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William Carey Chapel


William C are y Chapel

Measured Drawings & Digital Heritage University of Melbourne 2017 ABPL90020 Measured Drawings & Digital Heritage Tutored by

Jina Zheng

Libby Richardson Contributors

Tan Yee Yin

560654

Sizhen Wong 808123 Michelle Chang 501788 Part A

Field Notes

Part B

Writing MC

Part C

Drawings

TYY / SZW

Part D

Photography

MC

Part E

Watercolour

SZW

Part F

Publishing MC

Part G

Presentation

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TYY / SZW

William Carey Chapel

All

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William C are y Chapel

Acknowledgements We’d like to thank the staff at Carey Baptist Grammar School: Gerry Reviere, the school chaplain for taking the time to explain to us the significance of the chapel’s symbolism, gifting us 5 copies of Alan Wright’s “A Chaplain Remembers” and for telling us about the chapel’s current and future plans; Andrew Pattenden, from the school’s business office for organising our visit and sending us old images and drawings of the chapel; and Joanne Horsley, the school archivist for helping us source information and helping us with our historical research. Thank you also of course to our tutors Jina and Libby for providing us the knowledge and tools to carry out our research on this building, and for the opportunity to undertake this project in the first place. Our deepest gratitude goes out to all of you! Fig 1. Watercolour of Chapel, view from the school oval in the south.

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William C are y Chapel

Contents

1.0

Introduction

9

2.0

History

13

3.0

The Chapel

21

4.0

Symbolism

31

Endnotes

36

38

Image Sources

Bibliography

40

42

Appendix

Fig 2. Site plan.

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William C are y Chapel

Introduc tion

1.0 Introduction The William Carey Chapel was completed in 1971 and is located on the easternmost end of the William Carey Baptist Grammar School Kew Campus, just north of the school oval. At 230sqm it was designed to accommodate 200-240.1 This includes seating in the wide narthex which once opened straight into the Senior School Building before it became the Centre for Learning and Innovation in 2016. Responsibility for designing the church was given to the school Chaplain at the time Rev. Alan Wright with the help of architects and brothers Cecil and Graham Lyons. With its unmistakable pyramid roof and elegantly integrated gutter system, the tip of the chapel is kept as the tallest point of the campus even with the recent changes that have been made to modernise the buildings surrounding the chapel. Through the design of the building Wright expresses his strong opinions on a holistic approach to education and also infuses many of his life-changing experiences into the thinking behind the chapel.

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Fig 3. The Chapel and its cross, view from south entrance.

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William C are y Chapel

Introduc tion

1.1 Chapel Theme The key theme of the Chapel which Wright refers to throughout his book is the idea that spirituality permeates all aspects of life. He did not want the Chapel to become what students might call a ‘God-box’.2 Inspired by the scripture ‘Hallowed be thy Name’ at Coventry Cathedral, four plaques were made with part of the passage

Fig 4. Rev. Alan F. Wright.

inscribed to each as a reminder that worship enriches all aspects of life - in the home, education, recreation, industry, commerce, the arts, government and suffering.3

1.2 The Architects

Wright’s holistic view towards religion also extends into his opinions of education. He refers on multiple occasions

The two brothers Cecil R. and Graham F. Lyons were

to the disconnect between ‘the system’ and real life - that

architects and Baptists from Geelong. Graham, who is the

the academic assessment of students based on exams and

father of a previous mayor of Geelong Darryn Lyons, also

grades was failing to see students as individuals and ignoring

helped design the Royal Children’s Hospital as well as many

important life lessons about community. He wanted the

Baptist aged-care facilities.4 Having been a lifetime member

chapel space be one that belonged to all of the school,

of the Baptist community he is still, at 83, the choir master

where students could gather to share ideas, have creative

of Aberdeen Street Baptist Church in Geelong and worked

performances and hold meetings; making the intended space

closely with the contractors on the church’s restoration works

for worship a well integrated part of the school.

in 2009.5 Fig 5. A Chaplain Remembers Cover.

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Fig 6. ‘Hallowed be thy name’ one of the four plaques above each door of the Chapel.

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William C are y Chapel

Hi stor y

2.0 History Though only built in 1971, the Chapel had been in discussion within Carey from as early as 1937. Each time however financial constraints and pressing needs for more classrooms or facilities postponed the project. It wasn’t until in 1967 before the project truly materialsed when the property north of the school oval was purchased and the area was reserved for the Chapel by planting a Eucalyptus Citriadora - a large gum tree that still stands proudly on the north corner of the building.6 The design of the Chapel had gone through two conceptualised iterations, both designed by architects and also both differ greatly from the built design. The Chapel was always planned in conjunction with other buildings in the campus including its future plans to be renovated by Hayball, the same architects that are modernising the rest of the school campus. The current design reflects post-war 60s and 70s brutalist architecture of the time with its heavy exterior, rugged materials and bold form.

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Fig 7. Carey Chapel Interior.

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William C are y Chapel

Hi stor y

2.1 First Mentioned in 1937 The Carey Chapel got its first mention in 1937 when a legacy of 1900 pounds prompted Harold Tranter an architect and Old Carey Grammarian to propose a masterplan for the development of the Senior School.7 The plan included a chapel, assembly hall, library, administration block and science laboratory (see Fig 8). Work began on

2.2 ‘Forward Carey’ Appeal 1957

the laboratories and classrooms. During World War II Grammarians were dying and there was a desire to build a memorial. Box Hill Baptist Church gave £400 to start the

The school’s headmaster was invited to join the Associated

fund for a Memorial Chapel however the project turned

Public Schools in 1957 and there was a need for Carey to

into a Memorial Great Hall instead 1945, as it would fulfil

upgrade its sporting facilities appropriate for the strong

multiple needs of the school - including worship.

sporting competition within the APS.9 The “Forward Carey”

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appeal was launched with allocations of £100,000 for the Chapel and swimming pool included in the £237,000 target plan. The appeal brochure included illustrations by Stephenson and Turner Architects, pioneers of the modernist movement in Australia, showing the Chapel directly above the pool which could double as an enormous Baptistry for the Chapel. Though the idea sounded outrageous, the move was purely practical with land so limited in Kew.10 Most Fig 8. Sketch by Harold Tranter who was an Old Carey Grammarian and Architect.

Fig 9. Illustration by Stephenson and Turner Architects on the Forward Carey Appeal Brochure.

of the money raised however was spent on the sporting complex at Bulleen and plans for the Chapel and swimming pool were never realised.

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William C are y Chapel

Hi stor y

2.3 Brief Established 1969 The site for the Chapel was finally established in 1967 when the school purchased a property north of the school oval. Responsibility was given by the principal of the time to Alan Wright to guide and see the project through with the help of Cecil and Graham Lyons.11 The image below, taken from the Carey Chronicle, shows him standing inside the baptistery explaining the symbolism of the Chapel to a group of boys.

2.4 Construction Complete 1971 The Chapel was opened on Sunday August 1st 1971 with a dedication led by Rev. Merlyn Holly and attended by a congregation of parents, staff, Old Boys and students.12 It was the first built by a non-Roman Catholic day school in Victoria.13 The Chapel was ‘no religious ivory tower’ and contributed in whole to the foundation and the life of the school. Fig 10. Pages from the Carey Chronicle the year the chapel opened, 1971.

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Fig 11. William Carey Chapel at night, 1971.

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William C are y Chapel

Hi stor y

2.5 Changes Since 1971 The Chapel’s baptistery has since been removed and its

WALL JOINING SENIOR SCHOOL

organ donated. The baptistery was rarely used and eventually

ORGAN CHAMBER

CHAPEL SHORTENED AND BACK WALL REPLACED WITH A CLEAR GLAZED WALL

ORGAN DONTATED FRONT WALL-RECLAD

ACCORDION DOOR

became redundant as students are encouraged to be baptised at their own church within their own community. The sculpture which once sat in the baptistery has also been moved to storage for safe keeping as the Chapel is soon to be renovated. The wall which once concealed the organ pipes has also been re-clad in a lighter and smooth veneer, and the accordion doors closing off the Sanctuary have also been

Fig 15. Photograph showing new glass put into the back wall.

removed.

2.6 Future Plans 2017 Plans are underway for the Chapel to be modernised, blending it into the neighbouring Centre for Learning and Education designed by Melbourne firm Hayball.

BAPTISTERY

ACCORDION DOOR

BAPTISTERY REMOVED

DOOR REPLACED WITH WINDOW

Gerry Reviere described and showed to us the concept design proposal for the Chapel. Featuring angled soffits over a glazed facade the new design will replace some of the brick work and open the Chapel up to light and views as well as fulfilling the growing need to to accommodate more students into the Chapel as the school continues to expand.

Fig 12. Photograph showing the back wall of the Chapel before it was removed.

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Fig 13. Original drawings of the Chapel by Cecil & Graham Lyons.

Fig 14. Current floor plan noting locations of changes made to the Chapel since built.

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William C are y Chapel

The C hapel

3.0 The Chapel Typically a chapel is small building or room used for prayer and worship attached to a larger institution as opposed to a church which would be a separate building for the same purpose. It can be an entirely free-standing building or part of a larger complex such as a school, hospital, prison, church or a large private house.14 The Carey Chapel is modest in its decorations and does not have images of religious figures as is typical of Baptist spaces of worship. Spaces are used more freely and the communion table is as functional as it is sacred, reflecting the ‘democratic’ nature of Baptist belief.15 The cross is intentionally simple and rustic-looking, accurately reflecting the cross that Jesus died on.

Fig 16. North elevation.

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Fig 17. North-east elevation.

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William C are y Chapel

The C hapel

3.1 Form The Chapel is essentially a square based pyramid with a rectangular narthex attached to its west. Resembling a tentlike structure the four roofs slope at a 62° angle to a single

3.2 Structure

point creating a dramatic exterior form and an even more dramatic interior. Height is further emphasized inside the building by the stepped vermiculite ceiling and contrasting

Built by the Platt Bros, the brick and slate clad building hides

horizontal timber battens that add to the ‘vertical pull’ that

most of the steel framing underneath exposing only the

lifts the gaze.

portal frame rafters that go down the middle of each roof. The roof had to be re-clad a second time as the steep 62°

Inside, the Sanctuary could once be closed off from the

pitch posed problems for the white quartz tiles and caulking

Narthex to create a more intimate space using accordion

Fig 21. Original isometric of the structural steel detail.

doors on a curved rail. The doors however have since been

compound. Tests showed that the roof was too steep for the compound to hold safely and subsequently the roofing

removed but the rails are still visible on the ceiling under the

subcontractor was sacked and another roofing company

media deck at the back of the Sanctuary and in the middle of

quickly started work from scratch using green Welsh slates

the Narthex.

instead. A complicated scaffolding system had to be worked out and more than 1000 tiles were broken during the roof-

Wright originally wanted a door and walkway across the

laying process which was under great time pressure to finish

roof of the narthex connecting the back of the media deck

by April of 197.17

into the second storey of the senior school centre however the architects refused the idea as it would disrupt the clean,

The pyramid is made up of portal frames and corner rafters

simple lines of the roof.16

that join at the top with a centre connector 9m above ground level. Triangular concrete buttresses sit at the base of each steel frame member, supporting the weight of the roof above. (Above) Fig 18. The Chapel and the Senior School complete. (Below) Fig 19. The Chapel under construction, 1970.

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Fig 20. The steel framing used to construct the Chapel, 1970.

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William C are y Chapel

The C hapel

3.3 Space The Chapel is comprised of 5 main spaces which has a floor that rakes downwards from west to east. Entering through the narthex the floor slopes down towards the sanctuary before reaching the steps going up to the communion platform, organ chamber and change room behind. The communion platform and change room are about 600mm above the floor level. The spatial arrangement of the interior was an important consideration in the design of the Chapel. As mentioned previously, the space would be used for multiple purposes,

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from religious classes to holding student meetings, drama performances and even used for its share of weddings.18 The space therefore had to accommodate changing numbers of students. The folding doors were used for this purpose, transforming the chapel from a long space to a more intimate one for smaller gatherings. When including the narthex the Chapel the building accommodates 240. Although fixed

1 Narthex

pews would have allowed for more occupants in the building

2 Sanctuary

at one time, individual chairs allowed the flexibility needed for drama, dance and movement around the apron stage. Underfloor heating was also chosen to keep the space open and free from otherwise necessary heating equipment.19

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Fig 22. The stage and communion platform.

3

Communion Platform

4

Organ Chamber

5

Change Room

Fig 23. Floor Plan.

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William C are y Chapel

The C hapel

3.4 Materials The texture of the materials used are a feature of the Chapel, emphasized by its comparatively simple form. The roof is clad with green slate tiles from Wales with a strip of fiberglass panel on either side of the exposed steel structure. Underneath the roof is a battened eaves lining painted the same colour as the doors and concrete buttresses - the

Fig 24. Wall finish legend.

concrete having been textured with a sprayed plastic finish. Below the roof, the bricks are snapped in half and laid broken side out in a header bond. There are a total of 40 brick courses as drawn in its original sections if measured from the footing (below the ground level). Western red cedar is used on the fascia of the narthex portion of the building which has large windows and glazed double doors below. Inside, western red cedar also clads the fascia under the media deck and off-sawn oregon is used for the battens going up to the roof. The battens attached at 150mm centres on a dark veneered pyneboard. In contrast with the dark timbers, the ceiling is finished in a light-coloured sprayed vermiculite which absorbs sound as does the carpeting used underfoot throughout the whole of the chapel. Fig 25. Close-up of snapped header brick wall.

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Fig 26. Texture and colour of roof tiles.

Fig 27. Texture of interior sprayed vermiculite ceiling.

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William C are y Chapel

The C hapel

3.5 Light & Hoist At the top of the Chapel ceiling hangs a light connected to a crank and hoist which can be raised or lowered as required from the media deck. The light is comprised of four round lights forming a square and a blue cross sits in the centre of the arrangement (see Fig 35. on p33). It is essentially the only source of downwards light in the sanctuary as the small windows in the doors of the Chapel let very little light in. Fig 31. Original section through Media Deck showing position of pulley.

Fig 29. Original drawing of suspended light detail.

3.6 Media Deck The media deck is a balcony space nestled into the corner of the Chapel that faces opposite to the stage. It is railed off with a low timber guard and has an opening on one side for access via a ladder. The media deck represents an approach to interactive education that is essential and commonplace today but was considered experimental at the time.20 Fig 28. North-south section through sanctuary facing the stage showing the suspended ceiling light.

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Fig 30. Photo showing the Media Deck platform for projectors and is also where the pulley for the hoist is.

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William C are y Chapel

Sy mboli sm

4.0 Symbolism Although the Chapel isn’t adorned with religious imagery it certainly is not short of religious symbolism. Every aspect of the building is carefully tied into the Chapel theme and Alan Wright’s vision. Steeped in symbolic meaning, the architecture itself becomes the religious expression that is understood by the mood felt by entering through the space. Some of the symbolism however requires more religious and historical context. The Chapel’s tent-like shape for example may be a reference to the place in which God would meet his people in the Old Testament, before any permanent structure was made for worship and prayer. As the tent would go wherever the people went, it meant that God was always with them which is consistent with the Chapel’s theme of God being in all areas of life.

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Fig 32. View of the Chapel from the north, showing the gum tree which was planted to mark the site of the Chapel.

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William C are y Chapel

Sy mboli sm

4.1 Snapped Header Brickwork The snapped header brickwork is symbolic of the individuals who come to the Chapel to seek religious guidance. The brokenness recognises that people are intrinsically flawed, but conveys the message that through God’s work we have enormous potential for good and are like the bricks still of great worth to the Chapel.

4.2 Lifting Upwards Raising the eye-gaze upwards is a common architectural gesture in many religious buildings as it is associated with the heavens and the idea the God is above us in the skies. Wright wanted us to lift not only our eyes to God but also our ‘hearts and minds above all petty things.’ 21 The timber slats on each of the four walls can be interpreted as ladders or stairways reaching up towards heaven or may also represent the light rays shining down from above. Originally Wright suggested having a clear window at the top of the building looking out to the open sky.22 A description which sounds very similar to the Shrine of Remembrance which the Chapel’s stepped ceiling somewhat resembles. Fig 33. Original detail drawing of the snapped header brickwork.

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Fig 34. Reflected Ceiling Plan showing the use of timber and horizontal lines.

Fig 35. The ceiling.

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William C are y Chapel

Sy mboli sm

4.3 ‘Life is a Drama’

4.4 Baptistery & Symbolic Tree

As well as incorporating religious symbolism, Wright wanted the Chapel to be symbolic of life itself. It recognises that every person has their own life-story and that storytelling is an important part of coming to understand ourselves, life and its meaning.23 The apron stage was therefore an important part of the design not only for its functional purpose but also for its meaning.

The baptistery was placed at the entrance of the Chapel also to symbolise Baptist values of a ‘spiritual awakening’ before being able to worship effectively.25 Inside the baptistery is an artwork by Clifton Pugh. It was a commissioned piece which he was instructed to create a growing tree with strong roots and in its centre two crosses, a large one standing out from the tree and a second smaller one in the heart of the tree. Symbolically the tree represented human growth, inspired

Functionally it also meant that the baptistery had to be placed away from the communion platform and in the narthex of the chapel isntead to make sure that it did not become a hazard to students during performances.24

by the experiences of students going through the school and who are on their way into adulthood.26

Fig 36. Interior view, the apron stage, communion table and cross.

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Fig 37. The Symbolic Tree in the Baptistery, sculpture by Clifton Pugh.

Fig 38. Original internal elevation of the Narthex, showing the Baptistery and early artwork idea.

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William C are y Chapel

References

Endnotes 1.

Alan F. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers: Lifelong reflections on the educational and spiritual values shaping the William Carey Chapel (Melbourne:

Westgate Publishing, 2006), 123.

14.

“What’s the difference between Churches, Chapels and Cathedrals?”, Roma Panganiban, Mental Floss, n.d.,

http://mentalfloss.com/article/49148/whats-difference-between-churches-chapels-and-cathedrals

2.

Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 8.

15. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 182.

3.

Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 65.

16. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 157.

4.

“The Emperor of Geelong,” Susan Chenery, The Sydney Morning Herald, February 22, 2014,

17. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 91.

http://www.smh.com.au/national/people/the-emperor-of-geelong-20140216-32uom.html

18. Sayers, By Courage and Faith, 191.

5.

19. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 123.

“Aberdeen Street Baptist Church, Geelong,” Cathedral Stone, n.d.,

http://www.cathedralstone.com.au/case-studies/aberdeen/index.html

20. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 130.

6.

Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 2-4.

21. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 91.

7.

Stuart Sayers, By Courage and Faith: The First Fifty Years at Carey Baptist Grammar School (Melbourne: The Hawthorn Press, 1973), 59.

22. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 91.

8.

Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 3.

23. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 93-94.

9.

Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 3

24. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 181.

10. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 4.

35. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 180.

11. Wright, A Chaplain Remembers, 5. 12. Sayers, By Courage and Faith, 190. 13. Sayers, By Courage and Faith, 191.

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William C are y Chapel

References

Image Sources

North-east elevation

Fig 18.

The Chapel and the Senior School complete, in By Courage and Faith, Stuart Sayers (Melbourne: The Hawthorne Press, 1973), 132, photograph.

Fig 19.

The Chapel under construction, 1970, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 20.

The steel framing used to construct the Chapel, 1970, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 21.

Cecil R and Graham F Lyons Architects, Original isometric of the structural steel detail, 1969, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 1.

Watercolour of Chapel, view from the school oval in the south

Fig 22.

Malcolm Cross, The stage and communion platform, in A Chaplain Remembers, Alan Wright, 86, photograph.

Fig 2.

Site plan

Fig 23.

Floor Plan

Fig 3.

The Chapel and its cross, view from south entrance

Fig 24.

Cecil R and Graham F Lyons Architects, Wall finish legend, 1969, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 4.

Rev. Alan F. Wright in A Chaplain Remembers: Lifelong reflections on the educational and spiritual values shaping the William Carey Chapel, Alan

Fig 25.

Close-up of snapped header brick wall

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Fig 17.

Wright, (Melbourne: Westgate Publishing, 2006), cover jacket, photograph.

Fig 26.

Texture and colour of roof tiles

Fig 5.

A Chaplain Remembers Cover in A Chaplain Remembers, Alan Wright, cover jacket, photograph.

Fig 27.

Texture of interior sprayed vermiculite ceiling

Fig 6.

‘Hallowed be thy name’ one of the four plaques above each door of the Chapel

Fig 28.

North-south section through sanctuary facing the stage showing the suspended ceiling light

Fig 7.

Carey Chapel Interior photograph from The Carey Archives.

Fig 29.

Cecil R and Graham F Lyons Architects, Original drawing of suspended light detail, 1969, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 8.

Sketch by Harold Tranter who was an Old Carey Grammarian and Architect, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 30.

Photo showing the Media Deck platform for projectors and is also where the pulley for the hoist is

Fig 9.

Illustration by Stephenson and Turner Architects on the Forward Carey Appeal Brochure, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 31.

Cecil R and Graham F Lyons Architects, Original section through Media Deck showing position of pulley, 1969, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 10.

Pages from the Carey Chronicle the year the chapel opened, 1971, photograph from The Carey Archives.

Fig 32.

View of the Chapel from the north, showing the gum tree which was planted to mark the site of the Chapel

Fig 11.

William Carey Chapel at night, 1971, photograph from The Carey Archives.

Fig 33.

Cecil R and Graham F Lyons Architects, Original detail drawing of the snapped header brickwork, 1969, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 12.

Malcolm Cross, Photograph showing the back wall of the Chapel before it was removed, in A Chaplain Remembers, Alan Wright, 86, photograph.

Fig 34.

Reflected Ceiling Plan showing the use of timber and horizontal lines

Fig 13.

Cecil R and Graham F Lyons Architects, Original drawings of the Chapel by Cecil & Graham Lyons, 1969, from The Carey Archives.

Fig 35.

The ceiling

Fig 14.

Current floor plan noting locations of changes made to the Chapel since built

Fig 36.

Interior view, the apron stage, communion table and cross

Fig 15.

Photograph showing new glass put into the back wall

Fig 37.

Malcolm Cross, The Symbolic Tree in the Baptistery, sculpture by Clifton Pugh, in A Chaplain Remembers, Alan Wright, 86, photograph.

Fig 16.

North elevation

Fig 38.

Cecil R and Graham F Lyons Architects, Original internal elevation of the Narthex, showing the Baptistery 1969, from The Carey Archives.

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William C are y Chapel

References

Bibliography Sayers, Stuart. By Courage and Faith: The First Fifty Years at Carey Baptist Grammar School. Melbourne: The Hawthorn Press, 1973. Wright, Alan F. A Chaplain Remembers: Lifelong reflections on the educational and spiritual values shaping the William Carey Chapel.

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Melbourne: Westgate Publishing, 2006.

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William C are y Chapel

Appendix

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A

Field Notes

38

B

Photography

72

C 360° VR Photo

69

D Watercolour

81

E

84

Drawings

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Appendix A : Field Notes

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Appendix B: Photog raphy

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Appendix C : 360° VR Photo

https://goo.gl/maps/1DKRPZNPNAo

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Appendix C : 360° VR Photo

https://goo.gl/maps/dzjZDnX53KT2

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https://goo.gl/maps/7YdSbnrgTjE2

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Appendi x D : Watercolour

Acknowledgements

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William Carey Chapel  

Measured Drawings and Digital Heritage

William Carey Chapel  

Measured Drawings and Digital Heritage

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