that will assist school districts in providing ongoing quality teacher training related to standards-based education.
Technology NEW JERSEY COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH EDUCATION AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK (1998) www.nj.gov/education/frameworks/chpe/chapter10.pdf Chapter 10: Technology To meet the demands of the 21st century, students need to acquire a whole new set of skills. Students need to be able to use a variety of tools to search and organize information, to generate new data, to analyze and interpret meaning, and eventually transform this into something new. What role does technology play in this “information transformation”? How does the use of technology impact instruction in health and physical education? This chapter focuses on some of the technology advances that currently impact instruction in health and physical education. Health and physical education teachers regularly incorporate visual technology into classroom instruction. Video cassettes and laser disks can be used to: • Introduce new concepts, review prior knowledge, or trigger discussion (e.g. an open-ended vignette on violence). • Demonstrate model performances (e.g. tennis serve in fast and slow motion). • Demonstrate game/sport strategies (e.g. diagramming plays). • Analyze movement skills (e.g. frame-to-frame analysis of a runner). • Provide stimulus for mental imagery (e.g. visualizing the perfect golf swing). • Administering tests and quizzes (e.g. identifying critical errors in a golf swing). • Create a medium for student projects. Camcorders and digital cameras allow students to see themselves in action. Students can compare their performance to model performances. In addition, students can use the devices to create their own video projects. These cameras can be used to: • Provide skill feedback and self analysis (e.g. critiquing a role play of refusal skills). • Analyze and compare the use of movement principles and concepts (e.g. comparing the speed of approach and body position in long jump). • Support student projects (e.g. creating a musical ad for a health product). • Assess learning (e.g. comparing skill development from the beginning to the end of the year). • Monitor student behavior and activity (e.g. recording activity of one group while working with another). Health and physical education teachers can use computers for a variety of purposes. Teachers and students can use software to produce health and physical education newsletters, create calendars and puzzles, and develop signs, posters, and illustrations for the classroom and gymnasium. Using specialized software, students can participate in a cardiovascular risk assessment, analyze their nutritional intake, or determine their fitness level. In addition, students can design an individualized weight/strength program, analyze their body composition, or create a simulated health history. Electronic portfolios can help students compile evidence of learning over time. In addition, teachers and students can use Internet sites and listservs for updated information, research, and teaching ideas. 7
Technology Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) allows students to proceed at a rate that is appropriate and meaningful to them. There are several kinds of CAI software available for use in health and physical education programs. They include the following: • Drill and practice (e.g. learning the names of muscles or rules of a sport). • Tutorials (e.g. learning the parts of the heart and taking one’s pulse). • Programmed instruction (e.g. learning the key elements of a tennis serve and volley, one step at a time). • Educational games (e.g. learning the rules of football while playing a simulated game). • Simulations (e.g. determining the effects of alcohol consumption at a party). Health and physical education teachers frequently use technological devices as a matter of course in the instructional setting. Such devices might include: • Digital Blood Pressure Machines Provides visual representation of the students’ pulse and blood pressure. • Body Composition Analysis Informs student of his/her percent of body fat. • Automatic Skinfold Calipers Uses a built-in computer to calculate and display the percent of body fat. • Heart Monitor Records pulse during exercise. • Timing Devices Stores times and numbers, provides split times, lap times, and places. Transfers information to computer for print-out. • Handheld Recording Devices Includes pen-based and handheld computing devices used to collect information in an outdoor setting. Includes electronic clipboards and message pads. At the present time, many health and physical education teachers may not have access to the technological devices discussed in this chapter. However, the use of technology is important for students in all disciplines. Students need to see how technology is used within a real-world context. Technology can be used to enhance and support instruction for all students, creating student interest and providing students with valuable skills. As students and teachers prepare for the new millennium, technology and the community it creates grow as vital parts of educational reform. Health and physical education teachers need to increase their efforts to become technologically fluent and to incorporate various technological devices into their instructional program. 8
Physical Education and Technology: Is There a Connection? Bonnie Mohnsen If and when people think about the use of technology in physical education, they typically envision physical educators using computers (perhaps handhelds) for record keeping and maybe a couple of their students wearing heart monitors—but little else. This is, however, far from the actual reality of today’s physical education classes. The potential for the use of technology in physical education is unlimited, as it is in all areas of education. Physical educators across the country are addressing national and state physical education standards and, simultaneously, addressing the National Education Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S). This article will share several current applications of technology in the physical education instructional process. Specifically, we will look at technology devices (heart monitors and pedometers), virtual reality-based exercise equipment, and instructional software.
heart monitoring devices, such as index finger sensors, hand wands, and earlobe sensors; however, they are not accurate. Heart monitors are important devices when instructing students on Physical Education National Standard 4. In order to improve cardiorespiratory endurance, an individual must work out using exercises that involve the entire body (e.g., run, swim, jump rope) for a minimum of 20 minutes three times per week while in his/ her target heart rate zone. During this type of exercise, it is difficult to count one’s pulse or heart rate, so heart monitors become an important device for exercising at the appropriate intensity. During physical education, there may be one student or an entire class wearing the heart monitors. Instructional methods for using heart monitors include: • Comparing activities for their contributions to cardiorespiratory endurance (e.g., jump rope versus softball). • Determining if a student is in his/her target heart rate zone during aerobic activities. • Charting one’s recovery heart rate across time.
Technology Devices When purchasing heart rate Heart monitors are devices that monitors consider the following: measure heart rate. Each heart • transmitter batteries that monitor consists of a transmitter can be changed by the (device that measures heart rate) user. that is attached to the chest using a • coded transmitters that strap and a receiver typically in the prevent cross-talk form of a watch; although it can be between monitors. a recording device or headset (ear • pay only for the features phones). There are other types of you will actually use.
A similar device, the pedometer, provides feedback and motivation to students as they move. Students use these devices to record the number of steps taken during physical education, during a specified time period, during a specified activity, outside of school, or on a daily basis. These activities align to Physical Education National Standard 3. The data recorded also can be graphed for daily or weekly comparisons—making this an ideal tool for curriculum integration with math. Students, after wearing the pedometers, are asked reflection questions, such as: • What did the data tell you? • What did you learn? • Why is this important? Although there are pedometers that can calculate calories expended, distance traveled, and speed; the steps only model is the most accurate and functional in a physical education setting. Teachers should encourage students to acquire between 11,000 and 13,000 steps each day. Virtual-Reality Based Exercise Equipment The use of virtual-reality based exercise equipment in physical education is an area that is really taking off. For example, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is a dance simulator popular in many arcades. Users mimic dance steps by following onscreen cues. Specifically, the user is watching the monitor for one of four arrows to appear that correspond 9
Technology to the arrows on the dance pad. As the arrow scrolls to the top of the screen, the user must touch the appropriate section of the dance pad in beat with the music. Users with the EyeToy attachment can include the hand feature that provides a second set of figures that students mimic using their hands and receiving feedback on their movements. The DDR software (used with a Sony PlayStation 2 or XBox) provides a wide variety of contemporary dance music including pop, disco, techno, and hip-hop. Special workout modes provide aerobic exercise routines for players, and there are singleplayer modes, as well as cooperative and competitive multiplayer modes. You will need either a PS2 or Xbox connected to a monitor or projection system along with a dance pad and software. The price difference between systems is due to the construction of the pad. The home version of the pad won’t stand up to constant use in physical education. The GamePad (Cateye) and Cobalt Flux pads offer the best quality for the school setting. Since one PlayStation or Xbox can handle two pads, most physical educators purchase a minimum of two pads. EyeToy is a video camera that also connects to the PS2 that detects body movement and allows the user to become part of the game. DDR is used either as a station in a circuit or as a large group activity with two or more individuals on the DDR pads and the rest of the class practicing on floor markings or practice pads.
There also are rowers, treadmills, and GameBikes (Cateye) that interface with the PS2, Xbox, or a computer. As with DDR, these devices require students to be physically active in order to participate in the video game. A wide variety of games are available to motivate students to continue exercising. These devices are used in schools to teach students about target heart rate and to introduce students to the wide variety of activities that can be used to increase cardiorespiratory endurance. At home, these devices are replacing the traditional “sit on the couch and work out your thumbs” games. Instructional Software Students can be put in charge of their own learning in physical education through the use of instructional software. Software is used in one of several ways in physical education. Some teachers take their students to a computer lab on occasion, but since physical education is about movement, this is not a common occurrence. Most teachers either use a projection system to introduce key concepts or demonstrate the correct for a motor skill or, better yet, they set up a computer station that students can rotate to after several “activity” stations. Volleyball Complete (Bonnie’s Fitware Inc.) is a software program that guides students through everything there is to know about volleyball: rules, equipment, facilities, history, basic and advanced skills,
practice ideas, biomechanical analysis, strategy, and even how to assess the aesthetic features of a volleyball game (National Physical Education Standards one through six). The electronic quiz provides for traditional assessment through a multiple choice quiz which may be completed online by students or printed out by teachers and administered using a scantron form. The electronic portfolio portion provides for alternative assessment allowing students to store video clips of themselves performing motor skills, assess their motor skill performance using predesigned rubrics, design strategies, and much more. Similar programs include Short Jump Rope, Long Jump Rope, and Tinikling (Bonnie’s Fitware Inc.). Additional sports are currently under development. The Health Related Fitness Tutorial/Portfolio is a program that addresses National Standards 3 and 4. The first part is a tutorial on health related fitness that incorporates hypermedia so students can locate specific areas of interest. It includes cognitive concepts related to principles of fitness, safe versus dangerous exercises, training protocols, taking one’s pulse, and warm-up/ cool-down procedures, along with a variety of exercises for each fitness area. When selecting software, it is important to look for interactivity so that students are active rather than passive learners. For example, in this software, there are several interactive pieces. One activity asks students to pretend that they 10
Technology eat all of their meals at a buffet. They are asked to select items from those offered for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Their selections are evaluated based on the new food pyramid. Another activity asks students to select items for creating a home fitness center. The students have $1500.00 to spend and their selection(s) are evaluated and appropriate feedback provided. The second part is an electronic portfolio where students select exercises, calculate caloric input/ output, produce drawings or video clips, write journal entries, and design fitness plans. The program is also set up to collect, record, and analyze fitness scores. The third part is the multiple choice quiz. Schools are beginning to use software programs such as this in lieu of a fitness textbook. Several program are available that address cognitive learning in physical education Specifically, Biomechanics: Made Easy and SimAthlete (Bonnie’s Fitware Inc.) address Physical Education National Standard 2 by providing reference information on important biomechanical and motor learning concepts (e.g., goal setting, feedback, stability, force production). Biomechanics: Made Easy then quizzes students on their understanding and has students apply their learning in the analysis of movement and motor skills. SimAthlete goes a step farther by asking students to create a practice plan (coach) for different athletes. The better the practice plan, the better the
athlete performs during competition. Dartfish Basic (DartFish) takes biomechanical analysis to another level by encouraging open-ended exploration. The software uses video clips (supplied by the teacher or captured using student subjects) and allows for measurement and analysis of movement performance (e.g., ball rotation, limb speed). Elementary Physical Education Dictionary (Bonnie’s Fitware Inc.), which is used by both the elementary physical education teacher and the classroom teacher, is an A to Z dictionary that addresses physical education terminology appropriate for grades two through six. It includes pronunciation, picture or animation, and description. It also contains quizzes to test student understanding of physical education vocabulary. Muscle Flash (Bonnie’s Fitware Inc.), with grade specific versions, teaches and quizzes students on the names, location, function, and exercises for a variety of muscles through a flash card simulation. Although several of the instructional programs have portfolio components, there are also specific portfolio programs. The Physical Education Portfolio (available in elementary, middle school, and high school versions) is formatted around the six national content standards for physical education. Students enter their own information (e.g., fitness scores, journal entries, and video clips). The portfolio also contains
pre-designed rubrics for basic movement (run, hop, skip, etc.) and motor (throw, catch, kick, etc.) skills. Teachers can assess students or students can self or peer assess. With any of the portfolios, the teacher can open the file and see all of the students’ work on one assignment or one entire student portfolio with the click of a button. While looking at an assignment the teacher can grade it and then have the grade automatically recorded in the Physical Education Record Book which works on both a desktop/ notebook computer (Macintosh or PC) and a handheld computer (Palm OS/Pocket PC). This allows for the collection of data by both the teacher (using the handheld computer) and the student (using a handheld, notebook, or desktop computer). Some physical educators require their students to work on their electronic-based portfolios during time outside physical education, during school breaks, after school in the media center, or at home if they have access to a computer. When time and access to computers is limited, teachers often will create task cards (step-by-step directions) to ensure that students use their computer time efficiently. As more and more schools move to individual computers for students (handheld or notebook), electronic portfolios will become a much more feasible option— not only for physical education but for all subject areas. 11
Technology Summary In addition to these three areas, physical educators in pockets across the country are experimenting with virtual reality, high-level fitness analysis and training devices, project development using video
cameras and authoring software, web page creations, and choreography using animation software (e.g., Poser, Life Forms). This article has described but a few of the applications of technology in physical education along with a
sample of strategies for their use. The future, especially with the inclusion of virtual reality, offers more promise for the marriage of physical education and technology.
References Mitchell, M., McKethan, R. & Mohnsen, B.S. (2004). Integrating technology and physical education. Cerritos, CA: Bonnieâ€™s Fitware Inc. Mohnsen, B.S. (2004). Using technology in physical education (4th Ed.). Cerritos, CA: Bonnieâ€™s Fitware Inc. For more information and ideas on using technology in physical education, contact Bonnie Mohnsen at email@example.com to sign up for her Using Technology in Physical Education/Health free monthly online newsletter, and visit her site at http://www.pesoftware.com.
Technology- What We Can Do Now Linda Guerrini Coordinating Supervisor Health and Physical Education K-12 Parsippany Troy-Hills School District Recently there have been two articles looking at the pros and cons of pelinks4u focusing on technology. I would have to agree with Phil Lawler regarding his positive perspective. As a technology-loaded PEP Grant winner, our district’s program has been completely revitalized with the infusion of that technology. The world we live in is constantly changing, and technology is an integral part of that change. The medical field relies heavily on technology. I am sure you would rather have an appendectomy using a laparoscopic procedure rather then by conventional surgery. Likewise, educators, especially physical educators, need to explore how we can integrate the use of technology in a meaningful way. The New Jersey Department of Education believes so strongly in technology that we have one Core Curriculum Content Standard dedicated to Technology Literacy. The New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Health and Physical Education reference technology at each benchmark grade level. This should clearly guide our direction toward the implementation of technology. After all, our goal is to prepare our students for physical activity beyond high school, and technology should be part that preparation. The Parsippany Troy Hills School District received heart rate monitors, pocket PC’s, desktop PC’s, strength and conditioning equipment, cardio equipment, extensive training, program resources and software programs to assist us in implementing these changes. For the most part we have been very successful. Have there been times when aspects of the technology didn’t work or did not work as we had expected? Absolutely, but the staff has persisted in integrating technology and developing lessons that address its uses in a meaningful way. This article will illustrate the reality of what we were able to do with the technology as well as our frustrations and collective hope for the future.
Elementary School Heart Rate Monitors Each of our ten elementary schools received a desktop computer to collect data and to download fitness information so that a fitness report card could be generated. Teachers quickly established protocols for using the heart rate monitors. Each student had the opportunity to use the monitors, learn the technology and develop a fundamental understanding of the science behind its operation. Students calculated their target heart rate, developed student work folders to house their information and their personal reflections. Our teachers participated in numerous “lunch and learn” sessions so that they could problem-solve their individual issues with the technology. They developed and shared lesson plans and ideas with all staff members. The results were phenomenal. Multiple times during the year students jogged around the gym, increasing their heart rate and stopping to put on their receiver, transmitter and strap. They continued to jog until they could identify that they were connected, “Wow.” Then they proceeded in some cases to move from one rope-jumping station to another, monitoring their heart rate and adjusting their individual activity 13
Technology level based on their reading. At the end of the activity session they would record their reading on a teacher developed spreadsheet. Students recorded their average heart rate, time in heart rate zone and total exercise time. In some cases they integrated math as they calculated the time they spent out of their zone. Coupled with this was instruction that provided students with the scientific, mathematical and movement concepts that allowed them to be successful. One teacher implemented a technique for collecting heart rate data during the PACER jog. As the students completed their PACER laps, a partner holding their fitness clipboard collected the heart rate data every other lap. This information was recorded and then brought to the computer lab so that students could use the Excel program to create an individual graph and calculate their average heart rate during the activity. This same activity was provided for parents and students during an â€œItâ€™s Electricâ€? parent-student evening activity planned by the physical educator and classroom teachers. This program will be expanding next year. TriFit Software Program The district is focused on student-centered achievement; therefore, student work folders were developed, enabling students to log and record their scores on an individualized fitness form in their personal work folder. This form allows each student to see at a glance the progress they have made from third to fifth grade. Students periodically fill in the information and write a personal reflection regarding the progress they have made as well as the areas they need to develop. Students have the opportunity to set personal goals and make suggestions for improvement. The teachers developed this form using the table function on their PC. Teachers developed spreadsheets for themselves that allowed them to transfer the information they collected into the TriFit software program on their desktop computer. The TriFit program allows teachers to customize their fitness assessments and to generate a comprehensive fitness report card for parents, students and administrators. For the first time we can see at a glance how our students are doing and the progress they are making. This information can be stored and retained for future comparisons and analysis. Pocket PC The pocket PC allows the teacher to collect fitness information as well as class performance in real time. The pocket PC also allows the teacher to enter fitness data when they are not at their computers and at later time sync the information to the TriFit program. The pocket PC is one facet of the technology that we need to develop. Our goal for this coming school year is to become knowledgeable and proficient in the use of this tool. Many teachers were frustrated and expressed that they were able to collect both performance information and fitness information using their teacher-generated spread sheets more efficiently. iPods The continued integration of music as a tool to promote and encourage physical activity is evident throughout our program. Our teachers are looking forward to receiving an iPod sound system docking station (Altec Lansing IM7) through Grant funds and gifts from the PTA. This equipment allows the physical educator to use the iPod to play a variety of music compilations as well as the audio portion for the 14
Technology PACER jog and the cadence for the curl-ups and push-ups. Through the Grant and from PTA gifts, we have also provided dual function pedometers for our teachers. Step data is being collected and parents are again becoming part of the process as we encourage parents and children to log their steps outside of school.
Middle School Heart Rate Monitors Our two middle schools have E600 downloadable heart rate monitors, an exercise bike that also collects fitness information that can be downloaded into the PE Manager software indicating the aerobic capacity of students, and a variety of strength and conditioning equipment to enhance their program. Our middle school students know how to put on their heart rate monitor, the value of looking critically at their individual heart rate graph and the importance of being able to calculate their heart rate factoring their personal resting heart rate. Teachers know how to set the heart rate limits on the watch/receiver customized for the students at this level. Physical Education teachers worked with the math department to create a heart rate worksheet. Students calculated their heart rate based on specific percentages. They were also asked to calculate their heart rate in the future, ten years from their present date. The math and physical education departments worked collegially to sponsor a “Math on the Go” event for seventh graders, using hear rate monitors and pedometers. FITNESSGRAM Student work folders are part of our middle school authentic assessment initiative. Students again recorded their results as they engaged in the FITNESSGRAM assessment protocols, set personal fitness goals and reflected on their performance making recommendations for the future. The work folders also house printed individual heart rate curves. Teachers developed essential questions for the student to respond to as they analyzed their heart rate. Teachers are compiling a list of critical vocabulary the students should be familiar with, such as interval training, aerobic, anaerobic, resting heart rate etc., that will be located in their work folders. The middle school health and physical education curriculum was completely rewritten with a focus toward wellness and lifelong physical activity promoting a healthy lifestyle. Pedometers were integrated as the students engaged in walk and talk activities. The reaction of the middle school student has been a positive one. The future involves the creation of a strength and conditioning center that will centrally house not only the TriFit computerized assessment system and heart rate monitors but also strength and conditioning and flexibility stations for the students to move through. Middle school teachers are also continuing to explore the possibilities of integrating the pocket PC into their assessment system. Next year teachers are planning on using curriculum days as well as department meeting days to explore the many features of the pocket PC.
High School Our high schools received heart rate monitors, pocket PC’s, software, strength and conditioning equipment and also created “Wellness Rooms” at each high school. These rooms house a variety of cardiovascular equipment integrated with the Polar heart rate technology as well as the TriFit computerized assessment system. Next year we will configure the TriFit assessment system so that students can log on viewing only their personal information and enter their fitness data. This will address the district’s continued 15
Technology focus on creating activities that are student centered. Our students will be able to maintain an electronic portfolio housing their fitness information that can be brought with them from the middle school. The students engaged in a questionnaire regarding their interest in the new equipment, and the results were favorable. They even formed a club that allows both students and staff members to use the â€œWellness Roomâ€? after school. The weight room has become something more of a strength and conditioning center with the addition of medicine balls, agility ladders, exercise balls as well as colorful hand weights. When students use equipment that is new, colorful and accompanied by music that is motivating, we have a recipe for success.
Conclusion This has been a two-year project for our teachers and students. Students have had the opportunity to watch as well as help staff learn and implement the many facets of the technology. The staff has had to plan for glitches, like the pocket PCâ€™s inability to download heart rate data in the middle of a class of thirty-five students. Lessons have been generated that would incorporate the use of the heart rate monitor and data collection process coupled with individual feedback to students. The constraints revolve around providing teachers with the time and in-house expertise for training. As anyone who has worked with technology knows, it is great until something goes wrong. This happens frequently when they are first trying to learn the software programs. We most definitely see a future for technology in the area of health and physical education. Countless web sites allow us to download personal workout programs (marinaonline.com): pod casts that provide us with workout music for everything from kickboxing to walking and relaxation music, health web sites that allow us to personalize our workout program and nutritional intake as well as calculate our working heart rate to name a few. Our district looks forward to continuing to pioneer the implementation of technology whenever and wherever it will best meet the needs of students and staff. Technology is surely a tool for the future that we must embrace and prepare for. The boundaries are limitless, and the Parsippany Troy Hills School district is proud to be a PEP Grant winner demonstrating the infusion of this technology. I must acknowledge the help of a multitude of people who assisted in making this all happen. Mr. Andrew Zuckerman wrote the Grant before he left Parsippany to become a middle school principal. Our technology department, Central Office Administrative staff and the Board of Education have been staunch supporters as well. The Health and Physical Education staff members and students are the heart and sole of this project. Without their energy and commitment we would never have been able to reach our goals. My hope is that you keep an open mind and continue to search for new ways to hook your students onto lifelong physical activity and healthy living. 16
Make Your Class “Of the Web” Rather Than “On the Web” Richard Blonna William Paterson University
After teaching online for seven years, I have found just the opposite to be true. After my first year of teaching online, I started to actually feel encumbered by the traditional classroom…it actually limited my ability to serve my students effectively. Since then I’ve come to discover that my communication with students is better online; more thorough, more thoughtful, and more inclusive. When I respond to an issue in the traditional classroom my response is instantaneous, unedited, and often rushed. When I respond to an issue in an online class (especially if it asynchronous) I can thoughtfully formulate a response, edit it, and take my time to fully think it through. I can also edit it and send slightly different versions to different students to help them understand it better.
Even the best textbooks and teaching materials are somewhat dated by the time you get to use them in your classroom. This is one reason why I find integrating the Internet into my classes through a variety of web-based str-ategies is so important. I teach three different, fully online classes and post many Internet-based materials and assignments for my other traditional courses. My classes, materials, and assignments often require students to enter specific websites, read material posted there, complete assessments and perform other “webOnline classes are not for all learners. Some learners based tasks.” I call this phenomenon making my do not have the self-discipline needed to learn at class “of the web” rather than just being “on the their own pace using the web. Others miss the inweb.” class socialization that is such a big part of taking classes for many students. Still others lack the There are many ways to actively use the web and resources needed to take classes online. But for tap into the vitality and energy of the Internet. The untold others, (e.g., the physically-challenged, fullgreat thing about the Internet is that it allows you time workers, stay-at-home parents) online learning to bring a world of resources involving your is a blessing, expanding access to those who simply specific content area into the homes of your would not be able to pursue their education were students 24/7 and engage them in ways previously there no online courses. They also enjoy the ability unheard of at their convenience. In this article I to take their time, formulate their thoughts, edit will present a few of the strategies for infusing the their responses and submit work at their own pace. Internet into your traditional and online classes.
1. Teach Your Course Online One of the best ways to make your class “of the web” is to teach it fully online. While there are many advocates (myself included) of online teaching and learning, the fact is, it’s not for all teachers or learners. Many online teachers miss the dynamics of a live classroom and the camaraderie of working with colleagues in a school or on a college campus. Others just can’t get comfortable with the technology or the uncertainty of depending on other people to host their classes. Still others just can’t figure out how to teach skills or other “hands-on” components of their curriculum online.
Online classes work better for other types of students as well. Shy students excel in online classes where the distance creates a comfort zone that allows them to communicate more freely. Students who are physically challenged can work and “attend” from the comfort and safety of heir own home. The same is true for students who are sick, injured, or 17
Technology pregnant. Students from diverse cultures often “mix” better online were their views and beliefs are taken for what they are without being prejudiced by the way they look, act, or dress in public. Everyone is equal online; we are all New Times Roman Font size # 12 color black. Traditional classroom • A traditional classroom is a specific room in a building, on campus, with limited access and protected entrances staffed by guards or campus police. • In a traditional classroom the teachers and learners show up a specific time in a designated classroom, ready to teach and learn. • Teachers and learners use verbal communication skills and chalk/white boards or overhead/computer projectors to communicate. • Teachers and learners can hold live discussions face-to-face, in real time. • Teachers can breaks students into small groups for group work.
It is really up to you to decide which of the differences are benefits, and which are detriments to either type of classroom. Later in the article I’ll show you how to have it both ways and draw on the benefits of both learning environments. Types of Online Classes There are two types of online classes, fully online and blended (aka Hybrid) courses. In a fully online class, 100% of the class meetings are at a distance (e.g., online, using an internet-based modality such as BlackBoard or other course management software including e-mail, discussion board, chat room, etc.). In a blended class, less than 100% of the class meetings are at a distance. Some blended classes meet 50% online and 50% in the traditional classroom. Others meet online more or less than this. Synchronous or Asynchronous Classes? Fully or blended online classes (or individual assignments posted online) can be synchronous or asynchronous in nature. This refers to the requirement for teachers and learners to be present at the same time. A synchronous online class is very similar to a face-to-face class in a traditional classroom in that all students and the instructor are present at the same time. An asynchronous class does not require this. Assignments are due by specific times on certain days and students and instructors are free to log on and submit work whenever it is convenient for them as long as they meet the dead lines. Here are the key characteristics of synchronous and asynchronous classes:
Virtual classroom • A virtual classroom is really a web page existing on a server somewhere in cyberspace. • A web page is like the classroom. • A server is like the school building. • Cyberspace is the campus. • Entrance is protected by a secure wall (password protected firewall), and patrolled by campus police (anti-virus and other software). Synchronous: • The classroom, building, and campus are • Students “meet” together at the same time open 24/7. (usually set by teacher). • Teachers and learners can pop into all three • The meeting usually involves chat, instant locations whenever it is convenient for messaging, or other “live” teaching them. techniques. • The online • All students and the instructor log onto a classroom password-protected discussion board or eliminates chat room at the same time. conventional • The discussion is run by instructor or notions of student group leader. school time and space. 18
Technology Asynchronous: • Synchronous student log on not required, they can log on whenever they wish. • Students log on for assignments, lectures, and group tasks and to post completed work by a given deadline. • The discussion is delayed and not in “realtime.” Students and instructors log in and submit comments after the initial postings. Comments are linked to initial postings through discussion “threads.” • “Threaded discussions” can last for weeks as students and instructors are free to log back on and add new information, insights, thoughts, and feelings. Once again, I’ll leave it up to you to decide what are the benefits and detriments to either type of classroom. You can have both synchronous and asynchronous components in any traditional or online class. I am a real advocate for asynchronous online classes. The following are several benefits that work for me: •
• • •
Reduced absenteeism. Because students can log on when it is convenient for them, they miss fewer classes due to challenges/ obstacles (e.g., sick children, car problems). Creates 24/7 access to teaching and learning. Sometimes it is convenient to get information, have access to resources, or do work when traditional academic building (school, classroom, library etc.) are closed. The Internet never closes. Allows you to work when you are at your best (2:00 a.m. or lunchtime). Enables teachers and learners to edit their work before submitting it. Gives you time to think about how to answer questions/solve problems without feeling like you are on the “hot seat” and must produce immediate answers. Allows teachers and learners to return to discussions (especially good ones), add extra comments after initial discussion ends
but before the next class or later in the semester/marking period. Compensates for tech glitches. When the computer freezes or internet service is down, you can always log on later. You can’t do this with a synchronous class.
2. Use Course Management Software Whether you are teaching a fully online class, a blended class, or just posting assignments, assessments, or grades online, it is much easier to manage your class if you use course management software such as BlackBoard, WebCt, or other products of a similar nature. Get your school or district technology coordinator to explore the pros and cons of the various course management software products. Basically, a course-management software program is a comprehensive password-protected course delivery system that integrates a variety of tools such as e-mail, discussion boards, group forums, whiteboards, links to textbook publisher’s materials and other features. The major publishing houses all have “course cartridges” for specific textbooks that allow instant downloading of teacher and student learning guides tests and quizzes, PowerPoint Presentations, additional resources and many other features. Using these materials makes it very easy to supplement your book and teaching materials. What course management software programs do is put all of the resources you need in one place that is password protected. It doesn’t interfere (or use) personal or school e-mail, personal web pages etc. They are simple, safe, and cost effective (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2000). With course management software programs teachers and learners get passwords that let them in and allow them to send and received messages, post materials and assignments, submit work and send files and pictures, connect to the internet, and a variety of other things. 19
Technology Instructors and students have separate e-mail Objectivity • What is the primary intention of the page and web pages that ensure confidentiality and (to sell items, provide information, connect the ability to separate professional teaching and you to others etc.)? learning work from personal e-mail and web • Is the tone of the page biased or neutral in pages. This also minimizes likelihood that its presentation of the information? course materials and assignments are subjected to viruses or spam. Because of this, using a professionally-produced and maintained course Currency • When was the page updated? management software system is much safer and • Examine two or three links. How current more efficient than relying on submitting are the links? assignments and communicating through • Are there any links that do not work? personal e-mail and personal web pages. Coverage • Describe some of the topics that are covered in the site. One of the easiest, and best way to make you • How in-depth is the coverage? class “of the web” is to have students critique a number of carefully-screened sites. You can use a standardized form for this and follow the Accuracy • Are there any typographical errors on the guidelines suggested by the American Library page? Association (Kapoun, 1998) or other organizations. I develop the following critique Rating form using the ALA guidelines: • On a scale of 1-10 (10 being the highest) what would you rate this site? (Blonna, Critical Web Review Form Website Review 2007). Instructions
3. Assign Website Critiques
Use the form below to evaluate the web sites located in each unit. Follow the format exactly.
As you can see from the questions asked, this assignment is excellent for developing critical thinking abilities. It helps students realize that there are a number of criteria they can use to assess the Authority quality of any web site. I send students to a variety • Who is the author of the page? • Many organizational and institutional of .com, .gov, and .org sites so they can see the sites do not identify individuals as site similarities and differences between the different authors. Authorship is attributed to the types of sites. I also send them to high quality as well as low quality sites. organization or institution. • What are the author’s credentials? 4. Post Web-Based Assignments • Does the page contain (or have links to) background information about the One great way to easily make your class is to add author? • What is the site’s domain? (.com, .edu, “web-based” assignments. Hopefully by now, you’ve discovered that there are some really etc.) excellent Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance websites on the Internet. Every Attractiveness and Ease of Use • Describe the page’s level of professional society has one as do most journals, professional societies, non-profit organizations, and attractiveness. government agencies. • How easy is it to navigate this page? 20
Technology You can send students to any of these sites and have them retrieve information and review the site. Here is an example of such an assignment that I use in my Current Health Issues class:
Assignment: Public & Personal Health Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to examine the relationship between personal health behavior and the overall health of the nation. When a critical mass of citizens fail to adopt healthy behaviors, personal health problems such as obesity, become societal problems. This activity is designed to help you understand how personal health behavior impacts the overall health of the nation Go to the Healthy People 2010 home page: http:/ /www.health.gov/healthypeople/ Click on the “Leading Health Indicators” icon in the left margin. List and describe the leading health indicators for our nation. In your opinion, is America a healthy nation? What can you do as an individual to change your negative health behavior associated with the leading health indicators to contribute positively to the health of our nation?
5. Post Didactic Assignments Online and Do Skills-Based Assignments in the Gym/Classroom Many teachers in New Jersey, particularly K-12 Physical Education teachers, find themselves having to teach skills-based classes that have didactic components. Because of this, teachers are forced to use “gym” time to teach content while students sit in the bleachers or on the gym floor and take notes. Often, this leaves little time for
actually performing the skill or activity, having fun, and getting a workout in. One excellent use of the internet is to post the lectures (using audio and or video files), lecture notes (can post teacher’s class notes or textbook publisher’s notes and study materials and video clips etc.), and study aids (practice test questions, additional resources etc.) online. By posting the didactic part of the class online and using gym time for activities and skill-building, students get the best of both worlds. They can access the didactic part of the class when it is convenient for them and replay the lectures or reread the notes as often as they wish to. They also can enjoy a full period of physical activity and not have to worry about bringing notebooks, pens, and paper to the gym. College classes with a skill-building component can be run in a similar fashion. I am planning to teach my Health Counseling class this way; lectures and notes posted online and counseling skills practiced in the classroom. The advantage to teaching a college class this way is that you literally can cut the number of in-person class meetings in half and allow students to access the other half whenever it is convenient for them.
6. Use Small Groups Online I’ve found that using small groups in the classroom is often very hard to do, especially with larger classes. I’ve simply run out of floor space as I tried to fit six groups of six students into a conventionalsized classroom. In addition to trying to just fit them in, the volume of sound created by six groups of students working simultaneously can overwhelm even the hardiest of instructors (not to mention the students). By setting up synchronous or asynchronous groups online, you eliminate both of these problems (Blonna & Shapiro, 2001). Course management software programs allow you to set up password-
Technology protected groups online. The “privacy” of such groups really enhances communication and confidentiality. I have found this to be particularly true in my Human Sexuality online classes. The level of sharing and discussion that goes on in my online human sexuality groups far surpasses anything that I ever experienced in the traditional classroom. The quality of work in my online human sexuality class is so high that I will never teach the subject again in the traditional classroom. Online groups also work especially well with the following students: •
“lateral learning.” Lateral learning is the digging deeper that occurs when students have their intellectual curiosity piqued. Over the years I’ve found that few students check out the references or the additional resources at the end of a book chapter. What surprised me however, the first time I assigned web-based assignments, was the number of students who took the time to dig deeper into the site where the assignments were drawn. Over the years I’ve found that the majority of students are much more likely to explore an attractive web site (regardless of the domain; .com, .gov, etc.) once they finish the assignment than they are to read an additional reference at the end of a book chapter. There is something about the interactive nature of the web and the familiarity and comfort level students have with the internet that makes it worth your while to consider making your course “of the web.”
Students who are shy and reluctant to participate in group discussions • Students from cultural and ethnic groups that are not used to sharing personal information in a group setting. • Mixed age groups. Sometimes nontraditional students feel awkward References discussing their experiences with much Blonna, R (2007). Getting a line on online younger students (Fenichel, Suler, Barak, teaching. Health Promotion Practice, 3(8) Jones, Munro, Meunnier, & Walkerpp. to be determined. Schmucker, 2004). Blonna, R., & Shapiro, P. (2001). Learning at a Conclusion Distance. Health Promotion Practice, 2(3), 198-202. As we have discussed in this article, making your traditional or online class “of the web” has many advantages ranging from increased availability to Fenichel, M., Suler, J., Barak, A., Jones, G., greater flexibility. A far greater reason for doing Munro, K., Meunnier, V., & Walkerthis, however, is that it helps stimulate what I call Schmucker, W.. (2004). Myths and realities of online clinical work. International Society for Mental Health Online (IMSHO), retrieved May 3, 2004 from, http://www.ismho.org/ casestudy/myths.htm. Kapoun, J. (1998). Teaching undergrads WEB evaluation: A guide for library instruction. C&RL News, 59(7), 7-9. Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2000). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
A Healthy Tool Box for Today’s Students Bonnie Zimmermann Glen Rock High School
As professionals in the health and wellness field, we all know that there is new research every day that requires us to stay current with topics and issues that affect our students and community. As a result, it is important to have as many tools as possible to reach the many diverse learning styles we encounter in the classroom. This holds true for every subject- and that is why I am currently working toward a Masters in Educational Technology at Ramapo College. In the MSET program, we learn how to use technology as a tool to enhance subject matter and address the needs of the students that are in our own building. Although it initially began as a science/mathbased program, the methods and skills related to technology can be adapted regardless of grade level or subject. I have become proficient and experienced designing lessons and projects using Web quests, PowerPoint, Publisher, Excel, FrontPage, and Inspiration. I created the lessons and projects to raise students’ interest and to address their different learning styles. These lessons aren’t all brand new; I have taught them before in different ways. But they have now been “re-tooled” to appeal to today’s student. The students use computers at home, so why not in the classroom? My webpage address is: http:// mset.rst2.edu/portfolios/z/zimmermann%5Fb. Character Education Unit Using the program FrontPage, I designed a Character Education webpage which is a unit offered as part of the Health 9 curriculum in our high school. The site is designed to be used by both the teachers in class and by students in a computer lab setting. There are web pages, PowerPoints, rubrics, worksheets and lesson plans. By using the Goals: various programs in class • To develop a sense of who with a projector, the you are by linking your students see images, answer questions, and start values to your behaviors. talking about the issues. • To believe that you can be a http://18.104.22.168/ person who can make p o r t f o l i o s / z / zimmermann_b/ positive contributions to adv_tech_curric/
Technology Bullying Webpage The bullying webpage defines bullying, explains the different types of bullying, and gives skills to help stop bullying. http://22.214.171.124/portfolios/z/zimmermann_badv/ tech_curric/bullying_websaved.htm. Respect Journal One character education assignment requires students to keep a â€œrespect journalâ€? where they pay attention to their daily behavior, record it for 3 days, and present it via PowerPoint. An example of a PowerPoint for students to see the assignment can be found at: http://126.96.36.199/portfolios/z/zimmermann_b/adv_tech_curric/ my_journey_to_respectland.ppt
Technology Disease Ad Campaign A project for Health 11 brings the students to the Centers for Disease Control website as they research a specific disease. The assignment is to design an advertisement or public service announcement that promotes prevention, education and awareness about a disease that interests the student. (http://mset.rst2.edu/portfolios/z/zimmermann_b/toolsvis/toolsvisweb/final_project/).
Technology Worksheet for the Disease Ad Campaign The directions page provides instructions and links to valid websites that the students will use for their required worksheet. Students choose the type of ad: poster, pamphlet, print ad or TV commercial and use programs on the computer such as PowerPoint, Photoshop, and Microsoft Publisher. Rubrics are also included on the teacher page. (http://mset.rst2.edu/portfolios/z/zimmermann_b/toolsvis/toolsvisweb/final_project/worksheet.doc) Questions for Disease Ad ver tising Campaign Adv ertising Answer the following questions so that you find all of the information needed for your advertising campaign. When complete, save as Word document on the teacher’s V-locker. You may have a paper copy of this worksheet if you prefer to write this by hand. 1. Disease topic chosen: _______________ 2. Explain why you chose this particular disease. 3. What causes this disease? A virus? Bacteria? 4. List 3-5 of the most important signs or symptoms of this disease. 5. Who is at risk for contracting this disease? 6. How is this disease transmitted (passed along to others)? 7. How is this disease diagnosed? Through testing? Explain your answer. 8. What kind of treatments are available? 9. What is the prognosis for someone who is not treated for this disease? 10. List 3-5 ways this disease can be prevented. 11. Find 2 important facts that people need to know about this disease- such as population affected, seriousness of this disease, does it spread easily, etc. 1. 2. 12. Using all of the information above, who is your target audience? A “target audience” would be the people who need to know this information. (Depending on the disease you choose, it could be the general population, older adults, teenagers, specific ethnic or racial groups, specific gender, children, etc.)
Students today are savvy consumers with attention spans that are much shorter than previous generations. I believe that teachers need to keep current by using reliable websites and resources. Technology can bridge the gap between past teaching practices and the students of today. I’ve observed that students are more interested in a lesson if they are presented with tools that they understand and use themselves. However, the realities of teaching also guarantee that servers will go down and computers and projectors will refuse to work (which I term as “stage fright”), so you always need a backup plan if technology isn’t cooperating. That’s a fact of life, but it shouldn’t stop you from adding a few new teaching tools to your own teaching toolbox. To see examples of projects by other students in the MSET program at Ramapo College, visit the webpage at http://www.rst2.edu/masters/ 26
Using Technology to Include Parents in Your Physical Education Program Erik Myer Warnsdorfer Elementary School Applying technology in our physical education classrooms is a wonderful teaching tool. I have been incorporating various types of technology over the past six years into my program. A few years back a professor asked me to talk about using technology related to parents as part of a lecture I was giving to her students as they graduated and made their way in the PE world. To be honest I had not really thought about how to apply technology related to parents. I had always had students and teachers as my main focus. So I had to think about it for a while. Then I realized that was already occurring in what I had been doing at my school. In order to include parents, I recommend creating a website for your physical education program. Initially I had attended some training classes on webpage construction and design but found it a little over my head and demanded more time than I had to give to the project. The main idea behind the website is to keep it informative and simple. My district was pursuing the idea of every teacher having a website in our district so they pitched a website for us that was relatively easy to maintain and easy to use. My district utilizes Teacherweb.com. It is inexpensive and quite easy to use.
My website (http://teacherweb.com/NJ/WarnsdorferElementarySchool/Mrmyer/) includes: 27
E-mail link to a yahoo mail account that I set up specifically to field questions from parents and students. Fitness calendar page with a link to NASPE’s monthly fitness calendar. http://teacherweb.com/NJ/WarnsdorferElementarySchool/Mrmyer/feb07_E.pdf Nutrition page that links up to our district’s Nutrition Nuggets handout that is given to the students. I have my teacherweb.com page linked to our district webpage so that parents can access it from there. The main reason I developed the webpage was so that I could provide the parents with information about what we do in physical education and as a place for them to go to for additional resources. The website is a great way to steer parents toward our profession and what we do in the classroom. 28
Gophers, Garbage and Avocado: Technology Integration in a Health Curriculum Made Easy Starr Eaddy Edgewater Integrating technology into the health curriculum can be relatively easy. Consider this article a “getting started” to using the web to illustrate, challenge, educate, and entertain yourself and your students. If you can check e-mail, alone or with assistance, you have more than enough skill to use and expand on the material presented here. Our students already use technology, 89.5 percent of all children (between the ages of 5-17) use computers. While entertainment was a common reason for using the web, 20% of elementary students and 75% of high school and college students use the web for schoolwork based on a report by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration. The ability to use the web and to manage the wealth of information it offers will continue to be required of the educated person of the 21st century. The purpose of this article is to help you find, evaluate, and use the web to teach health content. Any of the ideas here can be used in-class if computer labs are available or as library assignments if web access is limited. If web access outside of school is limited for you or your students, the public library in your community may offer free access.1 A word of caution, visiting a website shortly before creating an assignment using the site, or visiting the site in class can save you endless embarrassment. In that vein, every attempt to confirm site addresses has been made; they were functional at the time this article was published. Gophers2: Finding Health Content on the Web One of the most common methods of finding content on the web is to use a search engine like Yahoo or Google; unfortunately, the volume of results is overwhelming. For example, let us type the word “fitness” in Yahoo. It returns a page of links and informs you that you are looking at pages “1 - 10 of about 455,000,000 for fitness.” Most of the results are advertisements of one type of another; even the links to sites that promise information are often thinly disguised marketing ploys. Most search engines now have tabs that allow you to select a specific media (text, images, audio, or video) which can narrow your results. So let us narrow our search to video, selecting the video tab above the search box which yields the following “Videos 1 - 10 of 30,384 that match fitness.” While selecting a specific media cut the number of items returned, it has done nothing to enhance the validity of the responses. The first page of video results contained several blogs or personal opinion pieces, three myspace pages, several ads for fitness products and two pornographic sites. (Note that I have intentionally turned off the parental controls on my computer so the sexual content was not filtered out.) The point here is that even narrowing the search by media can result in useless or inappropriate results. To locate the type of health information needed by educators, go to a credible consumer health information site such as MedlinePlus (http://medlineplus.gov/) or Healthfinder.gov (http://healthfinder.gov). MedlinePlus contains links to free interactive tutorials, one of which is on exercising for a healthy heart. Typing the term fitness into MedlinePlus results in links to additional information at sites such as 29
Technology the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Young at Heart: Exercise Tips for Seniors and the ACSM Fit Society Page. A general rule is to limit searches to addresses at government institutions which end in “.gov” or academic institutions which end in “.edu.” Health sites by nationally known and respected sites such as the Susan G Komen Foundation or the American Heart Association are also good sources of health information; MedlinePlus contains a comprehensive list of health, fitness, and safety organizations at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/organizations/all_organizations.html. Garbage: Trash and Treasure on the Web The web gives each person with access to it a global forum to share his/her knowledge, opinions, biases, and beliefs, which is great for democracy and the free exchange of ideas but problematic for quality control. As educators, we need to help students evaluate information as either trash or treasure. Trash Urban Legends at About.com is the site for rumors, hoaxes and all things of questionable veracity. The health/medical section contains everything from kidney thieves to killer canola oil. While the items may seem ridiculous, many students have usually heard the rumors and want to know if they are true. Students often suspect the rumor is false but lack the tools to defend their position, which makes a discussion of these hoaxes and rumors a fitting introduction to scientific investigation and reporting or media literacy. No registration or fee is required. Another area of this site, Faux Photos (http://urbanlegends.about.com/od/fauxphotos/Faux_Photos.htm), has convincing looking photos with captions that visitors are challenged to identify as real or fake. Recent entries included a picture of a 282 lb. English Mastiff dog and an amateur retouching of a photo to create an image of the “world’s tallest woman.” This site illustrates that anyone with a digital camera can create effects to entertain or deceive. No registration or fee is required. Treasure Each of the sites in this section addresses social and or spiritual health by challenging visitors to interact with like minded individuals to support a cause larger than themselves. The web is also fertile ground for social activism as demonstrated by sites like Planetfesto (think Hands Across America if you are old enough). Planetfesto (http://www.planetfesto.org) is looking for 262,965,120 people to create a virtual (online) ribbon long enough to wrap around the earth. Planetfesto allows participants create a virtual length of ribbon and to pledge to engage do something planet friendly. No registration or fee is required. The Hunger Site (http://www.thehungersite.com) provides food and social services to those in need. Simply go to the site and click “help feed the hungry” button. No registration or log in is required. Need a change of perspective? Visit the Global Rich List (http://www.globalrichlist.com/index.php) to see where you rank in terms of wealth . . . the results are sobering. No registration or fee is required. Do Something (http://www.dosomething.org/) encourages young people to be the change they want to see in the world. The site contains a list of community projects students can become involved in as well as networking site for students involved in projects around the globe. No fee is required.
Technology Avocado: Website Evaluation Tools AVOCADO is a seven-item website evaluation tool from the Medical Association of the State of Alabama http://southmed.usouthal.edu/library/masasite/webeval.htm. This easy to remember tool uses the acronym Avocado to represent the key areas to assess to determine the validity of health information on the web; Accuracy, Value, Organization, Coverage, Authority, Date, and Objectivity. The meaning of a site score is largely dependent on the purpose of the information, for example a health and beauty site is held to a different standard than a reference source for information used to make a major health decision. Tools like Avocado simply increase awareness of the essential components of a valid health information site. The following are two website evaluation exercises for students at the high school and college level. Activity # 1: Drive by Website Evaluation URL http://www.wiredsafety.com/wiredlearning/Evaluation/index.html Materials: a computer with an internet connection. In “Drive by” learners practice critical thinking and evaluate the validity of a list of websites by reviewing each in less than a minute using a gross likert scale (i.e., 1 is “poor” to 5 is “excellent”). This exercise is an effective way of discussing critical thinking. Item #11, a news report on the The Dangers of Bread at http://www.geoffmetcalf.com/bread.html is particularly interesting. This activity, geared towards high school and college students, is an excellent way of demonstrating how much information can be obtained from a site address or URL. Student and teacher versions are available as well as an answer key and a brief website evaluation tool. No registration or fee is required.
Activity # 2: Snapple Cap Fact Quest Snapple drink caps contain a numbered piece of trivia on the cap called a “Real Fact” for example; Fact #145 is Lake Superior is the world’s largest lake. Materials: Snapple “Real Fact” and a computer with internet access. Either ask students who drink Snapple to wash and save the caps or visit Snapple at http://www.snapple.com to copy some facts. Students randomly select a Snapple fact to investigate on the web. 1. What question(s) did you ask to assess if the fact was true or false? 2. List two or three sites you visited in an attempt to verify your Snapple fact. 3. How did you select the sites you visited to look for evidence? 4. What evidence did you find? 5. Was your Snapple fact true or false? Review the questions with students; congratulate curiosity, tenacity, and creative conceptualizations of the task. Challenge naiveté or blind acceptance of the statement as fact and guide students struggling to locate sources by directing them to government or academic sites that address the content of the Snapple fact. A series of these exercises conducted over the course of a semester should reveal increasingly more efficient searches as well as increased depth of inquiry. Summary This article offered practical advice on integrating technology into health courses by describing the advantages of one search method over others to narrow the scope of items returned while increasing their applicability and validity. The next section described websites illustrative of information use, misuse, and manipulation. The final section of the paper described two website evaluation activities for high school or college students. The paper ended with a list of links to the websites mentioned in the article and additional resources that can be used to integrate technology into the health curriculum. 31
Technology References National Telecommunications and Information Administration (n.d.). Chapter 5: The Digital Generation: How Young People Have Embraced Computers And The Internet. Retrieved June 5, 2007 from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/dn/html/Chapter5.htm. Links AVOCADO: http://southmed.usouthal.edu/library/masasite/webeval.htm Do Something: http://www.dosomething.org Drive by Website Evaluation: http://www.wiredsafety.com/wiredlearning/Evaluation/index.html Faux Photos: http://urbanlegends.about.com/od/fauxphotos/Faux_Photos.htm HealthFinder: healthfinder.gov MedlinePlus: http://medlineplus.gov/ National Health Information Center 2007 National Health Observances: http://www.healthfinder.gov/library/nho/nho.asp National Health Organizations: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/organizations/all_organizations.html National Directory of Libraries: http://www.publiclibraries.com/ Planetfesto: http://www.planetfesto.org Presidentâ€™s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports: http://www.fitness.gov Snapple: http://www.snapple.com Urban Legends: http://urbanlegends.about.com Additional Resources Spartanburg County School District Three. WebQuests Retrieved June 4, 2007 from http:// spa3.k12.sc.us/WebQuests.html. This site offers several tools for creating your own webquest including a webquest development guide, introductory overview of web questing, and instructions for basic web operations such as i.e. cutting, pasting, and making links. Technology Integration Made Easy. Retrieved June 4, 2007 from http://www.educationworld.com/ a_tech/tech/tech146.shtml. This site offers simple ways of using web content to enhance daily class activities. Techtorials. Retrieved June 4, 2007 from http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/techtorial/ techtorialintro.shtml. Each of these free 15 minute guides walk you through the nuts and bolts completing a technology task such as educating with e-mail or making hyperfiction stories (I didnâ€™t know what it was either). The site was instructive and easy to use. Website Evaluation Tool retrieved June 4, 2007 from http://www.wiredsafety.com/wiredlearning/ Evaluation/websiteval.htm. This general web site evaluation tool has the benefit of being brief and generating a numeric score which is easy to interpret however, it assumes that learners can evaluate the authority and comprehensiveness of a site. It looks like a good tool for upper level students. (Footnotes) 1 A based directory of US libraries is available at http://www.publiclibraries.com/ 2 Search engines used to be called Gophers. 32
Teaching Health Literacy Skills to an MTV Driven Generation How Can Technology Help Jewel C. Carter William Paterson University Introduction Many educators are looking for ways to make their classroom material more exciting. Advancements in technology such as the Internet, television, and video games have contributed to the rise of some of the most challenging health issues plaguing students. However, these same technologies can be used constructively to counteract serious health issues impacting students. Today’s children and adolescents are growing up in a multimedia driven society. As a result, traditional didactic teaching methodologies have become boring and ineffective. Students aren’t able to grasp the material that is presented to them because they aren’t captivated by the subject matter or the teaching style. The question then becomes how can educators keep the attention of our students and still ensure that the necessary curriculum standards set are being provided? This is a dilemma that many educators face everyday. Overview of Health Literacy Health literacy has been defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and
services needed to make appropriate health decisions (Ratzan & Parker, 2000). It’s spoken, written, and heard. There are three basic levels of health literacy: level one develops a basic knowledge bank, level two develops specific skills, and level three assists individuals with increasing their own health and the health of others (Nutbeam, 2000). Being health literate enables students to engage in positive health behaviors, make informed decisions, and maintain healthy lifestyles. Without it, our communities are in jeopardy of developing greater health disparities and poorer health outcomes. Health literacy is such an important issue that it has become the focus of our national health objectives, Healthy People 2010. Why Consider Health Literacy? Technology is often introduced into curricula without considering the health literacy skills needed to utilize such an effective tool. It’s often assumed that because students can send instant messages, emails, and download music from the Internet, they are also able to use technology to make wise decisions concerning their health. Students may know the basic tasks for a particular function, but may not be able to use these same
skills to perform a different task. For example, a student may be able to use a search engine to find a popular song he/she may be interested in downloading onto a MP3 player, but are unable to use that same search engine to find information on health for a term paper or class project. Likewise, the language that is often used to send text and instant messages isn’t the same written language that is used in the classroom. Often times this new language is truncated and vulgar. Thus, despite their ability to utilize technology in ways that seem more advanced, students may not be able to translate this same technology into more educational technological functions. In addition to the potential inability to take advantage of technology, many of the tasks that require health literacy have been performed by a child’s parent or guardian for much of their lives. Completing medical forms, choosing the most nutritious foods at the grocery store, and 33
Technology choosing vitamins and medicines as prescribed are basic tasks that may seem unfamiliar to students. When then do they have the opportunity to develop these skills for themselves? School is where most students learn and develop the skills to become autonomous. School must equip students with the knowledge and skills needed to actively take part in shaping health practices that impact their health.
to instant message and play games. Young users spend time on many activities at once. Information technology has revolutionized the way we protect and promote health. The proliferation of inaccurate and misleading health information is incredible. Educators must strive to develop technological based activities that take student’s individual needs into consideration.
Technology and Health Literacy Whether it’s using a dance mat to increase cardiovascular activity, a pedometer to encourage more walking activities and count daily steps, or using a video to demonstrate a skill or discuss a specific health topic, all of these teaching methodologies require a basic level of health literacy. To understand the information that is being presented, students have to comprehend the words, text format, and the tasks being described within these teaching tools. These are basic or functional health literacy skills. Words alone may be understood by a student, but when you use a different design or text layout and font, these simple changes may complicate basic instruction, thus frustrating students and hindering the learning process.
Outside classroom activities also enables students and educators to utilize critical health literacy opportunities within the community. Students need entertainment to foster learning and multimedia helps. The use of technology generates more discussion and thus helps students to make better choices regarding their health.
It is well documented that over 90% of children and adolescents 5-17 years of age use computers and about 59% use the Internet (DeBell & Chapman, 2003). Many students use the computer
“...over 90% of children and adolescents 5-17 years of age use computers...” Suggestions for Developing the Basics The basic principle in developing skills is theory/ conceptdemonstration-practiceconstructive feedback. The following are suggestions to aid in developing basic health literacy skills among students:
1. Use simple terminology; complex terms should be defined. 2. Use step-by-step instructions for all tasks. 3. Demonstrate the skill to be learned. 4. Practice the skill to be developed; hands-on experience is the best teacher. 5. Use closed questions to reiterate important points. 6. Pause and ask questions during a video to ensure that the message is getting across. 7. Use less text and more pictures with written instructions or health information. 8. Ensure that material used is culturally inclusive and appropriate. Using these basic tips when integrating technology into the curriculum can assist students with developing some of the basic skills needed for health literacy. Activity: Exploring the Internet for Health The website exploration activity assists students with locating health information on the Internet. Using screen shots in the instructions and/or a live Internet connection in the classroom, you can go through the steps of finding reliable and valid health promotion or health prevention information on the Internet. First, you must define common Internet 34
Technology 1. Explore the three terms that students will encounter websites and discuss the while exploring the Internet. This difference between the would include, but is not limited websites ending in gov, to: URL/web address, clip/ edu, and com. double clip, hyperlink, submit, 2. Explain the difference and search engine. Begin the between webpage and exploration using a common websites. search engine that most students are familiar with such as Yahoo, 3. Identify and record the URL/web address of each Google, Ask, and Wikipedia. website that is being Then enter a health term and explored. search for websites ending in gov, 4. Identify the authors or edu, and com. Common websites sponsoring organization include: Healthfinder, Health of the websites. AtoZ, Centers for Disease 5. Identify when the website Control and Prevention, and was created and last Kidsource. The grade level you updated. teach will determine which 6. Discuss the additional search engine you would begin information that is with. Enter a health term that provided to the reader, students are familiar with such as when a hyperlink is the common cold, mosquito clicked. bites, or germs. Then, use the following learning objectives in Once you complete these steps, a closed question format to have students explore other sites on the Internet. This can be done explore the different websites:
individually or in groups depending on the class size and availability of computer in the classroom. As a follow-up assessment, students can find other popular sites and follow the same process. This activity ensures that students are at least aware of three credible and reliable sources of health information on the Internet, thus ensuring the attainment of the basic level of health literacy.
References DeBell, M. & Chapman, C. (2003). Computer and internet use by children and adolescents in 2001 (Publication No. NCES 2004-014). Retrieved May 1, 2007, from the National Center for Education Statistics website at http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/2004014.pdf Nutbeam, D. (2000). Health literacy as a public health goal: A challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promotion International, 15, 259-268. Ratzan, S. C., & Parker, R. M. (2000). Introduction. In: National Library of Medicine Current Bibliographies in Medicine: Health Literacy. Selden, C. R., Zorn, M., Ratzan, S.C., Parker, R. M. Editors. NLM Pub. No. CBM 2000-1. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Perfectly Practical Pedometer Perambulations Michele DiCorcia and Peter Rattigan Rowan University A major challenge for physical educators is to be creative throughout all stages of learning. In today’s school systems, physical education teachers are expected to present a variety of activities to their students in grades K-12. During the formative years, teachers share with students the fundamental skills of movement including running, skipping, hopping, and jumping. Throughout the middle school years, physical educators begin to provide opportunities for students to experience team activities and sports such as basketball, soccer, lacrosse; just to name a few. In high school, the challenge continues in that physical educators should be providing opportunities for students to find activities that they will “love” for a lifetime. Activities such as tennis, swimming, and walking are excellent choices for this curriculum. Teachers, students, and parents however, may question whether walking has much fitness value and should be included in school physical education programs. Unfortunately, looking for the magic elixir that will allow humans to lose weight quickly is pervasive within our society. From commercials, to internet websites, to testimonials of actors in doctor’s lab coats indicating “I did it and you can to!” sends a message that weight loss can be easy and fast. One of the easiest and cheapest ways to lose weight is by walking. Granted, it’s not glamorous in that you don’t have to pay a monthly fee, buy a special outfit, arrive each day at a specific time so you don’t miss the warm-up or the actual activity itself, and there is no congratulatory towel that says “You can do it.” Walking is a lifetime activity that can be social, that can increase cardiovascular fitness, decrease stress, and so much more. “How can walking be fun?” or “How can I motivate myself or others to want to walk?” are common questions for physical educators. Using pedometers is an excellent way to increase interest and motivation
related to your walking program. Listed below are several activities, ideas, websites, and other useful information that should help you incorporate pedometers into your curriculum. Hopefully, these ideas will enhance student walking motivation and get them to appreciate walking as a lifetime activity!
PEDOMETER ACTIVITIES FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Estimation Activities In pairs, students estimate the number of steps in the gym (length of the gym, perimeter, number of laps of the gym for 100 steps, 1000 steps, etc.), in the classroom, or other places (i.e. cafeteria, office, playground). After they record their estimation, they use the pedometers to measure the number of steps for each challenge. They can also answer a few questions about their estimations (i.e. “How close was your estimate from the gym to the office?” This incorporates subtraction and multiplication, percentages). Then they can be asked to calculate the total number of steps from the gym to each area. Good activity for math integration. Jog & Jump Partner Game Uses one pedometer per pair and jump ropes. Assign the students to a numbered cone as they enter the gym. The cones should be set up in numerical order on the perimeter of the boundaries of a large rectangle. The students need room to jog clockwise around the outside of the cones. Have equipment at each cone or have the students get the equipment on the way to the cone. On signal, one partner will jog clockwise around the perimeter of the area while the other partner practices his/her jump rope skills (There could be a skills sheet with jump rope skills for them to practice.) The jumpers need to stay within the rectangle while their partners jog around the outside of the area. After 2-3 minutes, have the joggers stop and check their pedometer steps, and go back to their cone. The jogger records his/her steps while the other partner puts the pedometer on and resets it to zero. On signal the new jogger jogs and the other partner jumps rope. 36
Technology Fitness Stations Set up several fitness stations, alternating cardiovascular endurance, strength and flexibility. Split the class into equal groups of about 3-5 students each. If there is limited number of pedometers, have one or two to each group. Those two wear the pedometer for the entire circuit. The next time class meets and/or this activity is done, another two students in the group wear the pedometer. After completion of the stations record the pedometer steps for the group, multiplying the average pedometer step count by the group score. After both partners complete the warm-up/fitness exercises, have them add their scores together for a group score. The same can be done for the entire class. Pedometer Partner Passing Challenge Set up an obstacle course of cones with periodic “goals.” Each pair of students has one soccer ball and one pedometer (or one each). The dribbler puts on the pedometer and resets it to zero. On signal, the dribbler starts and the partner jogs throughout the challenge course. To earn a point they must pass the ball through a target to their partner and their partner must return the pass through the same target. If the ball hits the target no points are earned. If either partner knocks over a target they have to take away one point from their total score and set it back up. The dribbling partner stays the same for each round. After two minutes, signal the students to stop. Have the student with the pedometer record his/her steps. Then the jogging partner becomes the dribbler. Alternate every round. Can be done with other game skills (basketball, pillow polo, toss and catch objects). Personal Fitness Routine Have students develop a personal fitness routine with a partner, alternating cardiovascular elements with strength and flexibility. While one does the cardiovascular activity, the other partner does a flexibility/strength exercise. Alternate every 30 – 60 seconds. Set a group goal (i.e., 1,000 steps). Have partners keep going until they reach their group goal. One partner may have done 550 steps and the other 450 – thereby showing that although it is a group exercise, fitness goals are personal.
Students can log miles at the PE Central Log It web site http://www.peclogit.org/. Teachers have to register their school and classes and then students have to register. Students can walk across the USA, view their log, set a goal and print certificates for meeting daily goals. The teacher cannot enter the steps for the students the students need to do that (they can do this at home also). Students can log in as many times as they wish throughout the day but they cannot exceed 25,000 steps or 12.5 miles. Pedometers do not have to be used for Log It. Registration directions for both teachers and students can be found at: http://www.peclogit.org/regdirections-logit.html
PEDOMETER ACTIVITIES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL Kangaroo Relay Have students in relay groups with a cone set out 510 yards in front of the group. The first person in the group carries a rope or wand to the cone and back. The second person takes one end of the rope or wand, and both carry this across the rest of the group about 6" off the ground. Each group member has to jump over it. The first person joins the back of the line and the second person runs out to the cone and back, joins with the next person in line and repeats the process until everyone has carried the wand/rope once. Use pedometers to count the steps. Ask the students if they can modify the relays to maximize steps. Tactical Movement with Pedometers Have winners of games in PE classes decided not by score but by steps (most movement off the ball or most team movement, for example). Non Dressers Have non-dressers just walk during PE class with pedometer on. Invent a Game Students can invent a game which maximizes participation (steps) for everyone and inclusion (everyone can play and be involved). 37
Technology Modify a Game Students can modify a game which may have a lot of standing around (such as kickball) and modify it so that all students are more active. Pangrazi, Beighle, and Sidman (2003) has great game ideas.
out to the classroom teachers/staff to have them record their steps throughout the day – and see which ones meet the 10,000 steps a day goal (Music teachers? Art teachers? Custodians? Principals? Parents? Food service workers? Kindergarten Student Designed Obstacle or Orienteering teachers? Recess supervisors?) Pedometer Course (or Parcourse) Have students design a course to maximize steps Pedometers can be effective for instant activity and and other fitness elements, with teacher input/ for encouraging constant movement until the last modification, then have classes try it out. This moment of class. Track the path of the Olympic could be a temporary, indoor course, or even a Torch across the USA /world or cruise through the permanent outdoor course. state or area (for example, going through the local area by map and photos to get a sense of local geography where students live). Students can also GENERAL IDEAS FOR K-12 AND run or walk across the USA, other countries, the BEYOND world, etc., based on the same idea. Pedometer Calibration Have students calibrate pedometers by counting 100 steps and seeing how far off their pedometers are in terms of percentage. They can then factor this in to their step totals. Some pedometers can be adjusted/recalibrated. Estimating Stride Length Stride length can be estimated using the “wet shoe” method (outside). Have students wet the sole of their shoe and walk/jog/run at normal pace. They can then measure their stride length using a tape measure. Be sure to have them measure heel to heel or toe to toe.
Use pedometers to track daily activity and have students set their own personal goals. Instead of making arbitrary goals for students, let them monitor daily activity and then set their own goals based on the data they have collected. Set up a spreadsheet and have the students log their own steps (miles, calories, etc.). Math and computer skills can be reinforced in this way. This can also be combined with data on daily calorie output and intake. Teachers and parents can do this too!
Use pedometers daily. Students have to record their totals and convert them to mileage. Every five Test Strip miles recorded they earn a token or some other Set out a “test strip” of 17.6 yards. Have students recognition. Teachers and walk/jog/run a distance of which the test strip is in parents can do this too! the middle. Multiply the number of steps taken to traverse the strip by 100 to get an estimate of steps Consider checking per mile. pedometers out over the weekend to students and Use pedometers to help students see how active their families (the library they are in different parts of the PE class or school system for check outs can day. Have them put them on at the start of class or help). Pedometers can be day and provide each with an index card or 1/2 purchased for as little as sheet of paper – where they’ll put their name and $3-4 each. class and record the number of steps they take in different activities (warm-ups, stretching, games or skill work). Pedometers can also be checked 38
Decker, J. & Mize, M. (2002). Walking games and activities: 40 new ways to make fitness fun. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Morgan, C. F., Pangrazi, R. P., & Beighle, A. (2003). Using pedometers to promote physical activity in physical education. JOPERD, 74(7), 33- 39. Pangrazi, R. P., Beighle, A., & Sidman, C. L. (2003). Pedometer power: 67 lessons for K-12. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Sweetgall, R. & Neeves, R. (1987). Walking for little children. St. Louis, MO: Creative Walking, Inc. PEDOMETER PURCHASE WEB SITES http://www.pedometersusa.com http://www.vkrshop.com http://www.walk4life.com http://www.new-lifestyles.com/ Pedometers may also be purchased through the major PE catalogs such as Gopher, FlagHouse, and Sporttime.
CALL FOR PROGRAMS 2008 Eastern District Association Convention “Navigate, Collaborate, Celebrate with EDA” Marriott Hotel Newport, RI February 27 - March 1, 2008 In an attempt to provide exciting, diverse, and educational convention programs carefully complete the attached sheet so the Council for Conventions can evaluate your proposal. Mail proposals directly to one of the Vice President or Committee Chairs listed below.
Deadline: 8/1/07 Incomplete proposals will not be considered for presentation. DANCE Thom Cobb 69 Links Drive New Castle, PA 16101 Thom.firstname.lastname@example.org
HEALTH Jan Arnold 928 North Forest Trail Crownsville, MD 21032 email@example.com
STUDENT SECTION Christine Brett East Stroudsburg Univ. Physical Education 200 Prospect St East Stroudsburg, PA 18301 CBrett@po-box.esu.edu
RECREATION Rick LaRue PO Box 1075 Biddelford, ME 04005 firstname.lastname@example.org
PHYSICAL EDUCATION John Helion 1164 Lake Drive West Chester, PA 19382 email@example.com
RESEARCH Tracey Fogarty 263 Alden Street Judd 105A Springfield College Springfield, MA 01108 firstname.lastname@example.org
For complete information: http://www.aahperd.org/districts/eda/doc_files/call08.doc 39
Using Pedometers in Physical Education Kathy Crossnohere Thurgood Marshall Elementary School
The students of Thurgood Marshall Elementary School in Asbury Park were able to participate in a pedometer program thanks to a generous grant from the NJAHPERD. Our program is designed to encourage students to increase their level of activity, encourage healthy eating, and overall good health habits. Several of our second graders were given pedometers to wear all day everyday to measure their steps. Each morning (during homeroom) the students’ steps were recorded and they were given the opportunity to write in their “log books.” They wrote about the healthy choices they had made as well as activities they had participated in while counting their steps. The students received plastic mini footprints to collect and wear to show off their accomplishments. \ How the Pedometer Program Works • •
Student steps are recorded daily so progress and participation is easy to track. Every Friday I tallied the total number of days for the week the student remembered to wear his/ her pedometer. A footprint was awarded if the student wore the pedometer for at least four of the five days. Students also received a footprint for reaching 10,000 steps. (Students could earn up to two footprints per week.) I calculated the percentages of participation for each class every week in order to track progress. As participation started to subside; I began hanging construction paper footprints outside each classroom with the students’ names who earned mini footprints that week. This seemed to increase participation greatly.
Findings • • • •
Approximately 70% of our second graders consistently participated in the program. The students were very enthusiastic about counting their steps and earning the plastic mini footprints. The students loved to see the construction paper footprints with their names hanging on the door outside their classroom. At times this became a very friendly competition. The students and classroom teachers tried to see who could have the most footprints hanging outside their doors.
The pedometer program was a huge success! After watching the enthusiasm and willingness to participate among the students and classroom teachers, I would love to be able to expand the program for years to come. 40
Health and Physical Education Selected Internet Resources Alliance for a Healthier Generation - www.healthiergeneration.org Annie E. Casey Foundation – Child Welfare – www.aecf.org American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance - www.aahperd.org American Heart Association – www.americanheart.org Action for Healthy Kids - www.actionforhealthykids.org Answer – Network for Family Life Education Teen Magazine/Web - www.sexetc.org Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development – www.wholechildeducation.org Blue Zones Web-based Intervention Program - http://www.bluezones.com Bonnie’s Fitware, Inc. – Technology in Physical Education -http://www.pesoftware.com Center for Disease Control (CDC) - www.cdc.gov Coordinated Approach to Child Health (C.A.T.C.H.) - www.flaghouse.com Cobalt Flux - Dance Platform Activity - www.cobaltflux.com Comprehensive Health Education Foundation (C.H.E.F.) - www.chef.org Dance Dance Revolution – www.ddrgame.com DARTFISH - www.dartfish.com Directors of Health Promotion and Education – School Employee Wellness - www.dhpe.org Discovery Education Health Lessons - http://www.discoveryhealthconnection.com The science of movement - www.exploratorium.edu/sports/ Flaghouse Sporting Goods – www.flaghouse.com (Cybex Trazer Exercise Video Game) Framework for 21st Century Learning – www.21stcenturyskills.org Health Education Assessment Project (HEAP) - www.ccsso.org/heap Health Teacher Lessons - www.healthteacher.com 41
Technology Human Kinetics (Fitnessgram/Fit for Life) - www.humankinetics.com IMPACT - Interactive Exercise Knowledge CD - www.toucaned.com Inspiration/Kidspiration - www.inspiration.com KaBOOM – www.kaboom.org Making the Connection: Health and Academic Achievement Coordinated School Health Model – www.thesociety.org National Association of State Boards of Education – Healthy Schools Program www.nasbe.org/healthyschools New Jersey Department of Education - www.state.nj.us/education New Jersey Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance www.njahperd.org Nickelodeon – www.nick.com/letsjustplay Nintendo – www.nintendo.com - Wii Exercise Video Game Nutri-Café Online Calculator - http://www.nutri-cafe.com Healthy School Playgrounds - www.peacefulplaygrounds.com PE Central - www.pecentral.org; www.pelogit.org National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute - www.nhlbi.org Safe Routes to School Program – www.saferoutesinfo.org Sports, Play & Active Recreation for Kids (S.P.A.R.K.) - www.sportime.com Supersize Me DVD - www.supersizeme.com (Obesity prevention lessons) Sportwall International, Inc - www.sportwall.com (Interactive Exercise with techno feedback) Xavix Technology - Jackie Chan Techno Fitness - www.xavix.com/xavixtechnology.htm
2008 Call for Proposals The New Jersey Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance invites you to submit a presentation proposal for the 2008 Annual Convention. This convention will be held at the East Brunswick Hilton on Monday and Tuesday, February 25 & 26, 2008. Convention programming is based primarily on this annual “Call for Proposals” bringing practical and relevant information to HPERD professionals and students. By featuring you and your peers as presenters, NJAHPERD provides convention attendees with the strongest forum for information exchange, problem solving, and networking on the state level. NJAHPERD especially relies on professionals that have contributed to the success of conventions in the past.
SELECTION CRITERIA: Proposals received by the September 30th deadline will be reviewed by the convention planning committee. Your proposal will be evaluated on the following: • Overall quality and innovation of presentation • Practical application of information/materials • Application to NJ Core Content Curriculum Standards Please include a clear description of what the audience will learn, the focus of the session, how the information can be implemented into the educational setting, and your target audience. Also indicate if the session will be lecture, activity or both. You are required to provide an informational handout prior to the convention for distribution on a CD to all convention attendees. The committee will inform you of its acceptance as soon as possible. Presentation Submission Deadline: September 30, 2007 Acceptance/Rejection Notification: October 15, 2007 Time/Date Confirmation: December 1, 2007 Visit the NJAHPERD website: www.njahperd.org (Convention/2008 Call for Proposals) to complete your proposal online. Topics recommended by members are also listed. 43
2007 NJAHPERD MINI GRANT INFORMATION One of NJAHPERD’s goals is to support and encourage members as they seek to develop and conduct school and community programs in health, physical education, recreation and dance. The availability of mini grant funding is intended to provide financial assistance to enhance theses programs. Each grant request is limited to $500.00. A maximum of 5 grants will be awarded each year. Mini Grant Criteria Proposals must promote the interests of NJAHPERD and will be judged by the following criteria: 1. Applicant must be a current professional member of NJAHPERD in good standing. 2. The project must relate to health, physical education, recreation or dance (not athletics). 3. The project must directly benefit students. 4. The project must be supported by the applicant’s immediate supervisor/principal. (Indicate approval in letter of recommendation and signature.) 5. Funds received must be used to supplement or enhance the existing school curriculum and address NJCCCS. 6. Award recipients will be required to write an article for publication or present the project at the 2007 Annual Convention. Guidelines for Proposals 1. Proposals must be submitted to the Executive Director of NJAHPERD no later than December 1, 2007. 2. Proposals must include: A. a completed application form including signature, B. a typed, one page description of the project including the title, main idea, description of how project will meet the needs of students, number of students affected, how the project will be assessed, the amount requested and how the project relates to NJCCCS, C. a signed supporting letter from applicant’s immediate supervisor/principal, D. a resume or current vita, E. a proposed budget describing equipment, software, quantities, shipping costs and shared expenses, if any, etc. Incomplete applications will not be reviewed. Selection Process 1. The grants will be awarded through a committee appointed by the president of NJAHPERD. 2. Completed proposals will be reviewed by February 25, 2008. 3. Award recipients will be announced at the January Executive Board meeting. 4. The grant committee will make the final award decision. 5. Awardees will be notified in writing by March 1, 2008. Mini grant applications are available on the NJAHPERD web site or through the NJAHPERD office.
2007 NJAHPERD Professional Development Grant Information The Professional Development Grant is intended to assist NJAHPERD student and professional members to participate in a NJAHPERD sponsored conference, workshop convention or event. Funds are provided for registration fees only. Meals, travel and lodging are the responsibility of the recipient with the exception of the Annual Convention. NJAHPERD will provide a hotel room. Grant will be awarded based on need as determined by the applicantâ€™s school district or college academic advisor. Grant Criteria: 1. Applicant must be a current student or professional member of NJAHPERD at time of conference/workshop/convention or sponsored event. 2. Applicant must demonstrate financial need through supporting statement of direct supervisor/principal. 3. Applicant may only request funding for one NJAHPERD sponsored event. 4. Recipient may only be funded once in a five year period. 5. Recipient will be required to submit an article for publication in a NJAHPERD journal/ newsletter describing the experience. Selection Criteria: 1. Professional development grants will be awarded through a committee appointed by the president of NJAHPERD. 2. Applications will be reviewed by the committee. Only complete applications will be considered. 3. Grant recipients will be notified at least 30 days before event. Please include the following information: 1. A completed application form, including applicantâ€™s signature. 2. A supporting statement from immediate supervisor/principal/college advisor. 3. Resume or current vita. 4. Indicate the conference/workshop/convention/event you would like to attend. All event information and application forms are available on the web site or through the NJAHPERD office. Events
Submission deadline dates
August 30, 2007
September 15, 2007
Hands on Health Workshop
November 1, 2007
January 15, 2008
January 15, 2008 46
Health and Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of the Non-Medical Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by School Children in New Jersey Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jay R. Hoffman, Anne C. Farrell, Nicholas A. Ratamess, and Jie Kang The College of New Jersey Abstract This study provides information about elementary, middle and high school health and physical education (HPE) teachers’ perceptions of the non-medical use of anabolicandrogenic steroids (AAS) by school children in New Jersey. A confidential self-report questionnaire was completed by 301 HPE teachers (37% response rate) who attended the 2006 New Jersey Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance annual conference. Survey analysis indicated that elementary, middle and high school teachers suspected that 0.6%, 0.6% and 1.2% of girls, respectively, and 1.8%, 2.0% and 6.5% of boys, respectively, at their school have used or are currently using AAS for non-medical purposes. Overall, 30.9% of teachers reported that they have been asked a question about the nonmedical use of AAS. Teachers in all grade levels indicated that students’ friends were the most common source of information about AAS. Results showed that a plurality of teachers in all grades believe that the use of nutritional supplements by school children and national attention on AAS abuse in professional sports increase the likelihood that school children will abuse AAS in the future. Additional findings regarding the non-medical use of AAS are discussed. These findings suggest that developmentally appropriate AAS prevention and intervention
programs should be part of the school curricula. Introduction Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. These illicit drugs have been used by adult athletes for several decades to improve muscle strength, increase fat free mass and enhance athletic performance (Evans, 2004; Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006). In recent years, it has been reported that the non-medical use of AAS has reached children and adolescents (Bahrke, Yesalis, & Brower, 1998; Faigenbaum, Zaichkowsky, Gardner, & Micheli, 1998; Irving, Wall, Neumark-Sztainer & Story, 2002). Although medical, legal and ethical issues related to the nonmedical use of AAS continue to be discussed, it appears that school-age youth continue to be exposed to AAS at younger ages than in years past. Previous studies have examined the school-age problem of AAS abuse by surveying children and adolescents (see reviews, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1997; Calfee & Fadale, 2006) However, the perceptions that health and physical education (HPE) teachers’ have about the non-medical use of AAS by school children have not been explored. HPE teachers are resident health experts who are committed to promoting health
literacy, improving health, preventing disease and reducing health-related risk behaviors (Meeks, Heit, & Page, 2007). Through classroom lessons and activities, HPE teachers typically have more direct knowledge of the lifestyle behaviors of their students. Therefore, it is important to understand and value the perceptions of HPE teachers regarding the nonmedical use of AAS by school children. This information would contribute to our understanding of the magnitude of this problem and aid in the development of schoolbased AAS intervention and prevention programs. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions that HPE teachers have about the non-medical use of AAS by school children in New Jersey. Methods Subjects. The eligible participants in this study were HPE teachers who attended the 2006 New Jersey Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (NJAHPERD) annual conference. Of the 301 teachers who completed the survey, 122 (40.5%) taught at the elementary school level, 78 (25.9%) taught at the middle school level and 101 (33.6%) taught at the high school level. Overall, participants had 13.6 ± 10.9 years of teaching experience. The Institutional Review Board at The College of New Jersey approved this study. 47
Reviewed Article Design and Protocol. A survey which consisted of 13 questions was administered at the NJAHPERD conference in February, 2006. Teachers who volunteered to participate recorded their answers directly on the survey sheet which was placed in a closed box located on a table near the registration area. The survey included questions which assessed teachersâ€™ perceptions about the non-medical use of AAS among school children. The estimated prevalence of AAS abuse among school children was ascertained with the question: In your opinion, what percent of boys at your school have used or are currently using anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes? The same question was asked for girls. The survey was developed based on a comprehensive review of the literature and consultation with content experts in health, physical education, AAS, sport psychology and pedagogy. Analysis. Descriptive statistics included means and standard deviations and the tabular analysis included simply frequency counts and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to assess differences in perceptions between elementary, middle and high school teachers. A significance level of p< 0.05 was established for all analyses which were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results The survey response rate was 37% (301 completed surveys of 805 eligible participants). Survey analysis indicated that elementary, middle and high school teachers suspected that 0.6%, 0.6% and 1.2% of girls, respectively, and 1.8%, 2.0% and 6.5% of boys, respectively, at their school have used or are currently using AAS for non-medical purposes. Table 1. Responses to Questions by Elementary (E), Middle (M) and High School (H) Health and Physical Education Teachers Regarding the Non-Medical Use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids by School Children E M H OVERALL n (%) n (%) n (%)_________n (%)______ Do you strongly suspect at least one student at your school has used or is currently using anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes? Yes 9 (7.4) 21 (26.9) 71 (70.3) * 101 (33.6) No 113 (92.6) 57 (73.1) 30 (29.7) 200 (66.4) Has a student at your school ever asked you a question about the non-medical use of anabolic steroids? Yes No
19 (15.6) 103 (84.4)
31 (39.7) 47 (60.3)
42 (41.6) * 59 (58.4)
92 (30.6) 209 (69.4)
Are most students at your school aware that anabolic steroids may enhance certain types of athletic performance and increase muscle mass? Yes 42 (34.4) 63 (80.8) 91 (90.0) * 196 (65.1) No 80 (65.6) 15 (19.2) 10 (9.9) 105 (34.9) Are most students at your school aware of the health risks associated with using anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes? Yes 37 (30.3) 59 (75.6) 76 (75.2) * 172 (57.1) No 85 (69.7) 19 (24.3) 25 (24.7) 129 (42.9) ________________________________________________________________________ * p < 0.05 for chi-square test 48
Reviewed Article Table 1 contains the responses to survey items regarding the non-medical use of AAS by school children. Overall, 33.6% of teachers suspected at least one student at their school had used or is currently using AAS for non-medical purposes. However, significant differences were observed between elementary and middle school teachers as well as middle and high school teachers regarding their suspicions if at least one student at their school had used or is currently using AAS for non-medical purposes (÷2 = 100.2, df=2, p<.01). About one-third (30.6%) of all teachers have been asked a question by a student about the non-medical use of AAS. A significantly greater number of teachers at the middle and high school level than at the elementary school level had been asked a question about AAS (÷2 = 20.2, df=2, p<.01). Approximately two-thirds (65.1%) of the teachers reported that students are aware that AAS may enhance athletic performance and increase muscle mass. A significantly greater number of teachers at the middle and high school level than at the elementary school level reported that students are aware of these potential benefits (÷2 = 86.7, df=2, p<0.01). More than half of the teachers (57.1%) reported that students are aware of the health risks associated with using AAS for non-medical purposes. A significantly greater number of teachers at the middle and high school level than at the elementary school level reported that students are aware of these health risks (÷2 = 60.2, df=2, p<.01).
Table 2. Percentage of Responses to a Survey Item by Elementary (E), Middle (M) and High School (H) Health and Physical Education Teachers Regarding Where School Children Get Most of Their Information about AAS* E M H OVERALL n (%) n (%) n (%)______ n (%)_____ Friends 51 (42.8) 32 (43.2) 41 (42.7) 124 (43.4) Teachers 17 (14.2) 20 (27.0) 16 (16.6) 53 (18.5) Internet 15 (12.6) 7 (9.4) 14 (14.6) 36 (12.6) Coaches 10 (8.4) 4 (5.4) 10 (10.4) 24 (8.4) Other 5 (4.2) 4 (5.4) 9 (9.3) 18 (6.3) Magazines 8 (6.7) 3 (4.0) 6 (6.2) 17 (5.9) Siblings 6 (5.0) 2 (2.7) 0 8 (2.8) Parents 5 (4.2) 1 (1.3) 0 6 (2.1) Physicians 0 0 0 0 __________________________________________________________________ * Total number of subjects was 286 because surveys which had more than one answer to this question were excluded.
Data in Table 2 outline the most common sources of student information about AAS. The survey questionnaire listed nine sources of information (including ‘other’) about AAS. Overall, elementary, middle and high school teachers reported that the top three sources of information about AAS were student’s friends (43.4%), teachers (18.5%) and the internet (12.6%).
Reviewed Article Table 3. Responses to Survey Items by Elementary (E), Middle (M) and High School (H) Health and Physical Education Teachers Regarding Nutritional Supplements, Professional Sports, School Curriculum and State Legislation. E M H OVERALL n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Do you think the use of nutritional supplements increase the likelihood that school children may abuse anabolic steroids in the future? Yes 64 (52.5) 44 (56.4) 63 (62.4) 171 (56.8) No 58 (47.5) 34 (43.6) 38 (37.6) 130 (43.2) With national attention focused on anabolic steroids in professional sports, what impact does this publicity have on the potential abuse of anabolic steroids by school children? Increase 68 (55.7) 39 (50.0) 49 (48.5) 156 (51.8) Decrease 30 (24.5) 22 (28.2) 25 (24.7) 77 (25.6) No Effect 24 (19.7) 17 (21.8) 27 (26.7) 68 (22.6) Is a steroid abuse prevention education lesson part of your school’s curriculum? Yes 44 (36.1) 55 (70.5) 63 (62.4) * 162 (53.8) No 78 (63.9) 23 (29.5) 38 (37.6) 139 (46.2) Do you think legislation is needed in New Jersey to require school districts to teach students about the hazards of abusing anabolic steroids? Yes 108 (88.5) 69 (88.5) 88 (87.1) 265 (88.0) No 14 (11.5) 9 (11.5) 13 (12.9) 36 (12.0) ________________________________________________________________________ * p < 0.05 for chi-square test Table 3 contains the responses to survey items regarding nutritional supplements, professional sports, school curriculum and state legislation. More than half of all teachers believe that that the use of nutritional supplements increase the likelihood that school children may abuse AAS in the future. Similarly, a plurality of teachers believe that national publicity on AAS in professional sports increase the likelihood that school children may abuse anabolic steroids in the future. A significantly greater number of teachers at the middle and high school levels than at the elementary school level reported that an AAS prevention education is part of their schools curricula (÷2 = 27.2, df=2, p<0.01). A vast majority of teachers at the elementary, middle and high school levels support state legislation which requires school districts to teach students about AAS. Discussion This study represents the first attempt to assess HPE teachers’ perceptions about the non-medical use of AAS by elementary, middle and high school students in New Jersey. Although the results of this study may not be indicative of national trends, our results suggest that a small but significant portion of elementary, middle and high school students in New Jersey may be abusing AAS, and that school-based AAS prevention and intervention programs should begin in elementary school and continue through high school. Our findings provide important insights into the magnitude and nature of AAS abuse by school children that will be valuable to teachers, school administrators and health care providers.
Reviewed Article Unlike other investigations which used student self-report surveys to assess the prevalence of AAS abuse by school children, we surveyed HPE teachers’ to evaluate the perceived magnitude of this problem. Although similar studies are not available for comparison, in our investigation 70.3% of high school teachers reported that they strongly suspect that at least one student at their school has used or is currently using AAS for nonmedical purposes. When asked what percent of boys or girls at their school have used or are currently using AAS for nonmedical purposes, high school HPE teachers estimated that 6.5% of boys 1.2% of girls have used or are currently using AAS for non-medical purposes. These observations are consistent with a self-report survey which indicated that 4% of high school students in New Jersey have used AAS without a prescription from their doctor (New Jersey Department of Education, 2003). Results from our survey suggest that 7.4% of elementary school teachers and 26.9% of middle school teachers strongly suspect that at least one student at their school has used or is currently using AAS for non medical purposes. HPE teachers in elementary or middle schools reported that 1.8% and 2.0% of boys, respectively, and 0.6% and 0.6% of girls, respectively, have used or are currently using AAS for non-medical purposes. Although these findings suggest
attitudes towards these products the abuse of AAS by girls is (Lucidi, Grano & Leone, 2004). relatively low when compared to previously published reports Interestingly, elementary, middle (Bahrke, Yesalis, and Brower, and high school HPE teachers 1998; Irving, Wall, Neumark- perceive that students’ most Sztainer, and Story, 2002), our common source of information observations are consistent with about AAS were their friends. others who documented the Overall, 43.4% of HPE teachers abuse of AAS in children reported that students get most of (Faigenbaum, Zaichkowsky, their information about AAS Gardner, & Micheli; 1998 Melia, from their friends whereas only Pipe, & Greenberg, 1996). These 18.5% reported that students get observations from elementary most of their information about and middle school HPE teachers AAS from teachers. It is also are also consistent with findings noteworthy that 12.6% of from the National Collegiate teachers reported that students Athletic Association which get most of their information indicate that 15% of AAS users about AAS from the internet. reported first use in junior high Seeking information about AAS (i.e., middle school) or before from friends and the internet is disturbing and risky due to (NCAA, 2001). likelihood of misinformation, Overall, a majority of the HPE dishonesty and possible financial teachers (65.1%) reported that interests. No elementary, middle students at their school are aware or high school HPE teacher that AAS may enhance athletic reported that school children get performance and increase muscle most of their information about mass. Similarly, a majority of AAS from physicians. respondents (57.1%) reported that their students were aware of Other reports have reported that the health risks associated with school children are using dietary AAS. While our study was not supplements (e.g. multivitamins, designed to distinguish creatine monohydrate, protein differences in teachers’ powders) to enhance their health, perceptions regarding AAS users physical appearance or athletic and nonusers, others have performance (Dorsch & Bell, reported that young AAS users 2005: Metzl, Levine & Gershel, are more familiar with the 2001). While there is no scientific benefits of AAS and less familiar evidence which indicates that the with the risks of AAS than use of these readily available nonusers (Buckley, Yesalis, dietary supplements during Friedl, Anderson, Streit, & childhood or adolescence is a Wright, 1988). These findings are ‘gateway’ to AAS abuse later in important because the strongest life, over 50% of elementary, predictors of intention to use a middle and high school HPE supplement or illegal drug are teachers believe that the use of dietary supplements increase the 51
Reviewed Article likelihood that school children may abuse AAS in the future. In light of these findings, identification of supplement usage patterns that may increase the likelihood of at-risk behaviors during school years or later in life is important.
are needed in a majority of elementary schools and in some middle and high schools. New Jersey Comprehensive Health Education and Physical Education Standards and Cumulative Progress Indicators include learning the physical, mental, emotional and social A majority of elementary, middle effects of the use and abuse of and high school HPE teachers drugs including AAS (New reported that national publicity Jersey Department of Education, on AAS in professional sports 2003). increases the likelihood that school children will use AAS for In New Jersey, a report from non-medical reasons. With the Governor’s Task Force on Steroid constant media coverage on the Use and Prevention was use of AAS by professional instrumental in the signing of an athletes, there is concern among executive order which made New some observers that aspiring Jersey the first state in the nation young athletes who view to take a comprehensive professional athletes as role statewide action to address the models may be more likely to problem of AAS abuse by school abuse AAS in the future (Calfee children (Governors Task Force & Fadale, 2006). The use of AAS on Steroid Use and Prevention, by professional athletes seems to 2005). Recommendations send a message to aspiring young include AAS education programs athletes that AAS are needed to in schools and random AAS achieve record-breaking testing for student-athletes who performances. The impact that qualify for championship games. AAS abuse by professional The results from our study athletes can have on children and indicate that a vast majority teenagers is worthy of additional (>87%) of HPE teachers at all study and debate. grade levels support state legislation which requires school While 70.5% of middle school districts to teach students about teachers and 62.4% of high AAS. Whether these legislative school teachers reported that efforts are effective in reducing AAS prevention education the non-medical use of AAS by lessons are part of their school’s school children remains to be curricula, only 36.1% of determined. elementary school teachers reported that they have such a A limitation of our study is the program. These findings suggest modest response rate of 37%. that developmentally appropriate Although all HPE teachers who AAS educational interventions attended the 2006 NJAHPERD
conference were provided with an opportunity to participate in this study, a majority chose not to participate. Accordingly, the possibilities of selection bias or reporting bias should be acknowledged because our data do not represent a randomized sample. While all responders were HPE teachers in New Jersey, not all HPE teachers in New Jersey attend the NJAHPERD annual conference and therefore one must be cautious regarding generalization of the findings. It would therefore be important to replicate these findings with a larger sample, ideally drawn from additional states. In summary, our findings indicate that HPE teachers perceive that a small but significant number of elementary, middle and high school children in New Jersey may be abusing AAS and that the most common source of information about AAS are students’ friends. These findings are disconcerting because of the potential adverse complications associated with AAS abuse by school children. While further study is warranted, it appears that school-based AAS prevention and intervention programs that target both boys and girls should begin in elementary school and continue through high school. Guidance and support from HPE teachers may become increasingly more important as developmentally appropriate AAS intervention and prevention 52
Reviewed Article programs are incorporated into the school curricula. Acknowledgements The authors express their appreciation to the Executive Committee of the New Jersey Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance for their support of this research study. The authors also thank Rob McCurley, Nick Tranchina, Steve Andrews and Ryan Ross for assistance with data collection and data entry. References American Academy of Pediatrics (1997). Adolescents and anabolic steroids: A subject review. Pediatrics, 99, 904-908. Bahrke, M., Yesalis, C. E., & Brower, K. J. (1998). Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and performance-enhancing drugs among adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 821-838. Buckley, W. E., Yesalis, C. E., Friedl, K. E., Anderson, K. A., Streit, A. L., & Wright, J. E. (1988). Estimated prevalence of anabolic steroid use among male high school seniors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 260, 3341-3445. Calfee, R, & Fadale, P. (2006). Popular ergogenic drugs and supplements in young athletes. Pediatrics, 117, 577-589. Dorsch, K. D., & Bell, A. (2005). Dietary supplement use in adolescents. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 17, 653-657. Evans, N. (2004). Current concepts in anabolic androgenic steroids. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 534-542. Faigenbaum, A. D., Zaichkowsky, L. D., Gardner, D. E., & Micheli, L. J. (1998). Anabolic steroid use by male and female middle school students. Pediatrics, 101, e6. Governorâ€™s Task Force on Steroid Use and Prevention (2005). Retrieved from www.state.nj.us/ steroids/message.html on January 10, 2006. Hoffman, J. R., & Ratamess, N. A. (2006). Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: Are they exaggerated? Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 182-193. Irving, L., Wall, M., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2002). Steroid use among adolescents: Findings from Project EAT. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 243-252. Lucidi, F., Grano, C., & Leone, L. (2004). Determinants of the intention to use doping substances: An empirical contribution in a sample of Italian adolescents. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 35, 133-148.
Reviewed Article Meeks, L., Heit, P., & Page, R. (2007). Comprehensive school health education. Totally awesome strategies for teaching health, (5th) Ed. McGraw Hill: New York. Melia, P., Pipe, A., & Greenberg, L. (1996). The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids by Canadian students. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 6, 9-14. Metzl, J. D., Levine, S. R., & Gershel, J. C. (2001). Creatine use among young athletes. Pediatrics, 108, 421-425. NCAA Study of Substance Use Habits of College Student-Athletes (2001). Available at: www.ncaa.org/library/research. Retrieved November 10, 2005. New Jersey Department of Education. The New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and Indicators for Comprehensive Health and Physical Education (updated 2004). Retrieved from www.njcccs.org on November 4, 2005. New Jersey Department of Education. Summary of the 2003 New Jersey Student Health Survey. Retrived from www.state.nj.us/njded/students/yrbs/2003/njshs.pd on November 10, 2005.
Weâ€™re Moving: Jackie Malaska Executive Director, NJAHPERD P.O. Box 2283, Ocean, NJ 07712 732-918-9999 732-918-2211 (fax) email@example.com
Making the Most of a Multi-Activity Curriculum: Learn to Love the Curriculum You Have Susan Schwager, Montclair State University Karen Brzezinski, Parsippany Hills High School Danielle Carbone, Dennis B. O’Brien, Stony Brook and Birchwood Elementary Schools Linda Harrison, Lowell and Hawthorne Elementary Schools Leigh McKean, Madison High School Introduction The most common curriculum model in K-12 physical education programs in New Jersey and throughout the nation is probably the multi-activity model. The purpose of this article is to identify the goals of this model, issues related to implementing it successfully in grades K-12, and to offer some ideas of how to enhance the effectiveness of the multi-activity model in a variety of school settings. This multi-activity curriculum model has its roots in the early 1900’s when physical education programs began to migrate from a focus on ‘education of the physical’ rooted in the German and Swedish gymnastics curricula to an ‘education through the physical’ model advocated by, among others, Hetherington (1910). The goals of this ‘education through the physical’ approach was to provide students with a variety of experiences that would enhance their psychomotor, cognitive, and affective development and would impact their propensity to engage in a variety of physical activities including competitive sports and recreational games. Multi-activity curricula were designed to provide students from grades K-12 with a variety of experiences in sport and physical activities, some of which would be avenues for participation once these students became adults.
irrelevant content. The problems associated with successful implementation of the model typically include: lack of continuity across grade levels (especially in grades 6-12) resulting in repetition of activities and skill instruction that does not result in individual skill improvement. During game play, teachers have frequently cast themselves in the role of ‘referee’ or as a silent observer. In the absence of coaching, game play in physical education classes is often haphazard and dominated by the skilled athletes in the class. These problems commonly associated with the multi-activity model can result in student frustration, dissatisfaction, and disengagement from physical education class activities.
Multi-Activity Curriculum Models vs. ThemeBased Curriculum Models By definition, a multi-activity curriculum offers units of instruction that are meant to expose students to a variety of age-appropriate activities. “Multi-activity programs typically offer a wide variety of team sports, individual and dual pursuits, and outdoor and recreational activities… that respond to the popular activities that exist in the local area” (Siedentop, Mand, & Taggart, 1986, p. 149). In reality, most physical education curricula reflecting this model have been characterized by Unfortunately, the multi-activity curriculum model offering 3-4 weeks of instruction/participation in a has not been treated kindly in the current physical variety of movement and sport skill related education literature and this poor reputation has, activities in grades K-12. in many cases, been earned as a result of the ways in which the model is commonly implemented. In elementary school programs, especially in grades Hastie (2003) identified problems with the model K-3, the units typically focus on a particular skill as: not producing content mastery by students, theme such as: locomotor skills, throwing and permitting discriminatory and abusive practices by catching, kicking, chasing fleeing and dodging, or aggressive players during game play, and teaching striking. Or the units might be focused on particular 56
Reviewed Article kinds of activities appropriate to elementary programs such as: parachute activities, tag games, or rhythmic activities to music. In upper elementary grades (4 & 5) as well as in middle and secondary school programs the units typically focus on organized sports and activities such as: soccer, flag football, volleyball, basketball, softball, tennis, and fitness. For the middle and high school units, there are typically two scenarios for the way the units are conducted. Scenario one calls for the first few days of the unit to focus on skill development with the remaining lessons focused on game play. In the second scenario the classes spend the first 10 – 15 minutes of class time on skill practice with the remainder of the period devoted to game play. A popular solution offered in the current literature on physical education curriculum models is to replace the multi-activity model with a theme-based curriculum model. Some popular sport-based contenders to replace the ailing multi-activity model have been: Sport Education (Siedentop, 1994) and Teaching Games for Understanding (Mitchell, Oslin, & Griffin, 2005). An alternative solution is to replace sport-based models with alternative models that promote personal and social responsibility. These models include Adventure Education (Panicucci, 2003), and Fitness Education (NASPE, 2005). These alternative curriculum models have particular outcome priorities as well as advantages and disadvantages relative to implementation. By switching to an alternative curriculum model, a program may be more successful at achieving its stated goals.
models require specialized equipment and training such as Adventure Education and may be too expensive and require more of a professional development commitment than districts are willing to support. Other models require a revision of the current curriculum that may be out of reach such as Sport Education that takes place in the context of 6-8 week ‘seasons’ per sport or activity as opposed to 2–4 week ‘units.’
Multi-Activity Curriculum Improvement Efforts General strategies for enhancing the effectiveness of a multi-activity curriculum can be characterized as: district-wide, school-wide, or individual teacher efforts. District-wide efforts that address scope and sequence of what is being taught K-12, could provide continuity among the grade levels and insure that a variety of activities are being offered. Activities that are repeated in several grade levels provide a sequence of instruction and learning activities and not just a repetition of activities in each grade level. District level curriculum conversations would need to be facilitated by the Director of Physical Education (or the district equivalent) and could take place during districtwide ‘professional development’ days.
School-wide efforts in schools with more than one physical education teacher could focus on teachers reaching agreement on some common goals and expectations for student participation, as well as a sequencing of instruction across grade levels. These school wide collaborations would need to be initiated and facilitated by someone in a leadership or supervisory role for the physical education To be sure, these alternative models may be program at the school. This may be a ‘Subject attractive as replacements to the existing multiSupervisor’ or an assistant principal. activity model but may be out of reach to many K12 practitioners for several reasons. Oftentimes, KIndividual teachers can alter their instructional 12 physical educators do not have the ability and/ strategies in ways that engage the students in the or power to transform their current curriculum learning activities in a variety of ways. Elementary model to match one of the current popular teachers could involve students in critical thinking alternatives. The existing curriculum may have and decision making about unit and lesson been established at the district level and teachers activities, and incorporate attention to affective in each of the schools in the district are goals such as students working cooperatively consequently expected to follow the same together in activity units. Middle and high school curriculum. In addition, some of these alternative 57
Reviewed Article teachers typically implement the multi-activity model in the context of sport activity units. By teaching students to officiate and/or self-manage games the teacher is able to act in the role of coach during game play. K-12 physical education teachers may be better able to enhance their programs by looking at how to transform their existing multi-activity model into a multi-activity model that works more effectively. Specifically, at the elementary level, traditional skill theme units can be augmented with both cognitive and affective goals and expectations. For example, in a three-week unit on ‘volleying,’ the skill outcomes could include: volleying balls with different body parts, striking a ball using the overhand and underhand patterns, and striking over low nets and lines on the floor with partners (Graham, Holt-Hale, Parker, 2007, p. 504). In addition, the cognitive outcome could be for students to understand how to perform the overhand and underhand volley successfully. The affective outcome could focus on cooperation including having students help classmates learn the skills. Using cues provided by the teacher for the correct psychomotor outcome the students have become coaches, helping their partner perform the skill correctly (see Table 1 for examples of objectives).
Table 1: Examples of Psychomotor, Cognitive, and Affective Objectives and Assessment in a Multi-Activity Unit Unit Focus: Volleying – 4th Grade Task: Toss the ball upward, quickly extend your arms and volley the ball 2-4 times before catching and trying again (Graham, Holt-Hale, Parker, 2007, p. 508)
Peer coaching also emphasizes the correct motor patterns of the skill on a cognitive level as the “coaches” (students) are analyzing the movement of their partner and, in the process, engaging in mental practice of the skills themselves in addition to building cooperation among students. Bringing the group back together at the end of class to discuss the activity and asking them questions on how they thought the activity progressed can also lead to new ideas and it gives the students a sense of ownership in the activity. For example, questions posed to students at the end of class could include: Did anyone have a problem with the activity? How could we make the activity better? Did anyone learn something about the skill that they didn’t know prior to the activity? Additionally, in the upper elementary grades (4 & 5), using features of the Sport Education Model such as: team affiliation and differentiated roles in the 58
context of a multi-activity model can improve student effort and increase good sportsman-like behavior. Students learn to be both personally responsible for giving their best effort to the team, and socially responsible by fulfilling their particular role or job (e.g. captain, stretch captain, or statistician). At the middle school and high school levels, units that focus on specific sports could be structured to include the following: skill/knowledge assessment at the outset of the unit to determine what the students already know and can do, skill practice that accommodates individual student skill development needs, and game play that casts the teacher in the role as coach rather than referee. In addition, offering students some choice of sports and recreational activities (especially at the high school level) would be likely to increase student interest and engagement in physical education class activities. Conclusion The multi-activity model is the most prevalent and yet it is oftentimes not successful in producing the kinds of skilled performers we envision by the time students complete high school. Addressing some of the persistent problems with implementing the model well is a step towards improving the effectiveness of the model. This article has offered some suggestions that can enhance physical education programs in ways that would make these multi-activity programs more successful in meeting their intended goals.
References Graham, G., Holt-Hale, S., & Parker, M. (2007). Children moving. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers. Hastie, P. (2003). Teaching sport within physical education. In S.J. Silverman & C.D. Ennis (Eds.), Student learning in physical education: Applying research to enhance instruction (pp. 227-241). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Heatherington, C. (1910). Fundamental education. American Physical Education Review, 15, 629635. Mitchell, S., Oslin, J., & Griffin, L. (2005). Teaching sport concepts and skills: A tactical games approach. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2005). Physical best activity guide: Elementary level (2nd Ed.) Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics. Panicucci, J. (2003). Adventure curriculum for physical education: High school. Beverly, MA: Project Adventure, Inc. Siedentop, D., Mand, C., & Taggart, A. (1986). Physical education: Teaching and curriculum strategies for Grades 5 â€“ 12. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co. Siedentop, D. (1994). Sport education: Quality P.E. through positive sport experiences. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Use of Guided Imagery in Health Education Shari Willis, Rowan University Dawn Tarabochia, University of Utah Michele DiCorcia, Rowan University Major James Nesmeth was captured and detained as a prisoner of war for seven years. He was in a cage that was approximately four and a half feet high and five feet long. During this time Major Nesmeth visualized himself playing 18 holes of golf on the course of his choosing. In his mind he saw each detail of the course, as well as every move he would make playing the game. He felt the club in his hand and watched the ball’s trajectory and roll. He spent approximately four hours a day playing the course through his mental images. Upon his release from the prison Major Nesmeth shot a 74, which was 20 strokes below his previous average score (Canfield & Hansen, 1995). In this amazing story Major Nesmeth was able to visualize the game that he played. Even though Major Nesmeth did not have a title for his time consuming “golf game,” his description seemed aptly viewed as a guided imagery experience.
The formation of this picture in the mind creates greater understanding to that specific individual as it was developed through his/her own creativity. An image like a picture or a video clip that is assigned to the students might not elicit a greater conceptual understanding of the concept or idea. According to Sousa “training students in imagery encourages them to search long-term memory for appropriate images and to use them more like a movie than a photograph” (2006, p. 230). The practice of using guided imagery assists students in connecting thoughts to a key concept or construct. Guided imagery engages both hemispheres of the brain, an achievement that does not happen with all teaching techniques. Sousa suggests that students may be “taught to search their minds for images and be guided through the process to select appropriate images that, through hemispheric integration, enhance learning and increase retention” (2006, p. 230). When students are bombarded with information, they do not have sufficient time to create their own images. Implementing guided imagery allows for students to have more opportunities to create images by their own imagination and to work through processes the way their brain perceives it.
Guided imagery targets and engages both hemispheres of the brain simultaneously. The left hemisphere of the brain “specializes in coding information verbally [and] the right hemisphere codes information visually” (Sousa, 2006, p. 230). During guided imagery, students close their eyes and concentrate on seeing or visualizing the words being spoken by a teacher or facilitator (Kagan & Kagan, 1998). The teacher describes the scene with vivid words and details. The students in turn, visually illustrate their ideas in their minds.
Guided imagery can be used in many facets of health education as well as in other subject areas. Three exercises are included in this article to demonstrate the wide variety of areas in a health curriculum where guided imagery may be a constructive tool for teachers. Each example is to be spoken by the teacher. Before the teacher begins he or she will ask the students to close their eyes, bury their heads, or stare at the ceiling; as it is important to provide other options for those students who may not be comfortable closing their Guided imagery allows students to elucidate eyes. understanding of an issue or concept in their individual minds where no other person can intrude Background music may be played during the upon the scene. This technique may allow students guided imagery exercises. The music should calm to explore the interrelations of related ideas thereby the mind, and properly chosen music may boost providing ownership of the image and application cognition during certain tasks. For most guided of the learning experience (Kagan & Kagan, 1998). imagery, slow paced music forces the body and 60
Reviewed Article mind to slow down its tempo (Jensen, 2005). The recommended beats per minute are between 40 and 60. The music should not contain any words or lyrics. For the following examples of guided imagery, slow paced music should be played for numbers one and two. Examples might include Mozart’s “Clarinet Concerto in A Minor” or Gary Lamb’s “The Garden at Giverny.” For the third guided imagery exercise, a faster paced music should be presented. An example that may be used is Vivaldi’s Four Seasons as a person in this example may hear the spiraling of the music and, may indeed, feel that way in the situation described. As a teacher engages his or her class in guided imagery it is important to use vivid words that trigger mental images in the students’ minds. Of equal importance is that imagery is not just a vision, but may consist of sounds, smells, tastes, and feelings of touch (Robertson, 2003). The teacher’s cues during guided imagery may elicit responses in these senses too. The three exercises are primarily based on vision or sight in the mind, but the other senses can be applied. Major Nesmeth, from the opening paragraph, felt the grip of the handle while he was playing golf in his mind. The children may feel water and soap in the first example of hand washing. Another example of including the other senses may occur when a teacher uses guided imagery in nutrition education. The students may be guided in the prospect of creating a nutritious and delicious meal wherein the teacher may prompt the students to smell the orange or to taste the carrots. Exercise 1: Hand Washing Imagery (2nd grade) RELAX Please put your eyes away by closing them, burying your head, or staring at a specific location in the room (i.e., the ceiling, a spot on the carpet or floor). Take a deep breath through your nose and let the breath out through your mouth. Continue to breathe in this manner throughout this exercise.
SCENARIO Picture yourself walking into a clean bathroom before you eat your lunch. You want to make sure your hands are clean before you eat. You enter into the bathroom and go towards the paper towel dispenser. You push the lever on the paper towel dispenser so that you have enough of a paper towel to dry your hands after you wash them. You do not tear the paper towel away from the dispenser at this time, but let it hang there waiting. You then turn on the faucet and make the water the perfect temperature for you. You push the soap dispenser and allow soap to dribble onto your hands. You scrub your hands making sure you wash the palms, the backsides and between your fingers. You scrub and hum or sing the Happy Birthday song two times.** You tear the paper towel off the roll to dry your hands ensuring that you dry the palms, the backsides and between your fingers. Then, you turn off the faucet and look at your clean hands! Wow, you did a great job! By the time I count back from 10, I will expect you to show me your eyes. 10-9-8-7-6-54-3-2-1; your eyes are open, you feel relaxed and your hands are clean. ** Please note that the teacher must pause to allow the students enough time to wash their hands. Proper hand washing technique dictates that an individual must wash his or her hands for at least 20 to 30 seconds (Tierno, 2001). FOLLOW UP ACTIVITY When students open their eyes, allow time for them to physically go and wash their hands and follow the suggested guided imagery process. Discuss students’ feelings before or after the imagery and actual hand washing.
Exercise 2: Nutrition (3-5th grade)
Exercise 3:Pregnancy (9th – 12th grade)
RELAX Please put your eyes away by closing them, burying your head, or staring at a specific location in the room (i.e., the ceiling, a spot on the carpet or floor). Take a deep breath through your nose and let the breath out through your mouth. Continue to breathe in this manner throughout this exercise.
RELAX Please put your eyes away by closing them, burying your head, or staring at a specific location in the room (i.e., the ceiling, a spot on the carpet or floor). Take a deep breath through your nose and let the breath out through your mouth. Continue to breathe in this manner throughout this exercise.
SCENARIO You have just returned from a walk in the woods on a hot summer day and you are incredibly thirsty and tired. You decide the best way to quench your thirst is to sit down in front of the fan that is blowing, have some ice cold water and a juicy orange. You obtain the water from the cool refrigerator and place two ice cubes in the glass. You pour the clear liquid into the glass and immediately take a sip; however, you are still thirsty. You place the glass of water on the table and reach for a beautiful orange that is in the fruit bowl on the table. The orange is round and you instantly smell the citrus. Your mouth begins to water because of this juicy, refreshing snack. You peel back the outside of the orange and juice squirts from the peel. You place the peel on the napkin on the table and continue to peel off the skin of the orange, even though juice is dripping down your hand. You finish peeling the orange and you now hold this delicious ready-to-eat orange! You remove one slice from the orange, bring it towards your mouth and take a bite! Oh, it’s so refreshing. By the time I count back from 10, I will expect you to show me your eyes. 10-98-7-6-5-4-3-2-1; your eyes are open, you feel relaxed and refreshed. FOLLOW UP ACTIVITY When students open their eyes, have them journal what they saw themselves do in this situation or draw what they saw and/or felt.
SCENARIO It is early afternoon and you have just gotten off the phone. You have been dating that special someone for several months and you are both very excited about your big date coming up this Friday night; however, two days ago you learned that you are pregnant……..you are expecting A BABY! In about seven months there will be a new life that you will be responsible for. You haven’t told your parent(s) or guardian(s) that you are pregnant. Some time tonight, you are going to let your parent(s) or guardian(s) know that a baby is on its’ way and you do not know what to say. What will you say? You call your parent(s) or guardian(s) and arrange a time when you can all meet to talk tonight. You walk into your home. You look at their faces and say please sit down so we can talk. You tell them that you are expecting a baby. You look at their faces. What do they say back to you? By the time I count back from 10, I will expect you to show me your eyes. 10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1; your eyes are open, and you are ready to receive the following instructions related to this scenario (i.e., follow up activity). FOLLOW UP ACTIVITY When students open their eyes, provide students with ample time to journal what they saw themselves do in this situation.
As teachers, it is important to incorporate different teaching techniques into the curriculum to allow for different learning styles. Guided imagery provides the students the ability to explore their creativity and different modalities for viewing and processing information. By using guided imagery we can help children maintain their ability to create vivid images in their minds or to rediscover how to create these images. Proper use of guided imagery may enhance the learning process but it doesn’t eliminate the place of other important teaching strategies. Guided imagery is another tool that can be utilized to elucidate a greater awareness and understanding of concepts, ideas and practices. As Plato once proffered ‘“…we remember and know what is imprinted as long as the image lasts; but when the image is effaced or cannot be taken, then we forget and do not know’” (as cited in Kosslyn, 1983, p. 54).
References 18 holes in his mind (1995). In Canefield, J. & Hansen, M. V. (Eds). A 2nd Helping of Chicken Soup for the Soul [electronic version]. San Diego CA. Retrieved April 10, 2005 from http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/hblim/reflections/18holes.html. Jensen, E. (2005). Top tunes for teaching. San Diego, CA; The Brain Store. Kagan, S. & Kagan, M. (1998). Multiple intelligences: The complete MI book. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Cooperative Learning. Kosslyn, S. M. (1983). Ghosts in the mind’s machine. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. Robertson, I. (2003). Opening the mind’s eye. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. Sousa, D. A. (2006). How the brain learns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Tierno, P. M. (2001). The secret life of germs. New York, NY: Atria Books.
Educating Youth on the Changes Experienced During Each Trimester of Pregnancy Consuelo Bonillas Kean University GOAL This lesson is intended to increase students’ knowledge on the physical changes that can be experienced during each trimester of pregnancy. It is designed to be used as a companion piece to a more information-based presentation on pregnancy and childbirth. RATIONALE In the United States, an estimated 6 million women become pregnant annually. Almost 50% of these pregnancies are unplanned, with nearly twothirds of them resulting in live births, one-fifth ending in abortions and the remainder ending in miscarriages (Henshaw, 1998; National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). While teen (ages 13-19) birth rates have declined substantially over the last ten years, teen pregnancy remains a significant health and educational issue in the United States (Kirby, 1997). HEALTH EDUCATION STANDARD One of the indicators in Standard 2.4 (Human Relationships and Sexuality) of the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Comprehensive Health and Physical Education is to “Analyze the physical and emotional changes that occur
during each trimester of pregnancy by the end of the grade 12” (State of New Jersey, 2004). This teaching technique can specifically address this objective. OBJECTIVES After completing this activity, students will be able to: 1.) Identify the number of trimesters a woman experiences during a pregnancy; 2.) Recognize the number of weeks of each trimester; 3.) List three physical changes that can occur during the first trimester; 4.) List three physical changes that are more likely to occur during the second trimester; 5.) List three physical changes that can occur during the third trimester; and 6.) Describe why the nine physical changes mentioned above can occur during a specific trimester.
for high school students. The activity can be facilitated in 4560 minutes depending on the time of the class period. MATERIALS AND RESOURCES The following materials are needed for this lesson: 15 feet of newsprint, forty-five colored (5"x 8") index cards of three different colors (10 of one color, 21 of another color and 14 of the third color), masking tape, and copies of Figure 1 (Internal and External Physical Changes during Pregnancy handout).
TARGET AUDIENCE This lesson plan has been used with college-level students. However, it can also be incorporated into the curriculum 65
Lesson Plan INSTRUCTOR PREPARATION Each physical change that is listed in Figure 1 needs to be written on separate 5" x 8" colored index cards. For easy identification, each trimester should have its own unique colored index cards. Ten index cards of the same color are needed for the changes occurring during the first trimester. Twenty-one index cards of the same color are needed for the changes occurring during the second trimester. And 14 index cards of the same color are needed for the changes occurring during the second trimester. Each index card should be numbered on the reverse side (on the top right corner) according to the trimester (i.e., “1”, “2”, or “3”). The explanation for each change should also be listed on the reverse side of each index card. It would advantageous to laminate the index cards for future use. Three adult-size models of a female body need to be cut out from the newsprint. Each should be 5 feet tall, but each model has to differ in regards to the size of the abdomen and breasts. The model representing the first trimester should not have the abdomen protruding out. The model created depicting a woman in her second trimester needs to have an abdomen that is sticking out 5-7 inches and the breasts bigger than the first trimester model. The model formed representing a woman in her third trimester needs to illustrate an
abdomen that is extending beyond the woman’s breasts (which should also be bigger than the breasts portrayed in the second trimester).
each change on the appropriate area of the newsprint model for that specific trimester or handing it to the volunteers to place on their own bodies (masking tape was found to be more efficient for adhering to clothing). For example, if the index card reads “fatigue” the card can be taped to the forehead as well as the chest depending on how students identify with the symptom. Copies of the Physical Changes during Pregnancy handout need to be made before class in order to distribute to the students at the end of the activity.
The instructor can have these models ready for the class or have the students participate in creating these models for the activity. Each model also needs vital organs, such as the heart, lungs, liver, uterus, bladder and stomach depicted on them. The class can be divided into three groups (one for each model) to draw or glue pictures of the organs. Don’t forget to draw a head of hair for each model! STUDENT PREPARATION Many high school and collegeIf the newsprint is difficult to level textbooks published in obtain or time is limited in health related fields (such as producing these models, three human sexuality, psychology, volunteers can be asked to health, women’s health, and “become” a trimester during social work) include a chapter pregnancy. The volunteers need specific to pregnancy. This to understand that they will need chapter can be assigned to the to place the index cards students before this activity in throughout their body (which order to introduce them to the may include the genital area and topic of pregnancy. the buttocks) and that they need to feel comfortable in doing so. PROCEDURE No student should actually stick Depending on the size of the an index card on a volunteer; the class, distribute one or two index volunteer should be given the cards (from different trimesters) card after it’s read, and place it to each student at the beginning on her or his own body of the lesson. This allows accordingly. In classes with men, everyone to actively participate encourage the men to volunteer in the activity and helps keep because they will never have the everyone engaged. Inform the opportunity to physically class that they will be receiving experience a pregnancy. a copy of the physical changes at the end of the activity. This A piece of masking tape needs to allows everyone to focus on the be made available for each lesson and be able listen to any student to affix a loop of tape on additional information provided the reverse side of each index instead of concentrating on card. The students will be taping 66
Lesson Plan writing down every physical Have each student with an index change. card of the first trimester take their turn. After the first trimester Each student will then have the index cards have been taped to opportunity to state out loud what the newsprint model or volunteer change she/he is holding, and each change has been depending on the trimester under discussed, move on to the second discussion. The whole class trimester and then the third. At should be given the opportunity the end of the activity, review to brainstorm why that physical each model or have each change can occur during a volunteer turn around slowly so pregnancy. After all ideas have everyone present can been exhausted (which should acknowledge the numerous and not take more than a minute), ask varied physical changes that can that student to read the occur during pregnancy. It will explanation given on the reverse quickly become clear to the class side of the index card. For that physical changes do not only example, the reason why occur in the uterus, but all over pregnant women might the body. experience heartburn around the second trimester (even though it ASSESSMENT can occur in any and all TECHNIQUES trimesters) is because the For high school or college-level placenta produces the hormone, students, their knowledge can be progesterone, which relaxes the assessed by constructing a valve that separates the subsequent quiz (or adding esophagus from the stomach, questions to an exam) that asks allowing gastric acids to seep them to (1) identify how many back up, causing an unpleasant trimesters there are during a pregnancy and the number of burning sensation.
weeks for each trimester; (2) list three physical changes that can occur during the first trimester; (3) list three physical changes that can occur during the second trimester; (4) list three physical changes that can occur during the third trimester; and (5) describe why the nine physical changes they answered to the above questions can occur during a specific trimester. CONCLUSION This activity is not intended to take the place of a healthcare provider and that should be emphasized. The knowledge gained, though, should help increase studentsâ€™ intentions to plan future pregnancies, seek early and adequate prenatal care, and start an open dialogue with a qualified healthcare provider about any or all of the physical changes that can be experienced during a pregnancy. This activity can also assist young women and contribute to their support system, as well as, to help empower them to learn what to expect during a pregnancy.
REFERENCES Henshaw, S. K. (1998). Unintended pregnancy in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 30, 24-29. Kirby, D. (1997). No easy answers: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. National Center for Health Statistics (2005). Births: Final data for 2003. Vital statistics of the United States. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_02.pdf. Accessed December 1, 2006. State of New Jersey. (2004). New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Comprehensive Health and Physical Education. Available at: www.state.nj.us/njded/cccs/s2_chpe.htm. Accessed December 1, 2006. 67
George Washington and Proper Oral Care Amanda Shull, Brynn H. Lilley, and Shari L. Willis Rowan University February is both National Children’s Dental Health Month and the month of George Washington’s birthday. The lesson plan presented below brings both events together. Therefore, the lesson brings a connection between health and social studies. Grade: 2 Objectives: 1) The students will be able to discuss the importance of proper oral care, mouth disease, plaque, and bad breath. 2) The students will be able to model proper tooth brushing and oral care. 3) The students will be able to recognize the historical significance of George Washington. 4) The students will be able to identify and describe instances in the life of George Washington. 5) The students will be able to develop simple timelines. Standards: By the end of 2nd grade: Health2.1: (Wellness) All students will learn and apply health promotion, concepts, and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle. A2: Describe and demonstrate self-care practices that support wellness, such as brushing and flossing teeth, washing hands, and wearing appropriate attire for weather or sports. Social Studies6.1: All students will utilize historical thinking, problem solving, and research skills to maximize their understanding of civics, history, geography, and economics. A5: Develop simple timelines. Materials: George Washington’s Teeth Chandra, D. & Comora, M. (2003). George Washington’s Teeth. Farrar Straus Giroux: New York. George Washington had bad teeth all his life. This story comically narrates George’s struggles with losing his teeth during his time as General of the Revolutionary Army, and even as President of the United States. Photocopies of the book (1 for each student) Large model mouth and toothbrush (for teachers’ use) Small model mouths (1 for each student) Students will have previously made these out of shoeboxes. Toothbrushes and mini floss spools (1 set for each student) (obtained from School Nurse or a dentist) 72
Lesson Plan Procedure: 1) Introduce George Washington and his role in American history by question and answer class discussion. - Ex: “Who knows who George Washington was?” “Why was he important?” 2) Read aloud George Washington’s Teeth. - The students will sit on the floor in a circle while the teacher reads the book aloud to them. 3) Summarize the book while discussing the importance of oral care. -Introduce the students to the concepts of tooth brushing, flossing, mouth disease, plaque, and bad breath. -Explain the importance of good oral hygiene. -Relate these concepts to why George Washington’s teeth fell out. 4) Demonstrate proper oral care techniques with the model. - Use the large mouth and toothbrush replicas to show the students the proper way to brush their teeth. Then demonstrate flossing on the model. 5) Teach the students the song “Brush, Brush, Brush Your Teeth.” - Original Song by Amanda Shull and Brynn Lilley: Sung to the tune of “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” Brush, brush, brush your teeth While this song is sung In and out and up and down And don’t forget your tongue Brush, brush, brush your teeth Use the paste and swish Rinse your mouth for clean fresh breath No cavities you wish - Explain that proper tooth brushing takes between 2 and 3 minutes. 6) Option: Students use small model mouths to demonstrate proper tooth brushing and flossing. Checking for Understanding 1) Have students “scavenger hunt” through photocopies of the book. -Provide students with a specific number of George Washington’s teeth, and students will look through their copy of the book to find the corresponding historical event. For example: “When George Washington had seven teeth, he .” (answer: was at Valley Forge) Closure 1) Restate the connection between proper oral care and George Washington’s tooth troubles. 2) Follow-up assessment: -That night’s homework will be for students to talk to their parents or guardians to discover approximately when they lost their own teeth. The students will need to record approximate years when their teeth fell out. -The next day, students will construct two timelines- one detailing at which times in his life George Washington lost his teeth, and one describing when the student lost his or her own teeth. 73
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