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SJPPPA

Volume 4 1/2017

Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration

ISSN 1339-5637 ISSN 1339-7826 (online)


Slovenská revue pre verejnú politiku a verejnú správu Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration

Ročník IV. 1/2017

Vydáva:

Fakulta sociálnych vied Univerzity sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave v spolupráci so

Slovenskou spoločnosťou pre verejnú správu pri SAV


Slovenská revue pre verejnú politiku a verejnú správu Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration

Obsah

Ročník 4, 1/2017, s. 70 Články

MITRĘGA, Adrian: Auxiliary and Consulting Bodies of the Polish Ministry of Energy after 2015 FEKETE, Sándor – FAZEKAS, Csaba: Change of the Local Self-Governments’ Sovereignty in Hungary

SOÓS, Edit: Paradigm Shift in Public Administration in Hungary. The Magyary Zoltán Public Policy Programme

PALÚŠ, Igor: Participation of Representatives of Municipal Representation in Exercising of Municipal Self-Government

ŠRAMEL, Bystrík: Metamorphoses of Prosecutorial Supervision Over Public Administration

5 20 30 44 55

Recenzie HORVÁTH, Peter: Malast, J.: Teoretická východiska obecné samosprávy v České republice

KNEŽOVÁ, Jana: Konečný, S.: Verejná správa v členských štátoch Európskej únie

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•Články Adrian MITRĘGA1

AUXILIARY AND CONSULTING BODIES OF THE POLISH MINISTRY OF ENERGY AFTER 2015 Abstract Energy security is one of the major components of the Republic of Poland’s broadly conceived security. At the end of 2015, the scope of Poland’s energy security policy was isolated from other institutions of state administration in order to establish a ministry responsible for Poland’s comprehensive energy policy. The establishment of the new ministry reflected the gravity of energy security within the state security system because energetics affects all aspects of Polish people’s lives. The author intends to present auxiliary and consulting institutions of the Ministry of Energy, which support the Minister’s activities geared at enhancing Poland’s energy security. KEY WORDS: energy security, Ministry of Energy, auxiliary and consulting institutions

INTRODUCTION Energy security is among the most significant elements which directly affect both national and international security. The Republic of Poland’s 2014 National Security Strategy reads: “Energetics is among key elements of national security. The main prerequisites for energy security comprise access to energy resources, including those located abroad, diversification of sources and directions of fuel supplies, as well as generation of new power basing on varied generation technologies in order to balance the national demand for energy. Poland’s energy Doktor Adrian Mitręga, The Jan Kochanowski University (JKU) in Kielce, e-mail: adrian22@ onet.pl. 1

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policy2 aims to provide adequate development of power generation, transmission and storage infrastructure, alongside encouraging investment in state-of-the-art energy-saving technologies and products, as well as limiting dependency on fuel supplies” (Strategia Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego [Strategy of National Security], 2014, p. 15). The development of energy policy is inseparably connected with operation of the state administration3 within state structures. The challenges emerging within the Polish energy security have made it necessary to debate the establishment of a new ministry responsible for Poland’s comprehensive energy security policy.

1 THE MINISTRY OF ENERGY: ESTABLISHMENT, OBJECTIVES, STRUCTURE The Ministry of Energy was established on December 8, 2015 (legally effective as from November 27, 2015) due to transformations in state administration after the Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice) party won the parliamentary election. Before the 2015 election, issues related to the development of the energy policy were primarily dealt with not only by the Ministry of Economy,4 but also The energy policy aims to determine actions necessary in order to secure current and projected demands for energy carriers. Moreover, this includes provision of the state’s lasting economic development based on a political strategy including for instance diversification of energy supply sources, formation of resource reserves, limiting access of foreign entities to the national energy market, and concluding international agreements (Cziomer, 2008, p. 24). 3 State administration is responsible for a number of undertakings in terms of the energy security policy. The tasks aimed at enhancement of energy security comprise ongoing prognostication and analyses for the energy security strategy; implementation of the state’s energy policy; creation of market mechanisms to increase generation capacities as well as transmission capacities of the electrical grid in order to increase reliability of supplies and the electrical grid’s operational security; the preparation of procedures which enable balancing of market participants’ interests and co-ordination of energy sector operation in the event of sudden threats, natural disasters and the so-called force majeure; reducing political risks in current regulations; monitoring and reporting to the European Commission on the quality of energy security; as well as taking appropriate remedial measures in the event of threat to energy supplies (cf. Polityka energetyczna kraju [The State’s Energy Policy], 2005, p. 12). 4 In 1997-2015, the legislators established the office of the Minister of Economy as the highest body of state administration for development of Poland’s energy policy. During this period, the Ministry of Economy had within its structures the Undersecretary of State responsible for energyrelated issues as well as a number of departments to deal with particular issues in the energy policy: the Energetics Department; the Crude Oil and Natural Gas Department; the Mining Department; the Nuclear Energy Department; and the Economic Development Department (which deals, for instance, with CO2 emissions). The Minister of Economy’s tasks in the field of energy policy comprised: 1) development of the state’s energy policy and co-ordination of its implementation; 2) determination of specific conditions for planning and operation of fuel and energy supply systems under pertinent legislation; 2

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by the Ministry of the Environment and the Treasury. The Ministry of Energy is subordinate to the Minister of Energy5 on the basis of the Prime Minister’s December 9, 2015 Regulation on a Detailed Scope of Operation of the Minister of Energy in terms of: • energy; • mineral resources management (Rozporządzenie Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 9 grudnia 2015 r. [The Prime Minister’s December 9, 2015 Regulation], p. 1). The responsibilities of the Minister of Energy include in particular issues related to the state’s energy policy as well as participation in development of the European Union’s energy policy. The Minister of Energy is responsible for the operation of energy, energy resources and fuel markets; exploitation of renewable energy and nuclear energy resources to meet the state’s socio-economic needs, including the security of energy supplies, supplies of energy resources and fuels, as well as the electrical grid. The Minister initiates, co-ordinates and supervises international co-operation in the fields of energy, energy resources and fuels, as well as taking part in the work of European Union bodies in the field of the European energy policy. Moreover, the Minister of Energy is responsible for matters related to mineral resources management. The Minister’s competence also comprises management of the Ministry of Energy’s operations and determination of basic directions of the current policy, proposing initiatives and bills for normative acts at sessions of the Ministers’ Council, as well as implementing the policy as determined by the Ministers’ Council. The Minister also co-ordinates the work of the Ministry management and represents the Ministry in particular in contacts with the President of the Republic of Poland, the Parliament, the Ministers’ Council, the Supreme Audit Office, political parties, national trade unions and employer associations (Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 18 października 2016r. [The Minister of Energy’s October 18, 2016 Regulation], p. 1). To the Minister of Energy subordinate are the Material Reserves Agency, and moreover the Minister supervises the President of the State Mining Authority (Ustawa z dnia 4 września 3) supervision of gas fuel and electrical power supply security, as well as operation of national energy systems under pertinent legislation; 4) co-operation with voivodes and local governments in terms of planning and implementation of fuel and energy supply systems; 5) co-ordinating co-operation with international state organisations under pertinent legislation. The Ministry of Economy was not however the only state institution responsible for development of the Polish energy policy. To some extent, the Ministry of the Treasury and the Ministry of the Environment were also competent in the field of energy sector management (Ustawa z dnia 10 kwietnia 1997 r. Prawo energetyczne [The 10 April 1997 Energy Law Act], p. 85). 5 In the Polish administration, a Minister is a one-person leading body of state administration, appointed to head a specific department of state administration and, simultaneously, a member of the Ministers’ Council (Organizacja prawna administracji [Legal Organisation of Administration]). Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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1997 r. o działach administracji rządowej [The September 4, 1997 Act on State Administration Branches], p. 5). The Minister of Energy runs the Ministry with the assistance of Secretaries of State, Undersecretaries of State, the General Director, Head of the Political Cabinet as well as directors of individual organisational units. The internal structure of the Ministry results from the division of work among the management. Each member of the management is responsible for a certain thematic field and supervises the work of organisational units subordinate to him/her, such as departments and offices headed by directors (Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 18 października 2016 r. [The Minister of Energy’s October 18, 2016 Regulation], p. 1). The Ministry comprises the Minister’s Political Cabinet as well as the following organisational units: 1) the Budget and Finance Department6, 2) the Energetics Department7, 3) the Nuclear Energy Department8, 4) the Renewable Energy Department9, 5) the European Funds Department10, 6) the Mining Department11, 7) the Innovation and Technological Development Department12, 8) the Ownership Policy and Analysis Department13, 9) the Monitoring and Audit Department14, 10) the Supervision Department, 11) the Crude Oil and Natural Gas Department15, 12) the International

The Budget and Finance Department is responsible for development and monitoring implementation of the Minister’s budget in co-operation with the Ministry’s departments as well as financial management of foreign funding. 7 The Energetics Department is responsible for implementation of tasks related to development and co-ordination of Poland’s energy policy. 8 The Nuclear Energy Department is responsible for the use of nuclear energy to meet the state’s socio-economic needs, including implementation of the Polish Nuclear Energy Programme. 9 The Renewable Energy Department is responsible for development of plans for actions related to renewable energy sources. 10 The European Funds Department implements tasks resulting from the Minister’s function of an intermediary in the management of the Infrastructure and Environment Operational Programme (PO IiŚ). 11 The Mining Department is responsible for implementation of tasks resulting from the Ministers’ Council’s economic policy for the hard coal mining sector, the brown coal mining sector, the coal gas industry and the non-energy resources industry. 12 The Innovation and Technological Development Department is responsible for issues related to innovative solutions, research and development of technologies within the Minister’s competence and outside the competences of other departments. 13 The Ownership Policy and Analysis Department is responsible for development of systemic solutions in the field of owner supervision. 14 The Monitoring and Audit Department is responsible for planning, running and documenting audits of units subordinate to and supervised by the Minister. 15 The Crude Oil and Natural Gas Department is responsible for development of Poland’s energy policy, together with pertinent regulations as well as the EU’s energy policy in terms of the natural gas sector as well as the crude oil and liquid fuels sector. 6

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Affairs Department16, 13) the Administrative Office17, 14) the General Director’s Office18, 15) the Minister’s Office19, 16) the Legal Office20 (Zarządzenie nr 150 Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 21 grudnia 2015 r. [The Prime Minister’s December 21, 2015 Regulation No. 150], pp. 3-4). Moreover, the Minister of Energy is supported by five auxiliary and consulting bodies, i.e. the Council for Companies with State Treasury Shareholding and Statutory Companies, the Team for Implementation of the National Plan for Dealing with Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel, the Team for Provision of State Fuel Security, the Ministry of Energy’s Team for Crisis Management, as well as the Team for Assessment of Laws on Mining Facility Management.

2 THE POLITICAL CABINET AND ORGANISATIONAL UNITS OF THE MINISTRY OF ENERGY a) The Political Cabinet In the Polish political reality, political cabinets were formed with a view to reinforcing a minister’s standing with respect to the subordinate administration. Political cabinets were introduced on the strength of the 1996 Act on the Organisation and Mode of Operation of the Ministers’ Council (Ustawa z dnia 8 sierpnia 1996 r. o organizacji i trybie pracy Rady Ministrów, p. 16). The Minister’s Political Cabinet is responsible for co-ordination and implementation of affairs which fall within the Minister’s political competence (Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 5 lutego 2016 r. [The Minister of Energy’s 5 February 2016 Regulation, p. 4). The Minister’s Political Cabinet is directly subordinate to the Minister. The Political Cabinet may be viewed as a platform of co-operation between the Minister and working officials. It can also be said that the political cabinet is the site for development of the Ministry’s operational strategies, preparation of expert opinions for the Minister, analysis and assessment of documentation to be signed, deciding about appropriate departments of state administration, and analysing the consequences of the decisions taken (Odpowiedź Ministra Środowiska Marcina Korolca [Response from the Minister of the Environment, Marcin Korolec], 2012). The International Affairs Department is responsible for implementation of the Ministry’s coherent international policy, including the European policy, in co-operation with other departments. 17 The Administrative Office is responsible for management of property and facility infrastructure under the Ministry’s permanent management. 18 The General Director’s Office is responsible for human resources management, including recruitment of staff and provision of HR services to the Ministry’s employees. 19 The Minister’s Office is responsible for supporting the Minister and other members of the Ministry’s management, including the organisation of the Ministry’s Management sittings, keeping records of documents to be signed by the Minister, endorsement of the Minister’s correspondence and running the secretarial offices of members of the management. 20 The Legal Office provides legal services to the Minister and to the Ministry, in particular issuing legal opinions and providing legal re-presentation in courts. 16

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The data of Political Cabinet employees are accessible to the public by law and published by the Ministry.21 The Head of the Minister’s Political Cabinet is in particular responsible for: 1) counselling the Minister on matters of current political activity; 2) co-ordinating implementation of the Ministry’s information policy; 3) analysis and assessment, upon the Minister’s commission, of social, political and economic events and processes; 4) co-operation with the Sejm and the Senate (the lower and the higher chamber of the Parliament, respectively) of the Republic of Poland, the Ministers’ Council, bodies of state administration, bodies of local government, political parties, trade unions and social organisations (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 18 października 2016r. [The Minister of Energy’s October 18, 2016 Regulation], pp. 8-9). b) Departments Departments are the Ministry’s inner organisational units. A department’s organisation and specific scope of operation are defined in a set of in-house organisational regulations, which focus in particular on: 1) the department’s organisational structure together with organograms; 2) the department’s managerial organisation; 3) scope of authorisations for dealing with issues and signing documents delegated to the Deputy Manager, the Head of the Department and Team Co-ordinator; 4) a detailed scope of the department’s tasks; 5) a list of legal acts pertaining to tasks carried out by the department. The main tasks of departments include: development of bills for governmental and ministerial documents, including participation in the law-making process according to valid legal regulations and in view of the Republic of Poland’s international obligations; issuing opinions on bills for normative acts and other documents prepared by the Ministry’s departments; co-operation with the Ministry’s departments, bodies of state administration and local governments, bodies of economic self-government, social institutions and partners in issues related to task implementation, analysis and issuance of expert opinions on EU laws and judicature of the European Court of Justice with a view to introducing changes to Polish law within the Minister’s competence (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 18 października 2016 r. [The Minister of Energy’s October 18, 2016 Regulation], p. 11).

In February 2016, the Minister of Energy’s Political Cabinet employed five full-time staff members, including the Head of the Political Cabinet, two counsellors and two political assistants to the Minister. Gross monthly remuneration for the members of the Political Cabinet at the Ministry of Energy was as follows: Head of the Political Cabinet – PLN 9,457.10; Counsellor – PLN 5,040.00; Counsellor – PLN 4,956.00; Political Assistant – PLN 3,000.00; Political Assistant – PLN 3,000.00. (Odpowiedź na interpelację nr 845 w sprawie gabinetu politycznego [Response to Query No. 845 concerning the Political Cabinet]). 21

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3 THE MINISTER OF CONSULTING BODIES

ENERGY’S

AUXILIARY

AND

The Minister of Energy’s auxiliary and consulting bodies were established in accordance with the regulations of the August 8, 1996 Act on the Ministers’ Council (Ustawa z dnia 8 sierpnia 1996 r. o Radzie Ministrów). Today’s structure of the Ministry of Energy comprises five bodies which perform functions auxiliary to the Minister’s functions. Their operation is regulated by the Minister of Energy’s pertinent regulations (Organy pomocnicze i doradcze [Auxiliary and Consulting Bodies]). a) The Council for Companies with State Treasury Shareholding and Statutory Companies In accordance with the February 11, 2016 Act on State Administration Departments, owner supervision over energy companies was transferred from the State Treasury to the Ministry of Energy as of April 1, 2016. This caused the Ministry of Energy to take over owner supervision over many companies which had hitherto operated within the structures of the Ministry of the Treasury. Under the Minister of Energy’s supervision are energy companies, fuel and gas companies, and exploitation companies. Regardless of the fact that listed companies are supervised by the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, the Ministry of Energy introduced owner supervision standards which enhanced the requirements used by other companies with State Treasury shareholding.22 The document entitled “Standardy nadzoru właścicielskiego w spółkach z udziałem Skarbu Państwa, w According to the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Energy executes owner supervision over the following: Centrala Zbytu Węgla Węglozbyt S.A., Centralna Stacja Ratownictwa Górniczego S.A., Centrum Badań i Dozoru Górnictwa Podziemnego sp. z o.o., Elektrociepłownia Będzin S.A., ENEA S.A., ENERGA S.A., Fabryka Elementów Złącznych S.A., Fabryka Przewodów Energetycznych S.A., Grupa LOTOS S.A., HUTA ŁABĘDY S.A., HUTMAR S.A., Instytut Automatyki Systemów Energetycznych sp. z o.o., Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A., Jastrzębskie Zakłady Remontowe sp. z o.o., JSW KOKS S.A., Katowicki Holding Węglowy S.A., KGHM Polska Miedź S.A., Kompania Węglowa S.A., Kopalnia Soli "Wieliczka" S.A., Kopalnia Soli Bochnia sp. z o.o., Kopalnie Surowców Mineralnych "KOSMIN" sp. z o.o., LOTOS PETROBALTIC S.A., PAK Kopalnia Węgla Brunatnego Adamów S.A., PAK Kopalnia Węgla Brunatnego Konin S.A., PGE Polska Grupa Energetyczna S.A., Polska Grupa Górnicza sp. z o.o., Polski Koncern Naftowy ORLEN S.A., Polskie Górnictwo Naftowe i Gazownictwo S.A., Przedsiębiorstwo Przeładunku Paliw Płynnych "NAFTOPORT" sp. z o.o., PSK Rzeszów sp. z o.o., SIARKOPOL Gdańsk S.A., Spółka Restrukturyzacji Kopalń S.A., Rafineria Nafty "GLIMAR" S.A., Regionalny Fundusz Gospodarczy S.A., TAURON Polska Energia S.A., Towarzystwo Finansowe Silesia sp.  z  o.o., Walcownia Metali Nieżelaznych "ŁABĘDY" S.A., Wałbrzyskie Zakłady Koksownicze "Victoria" S.A., Węglokoks S.A., Zakłady Urządzeń Chemicznych i Armatury Przemysłowej "CHEMAR" S.A., Zarządca Rozliczeń S.A., Zespół Elektrowni Wodnych Niedzica S.A. (cf. Spółki w nadzorze właścicielskim oraz jednostki nadzorowane i podległe [Owner-Supervised Companies as well as Other Supervised and Subsidiary Bodies]). 22

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których prawa z akcji lub udziałów wykonuje Minister Energii” [“Standards of Owner Supervision in Companies with State Treasury Shareholding where Rights on Shares or Participation Units are Executed by the Minister of Energy”] presents in a complex way the expectations pertaining to a variety of fields of owner supervision. In particular, it discusses the issues of competences of the companies’ corporate bodies, principles of communication and co-operation with the Ministry of Energy as executors of ownership rights, issues of strategic planning as well as organisation and assessment of the work of members of supervisory boards (Standardy nadzoru właścicielskiego [Owner Supervision Standards]). Among the many objectives of the Ministry’s supervision the most important include enhancement of the companies’ standing through value increase, which ensures meeting the state’s energy needs and ongoing professionalisation of management quality and owner supervision in the companies subordinate to the Ministry of Energy. The tasks of the Council for Companies with State Treasury Shareholding and Statutory Companies include issuance of opinions on: • Prospective members of supervisory bodies appointed by the State Treasury or a statutory company, or bodies of companies for which a company with State Treasury shareholding or a statutory company is the dominant entity under Art. 4 Point 3 of the February 16, 2007 Act on Competition and Consumer Protection,23 • Documents pertaining to state policy on state property management, • Bills pertaining to state property management, • Prospective members of executive bodies under Art. 26 of the December 16, 2016 Act on Principles of State Property Management, • Matters related to state property management as motioned by the Prime Minister. The Council comprises nine representatives, including three representatives of the Prime Minister, three representatives of the Minister of Economy, and three representatives of the Minister of Energy (Rada ds. spółek z udziałem skarbu państwa [Council for Companies with State Treasury Shareholding]). b) The Team for Implementation of the National Plan for Dealing with Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel In the early 2000s, Polish decision-makers decided that a nuclear power station be built in Poland. This decision was taken with a view to meeting future power-related needs of the Polish economy because, according to forecasts, Supervisory boards of companies supervised by the Minister of Energy comprise 172 persons, out of whom 90 are representatives of the State Treasury (cf. Pełny zapis przebiegu Komisji do spraw energii i skarbu państwa [Complete Minutes of the Sitting of the Board for Energy and State Treasury]). 23

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without nuclear power stations of its own, Poland may in future be facing power shortages, given that power demand will have increased from 60 to 120% by the year 2020, which exceeds the capacities of power stations currently in operation. In accordance with the state document entitled “Polityka energetyczna Polski do 2030 roku” [“Poland’s Energy Policy until 2030”], building a nuclear power station in Poland ought to become one of the major objectives of the Polish energy policy (Polityka Energetyczna Polski do 2030r.). It must be noted that Poland’s implementation of a civilian nuclear programme does not automatically equal the shift of the Polish energy industry to nuclear power. Coal is expected to continue as the main energy resource in Poland for several more decades (Tatarzyński 2006, p. 43). The objectives of the Team for Implementation of the National Plan for Dealing with Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel include in particular: • Monitoring the implementation and suggesting directions for updating the National Plan for Dealing with Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel; • Issuance of opinions, presentation of analyses and expert opinions on dealing with radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel to meet the needs of Polish nuclear power industry; • Presentation of suggested solutions for dealing with radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 31 stycznia 2017 r. [The Minister of Energy’s January 31, 2017 Regulation], p. 1). The Team consists of the Team Leader, Team Members – permanent representatives appointed by the Minister of Energy, the Minister of the Environment, the Minister of Home Affairs, the Minister of Health, the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the Director of the State Geological Institute – the State Research Institute, the Director of the Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility, and the Team’s Secretary. In the Team’s work, non-members may participate as consultants, upon invitation from the Team Leader on account on their know-how and expertise (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 31 stycznia 2017 r. [The Minister of Energy’s January 31, 2017 Regulation], pp. 1-2). c) The Team for Provision of State Fuel Security One of the major objectives of Poland’s energy policy is to prevent dependency on one energy supplier. At present, considerable dependency on resources supplies from Russia affects the state’s energy security, as well as prices of imported natural gas and crude oil. Considerable dependency on Russian resources supplies makes it possible for the Kremlin to influence the security of states in Central and Eastern Europe (Ruszel, 2013, p. 146). The Minister of Energy monitors and supervises the system of emergency reserves of crude oil and petroleum products as well as obligatory reserves of natural gas by means of periodic inspections of these reserves, their structures Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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and locations. Poland meets the obligation of maintaining 90-day emergency reserves of crude oil, liquid fuels and gas (LPG) as well as 30-day obligatory reserves of natural gas.24 Emergency reserves ought to be maintained exclusively in the territory of Poland, but their location in the territory of another EU state is acceptable on condition that an international agreement is concluded between Poland and the interested state. Reserves located outside Poland may not exceed 5% of total agency reserves and 5% of total obligatory reserves of crude oil or fuels to be obligatorily maintained by a particular manufacturer or agent. The objectives of the Team for Provision of State Fuel Security include planning, initiating and coordinating of operations aimed at provision of the state’s fuel security as well as initiating and co-ordinating of emergency operations in the case of threat to that security (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 12 stycznia 2017 r. [The Minister of Energy’s January 12, 2017 Regulation], pp. 1-3). The Team comprises the Team Leader, i.e. the Secretary or Undersecretary of State in the Ministry of Energy for the State’s fuel and gas system operation; the Deputy Team Leader – the Government’s Representative for Strategic Energy Infrastructure; Members – one representative each, at least at the level of departmental directors, of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration, the President of the Energy Regulatory Authority, the President of the Material Reserves Agency, the Director of the National Centre for Security, the Head of the Internal Security Agency, Co-ordinator of Special Services, and the Team Secretary – the Director of the Crude Oil and Natural Gas Department at the Ministry of Energy (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 12 stycznia 2017 r., pp. 2-3). In February 2017, the Supreme Audit Office presented a report on the management of the obligatory reserves of crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas. According to the Supreme Audit Office, the Minister of Energy’s monitoring and supervision of the system of emergency reserves of crude oil and petroleum products as well as obligatory reserves of natural gas were satisfactory. Periodic inspections of the state of these reserves, their structures and locations were adequately performed. Moreover, the state administration’s performance of duties of creating and maintaining fuel reserves as well as auditing storage services were found to be adequate. Developed by the state administration, the monitoring system ensured complete exchange of information, for instance, on As of March 31, 2016, the level of the obligatory reserves of crude oil and petroleum fuels (per tonne of oil equivalent) was 6,677 thousand tonnes. This level would have met the demand for liquid fuel for 104 days’ crude oil and petroleum product net import as compared to the 90 days requisite under the Reserves Act. Moreover, the trade inventory of crude oil and petroleum fuels (1,714 thousand tonnes) would have lasted 27 days. Obligatory reserves of high-methane natural gas (maintained exclusively by PGNiG S.A.), between October 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, ranged from 836 million cu. M to 815 million cu. m. This was equivalent to at least 30 days’ average daily delivery, and thus compliant with the requirements of the Reserves Act. 24

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real volume of crude oil and fuels emergency reserves, their structures, locations and ownership, as well as natural gas obligatory reserves (Zarządzanie zapasami obowiązkowymi ropy naftowej [Management of Obligatory Reserves of Crude Oil], pp. 7-9). d) The Ministry of Energy’s Crisis Management Team The anticipated energy crisis due to insufficient amounts or impeded exploitation of energy resources in proportion to increased demand necessitates searching for an alternative energy base to meet economic needs. Moreover, the role of the energy factor increases in significance in international relations, becoming an inseparable element of international relations and world economy. In their international relations, states have observed that enhancing energy security is an integral function of the state and a sine qua non of state stability and operational efficiency (Mitręga, 2015, p. 11). Interrupted supplies of electrical power, liquid fuels or gas may be detrimental to efficient operation of a state. Negative consequences of interruptions in power supplies may lead to a drop in GDP; power cuts for industrial plants, which can result in irregularity or stoppage of the manufacturing process, particularly in SMEs or chemical plants; enforced evacuation of local inhabitants and need for provision of conditions for survival; and the necessity to introduce liquid fuel limits for individuals and businesses. Power or fuel shortages negatively affect the operation of critical infrastructure related to, for instance, transport and communications, rescue services, food deliveries and ensuring ongoing operation of the public administration (Krajowy Plan Zarządzania Kryzysowego [National Emergency Management Plan], 2013, pp. 16-18). The Team’s tasks include: a) Periodic risk assessment for Report on Threats to National Security; b) Issuance of opinions on plans for emergency management; c) Issuance of opinions on the list of facilities, installations and equipment which make up the critical infrastructure within their competence; d) Development of motions and proposals for prevention and dealing with threats (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 20 października 2016 r. [The Minister of Energy’s October 20, 2016 Regulation], pp. 1-2). At present, for the purposes of complex assessment of the threat of a global energy crisis, it is necessary to evaluate the sufficiency of all basic sources of primary fossil energy, because exhaustion of one source of primary energy will lead to shifting the weight of maintaining the energy for human civilisation to others in turn, until all become completely exhausted (Mitręga, 2015, p. 169). e) The Team for Assessment of Laws on Mining Facility Management The Polish energy sector is characterised by considerable resources of both hard and brown coal, which causes power generation to be based on them. Both Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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hard and brown coal are viewed by the Polish government as guarantees of the state’s energy security. According to a report by the National Geological Institute, Poland has a total of 48 billion 226 million tonnes of documented geological hard coal resources, and 22 billion tonnes of brown coal (Bilans zasobów [Listing of Resources], 2012, pp. 37, 44). Unfortunately, the Polish mining is carried out under untoward geological and mining conditions, with practically all natural threats whose symptoms or occurrence can be disastrous. The main threats in underground mining include rock bursts, fires, roof falls, methane and coal dust explosions, or floodings (Stan bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy w górnictwie w 2002 roku [Safety at Work in Mining 2002], 2003, p. 6). At present, the hard coal mining sector faced its largest crisis in years due to the decreasing demand for coal on domestic and international markets, dramatic price drops and increasing costs of underground mining (Odpowiedź na interpelację nr 1023 w sprawie strategii górnictwa węgla kamiennego [Response to Query No. 1023 on Hard Coal Mining Strategy]). Regulations concerning management of mining facilities concern exploitation of mineral resources through production wells in terms of: 1) safety at work, including occupational risk assessment and documentation, together with application of adequate risk-decreasing solutions; 2) fire safety; 3) mineral resource management through exploitation; 4) environmental protection; 5) basic facilities, machinery and equipment of mining facilities (Rozporządzenie Ministra Gospodarki z dnia 25 kwietnia 2014 r. [The Minister of Economy’s April 25, 2014 Regulation]). The Team for Assessment of Laws on Mining Facility Management consists of the Head – the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Energy; the Deputy Head – the President of the State Mining Authority; and members: two representatives of the Ministry of Energy and four representatives of the State Mining Authority. The Team’s tasks include: a) Identification of fields to be regulated; b) Analysis of current laws with a view to simplification; c) Cataloguing cases in which proof of check-up of technical solutions carried out by a mining expert is required; d) Identification of technical regulations in need of modification; e) Implementation of results of the “Improvement of Work Safety in Mines” strategic project; f) Development of bills in the field of safety at work at various types of mining facilities (Zarządzenie Ministra Energy z dnia 25 kwietnia 2016 r. [The Minister of Energy’s April 25, 2016 Regulation], p. 1). Actions aimed at analysis of Polish mining laws are geared at enhancement of Polish mines’ efficiency as well as provision of safe working conditions for miners. 16

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CONCLUSION Particular institutions of the Ministry of Energy work within their competences, adjusting their organisation and methods of operation to the growing challenges in the field of energy security. Consequently, institutions supporting the Minister of Energy ought to fulfil their tasks in accordance with current legal regulations, thus becoming a major part of Poland’s energy policy. In a discussion of the Ministry of Energy, it is worth stressing that the Ministry itself should not only be viewed as a substantially isolated branch of state administration, because within the Ministry operates a system of several organisational units which implement a variety of tasks within the Ministry’s competence. It must however be stressed that, given the many departments and offices, as well as the role performed by the Minister of Energy’s auxiliary and consulting bodies, together with the Political Cabinet, insufficient co-ordination between individual units of the Ministry may be expected. This may cause prolongation of procedures for approving documentation pertaining to the operation of a particular unit, thus prolonging the adaptation processes of energyrelated solutions aimed at enhancement of Poland’s energy security.

REFERENCES Bilans zasobów złóż kopalin w Polsce wg stanu na 31 xii 2012 r., (2013). Warszawa, Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Państwowy Instytut Badawczy CZIOMER, E. (2008) Podstawowe pojęcia i zakres międzynarodowego bezpieczeństwa energetycznego. [in:] E. Cziomer (eds.) Międzynarodowe bezpieczeństwo energetyczne w XXI w., (s. 13-28). Kraków, Krakowska Szkoła Wyższa im. Andrzeja Frycza Modrzewskiego Krajowy Plan Zarządzania Kryzysowego, Warszawa 2013 MITRĘGA, A. (2015) Polityka bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w świetle uwarunkowań gospodarczych i politycznych początku XXI wieku. Kielce, Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach Odpowiedź na interpelację nr 845 w sprawie gabinetu politycznego (2016) http:// www.sejm.gov.pl/sejm8.nsf/InterpelacjaTresc.xsp?key=79DAB1FD, [access April 23, 2017]. Odpowiedź na interpelację nr 1023 w sprawie strategii górnictwa węgla kamiennego (2016) http://www.sejm.gov.pl/sejm8.nsf/InterpelacjaTresc. xsp?key=618DD004, [access April 23, 2017]. Odpowiedź ministra środowiska Marcina Korolca z dn. 02 lutego 2012 r. na interpelacja nr 853 posła Kazimierza Moskala w sprawie funkcjonowania gabinetu politycznego w kontekście zapowiadanych oszczędności w administracji publicznej (2012) http://orka.sejm.gov.pl/izo7.nsf/www1/ Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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i00853o0/$File/i00853o0.pdf [access March 20, 2012]. Organizacja prawna administracji (2017) https://prawo.uni.wroc.pl/sites/default/ files/students-resources/Organizacja%20Administracji.pdf [access April 15, 2017] Organy pomocnicze i doradcze (2017) http://bip.me.gov.pl/O+Ministerstwie/ Organy+pomocnicze+i+doradcze [access April 14, 2017] Polityka Energetyczna Polski do 2030r. (2009). Warszawa, Ministerstwo Gospodarki Rada ds. spółek z udziałem skarbu państwa i państwowych osób prawnych (2017) http://bip.me.gov.pl/O+Ministerstwie/Organy+pomocnicze+i+doradcze/ Rada+ds+spolek+z+udzialem+Skarbu+Panstwa+i+panstwowych+osob+prawnych, [access February 23, 2017] Regulamin organizacyjny Ministerstwa Energii, Załącznik do zarządzenia Ministra Energii z dnia 5 lutego 2016 r. Rozporządzenie Ministra Gospodarki z dnia 25 kwietnia 2014 r. w sprawie szczegółowych wymagań dotyczących prowadzenia ruchu zakładów górniczych wydobywających kopaliny otworami wiertniczymi, Dz. U. z 2014, poz. 812 Rozporządzenie Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 9 grudnia 2015 r. w sprawie szczegółowego zakresu działania Ministra Energii, Dz. U. poz. 2087, 2015. RUSZEL, M. (2013) Infrastrukturalne możliwości dywersyfikacji dostaw gazu ziemnego do Polski w perspektywie 2020 roku, ,,Humanities and Social Sciences”, vol. XVIII, nr 20 (4), p. 145-157 Stan bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy w górnictwie w 2002 roku (2003). Katowice, Wyższy Urząd Górniczy Strategii Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (2014). Warszawa, Biuro Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego Spółki w nadzorze właścicielskim oraz jednostki nadzorowane i podległe (2017) http://bip.me.gov.pl/O+ministerstwie/ Spolki+w+nadzorze+wlascicielskim+Ministra+Energii [access February 12, 2017]. TATARZYŃSKI, M., (2006). Perspektywy rozwoju energii atomowej w Polsce, ,,Bezpieczeństwo Narodowe”, nr I, (s.30-43) Ustawa z dnia 10 kwietnia 1997 r. Prawo energetyczne, Dz. U. z 2012 r., poz. 1059 oraz z 2013 r. poz. 984 Ustawa z dnia 4 września 1997 r. o działach administracji rządowej, Dz.U. 1997, nr 141, poz. 943. Ustawa z dnia 8 sierpnia 1996 r. o organizacji i trybie pracy Rady Ministrów oraz o zakresie działania ministrów, Dz.U. 1996, nr 106 poz. 492. Ustawa z dnia 8 sierpnia 1996 r. o Radzie Ministrów, Dz. U. z 2012 r. poz. 392, z późn. zm. 18

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Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 12 stycznia 2017 r. w sprawie powołania Zespołu do spraw zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa paliwowego Państwa, Dz. U. z 2017, poz. 2. Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 18 października 2016 r. w sprawie podziału pracy w Kierownictwie Ministerstwa Energii, Dz. U. z 2016, poz. 11 Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 20 października 2016 r. w sprawie utworzenia Zespołu Zarządzania Kryzysowego w Ministerstwie Energii, Dz. U. z 2016, poz. 13. Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 25 kwietnia 2016 r. w sprawie powołania Zespołu do spraw oceny funkcjonowania przepisów dotyczących prowadzenia ruchu zakładów górniczych, Dz. U. z 2016, poz. 3. Zarządzenie Ministra Energii z dnia 31 stycznia 2017 r. w sprawie utworzenia Zespołu do spraw realizacji Krajowego planu postępowania z odpadami promieniotwórczymi i wypalonym paliwem jądrowym, Dz.U. z 2017, poz. 3. Zarządzenie nr 150 Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 21 grudnia 2015 r. w sprawie nadania statutu Ministerstwu Energii, Dz. U. z 2015, poz. 1291

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Sándor FEKETE1 – Csaba FAZEKAS2

CHANGE OF THE LOCAL SELFGOVERNMENTS’ SOVEREIGNTY IN HUNGARY Abstract The conception of the actual local self-government system had created at the age of the dualism. The development had two parts, the first one was the decentralism of the public law system, and the second one was the splay of the council’s sovereignty. Unfortunately there was a lot of council who went into liquidation so the state had to help them. Therefore the state’s influence became bigger and bigger, which process reflected at the new local self-government law. This law is limiting the local self-government’s sovereignty because it ignores the recommendation of the European Charter of Local Self-Government. There was necessary to made a new local self-government but with the consent of the councils. KEY WORDS: local self-governments, Hungary, sovereignty, fundamental law, education system

1 ACT NO. CLXXXIX OF 2011 – ON THE LOCAL SELFGOVERNMENTS OF HUNGARY In the 2010 electional campaign, Viktor Orbán mentioned it as one of his primary objectives that if citizens put their trust in him, his government would carry out a complete public law reform, and would pass a new fundamental law instead of the constitution already displaying several weaknesses. FIDESZKDNP (’Alliance of Young Democrats- Christian Democratic People’s Party’) won the 2010 election, and following the counting of votes, it became clear that having a two third majority, the new government could start the process of drawing up a new constitution without the opposition. As a result, on 18 April, 2011, the Parliament passed the new constitution, Hungary’s Fundamental Law. 1 2

Sándor Fekete, University of Miskolc, Hungary, e-mail: rekfekete@uni-miskolc.hu. Csaba Fazekas, University of Miskolc, Hungary, e-mail: bolfazek@uni-miskolc.hu.

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As had been planned, the government carried out a complete public law reform which involved the amendment of the current act on local self-governments, as well. In order to be able to investigate the differences between the 1990 Act on local self-governments and the equivalent 2011 Act, the regulations set out in the constitutions should be studied and the missing links should be explored. Starting from the beginning, it is important to observe how these two fundamental law documents provide for the right of self-government. The Constitution is based on the right to local self-government, regulating the control of the state over local self-governments in a minimalist way. It is not surprising given the fact that the Act on local self-government was passed directly after a suppressive, authoritarian regime ceased to exist so it was a primary consideration to reduce state control to the minimum level. The fundamental rights local self-governments were entitled to were general and extended to each local self-government. Unfortunately, however, due to the large number of tiny self-governments and overregulation, this system became impossible to finance. The Fundamental Law attempts to find a solution to this. However, it does not provide for the right to self-government but incorporates the concept of local public affairs in its wording instead. The exact formula is: ’In Hungary local governments shall function to manage local public affairs and exercise local public power.’ It confers the right of local selfgovernment on the citizens of settlements and counties so only the complete revocation of the right to self-government violates the Fundamental Law as the right to self-government does not appear in it as a fundamental right. Citizens may directly exercise their rights to self-government through local referenda and indirectly through elected representatives. According to the law, these rights mean the expression and implementation of local public will. Accordingly, the subject of law shall not be deemed to be the local self-governments but inhabitants of the local settlements who exercise the right of self-government. According to the act, local public affairs ’are related to the provision of the population with public services and to the creation of the organisational, personnel and material conditions for local self-government and cooperation with the population.’. That is, the task is to cater for the needs of the population and to create and provide the conditions for their well-being so the law does not only regulate but also sets forth obligations for the local self-governments and citizens. It is the citizens’ obligation to alleviate the burdens of the community through self-provision, that is, to contribute to the performance of community activities as far as they are able to. The local self-government may define these tasks in a decree, and may also create legal consequences in case of non-compliance so it may hold inhabitants responsible. However, as a moral constraint, the principle of good faith and mutual cooperation should be followed while the law is exercised and enforced. The tasks of local self-governments are regulated in section (1), Article 31 of the Fundamental Law, which sets forth that local self-governments manage local Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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public affairs and implement local public will. However, it fails to give an exact definition of what local public affairs are so it is left to the legislature to clarify it. The Fundamental Law gives a list of all the rights that the local self-government may exercise during the management of public affairs so through decrees and orders, it is a matter of local regulation to determine organisational and operational order, to exercise the right of enterprising, the right to charge taxes or to establish partnerships with other local self-governments. However, neither the act nor the Fundamental Law provides for the separation of the tasks and powers of local self-governments. And with this, we have arrived at an important point without the exploration of which it is impossible to go on as we are concerned with local self-governments here. These are the principles of decentralisation-deconcentration and subsidiarity. The state system of the separation of powers is built out along two axes: a horizontal and a vertical one (Gallai and Török, 2003, p.318). The horizontal axis is the classical tripartite principle of the division of powers, treated by every country having a democratic political system as a basic element of power construction. The vertical division means the division of state power and tasks among lower levels. However, vertically, division cannot be complete as through its power to make the constitution, the legislative power may modify the powers of the hierarchical organisations of the vertical power system. Thus, local selfgovernments should always comply with the provisions of currently effective law so there is no institution system where one could speak about unlimited organisational powers. In case of the central and local division of power, one can speak about decentralised and deconcentrated models (Gallai and Török, 2003, p.319). Regional autonomy is the greatest in federal-type countries where the state grants separate state-level powers to federal elements. Nowadays, countries strive for decentralisation as the division of state powers also involves the passing on of functions and financial burdens in addition to the fact that this way, the principle of vertical power division also prevails. Thus, in case of decentralisation, division of power and division of labour are both attained, resulting in greater autonomy for local authorities. However, autonomy does not mean complete sovereignty as local self-governments also exist as part of the state. ’In a narrower sense, decentralisation is the actual division of powers among regional decision makers who are not organisationally subordinated to central authorities” (Gallai and Török, 2003, p.320). Deconcentration is based on hierarchy so it means the subordination of local and regional authorities to the central power. At the same time, this shows the limitation of the right to make free decisions as self-governments organised on this basis work under the control of the central administrative authority in every case. Their power is only mediated power, and their scope of authority only covers the performance of specific tasks. Next, it is important to mention the principle of subsidiarity, the content elements of which appeared as early as in 22

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the antiquity but was first widely applied in practice after World War II, and then it became the basic principle of the European Community. Former president of the European Committee, Jacques Delors named the following two aspects as the basis of subsidiarity: · everybody should have the right to fulfil his/her duties on the level where he/ she is most suitable for it; · the obligation of the central authorities is to provide everyone with every device necessary to fully exploit their possibilities. In today’s modern states, subsidiarity is the principle of the limitation of power and the supervision of interference, which was incorporated by the Treaty of Maastricht (section (1), article 5 of the Treaty on European Union). With regard to the fact that these are uniform principles and models in the field of local selfgovernment, the Hungarian local self-government system was also created by the act regulating this structure according to these models. After this, let us return to the most recent Hungarian act on local selfgovernment. In section (1), article 13, chapter II, the act gives a detailed description of the range of tasks to be performed by local self-governments. In this section, 21 activities are specified from urban planning through cultural and social tasks to waste management and water supply. The new Act on local self-governments regulates the tasks to be performed by local self-governments in greater detail, incorporating new fields, and putting former tasks of local self-governments under state control. Municipal development and urban planning are included in both acts but municipal operation is a new concept although it is true that some of the tasks to be performed were also included in the former act. The new act incorporates the following tasks in municipal operation: establishment and maintenance of public cemeteries, provision of street lighting, provision of chimney sweep services, construction and maintenance of public roads and their accessories, establishment and maintenance of public parks and other public areas, and provision of parking places for motor vehicles. In other words, the act specifies the tasks that local self-governments shall perform. Earlier, these tasks were not specified individually. In my opinion, the reason for such detailed regulation is to prevent any legal disputes arising from the lack of regulation. Beyond the incorporation of social benefits and services, the new act on local self-governments also includes the right of the local self-government to determine social benefits. The Act on social benefits and the Act on local self-governments set forth that the self-government representative body of the settlement shall provide social benefits in cash for individuals socially in need subject to the conditions set forth in the relevant decrees of the local self-government in the form of care allowance and self-government benefit but may also define other benefits paid in cash. In Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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addition, the local self-government may also provide social benefit in kind, and may order personal care to be provided for those in need (Feik, 2017). Since the introduction of the public works programme, the organisation and provision of public works have also been the task of local self-governments although it is true that the state gives assistance in the provision of the necessary financial resources. It could have been included among the social tasks of the state, still, the provision of care for and rehabilitation of people who have become homeless, and the prevention of this are regulated separately. The reason for giving it priority in the act may have been the increasing social sensitivity for the problem. The provision in the act requiring local self-governments to provide an opportunity for local small farmers and primary producers to sell the products listed in legal statutes has greater importance in the provinces. With this, legislators try to promote the development of the Hungarian sector of small producers and the giving priority to Hungarian goods. Unfortunately, this regulation has not been of much help in stopping the decrease of the number of agricultural primary producers as since 2008, there have been fewer and fewer primary producers registered year by year. The Hungarian production sector badly needs this layer so this problem is an ever recurring item on the political agenda. The organisation and provision of local waste disposal services is also a new task to be performed. Earlier, it caused problems several times as in many cases, waste management companies could not agree with local self-governments so waste disposal was not solved. In order to prevent such cases, the act makes it the responsibility of local self-governments to perform waste management tasks. The most important issue in today’s political situation in Hungary is the educators’ movement against the improper conditions and the system of financing in education. These causes can also be led back to the provisions in the Act on local self-governments as earlier, it was the responsibility of the local self-governments to provide education but in the new Act on local self-governments, the authority of local self-governments only covers the supervision of kindergarten education while other levels of education are put under state control.

2 THE IMPACT OF THE 2011 ACT ON LOCAL SELFGOVERNMENTS ON THE HUNGARIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM Following the change of the political system, similarly to many other areas, the Hungarian education system underwent significant reorganisation. Education itself was regulated by Act No. LXXIX of 1993. The act made it the responsibility of the self-governments of villages, towns, capital districts and cities with county rank to organise and supervise the operation of kindergarten and public education services. This act made it possible for the educational services to be provided jointly by several local self-governments in the framework of a self-government 24

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partnership in which ’every such self-government could become a member that maintained a school providing vocational training’ (Csörgits, 2017). Thus, according to the former regulation, the local self-government was the basis of the organisation and provision of education from kindergarten to university education. This system was upset by the new Acts on public education and local selfgovernments, which deprived local self-governments of the right to maintain educational institutions with the exception of kindergartens, and put these institutions under state control. In the exact wording of the act, ’a public education institution may be established and maintained by the state, and subject to the provisions herein, by ethnic minority self-governments, church legal entities, organisations involved in religious activities or by other persons or organisations if it has obtained the right to pursue such activities in compliance with the relevant legal statutes.’ The act also sets forth that kindergarten institutions may also be maintained by local self-governments. As of 1 September, 2012, the state established Klebelsberg Intézményfenntartó Központ (’Klebelsberg Centre for Institution Maintenance’) (Hungarian abbreviation: KLIK), the task of which is to maintain public education institutions involved in providing state services and to operate public education institutions efficiently, professionally and legally. KLIK performed the tasks set forth in the act in 198 educational districts with more or less success. Right after starting its operations, the institution already generated considerable loss, and the educational experts of the opposition labelled it ’the most unnecessary institution’ since the change of the political regime. It is a fact that the operation of this institution shows the signs of chaos, with its accumulated debt already exceeding ten billion HUF although repayment of it has started in the meantime. Teachers’ former demonstrations, which turned public attention to the conditions in education, may have partly been attributed to the operational problems of KLIK and partly to other circumstances. Probably due to social pressure, the government announced that it would close down KLIK, and the new institution to be established would only have maintenance and employer functions, and all other authorities would be given back to school principals. School principals would also have cash funds so that no central approval would be required for every single procurement of assets, which formerly endangered everyday work in schools. Secretary of state for education László Palkovics said in a television interview that the operations of the universities would not be affected by the new institution as they were functioning properly. With regard to the universities, it is important to remark that they have a different maintenance system. Universities are led by their senates headed by the rectors but they are operated by the chancellors, who are responsible for economic, financial, controlling, internal auditing, accounting, HR, legal, administrative and IT activities as well as for the asset management of the institution, including any technical, facility utilisation, operational, logistics, service, procurement and Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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public procurement issues, as well, pursuant to law. This means that the actual supervision of universities has been taken over by individuals appointed by the prime minister, through which the autonomy of the universities has also been curbed. It is a negative impact of the reorganisation in higher education that several institutions have been closed down, faculties have been merged, several, formerly state-owned specialisations have been made fee-paying, and in several cases, the amounts of fees have been considerably increased so that many students cannot pay them. As a result, there is a significant decrease in the number of students in higher education. Due to the act, several educational institutions have been taken over by the churches for maintenance. In comparison with the 2009/2010 period, the number of elementary schools in church ownership had increased by a little more than one hundred by the academic year 2014/2015 while in the case of the academic grammar schools, this number was thirty. Since 2005, the number of students in public education has decreased by almost 200,000 while the number of students educated in church schools could only be counted in thousands at that time but now a quarter of a million students are taught there. Due to the better financial conditions – as church schools get both state and church subsidies -, more and more students are enrolled in church schools by their parents. The fact that the number of students educated in church schools is increasing is in line with the government’s objectives.

3 CHANGES IN THE SOVEREIGNTY OF HUNGARIAN LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTS The Hungarian self-government system had prominent significance from the early Middle Ages. The Hungarian principle of local self-government originates from the sovereignty of counties, and if there is any dispute between the state and local self-governments, as a rule, historical experiences are activated to support the importance of the power and autonomy of local self-governments. In the 27 years that have passed since the change of the political system, there have been frequent changes in the obligations and control of local self-governments. At the time of the change of the political system, legislators, understandably, intended to give back to local self-governments the maximum sovereignty permitted by law, which worked well in the beginning, and were welcomed by citizens but as the years passed, the negative aspects of the system became evident, as well. Mainly due to the increase in their responsibilities, local self-governments got indebted, and by 2010, the amount of their outstanding debt had reached 1,200 billion HUF. Understandably, local self-governments expected the state to solve this problem, and as a result, they had to sacrifice some of their sovereignty, giving it over to the state. The restructuring of the education system described above was 26

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due to this sacrifice but the access of the local self-governments to loans has also become limited and the system of central resource allocation has been changed, as well, so settlements with stronger economic potential get less subsidy than the more disadvantaged ones. Before the changes, there were some who were of the opinion that Hungary should adopt the Swedish local self-government model, where first, the number of local self-governments was reduced from 2,498 to 1,037, and then, due to further reductions, only 278 local authorities remained. This means that a large number of local governments were eliminated or merged. However, under Hungarian conditions, this would have been an inconceivable change as Hungarian local self-governments enjoy historically guaranteed autonomy. The new regulation in the Fundamental Law gives up the fundamental right approach to the right to local self-government, and sets forth that local selfgovernments may only exercise their functions (and not their fundamental rights) subject to the principle of legality, thus creating the possibility for a broad limitation of the rights of local self-governments just like for the requalifying of local public issues as national public issues. These provisions reduce the autonomy of local selfgovernments, guaranteed by the constitution. In the new regulation system, local self-governments are controlled by the competent government authorities, whose status and functions have been considerably extended due to the combination of the great many deconcentrated functions. Through this, the county has become the scene of intermediate level administration. The result of the new regulation is a local self-government system shifting towards centralisation, accompanied by a considerable reduction of the functions and limitation of the autonomy of the local self-government system. Leaving the role of the ’night watchman’ behind, the state actively interferes in local and regional politics and self-government activities. The fundamental changes can be summarised as follows: · there has been a considerable decrease in the number of local self-government representatives; · in contrast to the previous system, a five-year election cycle has been introduced with the justification that it is worth separating local elections from the parliamentary cycle and elections in the hope of a higher participation rate and more balanced power relations; · the next element is the reduction in the functions and roles of local selfgovernments referred to several times; · with the appearance of government offices, authority functions have been taken away from local self-governments; · in case of the existence of the conditions set forth in the act, the opportunity for local self-governments to form mandatory partnerships, and the closing down of mayor’s offices in settlements having fewer than two thousand inhabitants; · judicial review has become stricter; Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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· the management functions of local self-governments have become stricter due to the large number of cases of their getting indebted; · one of the most important changes on the local level is that the position of the mayor has become stronger within the organisation of the local selfgovernment, weakening that of the notary so few opportunities have remained to control mayors.

CONCLUSION These were the most essential points bringing about a change in the new Act on local self-governments. It is quite sure that it is impossible to investigate the actual impacts of changes after such a short period of time but some initial conclusions can be made. Evidently, the new act overregulates local self-governments, thus curtailing their sovereignty, and giving too much priority to state influence. The termination of the former close connections between county self-governments and local self-governments may also be the source of significant problems in the future. With regard to the fact that due to the absolute majority of the governing party, the new constitution was passed relatively quickly, the Act on local selfgovernments was also drawn up without any serious impact studies or negotiations with the local self-governments themselves. As our country is a member state of the European Union, our fundamental acts should comply with the basic principles of the Union, and as far as local selfgovernments are concerned, with the European Charter for Local Self-government, as well. Whether the provisions in the new Fundamental Law and the Act on local self-governments comply with the Charter or not is doubted by many, what is more, one of the reports which investigated Hungarian conditions explicitly recommended the review of the Hungarian Act on local self-governments referring to excessive centralisation. Therefore, it is becoming more and more evident that according to the experience gathered so far, the new regulation needs reviewing but in view of current political trends, this review is not likely to be carried out in the near future.

REFERENCES CSÖRGITS, L. (2017). Az önkormányzati feladatellátás alakulása napjainkban – elméleti és gyakorlati problémák, különös tekintettel az oktatási terület egyes elemeire (’Current changes in the functions of local self-government – theoretical and practical problems with special regard to some elements of the educational sector’) http://dfk-online.sze.hu/images/egyedi/doktori/ doktori%20m%C5%B1helytanulm%C3%A1nyok/cs%C3%B6rgits.pdf [Accessed 27 Feb. 2017]. 28

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FEIK, Cs. (2017). Változások a helyi önkormányzatok feladat- és hatáskörének szabályozásában (’Changes in the regulation of the functions and powers of local self-governments’) http://www.kozszov.org.hu/dokumentumok/UMK/ UMK_2014_4/08_Feik_Csaba.pdf [Accessed 20 Feb. 2017]. GALLAI, S. and TÖRÖK, G. (2003). Politika és politikatudomány (’Politics and political science’). Budapest: Aula.

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PARADIGM SHIFT IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN HUNGARY. THE MAGYARY ZOLTÁN PUBLIC POLICY PROGRAMME2 Abstract In 2010, the Hungarian government started the public sector reform programme with the aim of modernising its public administration and improve access, responsiveness and quality of public services. In order to transform the „Good State” concept into practice, in 2011 the government launched the Magyary Zoltán Public Administration Development Programme (MP 11.0). The aim of the paper is to highlight the main characteristics of the recent Hungarian public administration reform from a public policy point of view. It provides an evidence-based evaluation of the institutional and administrative reorganisation, based on review and analysis of the author’s recent academic research, government documents and key findings from the research. KEY WORDS: state, public policy, good government, public administration

INTRODUCTION In 2010 the Hungarian government set the aim to reorganise the Hungarian public administration and Hungarian state, along with the establishment of a transparent and efficient state structure. The present paper examines the most significant structural changes affecting state administration, and the most important changes influencing the operation and internal procedures of central state administration manifested in public-policy reform programmes. The state reform resulted in dramatic changes in the public-law, political, and organisational division of labour of the central and territorial units. The changes Dr. habil. Edit Soós, University of Szeged, Faculty of Law, 6721 Szeged, Bocskai u. 10-12. Hungary, e-mail: soos@plit.u-szeged.hu. 2 The research was supported through the research programme of the Ministry of Justice aiming at the enhancement of legal training in 2016/2017. 1

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centred on the reconsideration of territorial power distribution. Decision was to be made on how many territorial administrative levels Hungary needed, what functions to task to such levels, what public-law status to couple these functions with, and what seats and geographic boundaries these territorial units should have. The aim of this study is to approach processes in public administration between 2010 and 2017 from a public policy point of view.3 Public administration is concerned with the organisation, activities, and behaviour of administrative agencies and officials in the conduct of governance. The study examines the ongoing processes of public administration as political processes, as a process of making and accomplishing decisions and programmes that are in close connection with the characteristics of the political system. Public policy focuses on the analysis and explanation of government responses to public problems and is also concerned with the evaluation and impact of these policies on citizens. In methodological terms, besides the traditional legal-normative approach the empirical work is based on information obtained from three sources: interviews, documentation and statistical data. The research focuses on the collection of information relating to the operation of the Hungarian public administration system.

1 CHALLENGES OF THE CONCEPT OF “GOOD STATE” IN HUNGARY During the democratic transition in Hungary (1989-1990)4, liberalism was the dominant ideological trend. This was partly due to the response to the communist regime, but also because of international trends. In 2010 two processes had the most significant influence on structural government changes: the European integration (Hungary joined the EU in 2004) and the governmental philosophy of the ruling coalition of Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance (Fidesz) and Christian Democratic People’s Party (KDNP), the concept of the Neo-Weberian State. The development process of the European integration prioritises answering the question of how public administration can be understood in the European standardisation process, especially at organisational-institutional level and with regards to the activities and operations of public administration. The deepening European integration brings forward the institutional harmonisation of the governmental systems of the EU Member States, particularly from a functional and value-oriented point of view. This process is about the unification of the There are some variation regarding the number of stages in a policy cycle, but most describe the identification of policy-maker aims,the formulation of policies to achieve these aims, the selection and legitimation of policy measures, implementation and evaluation. See: Cairney, Paul: Understanding Public Policy: Theories and Issues. Palgrave MacMillan, 2012. pp. 32-34. 4 Hungary has a surface area of 93 028 km² and a population of 9 985 722 inhabitants according to the last census in 2011. Hungary has been a member of the European Union since May 2004. 3

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member states’ administrative authorities and their administrative procedures (Torma, 2011). With all these taken into account a development of the European Administrative Space, as an informal entity, is a harmonized synthesis of values realized by the EU institutions and the Member States’ administrative authorities through creating and applying the EU law. This effort will result in the approximation of the national administrations of the Member States, bringing closer the administrative cultures and models on national administrations. These states have to take into consideration the common values and administrative principles, such as reliability and predictability, accountability, openness and transparency, effectiveness and efficacy. In democratic political systems the goal of a government is to protect the interests of the entire society, and to serve the common good. State tasks keep always changing and each state can decide how to intervene in social relations, what tasks it will take upon. If the state is no longer able to carry out its undertaken duties, then the model of the state has to be reconsidered and a new reform of public administration has to be introduced through the regulation of the state. After the reform attempts to consolidate the role of the state, the neoliberal state concept and the New Public Management derived from it, the second Orbán government (2010-2014) reconsidered the role of the state in government decisions in order to make it serve the common good. A response to the distortions of public management in order to strengthen the state resulted in the introduction of the Neo-Weberian state paradigm in Hungary. The Neo-Weberian state model gives a great role for national governmental level in providing the common good, but on the other hand it greatly affects the strengthening of various levels of representative democracy (central, regional, local) while emphasising the importance of the unity of the executive power of the state (Stumpf, 2009). The modern, public-law and public-authority attitude of state-centred governance has a serious influence on exercising local public affairs and public authority; moreover, it also affects the regulation of the renewing system of municipalities. The beginning of this process was the adoption of the National Cooperation Programme in 2010. According to the new understanding of state in this programme “ We must restore the demolished authority of the State, and to this end we must establish the operational conditions for the State to function in a lawful, transparent manner, and provide public services fully and reliably. The State must be rebuilt” (The Programme of National Cooperation. Document Number: H/47 Received: 22 May 2010. p.78.). In order to restore the destroyed authority of the State there is a need to establish the operational conditions for the State to function in a lawful, transparent manner, and provide public services fully and reliably. For that purpose it is necessary to 32

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improve the quality of public service, and guarantee that it can be conducive to economic and social competitiveness. Picture 1: Strategy making process

Source: complied by the author on the basis of the MP 11.0 The goal of the government is to create a Good State. The reform incorporates a strong role of the state in steering the development of the country and a commitment to an efficient and effective public administration. The state is good if it serves the needs of individuals, communities and businesses in the interest of the common good, in the best possible way (Magyary Zoltán Public Administration Development Programme, 2011). The Good State concept emphasised the strengthening of the role of the state in ensuring professional and high-quality services for all, extending the consultation between citizens and public administration, and in spreading a result-oriented view. There is a need for a strong, intelligent and active state where government policy is based on constitutionalism and rule of law (Stumpf – G. Fodor, 2008). Strengthening legality and normativity, public law – with administrative law being a part of it – is still a main tool in the functioning of state and in the citizenstate relation. The state plays a role not only in creating the conditions for good governance, but it also undertakes the tasks expected of good government. (Fejes, 2012, p. 28) Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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With a view to creating a Good State, the government started three major administrative programmes in 2011, in line with the state’s constitutional organisation: judicial and local government reform, and the Magyary Programme. Since June 2010, an unprecedented number of significant laws and measures have been passed and approved, partly in preparation for carrying out the programmes in accordance with a well-founded strategy.

2 THE MAGYARY ZOLTÁN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (2011) Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic, where the government is accountable to Parliament. The government has a prominent role in shaping the work of National Parliament. With its act-preparing and act-proposing governmental activities the government greatly influences the issues to be debated at National Parliament. The phenomenon of political presidentialisation is defined by the dynamic centralisation and coordination of the political processes at governmental level, as well as the extension of the power of the head of government. The second Orbán government strengthened the leading role of the Prime Minister at constitutional level. According to Article 18 (1) of the Fundamental Law “The Prime Minister shall determine the government’s general policy.” The Government has a decisive role in determining the state’s goals, deciding on the directions and contents of state activities, managing public service and public institutions. The act-preparing and act-proposing governmental activities of the government greatly influence the issues to be debated by Parliament. In public law sense, in accordance with Article 15 of the Fundamental Law, ”The government shall be the general body of executive power.” The government is the most important body of executive power, and the primary director of public administration. This means that it implements decisions made by Parliament as the legislative organ, and it pursues the realization of goals determined in the government’s programme. The government shall be the general body of executive power, and its responsibilities and competences shall include all matters not expressly delegated by the Fundamental Law or other legislation to the responsibilities and competences of another body. The head of government, as the leader of the executive power, embodies government policy thus having a significant influence on the functioning of the public administration. In accordance with Article 15 of the Fundamental Law of Hungary, “The government shall be the supreme body of public administration and may establish public administration agencies as defined by law.” The development of the state requires strategic planning, prevision and riskmanagement. The further directions of public administration development and 34

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the medium-term operating framework of Hungarian public administration were formulated in the Magyary Zoltán Public Administration Development Programme (MP 11.0, KIM, 10th of June 2011) which is a public policy strategic document with designated intervention areas. The key strategic goal of the Magyary Programme is to improve the efficiency of the operation of the state and the quality of administrative services: to create effective national public administration. The Magyary Programme is a strategic document, the one that keeps track of and follows up the measures taken within a fixed conceptual framework, which exists within set boundaries but with dynamic flexibility based on annual regularity, and compares the plan with the facts and sets new tasks. It is an action plan with a schedule and identifies responsibilities with the main objective to create a single, more efficient, and simpler state public administration system. The state territorial administration reform was primarily triggered by a diagnosis of the weaknesses, inefficiencies and bottlenecks in the structure of Hungarian public administration at all levels of government. The diagnosis was shared among the political parties and public and private stakeholders. Until 2010 the territorial state administration was characterised by high geographical and administrative fragmentation, overgrown organisational structures, and low level of coordination and supervision of resource allocation and compliance with standardised procedures. As a result, the public administration lacked stability, predictability, certainty, and uniformity of process across the country and among the administrative actors involved in policy formulation, regulatory decisionmaking and administrative service delivery. 2.1 Establisment of the capital and county government officies (2011) The Fundamental Law of Hungary, adopted on 25 April 2011, brought about radical changes in state administration. During the reforms, as the first initiative of the organisational renewal of the central administration in 2010, the Government redesigned the 13 existing ministries into 8 new ministries, establishing the Prime Minister’s Office at the same time.5 As part of the reconstruction of the governmental system the core of the renewal of the public administration structure is the complete renewal of the territorial public administration. In accordance with Act CXXVI of 2010 and government Decree 66/2015 (30 March), capital and county government offices were established.6 The tasks of government offices are to coordinate the implementation of government Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Public Administration and Justice, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of National Development, Ministry of Human Resources, Ministry of National Development, Ministry of Rural Development. 6 The capital and county government offices are led by government officials whose task is to coordinate and help the implementation of governmental tasks at a territorial level. 5

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policies at territorial level. They exercise coordinative, authority-type, proposing and consultative powers, allowing the adjustment of central decisions, policies to territorial characteristics and requirements during the planning and implementation process. The government offices are strictly controlled by the central government, and integrate a diverse set of special and general administration services (Hajnal – Kovács, 2013). With the establishment of capital and county government offices on the 1st of January 2011 the first phase of the integration of territorial state administration was completed. The efforts to transform public administration processes and workflows were basically bi-directional. 1. Some of the government‘s intentions were aimed at streamlining and simplifying procedures and workflows within the administrative system. The relations between the state and its citizens are largely influenced by the burden placed upon customers by the administrative procedures they encounter. Some problems occurred with customer orientation, time and cost, nonstandardised service qualities, and non-interoperable operating and management systems, so as to say all administrative burdens. Customer service became unsustainable, operating in a fragmented and inefficient manner. Graph 1: All in all how statisfied are you with the service of the Government Windows?

Source: Századvég Foundation 36

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In January 2011, in accordance with government decree 288/2010 (21 Dec), Government Windows, an integrated network of service contact centres, were established. The Government Windows started to operate as the front offices of Government Offices. The one-stop-shops provide information and other administrative services from initiating and handling to closing a procedure to citizens in 1,540 different types of administrative cases. The extended task portfolio of the Government Windows is extremely broad but very shallow. The delegated tasks show various pictures and embrace almost all public sector services (e.g. agriculture, employment and welfare benefits, environment protection, customer protection, national register tasks, etc.) For the general public the Government Windows represent the first stage of a customer-friendly, single-window administration system. In 2017 there are altogether 264 physical points of single contact in Hungary. These make it easier for citizens to personally administer their affairs. In 2016 a total of 10,871,958 customers visited the Government Windows. Figure 2. shows the residental judgement of the Government Windows. Hugh number of respondents satisfied with the administrative service of the government windows’ and 30% absolutly satisfied. 2. The other direction was the efforts to streamline procedures between the state administration and customers through the personal development of the staff of territorial state administration. The assessment of public administration services continuously deteriorated between 2006 and 2009. The overwhelming public administration system and the unclear roles of responsibilities cause not only low efficiency but are also a major source of corruption. The tools for implementing the target system are the intervention areas. The main elements of the target system of the Magyary Programme were the successful organisational functioning, the renewal of the task system, the justification and rationalization of internal procedures, the improvement of customer relations, the personnel administration development, and the predictable public service career. The self-developing and self-correcting nature of the Magyary Programme, however, allowed the government policy to evaluate the interim accomplishment of the goals announced in the programme. The major governmental transformations of the Magyary Programme 11.0 and their administrative interpretation were noted in the Magyary Programme 12.0, thus new development goals were set up. The weaknesses identified in the 2012 year’s assessment of the situation represent a criticism of the implementation of MP 11.0. These include slow procedures; lack of efficiency feedback; slow introduction of advanced tools; overdue deadlines; task and staff-based planning are not general; reconciliation of interests is often formal; slow to draw on development resources; slowly Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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filling public service career; deficient measuring and statistical system. The 2012 year version of the Magyary Programme (MP12.0) identifies some new priorities for the public administration organisation: administrative tasks, public administration procedures and the administrative staff system as areas for renewal, which are also tools for achieving strategic and public policy objectives. The public administration system. Reform of territorial state administration in two phases: the development of the capital /county government offices and district offices. Tasks of public administration. The reform of the task system means the Magyary Simplification Program and the identification of the tasks of the state and those of local governments. Procedures of public administration. The key objective in the field of procedures is to speed up procedures and, in this context, to develop a network of Government Windows. Personnel of public administration. Renewal of staff, including the introduction of the public service career and performance evaluation system. The MP12.0 contained many of the development directions already started (e.g. integrated customer service system, Government Windows, government office integration, creation of district office system, etc.), while others (e.g. new public service career, new procedure regulations etc.) are still under development. 2.2 Establishment of administrative district offices (2013) In the second phase of the systemic integration, on the 1st of January 2013, districts were established (Act XCIII of 2012 (VI.25) on the formation of the districts and on the necessary amendments of the related acts). The district offices comprise the lowest level territorial units of state administration. In accordance with Act XCIII of 2012 (VI.25) and Government Decree No. 218/2012. (VIII. 13.) on the district (capital’s district) officies there are 174 provincial offices and 23 in the capital. Their function is to carry out administrative tasks below county level. Responsibilities transferred to the district offices are specific state administration cases falling within the competence of the notary, or, in exceptional cases, the mayor or the administrator of the mayor’s office. Some 46.6% of the decisions adopted by the authorities in state administration cases (there were more than 10 million decisions adopted by notaries in 20107) were made within the sphere of responsibilities that are now being transferred to the administrative district offices8. The high level of autonomy for local authorities has been compromised by the new Fundamental Law and cardinal Act CLXXXIX on Local Government of 21 December 2011. The difficult economic context is the reason to rationalise structures and to cut local public spending. 8 The offices will primarily take over the following tasks from local councils: clerical and registration duties; child protection and guardianship matters; social, environmental and 7

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The Act on districts defines the district offices as dual authorities. The district office on the one hand is a branch office of the county government offices; on the other hand, it is a first-instance authority with general competence. Thus the district office is an internal organisational unit with no organizational independence, however, it exercises responsibilities sui generis. The district office is divided into two structural parts: the head office and the line organs administrative. The establishment of districts is a key element for creating the Good State with an extensive public administration whose reforms serve the common good. The districts ensure the vast majority of public services for all Hungarian citizens in high quality and easy accessibility. The goal of the Government is to create a customer-friendly administration, modern administrative districts in order to help reduce costs to society, and to operate more effectively and with more attention to the needs of the public. In order to ensure that administrative services are available to anyone, the branches of district offices operate in small municipalities and villages. In 2016 their number was 1,479. The reason for creating the branches is that out of the 3,155 municipalities in Hungary 462 municipalities have fewer than 500 inhabitants.9 The integration of a certain part of the tasks of notaries into the district system accomplishes the concentration of the state administration, which, without doubt, provides exceptional possibilities for the state administration of the strong state.

3 EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF THE MAGYARY ZOLTÁN PROGRAMME Public policy programmes are governmental activities that affect the lives of citizens. Monitoring the public policy initiations and implementations the regular surveys are critical for the implementation of reforms to accomplish. The efficiency of the Magyary Programme it is required to set up achievement evaluations and feedback mechanisms. Communal participation and the opinion of customers are essential not only for increasing the effectiveness in administrative services but also for the public confidence placed in the government.

conservation management issues. guardianship matters, veterinary and food-related supervision, district land offices and district labour offices. 9 The settlement structure of Hungary is laid down in the Constitution. Settlement-level units are villages, towns and the capital, which necessarily cover the whole area of Hungary. Out of the 3155 settlements of the country 346 are towns (1 of which is the capital and 23 are towns of county rank), and 2809 are villages. Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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Graph 2 Evaluation of the government‘s public administration policy

Source: Századvég Foundation The residential judgement of the government’s public administration policy is under constant scrutiny. On the basis of the data of last year’s timeline, it can be observed that public administration is better appreciated by adult Hungarian citizens compared to other public policies. 25-35% of the population found the public administration policy excellent or good, almost half (47-57%) found it average, and 10-20% found the policy sufficient or insufficient. Among those who knew of any investments in their neighbourhoods, financed from EU sources, 29% mentioned administrative service development which is remarkably positive: 77% of the respondents found the development beneficial. With this, the general administration services’ development stands out from the examined fields.

CONCLUSION The government’s definite aim for 2020 is that Hungarian public administration should work in an organized, consistent and transparent structure, applying modern and customer-friendly procedures available for anyone, with professional, national, ethical and motivated staffs. The anticipated trends of territorial administration development until 2020 are included in the Public Administration and Public service Development 40

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Strategy 2014-2020 which intends to create a public administration that is highly professional, customer-centred and efficient with competitive service fees and short administrative deadlines, thus creating service-oriented state operation enjoying the confidence of the public. The government launched the National Infocommunication Strategy (20142020) that seeks to build up a digital infrastructure and provide access for the citizens, enterprises and public institutions. The Orbán government fundamentally reconstructed the central state system. The reforms launched in 2010, aiming at the central state administration, resulted in centralisation, further strengthening the role of the Prime Minister and further broadening the competence of its apparatus, organisational integration and the reduction of the number of central authorities. After the 2010 change of government a complex public administration development programme was introduced, which is aimed at the renewal of public administration on a completely new basis. One component of the new basis is the role of a thriving state in the widely changing world. The state territorial administrative reform triggered by the Magyary Zoltán public policy programme in the process of the administrative decentralisation resulted in a centralised territorial model of the state administration within the terms of the European Administrative Space. When building a strong, centralised state with a strong public administration it became necessary to redefine the balance between the organisational principles of centralisation and decentralisation, and in that process the EU principle „close to the citizens” must be taken into account. Another important external condition for the effective operation of public administration is the availability of competent personnel with a supportive attitude towards the application of the law. Due to the high speed of the reform and the legislative process, there was a deficit in the course of the actual and interpretative social consultations. There is a challenge to make up for the deficit in consultation and involve the representatives of business and civil society into reconciliation to recover public confidence. The success behind the sweeping changes in Hungarian public administration is the result of the political support and of the discipline of both governmental and public officers. These are the guarantees that the desired paradigm shift in public administration can be achieved.

REFERENCES Act CXXVI of 2010 (19. XI. 2010.) on the capital and county government offices, the amendment of territorial integrity, and the establishment of the capital and county government offices Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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Act XCIII of 2012 (VI.25) on the formation of the districts and on the necessary amendments of the related acts CAIRNEY, P. Understanding Public Policy: Theories and Issues. Palgrave MacMillan, 2012. pp. 32-34. FEJES, Z. A Jó állam elméleti megközelítésben. [Theoretical approaces of the Good state] In: A jó állam aspektusai, perspektívái. Szerk.: Papp Tekla, Pólay Elemér Alapítvány, Szeged, 2012. pp. 17-35. Government Decree No. 66/2015. (III. 30.) on the capital and county government offices and the district (capital’s district) officies. Government Decree No. 218/2012. (VIII. 13.) on the district (capital’s district) officies   Government Decree No. 515/2013. (XII. 30.) on the government windows Government Decision No. 1299/2001 (IX.1) on the formaton of the districts HAJNAL, Gy. – KOVÁCS, É. Coordination practice. Government windows: One-stop shops for administrative sercives in Hungary. Corvinus University of Budapest, COCOPS, 2013. Available at: http://www.cocops.eu/wpcontent/uploads/2013/10/Hungary-CGov-Government-Windows.pdf. Magyary Zoltán Public Administration Development Programme. Ministry of Public Administration and Justice, Governmet of Hungary, Budapest, 10 June 2011. Magyary Zoltán Public Administration development Programme. Ministry of Public Administration and Justice, Governmet of Hungary, Budapest, 31 August 2012. NAVRACSICS, T. A közigazgatás korszerűsítésének programja. [The programme for modrnisation in public administration] Pro Publico Bono – Magyar Közigazgatás, 2013./2. pp. 52- 58. Office of the National Assembly. The Programme of National Cooperation. Document Number: H/47 Received: 22 May 2010. STUMPF, I. – G. FODOR, G. Neoweberi állam és jó kormányzás. [Neowebeian State and good governance] Nemzeti , 2008. 3. sz. Századvég Kiadó, pp. 5-26. STUMPF, I. Szakmai alapú közigazgatás – a neoweberiánus állam. [Professional public administration and the Neo-weberian State] In. A modern állam feladatai. Magyar Közgazdasági Társaság és a Gazdasági és Szociális Tanács konferenciájának előadásai. Szerkesztők: Halm, Tamás – Vadász, János. Gazdasági és Szociális Tanács, Budapest, 2009. pp. 92-104. The Fundamental Law of Hungary 2010. (25 April 2011) The Programme of National Cooperation. Document Number: H/47 Received: 22 May 2010. p.78. TORMA, A. The European Administrative Space (EAS). European Integration Studies, 2011. Vol. 9. Number 1. pp. 149–161. 42

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TORMA, A. Adalékok a közmenedzsment–reformok elméleti hátteréhez és főbb irányzataihoz. [Theoretical background of public management reforms] Sectio Juridica et Politica, 2010. Miskolc, Tomus XXVIII. pp. 315-338.

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Igor PALÚŠ1

PARTICIPATION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF MUNICIPAL REPRESENTATION IN EXERCISING OF MUNICIPAL SELFGOVERNMENT2 Abstract The paper analyses the participation of the municipal representation’s representatives in exercising of municipal self-government by their duties and powers resulting from the Act on Municipal Establishment. Author points out the problem sections of valid legal regulation, looks for and suggests possible solutions, which are based on the legal theory knowledge, the V4 countries experience, as well as the needs and options of the municipal self-governments. KEY WORDS: municipal representation, representatives, municipal selfgovernment

INTRODUCTION Pursuant to Article 67 Subsection 1 of the Constitution of the Slovak Republic, the self-government is carried out by the municipality bodies, a local referendum and on the municipality inhabitants’ assemblies. The most frequent form of the exercise of the municipal self-government is its implementation through the municipality bodies, i.e. through the municipal representation and the municipality mayor. The municipal representation consists of the representatives, the number of which is determined by the municipal representation in the given municipality before the elections and for the whole electoral term, within the framework of the limits given by Act No. 369/1990 Coll. on Municipal Establishment as amended (hereinafter referred to as Act on Municipal Establishment). Therefore, the municipal representation is a collective body the participation of which in the prof. JUDr. Igor Palúš, CSc., Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Faculty of Public Administration, Department of Public-Law Disciplines, Popradska 66, 04001 Košice, Slovakia, e-mail: igor.palus@upjs.sk. 2 The project is elaborated within VEGA project No. 1/0340/17 1

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exercise of the self-government of a municipality is regulated particularly by the Act on Municipal Establishment (Section 11 Subsection 4). In our paper, we deals with the matter, to what extent the representatives of the municipal representation as individuals, forming the component part of a collective representative body, can participate in the implementation of the municipality self-government. Dealing with the participation of representatives of the municipal representation in the implementation of the municipal selfgovernment means making an analysis of their duties and powers, the legislative anchoring and resulting implementation, what the most clearly exemplify the position of a representative of a municipal representation in the system of municipal self-government and, in a broader context, about their position in the local democracy system. On one hand, a representative’s activity cannot be restricted by a  universal template and it’s impossible to regulate it by the legal regulations to the whole extent, but, on the other hand, the legislative regulation of representative’s duties and powers must not be general and ambiguous. At the same time, it is necessary to realize that the Act on Municipal Establishment determines the duties and powers of representatives, but their implementation is, to the great extent, determined by a representative person, their human characteristics and professional skills, as well as by economic, social and cultural levels of the municipality, where the representative performs the mandate. In addition, the practice confirms that there is a difference between the implementation of a mandate in the cities/towns and the villages (especially in the small villages)3 , from the point of view of a selection of the candidates for the representatives’ offices, as well as from the point of view of their interest, ability and willingness to implement a representative’s mandate. In this paper, we will not examine the content of all duties and powers of the representatives, we will focus our attention on those of them, which considerably influence (can influence) an active participation of a representative in the governance of the municipal matters that form the content of the independent scope of a municipality. We will analyse the selected duties and powers from the point of view of their current legal regulation in the Slovak Republic, as well as from the point of view of the needs and options of a municipal self-government. We will utilize the experience of the V4 countries for the formulation of our conclusions and recommendations, since while we review the territorial selfgovernment and its positions in the power system of a democratic country, it is necessary to perceive the territorial self-government from the point of view of the historical, national, political and social relations. In this aspect, the V4 countries According to the data of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic about the settlement pattern to 31 December 2010, there was more than 1,150 municipalities in Slovakia (of 2,891) with less than 500 inhabitants, including almost 400 municipalities with less than 200 inhabitants. It is worthwhile to note that the number of the municipalities of this type is rather increasing, especially in Central and Eastern Slovakia. 3

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have many common signs (they are comparatively close), what is clearly evident in the process of development of the municipal self-government under the national conditions.

DISCUSSION AND RESULTS The fundamental duty of a representative is to attend the meetings of and take part in the work of the municipal representation and its bodies (the municipal council, commissions). The participation of a representative in the work of the municipal representation is particularly important, since the municipality independent competence and its self-government (see Section 4 Subsections 3 and 4 of the Act on Municipal Establishment) is implemented particularly through the municipal representation activity. Whereas the municipal representation is a collective self-governing body, the level of its sessions and subsequent quality of the implementation of the conferred competence depends on two factors mainly. The first one is the quality preparation of the sessions, in particular, by the mayor and the municipal council as the initiative, executive and control body of the municipal representation (in the municipalities without a municipal council, the quality of sessions is the responsibility of the mayor). The second factor determining the quality of sessions of a municipal representation is formed by its representatives themselves. They should come to the sessions prepared, appropriately oriented in the matters that is to be discussed at the session, able to discuss factually and to form the specific proposals. However, the practice shows that both expectations have more or less reserves. Admittedly, the act does not associate a fulfilment of the analysed duty to its quality or the quality of preparation for the sessions of the municipal representation and its bodies. Although it sounds paradoxically at first sight, the attendance, even though the inactive one, of representatives at the representation sessions is very important for the functioning of the municipal representation and fulfilment of its tasks (for the implementation of its competence), since the representation is qualified for being in session and making the resolutions only at the presence of more than half of all its members (Section 12, Subsection 7 of the Act on Municipal Establishment). The experience of the municipal self-governments’ practice in the Slovak Republic brings sufficient number of the examples, how the protracted inability to reach a quorum in the municipal representation can affect the municipality functioning and development (Palúš, 2013). Pursuant to the Act on Municipal Establishment [Section 25 Subsection 1 Paragraph d)] a representative is obliged to protect the interests of the municipality and its inhabitants. This declaratory, and at the first sight, explicit stipulation is of complicated, and from the point of view of its fulfilment, sometimes controversial, nature. Building on the theory of municipal self-government, it is possible to agree 46

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with the opinions that the term “municipality” includes implicitly “municipality inhabitants” (Verdal – Váňa –Břeň - Pšenička, 2008 ), who are, along with “the municipality territory”, to be considered as one of the fundamental features of the conceptual definition of a municipality. In other words, considering the material level, it is difficult to accept the definition of the term “municipality” without “municipality inhabitants”. However, it therefore follows that when a representative protects the municipality interests, he/she protects the interests of the municipality inhabitants as well. Even the conclusion like this is simplified to a certain extent, since the Act on Municipal Establishment does not regulate the content of the term “municipal interest”, or “municipality interest”, neither explicitly with relevant content and scope determination (e.g. by the diction...”for the purposes of this act, the term municipality interest means”), nor generally, without a more specified content determination (Průcha, 2011). We believe that the legislature, using the term “interest of municipality inhabitants”, had in mind the interest of “the majority of the municipality inhabitants” not a summary of individual interests of individual inhabitants. Based on this conclusion we conclude that the municipality interests can be perceived as the interests of the majority of its inhabitants and vice versa, although also this consideration may not be of the absolute nature. However, the legislature confirms the acceptability of this explanation through the provisions of the Act on Municipal Establishment by the option offered to the municipal representation (or to the representatives) to apply the institute of a local referendum (Section 11a Subsection 4) or the institute of public assembly of the municipality inhabitants (Section 11b) in that case that the municipal representation (or the representatives) is not quite clear about the assessment whether the act, they carry out, certainly expresses the interests of the majority of the municipality inhabitants. Furthermore, the local referendum can be initiated by the municipality inhabitants themselves [Section 11a Subsection 1 Paragraph c)]. Protecting the interests of the municipality and its inhabitants, a representative must preferably take the content of the provisions of the Act on Municipal Establishment as a base and at the same time, they must bear in mind the content of all the provisions of this Act that specify their legal status, especially the scope of their duties and powers. This is a formal aspect of the analysed duty of a representative, but the content of this duty (the material aspect), considering the implementation aspect, presents more difficult problem. The person of the representative, strictly defined, the nature of a representative mandate, based on which the office is carried out, is of key importance within the above indicated meaning. It results from the substance of this mandate that – according to the statement of E. Burke in his stump speech in 1774 – a representative is to serve to their voters and he/she is not obliged to do what his/her voters require, but what he/she consider to be the best for his/her voters (Heywood, 2005). We do not want to imply a polemic about the reality Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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of the abovementioned statement (neither about its origin), however, we believe that the Burke’s message seems to be more related to the local conditions than to a parliamentary level, if we consider the number of voters and real chance to recognize their needs and interests. Therefore this is the reason why we believe that a representative of a municipal representation, as well as a representative of public authority in a municipality has to know (or should know) the interest of most of inhabitants of the municipality and thus of the municipality as a whole. If, however, the representative wants to acquire such knowledge, he/she must (should to) know the opinions of the municipality inhabitants since they are the spring of knowledge of both, the ways how to administer the allocated selfgoverning matters and the basis for the creation of the municipality development policy, as well as fulfilment of the country interests in the municipality mission (Gašpar, 1998). In order to join together two abovementioned requirements, a representative must possess the professional qualifications (or at least the appropriate knowledge of local conditions and the ability to solve them) and the background, especially the honesty and sense of responsibility. The duty included in Section 25 Subsection 7 of the Act on Municipal Establishment, according to which a representative is obliged to inform the voters, upon their request, about the activities of the representative and about the activities of the municipal representation seems to be a problematic duty from the point of view of its legislative laying down as well as from the point of view of its practical implementation. We’ll try to comment particular obscurities (imprecisions), which characterize this provision. It results from the Act language that the representative is obliged to submit information upon request of the voters, i.e. if we carry out a literal construction, the requirement for information requested by one voter is not sufficient. However, the practice is different, what results in the conclusion made by several authors that it is sufficient if the request for information is submitted by legally relevant manner by only one voter (Stolář, 2003). In this context, we direct the attention to Article 27 Subsection 1 of the Constitution, which laying down the right to petition states: “Everyone shall have the right to address state bodies and local self-administration bodies in matters of public interest or of other common interest with petitions, proposals and complaints either individually or in association with others”. Admittedly, the implementation of the right to petition does not consist in receiving the information from public authority bodies, or their representatives, however, it does not detract from the fact that if the constitution-maker had in mind the fact that the right to petition may be exercised by an individual (a natural person), this circumstance was clearly declared. We believe that such course of action of the constitution-maker would also be binding for the legislature in laying down the analysed duty of a representative of a municipal representation. In addition, there is a questionable content of the given duty. It is possible 48

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to accept that a representative will inform the voters about the activity he/she carries out, but we prove problematic if he/she is to inform about the activity of a municipal representation. Such information is usually subjective (depends on specific situation, e.g. what is the relation between informing representative and the municipality mayor or the most of representatives of the representation, which took certain decision), and thus it may even be (and the practice proves that our considerations are correct) false. It is questionable, whether the duty laid down in such a way and its possible implementation results in a trust of the municipality inhabitants in relation to the municipal representation. In addition, the minutes of the municipal representation session are available for the public (the municipality inhabitants). As regards the form by which the analysed duty is implemented, the Act does not determine it, what means that it may be verbal or written form, while the practice proves that the former prevails. Since the Act does not address even the place where the duty could be fulfilled, the practice brings the cases that it may occur even at an accidental meeting in the street, at a sporting event, even in a local pub. The situation, where a representative provides information during the representatives’ day is considered as the most transparent condition. It is, however, true that the representatives’ days as the possible contact place for meeting the voters with a representative are not provided by all municipalities, it is rather implemented by towns/cities (urban parts) or larger villages. The Act does not address the situation, if a representative does not provide any response to the request for information about his/her or municipality representation activities, or the representative intentionally fails to fulfil the duty. Probably, the only one sanction could be that the voter will not cast his/her vote for this representative in the next elections for the self-government bodies of the municipalities. Actually, it is the representative’s political responsibility, the impact of which is considerably relative under the conditions of the Slovak municipal self-government. We believe that if the given duty of a representative of a municipal representation is to be a means of his/her participation in the exercise of the municipality selfgovernment, it would require a precision taking the abovementioned notes or recommendations into account. The precision of the representative duty indicated above would result in the more efficient utilization of that duty. However we have no statistical data (if exists any) about the extent to which the institute we analyse herein is applied, however we tend to believe the information from the municipal self-governments environment that the utilization of this duty is rather occasional than regular and efficient (Tekeli – Hoffmann, 2014). While the duties of the representatives included in Section 25 Subsection 4 Paragraphs a)-f) of the Act on Municipal Establishment are oriented inwards the municipality, to its bodies and inhabitants, the powers of the representatives are Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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oriented diversely, considering the subjects the utilization of the powers is attached to. As a consequence, it is possible to encounter the classification of the duties in the specialised and scientific literature, which distinguishes the internal duties (e.g. to submit proposals to the municipal representation and to other municipal bodies) and the external ones (e.g. to request the explanations from state bodies in the matters needed for duly exercise of the representative’s office) (Palúš – Hencovská, 2013). We consider the classification of powers based on their content and contribution for the exercise of the representative’s activities to be more upto-date and in this context, it is possible to speak of the initiative powers, through which the representatives are capable to influence directly the operation of the selfgoverning bodies of a municipality; the control powers, which are the significant tool for the application of the principle of the separation of powers under the local conditions and the powers that are directed towards obtaining the information, which enable the representatives to obtain more comprehensive knowledge for the performance of their activities. Of course, even this classification has its strengths and weaknesses and it is possible to have reservations about or comments to it. It is crucial that the general legal regulation, which puts the efficiency of the practical utilization of all powers of the representatives and thus their possible contribution for development of the democratic components in the municipal selfgovernment is characteristic for almost all the powers of the representatives. The basic power of a representative, which belongs to the first group is the power to submit proposals to the municipal representation and to other bodies. Since the Act does not specify the content of these proposals, nor their form or place of their application, the given provision can be interpreted extensively in favour of the representative. The proposals would relate, in a broader sense, to the municipality self-government and thus to the scope of action of the municipal representation, or the scope of action of other municipality body, to which they are directed. The representative may exercise them verbally or in written at the session of the given body or to convey (address) them to the municipality mayor who leads the session of the representation and municipal council or to the chairman of respective commission. The Act on Municipal Establishment does not mention anything about treating a representative’s proposal by the municipal representation or by other municipal body, i. e. whether it is even necessary to deal with this proposal and if it is the case, by which deadline, whether the municipal representation or other municipal body is to inform the representative about the result (negative or positive one) and by which deadline it is necessary to deal with it, The municipality statute or the municipality representation rules of procedure could include certain rules for handling such proposals of the representatives, but there is a risk of a different approach in particular municipalities. Under the current circumstances, at application of this representative’s power, it is only possible to rely on a political 50

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culture, which characterizes the operation of the self-government in the given municipality. The classical control power of a representative is to pose questions to the municipality mayor and members of the municipal council in the matters related to the exercise of their work [Section 25 Subsection 4 Paragraph b) of the Act on Municipal Establishment]. Also the wording of this power include no form of the questions posing nor the place of its implementation. Therefore, also in this case, it is possible to admit the extended version of the given provision content at its interpretation as meaning that the representatives may exercise this power verbally or in written and the answer provided by the municipality mayor or a member of the municipal council may have the same form as well. Unfortunately, the Act does not lay down the obligation of the subject questioned to answer the question, nor does not specify a deadline for the provision of the answer to the representative’s question. It occurs in the practice that the representative does not obtain any answer to his/her question and the matter is forgotten over time what means that the given power of the representative loses the real significance. If we perceive the questioning within its traditional constitutional and legal perception, i.e. as a qualified question (Stolář, 2013; Olexa, 2013), then the representatives would exercise it in written in relation to the subject under control and its written answer should be the subject of discussions at the municipal representation session or the municipal council session. The absence of such perception of the questioning seems negative, especially in relation to the municipality mayor. The municipality mayor and the representatives of the municipal representation are directly elected by the municipality inhabitants and in this connection, the questioning presents the significant control instrument of the members of the representative body in connection to the mayor as the municipality highest executive body. This statement is actual despite the fact that the municipality inhabitants as the original holder of the public authority under the local conditions are authorized to remove the mayor from office by local referendum pursuant to the Act on Municipal Establishment. Because, it is not possible to neglect the fact that an authority is always tending to concentrate (and subsequently to cumulate) (Posluch – Cibulka, 2003; Klíma a kol., 2007; Palúš – Somorová, 2008) and therefore any weakening of the monitoring mechanisms in the interest of the functional implementation of the separation of powers as one of the basic principles of a democratic state, not only at the central, but also at the local level. Actual legal regulation of the questioning under the conditions of the Slovak municipal self-government appears to be archaic compared with its legislative setting in the neighbouring states. In the Czech Republic, the form of questioning (a question, a comment, a suggestion) of the a representative of a municipal representation is not laid down by law – it may be verbal or written – but the Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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answer of the questioned subject (a member of a municipal council) must be written and the respective representative must obtain it within 30 days (Verdal – Váňa –Břeň - Pšenička, 2008 ). Even more precise regulation of the questioning exists in the Republic of Poland. The questioning of a member of a municipal representation (municipal council) must be written and if it is delivered to the municipality mayor (directly or to the municipal office) 7 days before the session of the municipal representation (municipal council), the mayor is obliged to provide the written answer, which will be discussed at the next session of the municipal representation (municipal council). In case that the written question is delivered to the municipality mayor at any other times, the mayor is obliged to provide a written answer within 14 days (Bárány, 1997; Cuthbertson, 1968). − The third group includes the powers of the representatives, the common feature of which is requesting the explanations and information from the subjects and by the reasons specified in the Act on Municipal Establishment. They include: − The explanations provided by directors of the legal persons established or founded by a municipality in the matters related to their activities [Section 25 Subsection 4 Paragraph c)], − The information and explanations from the natural and legal persons performing their business activities in the municipality, in the matters related to the consequences of the business activities in the municipality [Section 25 Subsection 4 Paragraph d)], − The explanations provided by the state bodies in the matters needed for duly exercise of representative office [Section 25 Subsection 4 Paragraph f)]. All three powers have the common feature – exercising them, the representatives may use the verbal or written form and the questioned subjects may use the same forms in their answers. The Act specifies no deadlines for the powers, within which the questioned subjects would be obliged to answer upon the representatives’ request. In order to develop the democratic elements in the practice of municipal self-governments, all three powers would require more precise legal regulation while, also in this case, it is possible to use the experience of other states (Szewc – Jyž – Plawecki, 2012).

CONCLUSION Based on the abovementioned, it is possible to formulate three scopes of statements – proposals (recommendations). The first one is a personality of the representatives who came from the elections for the municipal self-governments (representations). The elections, under our conditions, are held according to standard rules, that are intrinsic to the democratic state and therefore it is difficult 52

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to change or to modify legislatively in this sphere. Within the indicated meaning, the selection of candidates for the representatives is still actual. Certainly, it is possible to consider its improvement, but at the same time it is needed to note that the framework of such considerations is limited by the selection options, which are considerably restricted, especially in small villages. We refer especially to the known requirement, which the candidates or elected representatives would met – to know, to want and to be able. We believe that not only the present but also the near future will not add nothing new in this sphere. The second conclusion relates to the current legal regulation of the duties and powers of the representatives of the municipal representations. There is still room for improvement. The analysed legal regulation must be legislatively more detailed, more legally and factually explicit and not allowing for wide and, in particular, various interpretation from the point of view of its implementation. The lawmaker cannot ignore the addressees of the legal regulation and disregard their options and abilities to make real use of it. This task cannot be fulfilled by internal rules of villages and towns/cities – if it is the case, it will relate only to the cases stipulated by the law and within the scope specified by that law. The responsible approach of the representatives at the utilization of statutory opportunities of their active participation in the execution of the municipality self-government would be useful (the second recommendation) if the Act on Municipal Establishment would have explicitly declared that the office of a representative – like the office of the municipality mayor – is the public office, since it is important for day-to-day operation of the municipal self-governments so as the representatives of the municipal representations to realize that thus perceived office is connected with legal, especially criminal liability.

REFERENCES BÁRÁNY, E. (1997). Moc a právo. Bratislava: Veda, 1997, p. 22. ISBN 80224-0982-9; CUTHBERTSON, G.: Political Power. Monograph in Political. Houston, Texas, 1968, p. 46. GAŠPAR, M. (1998). Správne právo, Teória a prax. Bratislava: Formát, 1998, p. 272. ISBN 80-967911-0-9. HEYWOOD, A. (2005). Politická teorie. Praha: Eurolex Bohemia, s. r. o., 2005, p. 201. ISBN 80-86161-41-4. KLÍMA, K. a kol. (2007). Encyklopedie ústavního práva. Praha: ASPI Wolters Kluwer, 2007, pp. 264 – 265. ISBN 978-80-7357-295-2 OLEXA, L. (2013). Povinnosti a oprávnenia poslancov obecného zastupiteľstva. Košice: UPJŠ. Verejná správa a spoločnosť, roč. XIV, č. 2, 2013, p. 52. ISSN 1335-7182. PALÚŠ, I. (2013). Uplatňovanie princípu deľby moci v  obecnej samospráve. Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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Justičná revue, Vol. 65, No. 5, 2013, p. 252 a subs. ISSN 1335-6461. PALÚŠ, I. – HENCOVSKÁ, M. (2013). Vzťah demokracie a odbornosti v obecnej samospráve z pohľadu starostov obcí. In: Zborník príspevkov z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie „Teória a prax verejnej správy, Časť 1.“, konanej v dňoch 11. – 12. 9. 2013 na Fakulte verejnej správy UPJŠ v Košiciach, Košice, 2013, p. 260 a nasl. ISBN 978-80-89496-10-5. PALÚŠ, I. – SOMOROVÁ, Ľ. (2008). Štátne právo Slovenskej republiky. Košice: UPJŠ, 2008, p. 317. ISBN 978-80-7097-703-3. POSLUCH, M. – CIBULKA, Ľ. (2003). Štátne právo Slovenskej republiky. Šamorín: Heuréka, 2003, p. 229. ISBN 80-89122-07-08 PRŮCHA, P. (2011). Místní správa. Brno: MU, 2011, p. 59. ISBN 978-80-2105590-2. SOTOLÁŘ, J. (2003). Zákon o obecnom zriadení. Komentár). Košice: Sotac, s. r. o., 2003, p. 309. ISBN 80-968-356-1-0. SOTOLÁŘ, J. (2011). Samospráva obce, Obecné zriadenie na Slovensku. Košice: SOTAC, s. r. o., 2011, p 162. ISBN 978-80-89446-23-0 SZEWC, A. – JYŽ, G. – PLAWECKI, Z. (2012). Ustawa o samorzadzie gminnym. Komentarz. 4. wydanie. Warszava: LEX a Wolters Kluwer business, 2012, 325 -326. ISBN 978-83-264-3850-9. TEKELI, J. – HOFFMANN, M. (2014). Zákon o obecnom zriadení. Komentár. Bratislava: Wolters Kluwer, 2014, p. 744. ISBN 978-80-8168-034-2 VEDRAL, J. – VÁŇA, L. – BŘEŇ, J. – PŠENIČKA, S. (2008). Zákon o obcích (obecní zřízení). Komentář. Praha: C. H. BECK, 2008, p. 396 – 397. ISBN 978-80-7179-597-1.

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Bystrík ŠRAMEL1

METAMORPHOSES OF PROSECUTORIAL SUPERVISION OVER PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Abstract The competence exercised by public prosecution service can be in general divided into two fields. The first field is the so called “criminal competence” of public prosecution. It is a competence which is typical for public prosecution offices of all countries and whose exercise is not in any way questioned. The representatives of the scientific community tend to agree that through the exercise of that competence public prosecution offices carry out an irreplaceable role in criminal proceedings, whether in their pre-trial phase or in the trial phase. The second field of competence is referred to as the so-called "non-criminal competence" of public prosecution office. The author of this contribution deals with the competence of public prosecution service in the non-criminal field (public administration). In the first part of the contribution the author discusses theoretical basis of the non-criminal competence of public prosecution service. Then he analyses non-criminal competence of Slovak public prosecution service and points out to some problematic issues. KEY WORDS: public prosecution, public administration, lawfulness, supervision, control

INTRODUCTION The non-criminal competence of public prosecution includes various powers of public prosecution offices allowing them to act in another field, such as criminal law. This is particularly the competence in the civil law field and public administration field. Here, it should be noted that unlike the criminal competence, the views of experts on the need of the non-criminal competence of public prosecution vary and are not unanimous. Necessity of competence of public prosecution in the JUDr. Bystrík Šramel, PhD., Univerzita sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave, Fakulta sociálnych vied, Bučianska 4/A, 917 01 Trnava, e-mail: bystrik.sramel@ucm.sk 1

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non-criminal field is often called into question and therefore is traditionally object of countless professional debates (Horváth, Machyniak). This is also one of the reasons why the powers of public prosecution offices in individual countries are not regulated in the same way. In terms of legal regulation of competences of public prosecution we can say that it is possible to find countries in which the scope of competence of public prosecution is narrow (it applies only to the area of criminal procedure) and countries in which the scope of competence of public prosecution is broad (it includes also non-criminal field).

1 TRANSFORMATION OF SLOVAK PUBLIC PROSECUTION SERVICE AFTER 1989 As already mentioned, the doctrine maintains varied opinions on the question of competence of public prosecution. Differences in opinions on the issue visibly arose in the European countries especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989. In this period many changes in the organisation and competence of public prosecution services had been realised in the former countries under the Soviet influence (the so called Soviet or socialist model of public prosecution). The socialist model of public prosecution was conceived as a model with a very strong impact on all fields of social life. Although it was formally created as the independent state organ, in fact it was closely linked to the ruling Communist Party, which in many cases abused public prosecution service for the purpose of enforcing their own political and ideological interests. In terms of competence the Soviet model of public prosecution was created not only as the authority that carried out tasks in criminal proceedings, but also as the authority responsible for guarding socialist legality. Therefore it was provided with extensive powers in the field of civil, administrative and constitutional justice. It can be said that the socialist public prosecution service ("prokuratura") was replacing state organs performing tasks that are in democratic countries following the rule of law entrusted to the constitutional and administrative judiciary. Due to the efforts to remove socialistic components of justice after 1989 many experts began to call for the change of the previous concept of public prosecution and its transformation into the public prosecution office with competences only in the criminal proceedings and representing the state in court ("statne zastupitelstvo"). Not only some experts but also some politicians took the line that the competence in the non-criminal field should have been either completely abolished or strictly limited. Nowadays, many voices calling for the elimination of the non-criminal competence of public prosecution have not faded away and from time to time some politicians and some experts express negative attitudes to the non-criminal competence of public prosecution. E.g., Osmančík is very reserved to the competence of public prosecution in the 56

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non-criminal field, because he thinks that in the pluralistic society the subjects (individuals) are autonomous and therefore they are able to defend their rights at their own discretion and decision without any state guardianship. According to him, the primary responsibility of state includes prosecution of crimes endangering important values of society. However, since the state is a bearer of variety of rights, in the non-criminal field the public prosecution service should represent the state in civil, commercial and administrative courts in property and fiscal matters (1991, p. 105). Golema is also negative towards the competence of public prosecution in the non-criminal field. On the ground of existence of constitutional justice, administrative justice and the Supreme Audit Office he expresses doubts on the need for monocraticly governed public prosecution office as the authority supervising legality in the democratic state following the rule of law. According to him, public prosecution service is irreplaceable in the control of legality in criminal proceedings, in the investigation, in bringing charges in court and in representing the state in court. However, he explicitly states that the public prosecution service should not exercise far-reaching control which, in addition, cannot be effectively exercised (1992, p. 36). Zoulík clearly rejects the concept of public prosecution office as the executor of paternalistic state care of observance of law. Although he admits that outside the field of criminal law there are certain areas in which the public interest in strict observance of law is present, at the same time he claims that the public prosecutor’s participation in civil proceedings is disparate element that gives rise to many complications. He also says that the competence of public prosecution in the field of public administration has no place (1993, p. 159). On the question of competence of public prosecution in the non-criminal field, Svoboda has similar view. On the one hand, he recognises the right of public prosecution office to intervene in civil proceedings, on the other hand, he takes critical view on the competence of public prosecution in public administration field. He casts doubts on the assertions of some experts pointing out that the deprivation of competence of public prosecution office in the public administration caused "white spots", i.e. places without any supervision of legality (1994, p. 138). Nedorost and Ondruš also reject non-criminal competence of public prosecution. They maintain that this type of competence could restrict the free will of acting subjects (ASPI). On the other hand, it should be noted that despite the existence of critical voices not only in the period shortly after 1989, but even today there are voices still calling for maintaining the competence of public prosecution in the noncriminal field. Maintenance of this type of competence is generally justified by the necessity of existence of an authority representing the interests of weaker subjects, respectively representing the whole society (public) interest in observance of law in other areas of social life such as criminal law. E.g. Spáčil is negative towards the concept of public prosecution without any powers in the nonSlovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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criminal field (civil procedure). Allegations about undemocratism of competences of public prosecution service in civil procedure, according to him, are frivolous and unjustified. According to him, it is necessary that public prosecution service as the guarantee of legality has the possibility of participating in at least noncontentious civil proceedings (1991, p. 45). Šúrek advocates the necessity of the existence of the non-criminal competence of public prosecution, particularly in non-contentious administrative proceedings. He claims that there are cases where the illegality of the decision in administrative proceedings is for the benefit of the party and therefore it is not objected by petition to court. In these cases the state, according to him, must also have an interest in observance of the law, interest in gaining knowledge of violation of the law, as well as efficient means to enforce the law (1995, p. 2). Bacho, despite strong belief in obsoletion of the concept of public prosecution service as universal guardian of legality, considers public prosecution to be irreplaceable authority in the performance of tasks in the noncriminal field (1992, p. 38). Balaš is also positive towards competence of public prosecution in the non-criminal field and at the same time he notes that the public prosecutor's supervision over the observance of law by public authorities and reviewing the decisions of administrative courts are not mutually exclusive, but rather are complementary (1990, p. 56). Similarly Vaľová argues that if the public prosecution did not carry out supervision over the activities of government bodies, most democratic requirement - the equality of citizens before the law - could not be guaranteed for all citizens (1990, p. 63). Šabata, one of the newer authors, is of the opinion that the public prosecution is required to solve the problems of citizens and reducing its competence only to the criminal field would limit the possibilities and ways of solving problems that arise in society. If we want public prosecution to have its prestige in society, it should be able to help ordinary citizens. And that is not possible just through the criminal law, which applies the principle of subsidiarity of repression and which is only a mean of last resort (ultima ratio) (2009, p. 15). To newer voices speaking for maintaining the competence of public prosecution in the non-criminal field belong voices of Fenyk and Dávid. Fenyk states that the abolition of general supervision and its non-replacement by other adequate institutes causes weakening of citizens' confidence in law enforcement. The competence of public prosecution in criminal procedure only is therefore unsustainable in the long term (2001, p. 25). Dávid deals with the competence of public prosecution in the civil law field. He notes that participation of public prosecution in civil proceedings is very important because in the proceedings it protects interests of society above the interests of individuals, which could cause injury to others (2008, p. 17). We believe that the exercise of powers of public prosecution in the noncriminal field is extremely important. Non-criminal competence of public prosecution significantly contributes not only to ensuring the rule of law in a 58

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democratic state, protection of property and interests of the state and of public interest or public order, but also to the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals, especially of those who are unable to protect and defend their rights (e.g. the minors, consumers). Thereby it enables and helps to improve citizens' feeling of legal certainty. Execution of the non-criminal competence ensures that public prosecutors may also participate in the solution of ordinary life problems of citizens and they are not turning into authorities that are remote and alien to ordinary citizens. After all, in a democratic state following the rule of law state institutions should serve in the first place to citizen and help him / her to solve life problems. We cannot agree with the opinions that consider all citizens to be autonomous entities able to defend their rights at their discretion and decision without any state guardianship. The real situation is that in every state there are always some individuals that do not have this ability and therefore they need help. Just for this reason, there must be an authority that would help them to solve these problems. It should also be noted that although the exercise of the non-criminal competence of public prosecution does not reach the significance of exercise of criminal competence (which has always dominated activities of public prosecution offices of all countries), non-criminal competence is closely linked to the criminal competence. In many cases, non-criminal competence refers to criminal competence, arises from criminal competence or forgoes criminal competence. In addition, non-criminal competence also contributes to eliminating the causes and conditions of criminal activity, and it is among the major objectives of exercise of public prosecution competence as a whole.

2 LEGAL INSTRUMENTS OF PROSECUTORIAL SUPERVISION DE LEGE LATA After finding of illegality in the procedure or administrative act of the public administration authority, the public prosecutor is entitled to use some of the legal means of supervision over compliance with laws and other generally binding regulations by public administration authorities. Slovak legal order recognizes several legal instruments by which the public prosecutor (or Prosecutor General) exercises supervision over the observance of law by public administration authorities. On the basis of the criteria of the type of proceedings before the public authority to which such legal instruments of supervision relate, we can distinguish three groups of legal instruments of prosecutorial supervision, namely: 1) legal instruments relating to the administrative proceedings (a protest of public prosecutor, a notice of public prosecutor), 2) legal instruments relating to the administrative judicial proceedings (an administrative action, an action to the Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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administrative court, an intervention in proceedings before the administrative court, a cassation complaint, an action for reopening the trial, an opinion to the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic) and 3) legal instruments relating to the proceedings before the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (a motion for initiation of proceedings for the conformity of generally binding legal regulation issued by the public administration authority). This classification of legal instruments of supervision takes into account only the type of procedure in which the legal instrument can be applied. A protest of public prosecutor can be characterized as a legal instrument by which the public prosecutor requires the repeal or amendment of a specific administrative act that is contrary to the legislation. Although it does not contain a legal order to repeal or amend an administrative act, it is a qualified form of a motion that the author of the administrative act must deal with and in due time handle in a manner prescribed by a law. The public prosecutor is entitled to file his protest against administrative acts defined in § 21 sect. 1 let. a) of APPS. Therefore, a protest may be aimed at decisions of public administration authorities, measures of public administration authorities, measures of public administration authorities with general effects, resolutions of public administration authorities and finally, generally binding regulations issued by public administration authorities. The condition is that these administrative acts violated the law or other generally binding legal regulation. Knowledge that can result in the prosecutorial protest can be obtained either on prosecutor´s own monitoring activities, including inspections of law observance or on the initiative of the parties to the administrative proceedings or any other natural or legal persons (Babiaková, 2006, 527). Under § 28 sect. 1 of APPS, a notice of public prosecutor is a legal instrument of supervision that can be filed by public prosecutor to the public administration authority in order to eliminate violations of laws and other generally binding legal regulations, which has occurred in the proceeding of the public administration authority when issuing administrative acts or in case of inactivity. Therefore, the reason for filing a notice is the need to eliminate the infringement of law, which occurred either in the proceeding of a public administration authority without issuing a decision, inactivity of a public administration authority or in the proceeding resulting in the decision, if filing a notice is required by the public interest and it is not necessary to take other measures, e.g. to file a protest (Hoffmann, 2010, 92). Filing a notice relates to those cases in which there has been a violation of generally binding legal regulations, but there was no reason to file a protest of public prosecutor. In connection with the differences between a notice and a protest, Beneč stresses that a notice "does not aim at the repeal of individual or normative act, but it is a legal instrument of protection of objective law with the aim of ensuring that the authorities under the supervision of the public prosecutor fulfil properly their duties laid down by laws and other generally legal regulations." (Beneč, 2004, 589). 60

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An administrative action and an action to administrative court may be referred to as secondary legal instruments of supervision because their exercise is possible only if a protest or a notice has not led to elimination of illegality. They are legal instruments stipulated in the provisions of the Act no. 162/2015 Coll. Administrative Proceedings Code. They represent legal instruments that can be used within the framework of administrative judiciary. Unlike previous legal instruments, they can lead to authoritative placing a duty on competent authority (e.g. municipal council) to eliminate illegal state (e.g. to harmonize generally binding regulations issued by local self administration bodies with laws Finally, the last legal instrument of supervision, which is available to an ordinary public prosecutor when exercising his supervisory activities, is an intervention in proceedings before the administrative court. The content of this legal instrument of supervision is the right of the public prosecutor to intervene in any proceedings before administrative courts including proceedings in cassation. The public prosecutor who intervened in the proceedings should be as 'amicus curiae' of service to the Administrative Court in its decision-making in particular through submission of qualified opinions and proposals, respectively reference to relevant case law, and possible application problems associated with some of the cases. The public prosecutor therefore does not intervene in the proceedings in relation to a party.

CONCLUSION The exercise of non-criminal competence by the public prosecutors can be regarded as a positive element, primarily due to the short-term experience in democratic institutions and the persistence of negative remnants of the former totalitarian regime. Despite the formal establishment of democratic institutions (Horváth, p. 13), particularly in post-communist countries there is still a need for existence of an authority to supervise the legality of public institution's practices and at the same time to defend the public interest and the rights of those who are unable to fully defend their rights. It should be noted that the exercise of noncriminal competence of public prosecution must have its limits and it should not interfere in such things, which are not of public interest. The scope of non-criminal competence should not be defined too broadly and it must respond particularly to those cases in which the interference of state organ is necessary in the allsociety interest. Public prosecutors must not act in a way that would give rise to groundless distortions of personal autonomy of private parties to the dispute. The legislation must define the powers of public prosecutors exhaustively and they must not be conceived in a way that allows public prosecutors to interfere unreasonably in the wide range of social relations, as it was in the socialist model of public prosecution. Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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REFERENCES BABIAKOVÁ, E.: Protest prokurátora a správne súdnictvo. In: Justičná revue. Vol. 58, 2006, no. 3, p. 520-528. BACHO, V.: Prokuratúra – významný nástroj záruk zákonnosti v právnom štáte. In: Justičná revue, Roč. 44, č. 10 (1992), s. 38-39. BALAŠ, V.: Správní soud nebo všeobecný dozor prokuratury? In: Prokuratura 1-2/1990, s. 56-58. BENEČ, Š.: Prokuratúra, orgány verejnej správy a správne súdnictvo. In: Justičná revue. Vol. 56, no. 5(2004), p. 585-594. DÁVID, R.: Státní zstupitelství v civilním řízení de lege ferenda. In: Státní zastupitelství 2/2008, s. 17. FENYK, J.: Veřejná žaloba. Díl první : Historie, současnost a možný vývoj veřejné žaloby. Praha: Institut Ministerstva spravedlnosti České republiky pro další vzělávání soudců a státních zástupců, 2001, s. 25. GOLEMA, A.: Prokuratúra vo vzťahu k súdnictvu v návrhu Ústavy Slovenskej republiky. In: Justičná revue, Roč. 44, č. 10 (1992), s. 36-37. HORVÁTH, P. (2008). Prezident v politickom systéme Slovenskej republiky. Slovenská politologická revue 3 (5), p. 13. HORVÁTH, P., MACHYNIAK, J. (2014). Prezidentské voľby 2014 na Slovensku. Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration 1 ( 2), p. 150. NEDOROST, L. – ONDRUŠ, R.: Působnost státních orgánů při ochraně majetkových zájmů státu, ASPI. OSMANČÍK, O.: Prokuratura nebo státní zastupitelství? In: Československá kriminalistika 1/1991, s. 105-107. SPÁČIL, J.: Novelizace o.s.ř. a oprávnění prokurátora v civilním řízení (úvaha de lege ferenda). In: Prokuratura 3-4/1991, s. 45-48. SVOBODA, C.: Nová působnost státního zastupitelství. In: Právní praxe, č. 3 (1994), s. 138-141. ŠABATA, K.: Potřebuje státní zastupitelství netrestní působnost? In: Státní zastupitelství 9/2009, s. 15-16. ŠÚREK, S.: Pôsobenie prokuratúry SR v netrestnej oblasti. In: Justičná revue, Roč. 47, č. 11-12 (1995), s. 2-3. VAĽOVÁ, V.: K názorům na všeobecný dozor prokuratury. In: Prokuratura 1-2/1990, s. 63-70. ZOULÍK, F.: Poznámky k postavení prokuratury. In: Právní praxe č. 3/1993, s. 159-161.

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•Recenzie MALAST JAN: TEORETICKÁ VÝCHODISKA OBECNÉ SAMOSPRÁVY V ČESKÉ REPUBLICE

Plzeň: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni. 2016. 340 s.

Publikácia z pera českého autora Jana Malasta z  Právnickej fakulty Západočeskej univerzity v Plzni je upravenou verziou jeho dizertačnej práce. Samotný text sa venuje problematike teoretických aspektov obecnej samosprávy v podmienkach Českej republiky. Okrem už spomínaných teoretických aspektov sú prítomné aj viaceré historické fakty, na ktorých autor vcelku vhodne dopĺňa svoje aspekty a vytvára tak komplexnejší a plastickejší pohľad na danú tému. Hoci ide o prácu z produkcie českej tvorby, domnievam sa, že je obohatením v  mnohých aspektov aj pre slovenskú obec tak vo sfére výskumnej ako aj vysokoškolskej oblasti. Na úvod je potrebné konštatovať, že aj u  nás chýba odborná literatúra, ktorá sa dominantne venuje problematike ideových východísk myšlienky obecnej samosprávy. Samotná práca je rozdelená do piatich kľúčových kapitol. Jej prvá časť je venovaná teoretickým východiskám verejnej správy. Postupne sa venuje pojmom ako verejná moc, štátna moc, delenie moci v štáte. Prináša myšlienku o  modernej verejnej správe ako výsledku deľby moci v  štáte. Zaujímavou je aj podkapitola venovaná pojmu samospráva, rámci ktorej sa   vyjadruje aj k  problémom typológie tohto pojmu. Prínosnou je časť, v ktorej sa dočítame o typológii možných nositeľov samosprávy, o verejnoprávnych korporáciách či pojmu autonómia. Druhá kapitola rozoberá podrobne problematiku obecnej samosprávy. Postupne nás prevádza pojmami a  súvislosťami územnej samosprávy, jej teoretickými prístupmi či definičnými znakmi. Ako hlavné zložky definuje územie a občanov, bez ktorých by nebolo možné vytvoriť akýkoľvek typ obce. Vo vzťahu medzi štátom a obecnou samosprávou si autor všíma okrem iného aj povinnosti obcí k výkonu štátnej správy. V tretej kapitole autor sa venuje historickým súvislostiam obecnej samosprávy dominantne na území terajšej Českej republiky. Rozlišuje jednotlivé historické pasáže, za kľúčové označuje udalosti v rokoch 1848, 1918 a 1989. Postupne predkladá svoj pohľad na také míľniky českých dejín akými boli Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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přemyslovský feudalizmus, obdobie husitov, vytvorenie stavovského štátu, či zdanlivý protiklad rozvinutého feudalizmus a nerozvinutej samosprávy. Vývoj po roku 1848 je poznačený úpravou obecného zriadenia z  rokov 1849-1861, najmä však obecným zriadením z  roku 1859. Novú právnu úpravu priniesol rok 1862, v  rámci ktorej môžeme hovoriť o  obecnom zriadení či obecných voľbách. Po prvej svetovej vojne prichádza systém tzv. prvej republiky, ktorý priniesol opäť v mnohom nové podoby a pohľady na všetky základné aspekty obecného zriadenia v novom štáte Čechov a Slovákov. Po smutných udalostiach v  Mníchove prichádza na rad obdobie tzv. druhej republiky a od marca 1939 protektorát. Po postupnom oslobodení v roku 1945, najmä však po roku 1948, vzniká ďalší produkt – tento raz z obdobia reálneho socializmu, ktorý priniesol systém národných výborov a spoločnú kandidátku národného frontu. Udalosti spustené 17. 11. 1989 priniesli následne v oboch krajinách spoločnej federácie postupne v roku 1990 novú podobu verejnej správy, s  ktorou sa v  podstate s istými odchýlkami a úpravami stretávame podnes. Z  pohľadu verejnej správy tvorí kľúčovú časť práve štvrtá kapitola, ktorá podáva komplexnejší pohľad na súčasný systém od prijatia Ústavy Českej republiky až po dnešné obdobie. Opäť je dôležité, že autor sa venuje samostatne vymedzeniu základných pojmov. Demokratická samospráva tvorí kľúčový pojem pre zabezpečenie optimálneho výkonu verejnej správy. Vzhľadom na pomerne vysoký počet obcí v Českej republike autor nenecháva bokom ani v súčasnosti pomerne širokú odbornú debatu na tému medziobecnej spolupráce. Okrem originálnych pôsobností sa venuje aj prenesenej pôsobnosti, pričom nezabúda ani na zmiešaný model verejnej správy a samotný problém financovania. Hoci rozsahom najmenšiu časť tvorí šiesta kapitola, možno ju označiť za najprínosnejšiu časť, pretože prináša pohľady na ďalší možný rozmach verejnej správy do budúcnosti. Opäť sa tak otvárajú témy ako spresnenie hraníc samostatnej pôsobnosti, kompetencie, postavenie a vzťahy medzi jednotlivými orgánmi obce a v  neposlednom rade problém ekonomickej udržateľnosti súčasného systému usporiadania modelu verejnej správy v podmienkach Českej republiky. Po prečítaní tejto publikácie možno konštatovať, že ju napísal autor, ktorý má zvládnutú danú problematiku na veľmi dobrej úrovni a je evidentné, že je odborníkom v danej oblasti. Možno ju teda odporúčať aj čitateľom zo Slovenska, ktorí hľadajú publikáciu, ktorá by im na primeranom rozsahu poskytla pomerne komplexný pohľad na historický, súčasný i možný budúci vývoj verejnej správy u našich západných susedov. Záverom možno konštatovať, že opäť v  niečom v  oblasti verejnej správy, najmä v prostredí vysokých škôl a príprave budúcich odborníkov, zaostávame. Odborná práca Jana Malasta sa môže stať vhodným príkladom aj pre slovenských autorov na to, ako vytvoriť na nie príliš rozsiahlom priestore kvalitný text, 64

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ktorý dostatočne predstaví vývoj, históriu, teoretické koncepcie, súčasný model i možný scenár ďalších vývojov v tejto oblasti na Slovensku. doc. PhDr. Peter Horváth, PhD. Fakulta sociálnych vied, UCM v Trnave Bučianska 4/A, 917 01 Trnava peter.horvath@ucm.sk

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KONEČNÝ STANISLAV: VEREJNÁ SPRÁVA V ČLENSKÝCH ŠTÁTOCH EURÓPSKEJ ÚNIE

Bratislava: Mayor, 2016, 237 s.

Aktuálne otázky týkajúce sa európskej identity sú často konfrontované s ideou „jednota v rôznorodosti”, pod ktorú možno subsumovať ktorúkoľvek oblasť socio-ekonomickej reality, a v rámci ktorej možno rozoberať aj spoločné a odlišné črty systémov verejnej správy v  členských štátoch Európskej únie. Práve táto téma sa stala predmetom spracovania vysokoškolskej učebnice, ktorá reflektujúc medzeru na trhu, kde absentuje takéto spracovanie problematiky, prináša nové komparatívne poňatie charakteristík modelov verejnej správy v európskom administratívnom priestore. Komplexnosť fenoménu verejnej správy a jej neustále premeny v  čase i priestore možno vnímať z rôznych uhlov pohľadu, avšak nevyhnutnou súčasťou oboznamovania sa a hlbšieho  prenikania do podstaty problému je poznanie základných faktografických údajov o  jej fungovaní v  rôznych podobách a formách. Systematizujúci prístup využil autor v koncipovaní jadra textu do piatich samostatných kapitol, v  rámci ktorých sa s  výnimkou prvej metodologickoexplanačnej kapitoly prezentujú autorom identifikované modely a typy. Pri výstavbe obsahu podkapitol, ktoré sú venované hlavne zákonodárnej, súdnej a výkonnej moci v jednotlivých štátoch Európskej únie možno oceniť ich jednotnú, logickú a zrozumiteľnú štruktúru, ktorá je navyše metodicky dobre objasnená v Predslove. V kontexte hlavného zamerania učebnice je hlavná pozornosť venovaná výkonnej moci vrátane členenia jej vykonávania na centrálnej, regionálnej a miestnej úrovni. Autor rozlišuje 4 základné modely, v  rámci ktorých je uvedená ešte bližšia typológia štátov do menších podskupín. Poradie je zvolené tak, že najprv je pozornosť venovaná Nemecku, Rakúsku a  Belgicku ako predstaviteľom decentralizovaného modelu verejnej správy v zložených štátoch, následne sú predstavené Španielsko a Taliansko ako reprezentanti centralizovaného modelu verejnej správy v silne regionalizovaných štátoch (kap. 2 a  3). Unitárne štáty typické decentralizovaným modelom verejnej správy sú obsiahnuté vo štvrtej kapitole a  autor využíva ich bližšiu klasifikáciu na štáty škandinávskeho typu (Švédsko, Fínsko, Dánsko), baltického typu (Estónsko, Lotyšsko, Litva, Poľsko) a stredoeurópskeho typu (Česká republika, Slovensko, Maďarsko, Slovinsko, Chorvátsko). Obsah piatej kapitoly tvorí predstavenie centralizovaného modelu verejnej správy v unitárnych štátoch ostrovného typu (Veľká Británia, Írsko, 66

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Malta, Cyprus), typu Beneluxu (Holandsko, Luxembursko) a mediteránneho typu (Francúzsko, Portugalsko, Grécko, Rumunsko, Bulharsko). Usporiadanie 28 štátov do jednotlivých modelov a typov podložený najmä analýzou výkonnej moci v  rámci multi-levelgovernance prinieslo koncipovanie informácií v  prehľadnej štruktúre od centrálnej až po regionálnu a miestnu úroveň. Základné informácie o  forme vlády, charaktere štátneho zriadenia, historického formovania správy mnohokrát doplnené o  údaje týkajúce sa rozlohy, počtu obyvateľov a  pod. sú vstupom k predostretiu kľúčových súvislostí medzi hlavnými zložkami verejnej moci prejavujúci sa v podobe fungovania systému verejnej správy v danej členskej krajine. Z textu je evidentné, že snahou bolo uviesť ku každému štátu informácie rovnorodého typu. Na druhej strane je nutné zohľadniť fakt, že v  mnohých prípadoch je dostupnosť niektorých čiastkových informácií limitovaná a  tak nebolo možné dodržať rovnomerný záber. To však neznižuje kvalitatívnu úroveň textu a  jeho vypovedaciu hodnotu, rovnako tak jeho využitie pre vzdelávacie účely. Z  hľadiska terminologickej korektnosti oceňujem precízny prístup autora, kedy účelne využíva originálne názvoslovie najmä v prípade niektorých orgánov a  inštitúcií v  jednotlivých štátoch, nakoľko doslovné preklady sa v  rôznych prameňoch pomerne často líšia a  často spôsobujú nepresnosti v  interpretácii. Uvedených 55 zdrojov v  zozname použitej literatúry istotne nepredstavuje celkové portfólio prameňov, s ktorými autor pracoval, korektne sa však k tejto stránke vyjadril v  Predslove a  nakoľko ide o  tému, ktorá podlieha zmenám, je permanentná aktualizácia prezentovaných informácií nevyhnutná. Výsledná podoba učebnice je odrazom širokých znalostí i praktických bohatých skúseností autora z  danej oblasti, nakoľko spracovanie témy výkonu verejnej moci v  štátoch Európskej únie je náročnou a  komplikovanou témou, ktorá si vyžadovala hĺbkový analytický pohľad. V prípade, že ide o publikáciu typu vysokoškolskej učebnice je nemenej dôležitou aj požiadavka prehľadného podania sumarizovaných hlavných zistení a  faktov, čo sa v  tejto publikácii podľa môjho názoru vydarilo. Na druhej strane možno konštatovať, že učebnica obsahuje množstvo detailných informácií, ktoré slúžia niekedy skôr viac ako doplňujúce či dokresľujúce prezentovaný stav. Na tomto mieste sa však ako nutné javí poznamenať, že pri ich výbere autor nemal ľahkú úlohu. Podať dôležité informácie o systéme verejnej správy tak, aby zodpovedali logickému kontextu si mnohokrát vyžaduje vysvetliť aj ďalšie súvislosti, relevantnosť ktorých je závislá od účelu textu i  zdatnosti jeho používateľa. V  tomto kontexte naplnila knižná publikácia viaceré očakávania a  napriek tomu, že niektoré state môžu pôsobiť ako zjednodušené, nemožno zabúdať, že v  prvom rade ide o  účel dosiahnutia zrozumiteľnosti súboru veľkého množstva faktov. Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration, vol. 4, 1/2017

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Čo sa týka hlavných prínosov publikácie oceňujem najmä to, že autor pristúpil k typologizácii systémov verejnej správy na základe pomerne jasne vymedzených a vysvetlených kritérií (stupne verejnej správy, vzťah rovín verejnej správy, centralizácia a  decentralizácia). Tento prístup mu umožnil generovať vlastný pohľad na klasifikáciu verejnej správy v  členských štátoch Európskej únie a z hľadiska didaktického uľahčuje čitateľovi orientáciu v náročnej problematike a umožňuje vniesť do štúdia komparatívny, diskusný a polemický prvok. Tak, ako ich vhodne predostrel v úvode, záver učebnice rozoberá ich limity. „Jednota v rôznorodosti“ a jej možné či nemožné, žiaduce či nežiaduce uplatnenie sa tak stáva otvorenou výzvou aj pre ďalšie modelovanie systémov verejnej správy s ohľadom na relevanciu a účelnosť takýchto úvah. Vysokoškolská učebnica svojím prínosným rozsiahlym faktografickým obsahom hraničí s vedeckým monografickým charakterom publikácie. Som presvedčená, že tento vklad do administratívnej komparatívnej vedy uvíta nielen akademické sféra, ale aj prax a nepochybne môže byť inšpiráciou pre odbornú diskusiu v otázke reformných ambícií systémov verejnej správy do budúcna. PhDr. Jana Knežová, PhD. Katedra verejnej politiky a teórie verejnej správy Fakulta verejnej správy UPJŠ v Košiciach Popradská 66, 040 11 Košice jana.knezova@upjs.sk

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Slovenská revue pre verejnú politiku a verejnú správu Slovak Journal of Public Policy and Public Administration Ročník IV. 1/2017 Toto číslo vyšlo v mesiaci Jún 2017

Vydáva: Fakulta sociálnych vied Univerzity sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave v spolupráci so

Slovenskou spoločnosťou pre verejnú správu pri SAV Šéfredaktor doc. PhDr. Peter Horváth, PhD. Redakčná rada prof. Ing. Václav Vybíhal, CSc. prof. Dr. MA Ing. Július Horváth, PhD. Dr.h.c. prof. PhDr. Blanka Říchová, CSc. doc. Ing. Ivana Butoracová Šindleryová, PhD. doc. PhDr. Mária Adamcová, PhD. Radosław Kubicki, PhD. Výkonný redaktor PhDr. Ján Machyniak, PhD. Technický redaktor Mgr. Jakub Bardovič, PhD. časopis vychádza 2x ročne Evidenčné čislo: 4926/14 Adresa redakcie: Fakulta sociálnych vied, Univerzity sv. Cyrila a Metoda v Trnave, Bučianska 4/A, 917 01 Trnava IČO: 360 789 13 Cena výtlačku 5,- Eur ISSN 1339-5637, ISSN 1339-7826 (online) Náklad: 100ks


Obsah Články MITRĘGA, Adrian: Auxiliary and Consulting Bodies of the Polish Ministry of Energy after 2015 FEKETE, Sándor – FAZEKAS, Csaba: Change of the Local SelfGovernments’ Sovereignty in Hungary

SOÓS, Edit: Paradigm Shift in Public Administration in Hungary. The Magyary Zoltán Public Policy Programme PALÚŠ, Igor: Participation of Representatives of Municipal Representation in Exercising of Municipal Self-Government ŠRAMEL, Bystrík: Metamorphoses Supervision Over Public Administration

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