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AR6702 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING Lecture and compiling

by Ar.A.Sivaraman, M.Arch, MCA, AIIA.


AR6702

HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PLANNING Syllabus

UNIT I INTRODUCTION 9 Elements of Human Settlements – human beings and settlements – nature shells& Net work – their functions and Linkages – Anatomy & classification of Human settlements – Locational, Resource based, Population size & Occupational structure. UNIT II FORMS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 9 Structure and form of Human settlements – Linear, non-linear and circular – Combinations – reasons for development – advantages and disadvantages – case studies – factors influencing the growth and decay of human settlements. UNIT III PLANNING CONCEPTS 9 Planning concepts and their relevance to Indian Planning practice in respect of Ebenezer Howard – Garden city concepts and contents – Patrick Geddes – Conservative surgery – case study – C.A. Perry – Neighborhood concept Le Corbusier – concept and case studies. UNIT IV URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN RENEWAL 9 Scope and Content of Master plan – planning area, land use plan and Zoning regulations – zonal plan – need, linkage to master plan and land use plan – planned unit development (PUD) – need, applicability and development regulations - Urban Renewal Plan – Meaning,Redevelopment, Rehabilitation and Conservation – JNNURM – case studies. UNIT V ISSUES IN CONTEMPORARY URBAN PLANNING IN INDIA 9 Globalization and its impact on cities – Urbanisation, emergence of new forms of developments – self sustained communities – SEZ – transit development – integrated townships – case studies.


EKISTICS


• the science of human settlements • includes regional, city, community planning and dwelling design • involves the study of all kinds of human settlements, with a view to geography and ecology — the physical environment — and human psychology and anthropology, and cultural, political, and occasionally aesthetics • coined by Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis in 1942


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House 4. House group (hamlet) 5. Small neighborhood (village) 6. Neighborhood 7. Small polis (town) 8. Polis (city) 9. Small metropolis 10. Metropolis 11. Small megalopolis 12. Megalopolis 13. Small eperopolis 14. Eperopolis 15. Ecumenopolis

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000 4 million 25 million 150 million 750 million 7,500 million 50,000 million

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos

–

1

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room

– –

1 2

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House

– – –

1 2 5

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Anthropos Room House House group (hamlet)

– – – –

1 2 5 40

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Anthropos Room House House group (hamlet) Small neighborhood (village)

– – – – –

1 2 5 40 250

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Anthropos Room House House group (hamlet) Small neighborhood (village) Neighborhood

– – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Anthropos Room House House group (hamlet) Small neighborhood (village) Neighborhood Small polis (town)

– – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Anthropos Room House House group (hamlet) Small neighborhood (village) Neighborhood Small polis (town) Polis (city)

– – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Anthropos Room House House group (hamlet) Small neighborhood (village) Neighborhood Small polis (town) Polis (city) Small metropolis

– – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House 4. House group (hamlet) 5. Small neighborhood (village) 6. Neighborhood 7. Small polis (town) 8. Polis (city) 9. Small metropolis 10. Metropolis

– – – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000 4 million

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House 4. House group (hamlet) 5. Small neighborhood (village) 6. Neighborhood 7. Small polis (town) 8. Polis (city) 9. Small metropolis 10. Metropolis 11. Small megalopolis

– – – – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000 4 million 25 million

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House 4. House group (hamlet) 5. Small neighborhood (village) 6. Neighborhood 7. Small polis (town) 8. Polis (city) 9. Small metropolis 10. Metropolis 11. Small megalopolis 12. Megalopolis

– – – – – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000 4 million 25 million 150 million

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House 4. House group (hamlet) 5. Small neighborhood (village) 6. Neighborhood 7. Small polis (town) 8. Polis (city) 9. Small metropolis 10. Metropolis 11. Small megalopolis 12. Megalopolis 13. Small eperopolis

– – – – – – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000 4 million 25 million 150 million 750 million

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House 4. House group (hamlet) 5. Small neighborhood (village) 6. Neighborhood 7. Small polis (town) 8. Polis (city) 9. Small metropolis 10. Metropolis 11. Small megalopolis 12. Megalopolis 13. Small eperopolis 14. Eperopolis

– – – – – – – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000 4 million 25 million 150 million 750 million 7,500 million

Ekistic Units


Note: The population figures below are for Doxiadis' ideal future ekistic units for the year 2100 at which time he estimated (in 1968) that Earth would achieve zero population growth at a population of 50,000,000,000 with human civilization being powered by fusion energy.

1. Anthropos 2. Room 3. House 4. House group (hamlet) 5. Small neighborhood (village) 6. Neighborhood 7. Small polis (town) 8. Polis (city) 9. Small metropolis 10. Metropolis 11. Small megalopolis 12. Megalopolis 13. Small eperopolis 14. Eperopolis 15. Ecumenopolis

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

1 2 5 40 250 1,500 10,000 75,000 500,000 4 million 25 million 150 million 750 million 7,500 million 50,000 million

Ekistic Units


HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

GENERAL


The definition of human settlement is as given below:

“The fabric of human settlements consists of physical elements and services to which these elements provide the material support. The physical components comprise shelter, i.e. the superstructures of different shape, size, type and materials erected by mankind for security, privacy, and protection from the elements and for his singularity within a community; infrastructure, i.e. the complex networks designed to deliver or remove from the shelter people, goods, energy of information. Services cover those required by a community for the fulfillment of its functions as a social body, such as education, health, culture, welfare, recreation and nutrition.� Services are color nodes

Physical elements (x axis)

(Shelter)

Services

Dwellings

Infra Infrastructure (y axis)


Human settlements means the totality of the human community - whether city, town or village - with all the social, material, organizational, spiritual and cultural elements that sustain it. The fabric of human settlements consists of physical elements and services to which these elements provide the material support. The physical components comprise, Shelter, i.e. the superstructures of different shapes, size, type and materials erected by mankind for security, privacy and protection from the elements and for his singularity within a community; Infrastructure, i.e. the complex networks designed to deliver to or remove from the shelter people, goods, energy or information; Services cover those required by a community for the fulfillment of its functions as a social body, such as education, health, culture, welfare, recreation and nutrition.


ELEMENTS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS


These elements always interact with one another.

A human being has some invisible spheres around him. These spheres are the spheres of the senses like touch, smell, sight, hearing and also supernatural or spiritual. The spiritual sphere is directly proportional to his intellect. People interact with one another by direct interaction of these spheres.

Human habitation requires a certain amount of overlapping of these spheres, and the planning of habitation would mean, social planning’. Human desires and endurances have remained the same throughout the years and manifestations of which have changed by evolution.


EVOLUTION of HUMAN SETTLEMENTS


The evolution of human settlements is a continuous cyclic process from the smallest, the room, to the largest possible, the universal human settlement. The process are born, develop, decline and die which can be compared to plant and animal which are everywhere in this universe. Settlements may have an initial structure, which only allows for a certain degree of growth, but nothing excludes the possibility of an expansion and transformation of this structure, which will allow them to surpass the initial structural limitations. The human settlements have no pre-determined death, though there is death in their activities, there will be born of another where the active exists.


The evolution of human settlements can be divided into five major phases:

1. Primitive non-organised human settlements (started with the evolution of man.) 2. Primitive organised settlements ( the period of villages - eopolis - which lasted about 10,000 years.) 3. Static urban settlements or cities (polis - which lasted about 5,000-6,000 years.) 4. Dynamic urban settlements (dynapolis - which lasted 200 - 400 years.) 5. The universal city (ecumenopolis - which is now beginning.)


1.Primitive human settlements ž Non - organised settlements


The man began to modify Nature and to settle temporarily or permanently in different location. Probably began with fire, they went on to animal husbandry and the domestication of grazing animals; afterwards came deforestation and agriculture, and with it, permanent human settlements. 1.Primitive human settlements ž Non - organised settlements

Man had settled first in natural shelters such as hollows in the ground, hollow trees or shallow caves, before he began to build his own primitive and unorganised habitat. After first exploiting natural formations and transforming them into dwellings, by various changes and additions, he began to create shells independent of, and unrelated to, pre-existing natural forms and their boundary were within certain limit beyond which the settlement had no link and transportation. For example observing the level of agriculture communities. The communities take up a smaller area where they are agricultural, and a larger one where they are hunting and cattle-breeding communities. Their nucleus under normal conditions is in the center of gravity; or of security problem, in the safest place in their area, or even beyond their area of cultivation. There are no transportation and communication lines between the communities. If we look at these primitive non-organised communities on a macro scale, there consists of a nucleus which is the built up part of the human settlement, and several parts which lead out into the open, thinning out until they disappear – either because nobody goes beyond certain limits of the community or because these trips take place so seldom that they would not be placed on the same scale of densities. There is no physical lines connecting this primitive settlement with others; there are no networks between settlements.


1.Primitive human settlements ž Non - organised settlements


2. Primitive human settlements Organised settlements


2. Primitive human settlements Organised settlements


Man, some ten to twelve thousand years ago, began to enter the era of organised agriculture, his settlements also began to show some characteristics of organisation.

2. Primitive human settlements Organised settlements

It required time and acquisition of experience in organising the relationship between man and man, man and nature, and finally expressing these relationships through cohesive forms of settlements. In initial the human had one-room dwelling in circular form, to organise the relationship of his community with other communities he expanded his dwelling by placing many round forms side by side, then elongated to elliptical ones and at some point came to conclusion and adopted the rectilinear forms. Due to the loss of space between them, they developed more regular shapes with no space lost between them. The evolution reached the stage at which a rectilinear pattern develops into a regular grid iron one.


In Nature evolution work towards a compression of circles and the gradual formation of polygonic systems, the clearest form of which is the hexagon. In evolution of human settlements we see two courses: 2. Primitive human settlements Organised settlements

On the micro-scale, where man must divide the land, construct one or more shells (rooms and houses), and circulate within a built-up area (neighbourhood), the solution leads to a synthesis at a right angle; On the macro-scale, where man must own and use space but not build it, and circulate within it, although to a much lesser degree than before (usually non more than one movement to and from every day), man continues to follow the course of nature towards hexagonal patterns. During this era of the development of human settlements the patterns or regional distribution of the settlements differ depending on the phase of evolution and the prevailing conditions of safety, the population still small, the villages can be found in the plains, near the rivers and near the sea. When the population becomes dense, new patterns develop, and the villages come over to cover the entire plain on the basis of the small hexagonal pattern and the hills and the mountains on a larger hexagonal pattern. The development of land cultivation, the population might be larger, but would still be smaller than that of the era of large population and full exploitation of the land, when it would reach five hundred thousand or even one million.


At some point 5,000 or 6,000 years ago, the first urban settlement appeared as small cities in a plain or as fortresses on hills and mountains.

As settlements grew in size, man came to realise that the principle of the single-nucleus was not always valid in the internal organisation of the total shells of the community, at this 3.Static urban settlements single nodal point, which was adequate for the village and for small cities, no longer or cities sufficed. The first thing to happen was the expansion of the nucleus in one or more directions; it was no longer limited to the settlement's center of gravity. Example: The small settlement of Priene, in ancient Greece, where the central nucleus expanded in two ways: first in a linear form along a main street which contained shops that would normally be clustered in the central agora, the secondly through the decentralisation of some functions, such as temples. In larger cities additional nodal points and central places gradually came into being within the shells of the settlements - a phenomenon that is unique to human settlements.


4.Dynamic urban settlements


Started in the seventeenth century and became apparent only a century later in all probability, it wall last for another 100 or 200 years until we reach the next phase that of the universal settlement. 4.Dynamic urban settlements

In the dynamic urban phase settlements in space are characterised by continuous growth. Hence, all their problems are continuously intensified (make stronger) and new ones continuously created. Dynamic settlements, created as a result of an industrial technological revolution, multiplying in number and form, and now being created at an even higher rate. The evils described in them are the evils of yesterday which are being multiplied today in a very dangerous manner. This makes the dynamic settlement completely different from any other category of settlements and a real threat to humanity itself.

Example: London - atmospheric pollution may be so severe as to account for 4,000 deaths in a single week of intense "fog". Hydrocarbons, lead, carcinogenic agents, deteriorating conditions of atmospheric electricity -- all of these represent retrogressive processes introduced and supported by man. The man's position is dangerous in the dynamic settlement, this can be shown through the following graph.


4.Dynamic urban settlements


First expansion of the urban settlement.

30 miles in diameter.

4.Dynamic urban • settlements Dynapolis:

All part of the land it covers is not sterilised.

The microorganisms in the soil no longer exist.

The original animal inhabit ants have largely been banished.

Rivers are foul and the atmosphere is polluted.

Climate and microclimate have retrogressed.


4.Dynamic urban settlements Dynapolis:


The first dynamic urban settlement - the early Dynapolis.

4.Dynamic urban settlements Dynapolis:

This is the phase when small independent human settlements when small independent human settlements with independent administrative units are beginning to grow beyond their initial boundaries. From the economic point of view this development is related to industrialisation, and from the technological point of view to the railroad era, which first made commuting from distance points possible. The settlements expands in all directions, instead of spreading only along the railway lines creating new islands of dependent settlements around railway stations, as during the phase of the early Dynapolis. The city is breaking its walls and spreading into the countryside in a disorgnised manner.


The next phase of dynamic settlement is of metropolis, which incorporates several other urban and rural settlements of the surrounding area

4.Dynamic urban settlements Metropolis I Dynametropolis :


4.Dynamic urban settlements Metropolis I Dynametropolis :

The few metropolises from the past became static following a period of dynamic growth, then declined and died. This was to a certain extent, true of ancient Rome in its last phases and Byzantine Constantinople - which disintegrated to such a degree that the mobs in the streets became uncontrollable and sometimes succeeded in imposing their will on the government. From the economic, social, administrative or technological point of view, the fate of the historical metropolises has been dynamic growth, a static phase, and then death. To base our experience on the history of cities, we must recognise the fact that a static phase for a metropolis is the prelude of its decline and death. In such a case this should be said as a dynamic metropolis, after losing its momentum for growth, becomes negatively dynamic. To calculate the number of metropolises attributed to the effect of the railway and to the effect of the automobile, we will find the latter to be much greater, out of all proportion to the number of the former. Dynametropolis, continuing its course towards becoming a megalopolis.


4.Dynamic urban settlements Megalopolis I Dynamegalopolis:

The area on a large scale including more than one metropolis and many other urban settlements and it cannot be static. A megalopolis has the same external characteristics as the metropolis, the only difference being that every phenomenon appears on a much larger scale. It is characteristic that all phenomenon of the development of human settlements up to the metropolis shown on a 100 sq.km. Scale, for megalopolis would be 1,000sq.km.


Regardless of whether dynamic settlements are simple (Dynapolis), or composite (metropolises and megalopolises), they have been growing continuously during the last centuries and this is apparent everywhere at present 5.The Universal human settlement: Ecumenopolis

i.e. the whole Earth will be covered by one human settlement. The population explosion, will be definitely be the most decisive factor in the next phase of human settlements.


Settlement Characteristics


Settlement Characteristics

Area

:

How large the area of a settlement is.

Site

:

describes the actual land upon which a settlement is built.

Population:

The size and type of people that live in a settlement.

Function :

The function of a settlement relates to its economic and social development and refers to its main activities.

Situation :

describes where a settlement is located in relation to other surrounding features such as other settlements, rivers and communications.

Shape

describes how the settlement is laid out. Its pattern.

:


Site Factors: Some sites have specific advantages that mean settlements developed in that place.


The function of a Settlement relates to its economic and social development and refers to its main activities. Function of a Settlement:


Function of a Settlement:


Function of a Settlement:


Function of a Settlement:


Function of a Settlement:


This refers to the arrangement of settlements in an order of importance , usually from many isolated dwelling or hamlets at the base of the Hierarchy to a Conurbation. Settlement Hierarchy

The order of importance is based on the following:   

The area and population of the settlement (size) The range and number of services/functions within each settlement The relative sphere of influence of each settlement


Sphere of Influence is defined as the area served by a particular settlement.

Sphere of Influence

The size of this sphere of influence depends on the size and functions of a town and its surrounding settlement ,the transport facilities available and the level of competition from a rival settlement. In general, the larger the settlement the larger the sphere of Influence. Eg: London compared to Barnsley Sphere of Influence is based upon two main principles: 1.Threshold Population: The minimum number of people needed to support a settlement or service. 2.Range: The maximum distance that people are prepared to travel to obtain a particular service


Sphere of Influence


Sphere of Influence


Sphere of Influence


Sphere of Influence


Sphere of Influence

Unit 1 human settlement planning  
Unit 1 human settlement planning  
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