Page 1

diploma project Design of a Rotary Evaporator Sponsor : iNVENT iNDIA INNOVATIONS, Ahmedabad.

Volume : 1 student : SIVAKUMAR T Programme : PGDPD

guide : PRAVEEN NAHAR

2013 industrial design (product design)

National Institute of Design Ahmedabad


2

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


The Evaluation Jury recommends SIVAKUMAR T for the

Diploma of the National Institute of Design IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN (PRODUCT DESIGN)

herewith, for the project titled "DESIGN OF A ROTARY EVAPORATOR" on fulfilling the further requirements by

Chairman Members :

*Subsequent remarks regarding fulfilling the requirements :

Registrar(Academics)

*


4

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Design of a Rotary Evaporator By : Sivakumar T Guide : Praveen Nahar

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

5


Copyright Š 2013 Student document publication, meant for Private Circulation only. All rights reserved. PGDPD, Product Design, 2010 - 2013, National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, India. No part of this document will be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, including photocopying, xerography, and videography recording without written permission from the publisher, Sivakumar T and National Institute of Design. All illustrations and photographs in this document are Copyright Š 2013 by respective people / Organizations. Edited and designed by: Sivakumar T E-mail: siva.sparch@gmail.com Processed at National Institute of Design (NID) Paldi, Ahmedabad-380007 Gujarat, India http://nid.edu Printed digitally in Ahmedabad, India. August 2013

6

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Dedicated to my Mother and Father

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

7


Preface As part of the curriculum at NID, the final year students are required to take up a diploma project at the end of their 4th semester (Post Graduate). This project is expected to follow the design process, and one is expected to work in the industry. The Diploma Project, is expected to be of 4-6 months duration. It is to implement the learnings of the student into an industry scenario. It exposes the student to learn how the industry functions and helps understand the limitations and constrains of working in the industry. This helps build a better understanding for students about the workings of a studio/corporate consultancy. This experience also helps you market your idea to the right people in the right way, enabling you to make the right choices when you set foot into the industry for good. The diploma project enables and enriches the students with experience with which he or she can confidently enter into the design field. I pursued my diploma project at Invent India Innovations, Ahmedabad, India. My project duration was from February to July 2012.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

9


Acknowledgements It is my pleasure to express my thanks to National Institute of Design and Invent India Innovations, Ahmedabad for offering me an opportunity to work on a Range of Lab Equipments. My special thanks to my guide Mr. Praveen Nahar (Coordinator, Industrial Design, NID Ahmedabad) and Mr. Sanandan Sudhir (Founder and Chairman, Invent India Innovations, Ahmedabad) for their guidance and constant help throughout the project. Many thanks to all, my faculty members at NID, who have imparted and shared their experience and knowledge to make me a professional designer. Also my sincere thanks goes to Mr. Ashish Shah, Mr. Sejal Chaudhari and Mr. Emil J Alex and the entire Industrial Design and Engineering team at Invent India Innovations for their guidance throughout the project. Special thanks to Dinesh and Mitin for the crucial eleventh hour moral support. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my friend, and graphic designer Lalith Prasad 17 times, for without him, this document would have looked like any other generic book.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

11


Contents 15 About 17 National Institute of Design 18 Product Design Discipline 19 Invent India Innovations

147 Concept 3.1 152 Concept 3.2 157 Concept 3.3 162 Concept 3.3 with Changes

68 Study of the Existing Prototype 75 Summary of the Improvements to be Done 76 Hot Tub Study 80 Refined Brief

21 Brief 22 Project Brief 25 Research 26 Understanding Rotary Evaporators 31 Need for Rotovaps 32 Application of Rotovaps 33 Rotovap Manufacturers 35 Rotovap Market 45 Form and Rich Looks 46 Gujarat University Visit 56 Inferences from the Visit 57 User Survey 61 Patent Study 62 Relevant Patents 64 Inferences from the Patent Study 65 Meeting with the Client 67 Minutes of the Client Meeting

169 Digital Prototype 83 Ideation 84 Initial Exploration

184 Conclusion 185 Learnings and Future Directions

95 Concept Level 1 106 Mock Up 1 107 Mock Up 2 109 Mock Up 3 109 Mock Up 4 114 Concept Level 1 | Feedbacks 117 Concept Level 1 | Minutes 118 Concept Level 2 | Presentation for Opportunities 138 Concept Strong 140 Concept Flow 142 Concept Organo 144 Concept Minima 146 Concept Level 2 | Feedbacks

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

13


About

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

15


National Institute of Design Education to create design professionals of excellence to help meet India’s diverse design needs. To train design trainers for other design and design-related institutions and positions in the 21st century as global leaders in Design Education and Research by recognizing the changes in economic and business environment nationally and globally. To help place designers in key sectors of national need for benchmarking of standards of design education and practice, and encouraging ‘thinking global and acting local’. Providing design inputs from the point of view of using design as an integrating force in varied areas like science, technology, management etc. to raise quality of life through well designed products, services, processes, systems, etc.

value to the upcoming professionals giving them a taste of actual situations.

To provide design intervention for craft, hand loom, rural technology, small, medium and large scale enterprises, and outreach programmes for capability and institution building and sustainable livelihood, employment opportunities and economic growth. NID has taken five decades of pioneering hard work by the academic community at the institute to develop a system of education which lays more emphasis on learning than on mere instruction. Over a span of the last 50 years, the institution has made it a point to lay emphasis on learning and to pursue innovation led designs through the development of the mind and skills of designers. This technique has motivated students to perform better and has given them an edge over other design professionals. The institute’s client servicing team facilitates students in getting involved with real life projects, which in turn adds

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

17


Product Design Discipline Products are part of immediate surroundings, our living spaces and our culture. Product design is the creation of objects of utilitarian value to people. Products function as part of larger systems, and the product designer’s role is constantly growing as he/she understands the larger implications of products, and the relationships with users.

18

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Product Design involves an understanding of materials, processes, ergonomics, human behavior and systems. Both conceptual thinking, and workshop and computer skills are essential for the product designer. Students work in a variety of individual and group projects, ranging from the very basic to the technically complex.

Today product designers need to be increasingly aware of technological advancements, and the social and ecological impact of their work. A wide range of inputs including History of Design, Systems Thinking and Form Exercises are essential in the product designer’s education.

Source: Author


Invent India Innovations Invent India Innovations Pvt Limited is a relatively young but one of the foremost design studios in India, doing multi disciplinary work, ranging from product design to enginering to graphic to interior design.

The studio has one of the cutting edge infrastructure existing in any design studio right now in the country. With an almost full fledged workshop, a 3D printer and computers which are ahead of its time, the studio is really a splendid place to work.

The employees in the studio are hard working and dedicated and work happens round the clock here. Working with clients from outside India means that work has to happen at non working hours also. This gives immense opportunity for them to learn.

The studio was founded by Sanandan Sudhir, aka Sandy in 2013 at the outskirts of Ahmedabad city. The works of product design done by the company are of multiple variety ranging from to secuity products, medical, consumer, and sports goods.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

19


Brief

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

21


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

23


Research

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

25


Understanding Rotary Evaporators A rotary evaporator is a device used fundamentally for the process of distillation. Distillation, as we could remember from our definition from our school science books, is a process of separating a solvent from a solution. A common example for such a process is the removal of pure water from a salt solution. The figure alongside shows schematically how a distillation apparatus looks like. From the figure we can spot the basic components of a simple distillation apparatus. 1. a container which holds the solution 2. a heating mechanism 3. a condenser to condense the solvent 4. a collection flask on the opposite side. The solution is filled inside the round bottom flask which is heated using a Bunsen burner / equivalent heating mechanism. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of the solute and the solvent. When the solution gets heated up, the solvent evaporates and starts to raise up in the form of vapour. The vapour then comes out of the evaporatory flask and then reaches the condenser. As the name suggests, the purpose of the condenser is to condense. The condenser is the place where the solvent which is in the vapour state condenses into the liquid form. To aid this process, chilled water is pumped into the condenser usually. The chilled water helps to bring down the temperature of the solvent in the vapour state, thereby condensing it to the liquid stage. the solvent in the liquid form then eventually flows down to the collection flask which is attached to the condenser, due to the action of gravity. Pretty simple.

26

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: Author


boiling point of a solution through changes in pressure.

A rotary evaporator is fundamentally the same, but an improved version of this distillation mechanism.

Relation between Vapour pressure, temperature and boiling point

To understand the Physics behind the workings of a Rotary evaporator, we should first understand something called Volatility.

The vapor pressure of a substance is the pressure at which its gaseous phase is in equilibrium with its condensed phases (liquid or solid). It is a measure of the tendency of molecules and atoms to escape from a liquid or a solid. A liquid’s atmospheric pressure boiling point corresponds to the temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure and it is often called the normal boiling point. But since pressure, temperature and boiling point are related to each other, it is often possible to reduce the

Volatility The first moment when we hear the word volatility, most people would associate it with something that could catch fire or explode easily. Although this might be generally true, it is not a very comprehensive definition of the word itself. Think of it like this. A volatile person might be one who could be emotionally unstable in a way that he could be hyper active, or could be short tempered, or could be someone who could get upset very easily. Similarly, in the world of chemical solutions, volatility is the character of a solution to vaporize itself from liquid or solid to gas. In chemistry and physics, volatility is the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance’s vapor pressure. At a given temperature, a substance with higher vapor pressure vaporizes more readily than a substance with a lower vapor pressure. The term is primarily written to be applied to liquids; however, it may be used to describe the process of sublimation which is associated with solid substances, such as dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) and ammonium chloride, which can change directly from the solid state to a vapor without becoming liquid. The figure alongside shows the Vapour Pressure chart of common substances

Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vapor_pressure, accessed on 30th August 2013.

The higher the vapor pressure of a liquid at a given temperature, the higher the volatility and the lower the normal boiling point of the liquid. The vapor pressure chart (top) displays the vapor pressures dependency for a variety of liquids as a function of temperature. For example, at any given temperature, methyl chloride has the highest vapor pressure of any of the liquids in the chart. It also has the lowest normal boiling point (-24.2 °C), which is where the vapor pressure curve of methyl chloride (the blue line) intersects the horizontal pressure line of one atmosphere (atm) of absolute vapor pressure. Look at it this way. Imagine the solution as a collection of molecules, which actually it is. Now all these molecules have intermolecular forces which make them stick to one another. This stickiness between molecules is what we often call viscosity. Physically, a liquid with higher viscosity is thicker and a liquid with lower viscosity is thinner. For example, coconut oil has a higher viscosity than water. When molecules are attracted towards one another, they behave like friends. This is how they are in the liquid state. If we look at them in a molecular level, what we are doing to them while heating them is actually trying to break their friendship. When they turn to their gaseous state, they are more independent of each other, with much less attraction between them – they turn enemies, so to say. And this is what we need. So the intention is to break their friendship and help each of the molecules get away from every other and

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

27


thereby setting them free, to become a part of the gaseous state of the same substance. The friendship between these molecules, depend not only on temperature, but also on pressure. Now that we know that heating them causes them to break away from one another, we can also try to pull them apart. This is done by reducing the pressure around them. When we reduce the pressure over the solution, the tendency of each molecule to rise up, and break free from their friends becomes higher. So, reducing the pressure over the solution aids in breaking free the molecules of their inter molecular attraction, and eventually, on a human scale, vaporizing the solution faster. So, lower the pressure over the solution, easier it is for the solution to vaporize, and consequently, the amount of heat needed to be applied to the solution reduces.

1. since the whole activity happens at a lower temperature, there are less chances of glassware breakage due to heat 2. because of bearable temperature, the process becomes safer to the user. 3. integrity of the solution can be maintained at a lower temperature rather than at a higher temperature. The figure in the adjacent page shows a typical rotary evaporator. As we can see in the figure, the major parts are named in itself. The most important of all these, and the very reason for its name, is the presence of a motor at the heart of the device.

So, vaporization happens at a lower temperature, and in technical terms, the boiling point of the solution reduces. And in other words, when the boiling point of the solution reduces, the rate of its evaporation increases.

To understand why we would need a motor in the process of distillation, we ought to understand something called Centrifugal force.

Now that we have understood the mechanics behind evaporation, let us come back to our rotary evaporator. The rotary evaporator does exactly this. It is an improvement over the simple distillation mechanism because the rotary evaporator uses a vacuum pump to reduce the pressure inside the evaporatory flask, and thereby easing out the process of evaporation, and making it happen quicker and at a lower temperature.

“Centrifugal force is the apparent force that draws a rotating body away from the center of rotation. It is caused by the inertia of the body as the body’s path is continually redirected. In Newtonian mechanics, the term centrifugal force is used to refer to one of two distinct concepts: an inertial force (also called a “fictitious” force) observed in a non-inertial reference frame, and a reaction force corresponding to a centripetal force.”

This is important not only because it makes the whole process quick but also,

Putting it in a simpler language, any Body under a Nonlinear motion is always acted upon by a fictious

28

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Wikipedia defines Centrifugal force as

force which pulls it towards the centre of such a non linearity, thus creating an equal and opposite force attributed to the inertia of the particles of the body itself, by virtue of its motion. It might be easier to understand centrifugal force with reference to solid rigid bodies like for example a fully packed bus on the road, taking a right turn. If we were inside such a bus, we could experience a force which is pushing us towards the left side of the bus. This imaginary force is called Centrifugal force. We experience centrifugal forces in a variety of forms in our daily lives. Centrifugal force applies to liquids as well. Imagine a huge bucket with very little water filled in it. Putting you hand inside the water and stirring it at high speed would make the water move in circular motion, and thereby causing the whole volume of water present inside the bucket to raise higher along the walls of the bucket, as shown in the figure below. What we can see form the picture is that as the water is stirred faster and faster, the level to which it rises along the walls of the bucket becomes higher and higher. This means that we are increasing the surface area of water getting exposed. Increased surface area aids in evaporation as the more the area exposed to the outer atmosphere, the easier it is for each molecule to escape from their friends and become a part of the vapor state of the liquid. Imagine we do the same experiment with oil instead of water. We all know that oil is more viscous [thicker] than water. When the same experiment is done with oil, it turns out that this process of evaporation happens even more quickly. This is because the viscosity of


oil helps in making its molecules stick to the wall of the bucket for a longer time, and thereby aiding in increasing its exposed surface area even more, and consequently, creating conditions even more favorable and conducive for evaporation to happen. This is the very reason why there is a motor attached in a ‘Rotary’ Evaporator. The constant rotation of the evaporatory flask, increases the net exposed surface area of the solvent being heated and thereby, increasing the rate of evaporation. So, we have, uptil now seen two improvements of the Rotary evaporator over the conventional simple distillation set up – the pressure reduction, aided by the vacuum pump, and the surface area increase aided by the rotation of the evaporatory flask. There is one more reason why rotation is important in a Rotary evaporatory flask. As we could see from the typical rotary evaporator, there is a heating bath present at the bottom right of the device set up. During operation, the heating bath is filled with either water [when temperatures below 100 degree celcius is required] or oil [when temperatures above 100 degrees are required]. This is then heated to the required temperature electrically. The evaporatory flask is dipped partially into this liquid in the heating bath. Since the evaporatory flask is not directly heated, but it is done indirectly through the heating agent [water/oil], the heat transfer from the source to the flask happens uniformly all across the surface of the glass. On the contrary, the usage of a Bunsen burner or the like creates hot spots on the surface of the evaporatory flask, thereby resulting in non-uniform heating of the solution at hand. On top of this, when the flask rotates while dipped Image source: http://www.lineupdb.com/rotary-evaporators.html, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

29


partially inside the heating bath, the process of heating becomes even more uniform. Hence rotary motion in the evaporator helps not only in making the process of evaporation quicker, but also more uniform.

simple distillation apparatus and a Rotary Evaporator 1. Pressure Reduction by the Vacuum Pump 2. Surface area increase brought about by the Rotation of the Evaporatory flask 3. Uniform Heating aided by the Hot tub.

The other problem with the simple distillation apparatus is premature reaction. Lets say we have filled our evaporatory flask with a mixture [solution] of molecules of red color and molecules of green color. It could be a beverage, or any other homogeneous solution. The intent is to separate the green molecules from the red molecules. For this purpose, if we employ the conventional distillation process, we are going to require a much higher temperature because we are playing with only one factor – temperature. Since higher temperatures are conducive to reactions, there is a higher possibility for the green molecules and the red molecules to react in between themselves to yield a new group of yellow molecules before themselves evaporating at all. This is called premature reaction.

Although these are the major improvements of the Rotovap over the conventional Distillation apparatus, we should keep in mind that there are often a countless other small improvements which we could list down.

On the contrary, if a rotary evaporator is used to accomplish our intention, the temperature requirements are going to be much lesser, as we are technically lowering the boiling point of the substance [red or green, whichever will boil first], and because of this the chances of heat attributed premature reactions are drastically reduced. Thus our green molecules and red molecules do not react with each other; instead they just get separated from one another, as intended. So in almost all cases, when we don’t need the premature reaction to occur, we would be needing to work at a lower temperature. So we play with our pressure variable to achieve our intention. Hence our Rotovap. So, lets summarize the major differences between a

30

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Need for Rotary Evaporators Apart from the improvements stated above, there are few other reasons why we need Rotary evaporators. Control over the operation As we will see in the types of different Rotovaps in the coming pages, there are a number of things which you could control using the Modern day Rotovap, which, otherwise could not have been possible, using a conventional distillation apparatus. Small features like Auto Timer function, Programmable controls etc, go a long way in easing the whole operation and making the life of the Lab user better in every way. Safety Today’s Rotary evaporators come with a number of safety features ranging from automatic flask lift system in case of a power outage, Shielding systems when working with highly volatile compounds, automatic shutdown in case of a malfunction etc., Ease of operation With loads of automatic programmed functions, data handling algorithms, and embedded wireless connectivity options, the work of the user is highly eased out. With state of the art Rotary evaporators, users can program automatic start up and shut down times for specific kinds of solutions, inspect the operation from distance, and can even keep track of the log digitally. Efficiency As we have already seen, the Rotary evaporator is way more efficient in the process of distillation than a conventional distillation equipment. With optimum vacuum pumps, highly air tight PTFE joints, contemporary rotary evaporators go a long way in terms of efficiency when it comes to the job at hand.

Image source: http://www.ika.com/Products-Lab-Eq/Rotary-Evaporators-Rotary-evaporator-distilling-distillationcph-35/, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

31


Application of Rotary Evaporators Recycling of solvents Thanks to its precise and safe heating functions, today’s Rotary evaporators can be employed for the recapturing of clean acetone from used laboratory acetone. Adjustable safety circuits, safety hoods and carrying handles are essential safety features supporting you when it comes to the recycling of solvents. Performance of extractions With state of the art rotary evaporators and the multiple glassware options available, extraction is a breeze - whether you extract essential plant oil or comparable substances. Concentrating of active agents Rotary evaporators are used to elevate the concentration of medical agents like eucalyptus oil safely and easily. Avoiding ‘Bumps’ become essential especially when dealing with expensive samples.

laboratory separation of all non azeotropic mixtures such as water-acetone. Some also come with unique features like the high-precision heating bath temperature setting and expandable solvent library. Distillation of solvents with a low boiling point Rotary evaporators come in handy in scenarios where solvents with low boiling points have to be distilled. With addditions like Dry ice condensers, solvents with very low boiling points like chloroform [chloroform boils at 61.2°C at standard temperature at pressure] can be distilled with ease. Distillation of temperature sensitive substances under vacuum Rotary evaporators are also used to distill highly temperature sensitive substances, under vacuum. For example, distillation of Absinth under vacuum – its flavor is not destroyed in the process of distillation. Distillation of oxygen sensitive substances under inert gas

Drying of powders As we know that a ‘solution’ is a homogeneous mixture of a liquid, with a liquid or a solid, there are cases when we might have to separate the liquid component from the solid component. One such scenario is drying of powders. A variety of powder types can be dried using a rotary evaporator. Special accessories like the ‘Powder flask’ of IKA help us achieve this. Separating of substance mixtures Due to new and innovative built-in features most of today’s rotary evaporators are used for general

32

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Due to the presence of air tight joints and vacuum pump, oxygen sensitive substances can be distilled under the presence of an inert gas. This would have been impossible with a conventional distillation apparatus. A common example of such a process is the distillation of Ether, without the formation of Peroxide. Chemical synthesis with reflux The concentration and preparation of saprogenine through hydrolysis is possible due to additions like vertical intensive reflux condensers. Thus maximizing the recovery.

Extraction With cutting edge functionality and safety features, modern day Rotary evaporators make retention of residual methanol during bio diesel purification processes possible. Distillation specific parameters can be stored, turning our extraction into child’s play.


Manufacturers of Rotary Evaporators

Company Profile

Company Profile

Company Profile

When top researchers and specialists stare at little vessels, mesmerized, it’s usually because of IKA. And it’s about samples and processes that change our future. After all, substances in all aggregation states under lab conditions and in production facilities are turned into innovative products with IKA. Mixed or crushed, tempered or distilled, as part of new compounds or reproducible results. From anti-aging crème to cement, as a tissue sample or groundbreaking development, in the µ area or on an industrial scale.

Food and medicine are products which are essential for human life and health. In addition, chemistry is fundamental for research and product development in many different industries.

As a leading manufacturer of laboratory equipment, we are an innovative and globally active company. With a local footprint in more than 80 countries, we support pharmaceutical research, the cosmetics industry, the biology as well as the chemistry sector with our products and services, significantly contributing to improving the quality of people’s lives all over the world.

At the same time IKA not only ensures the highest level of precision and quality of the results, but also proves by means of its innovative designs that a lab does not have to be boring and that it is possible for innovation to be visible. Laboratory and analysis devices boasting modern designs are produced at the headquarters in Staufen. In the last few years, the company has been able to significantly expand its leading position worldwide with a remarkable line-up of devices including magnetic stirrers, overheard stirrers, dispersers, shakers, mills, rotary evaporators, lab reactors, and calorimeters.

BUCHI serves all these markets, particularly the pharmaceutical and food industries in many ways. BUCHI’s core products are generic tools in the laboratory and chemists throughout the world have sharpened their skills using them during their professional education. In the industry, BUCHI products support important processes starting with the discovery of new chemical compounds in the research and development laboratories, through optimization during scale-up and, finally, providing quality control in the production process for raw material or end products. BUCHI is a leading world-wide supplier in key technologies such as evaporation and separation for research laboratories as well as near infrared spectroscopy and reference methods for quality control purposes. Our goal is to sustain a high level of competence in product development, manufacturing and application around these technologies. We believe that providing high quality products and responsive service will support the innovation and effectiveness of our customers.

Our organization is headquartered in Schwabach, a city within close proximity to Nuremberg, Germany. It is here that the development and production of our equipment as well as the coordination of our domestic and international sales, marketing and customer support activities take place. Respect for the personal and professional development of our employees has created a strong commitment to success, resulting in a dynamic period of growth and prosperity for the Heidolph organization. As a result, the Heidolph team is continuously striving to achieve industry-leading product quality and customer service while maintaining a strong customer-focused approach to developing products and services that help to improve the efficiency of scientific research.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

33


Company Profile

Company Profile

Profile

SCILOGEX is a new brand of innovative and unique laboratory products for all areas of research. Every product has been carefully selected for quality and priced to meet your budget so your lab can operate at its highest level of efficiency. Our goal is to provide great products, great prices and great service.

The Stuart range of benchtop science equipment for laboratories comprises over 100 products including block heaters, blood tube rotators, colony counters, hotplates, stirrers, rockers and shakers, rotary evaporators and water baths.

Apart from the European and American manufacturers, there are a host of Chinese Manufacturers who make innovative Rotary Evaporators. Most of them, which can be found online, through web based resellers come with a variety of innovative features. The Chinese market is growing at an enormous rate.

SCILOGEX Liquid Handling Products and Bench-top Instruments are available ONLY through our authorized distributor network. To locate a distributor in your area, please contact us. Our knowledgeable staff will be delighted to provide you with pre-purchase support and product recommendations. Our Liquid Handling Products products come with a 3 year warranty and our Bench-top Instruments come with a 2 year warranty and manufactured in an ISO9001 facility so you can purchase in confidence.

Stuart are also market leaders in melting point apparatus and water stills, with the Aquatron and Merit ranges. All Stuart scientific products are designed, manufactured and marketed in an ISO9001:2000 environment in our ultra modern factory. Every step from new product development to after sales service follows documented and traceable procedures. The result is a quality focused culture committed to total customer satisfaction. All electrical products produced by Stuart Scientific conform to the latest safety directives including the European CE requirements. For total compliance, all products are tested and approved by a fully accredited external test house. Stuart lab products will be compliant with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment directive, WEEE and the Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substances, RoHS directive before their introduction.

34

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Rotary Evaporator Market

ika rv 8 flex

IKA RV 8 Flex Graphic Analysis White and Blue combination White highlights Red highlights on the glassware Black base to add heavier bottom and a stronger look

IKA RV 8 V

IKA RV 8 VC

Digital interface is white on black Neutral and cool colors fits the product safely in a laboratory Blue is the IKA brand identity, so a blue pattern is being followed with the major color white

Image source: http://www.ika.com/Products-Lab-Eq/Rotary-Evaporators-Rotary-evaporator-distilling-distillationcph-35/, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Interesting features Oval hot tub Dual displays Minimal base for sliding purpose The base has an interesting ‘y’ form

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

35


Graphic Analysis White and blue combination White highlights Black base to add heavier bottom and a stronger look Digital interface is white on black Neutral and cool colors fits the product safely in a laboratory Blue is the ika brand identity, so a blue pattern is being followed with the major color white Interesting features Dual display mounts but digital display on only one Oval hot tub Vacuum pump comes along with the product Physical buttons are provided for up and down motion. But the display does not move with the motor.

IKA RV 10 Basic V

36

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

IKA RV 10 Basic VC

Image source: http://www.ika.com/Products-Lab-Eq/Rotary-Evaporators-Rotary-evaporator-distilling-distillation-cph-35/, accessed on 24th August 2013.


IKA RV10 Digital Flex Graphic Analysis White and blue combination White highlights Black base to add heavier bottom and a stronger look Digital interface is white on black

IKA RV10 Digital V

IKA RV10 Digital VC

Neutral and cool colors fits the product safely in a laboratory Blue is the ika brand identity, so a blue pattern is being followed with the major color white

Image source: http://www.ika.com/Products-Lab-Eq/Rotary-Evaporators-Rotary-evaporator-distilling-distillationcph-35/, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Interesting features

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

37


IKA RV10 Control Flex

IKA RV10 Control Flex Auto

IKA RV10 Control V

IKA RV10 Control V Auto

Graphic Analysis white and blue combination white highlights black base to add heavier bottom and a stronger look digital interface is white on black neutral and cool colors fits the product safely in a laboratory blue is the ika brand identity, so a blue pattern is being followed with the major color white Interesting features Dual displays, both at the front bottom All the Rotovaps in this category have physical buttons for up and down motion near the display. But the display does not move with the motor casing. IKA RV10 control VC

38

IKA RV10 control VC Auto

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: http://www.ika.com/Products-Lab-Eq/Rotary-Evaporators-Rotary-evaporator-distilling-distillation-cph-35/, accessed on 21st August 2013.


Graphic Analysis White base and grey controls and elements Green and red physial buttons for high visibility White and black display Interesting features Physical lever for up down motion Cylindrical hot tub Triple displays, two on tower and one on hot tub

Buchi Rotovapor 210 215 models

Image source: http://www.buchi.in/, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

39


Graphic Analysis White base and grey controls and elements Green and red physial buttons for high visibility White and black display Interesting features Very geometric form factor

Buchi Rotovapor R2 and R3 models

40

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: www.buchi.in, accesses in August 2013.


Graphic Analysis White and grey combination with orange highlights Black and white display The logo has been placed on the hot tub right in the centre, very bold The graphics follow a very organic path even though the form is very geometric Interesting features Very compact packaging and footprint Physical button near the display for Up and Down motion.

Image source: http://www.heidolph-instruments.com/#&panel1-1, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

41


Graphic Analysis The primary color scheme is white and blue combination The branding revolves around blue so a blue feel is brought in for the product also Chrome accents adds a very Asian character to the product.

Interesting features Very organic in terms of form Single display at the bottom, facing the user Very fluid form for the hot tu.

42

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: http://www.scilogex.com/, accessed on 21st August 2013.


Essentially there are three Stuart rotary evaporators, the motorised stand is the same throughout but the glass orientation changes. The diagonal condenser is the more traditional style of rotary evaporator and is preferable where height restrictions apply. The vertical condenser offers a more compact footprint, useful for use in fume cupboards for example. The cold finger condenser is the option you would choose if you don’t have a constant water supply for cooling the evaporated solvent. Then there are the rotary evaporator accessories, a water bath is commonly used to control the temperature of the Florentine flask, but a pump or combination of the two can be used to control the boiling point of your solvent mix. The recirculating cooler is ideal if you need extra cooling capacity or simple want to save water. Stuart Rotary evaporators tap on the modularity concept to give the user the freedom to customize the rotovap that he wants.

Graphic Analysis

Interesting features

The primary color scheme is white and grey combination Chrome and steel highlights sprinkled around here and there on the product.

Modularity concept Basic functional looking styling.

Image source: http://www.stuart-equipment.com/category.asp?dsl=118, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

43


Graphic Analysis Most of them have a white base and blue / grey highlight. Neutral cool colors Branding has been done in various ways. Chinese Rotovaps often come with chome accents which gives a very Asian character to the product. Interesting features Towerless design Up-down and rotary motion combination without the need for horizontal motion Exposed motor form factor Various positions of display and controls Towerless configuration eliminates the need for heavy mass in the centre

44

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: www.alibaba.com, accesses on August 2013.


Organic

Form and Rich Looks

Desired Place

Cheap

Expensive

Boxy

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

45


46

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Gujarat University Visit Buchi Evaporator To understand the working of a Rotary Evaporator First hand, a visit was made to the Institute of Chemical Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, at Gandhinagar. The institute had a Buchi Evaporator, shown in Fig.x.x in a perfectly working condition. The visit to the institute not only gave an opportunity to study the Rotary evaporator in detail, but also interact with the actual users of the Evaporator, and collect inputs from them which would be essential in giving insights on the improvements that can be done to the same. In the following pages, a photographic documentation of the complete process of the operation of the Buchi Rotary Evaporator, as it was demonstrated at the institute, is shown. Each activity is explained step by step with the help of visuals to better understand the the safe and efficient usage of the Rotary evaporator for the purpose of Distillation.

Image source: Author

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

47


1,2. The Rotovap as we saw it the moment when we first saw it! This image shows the state of the rotovap when we first had a look at it. In the following images, you will find snapshots of the operation of the same as explained to us by the people at the University of Gujarat School of Chemical Sciences. 3. The collection flask was attached at first. The collection flask as told to us, is usually a round bottom flask and it is fixed tightly to the bottom part of the condenser using a clip. The volume of the collection flask depends on the expected volume of solvent which will be evaporated and condensed from the initial solution.

48

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

11

12

13

14

4. Fix the collection flask with a clip The collection flask was attached at first. The collection flask as told to us, is usually a round bottom flask and it is fixed tightly to the bottom part of the condenser using a clip. The volume of the collection flask depends on the expected volume of solvent which will be evaporated and condensed from the initial solution.


5. Fix the collection flask with a clip The collection flask was attached at first. The collection flask as told to us, is usually a round bottom flask and it is fixed tightly to the bottom part of the condenser using a clip. The volume of the collection flask depends on the expected volume of solvent which will be evaporated and condensed from the initial solution. 6. Locate the bump trap The bump trap is then located on the other side of the main tower. The bump trap is the place where the evaportaion flask is attached. The main purpose of the bump trap is to prevent entry of the original initial solution from entering

15

16

17

18

the condenser, in case of an accidental bumping. The bump trap is not always necessary. In some cases, the evaporation flask is directly attached to the adapter [the grey part]. The bump trap serves as an extra precaution.

8. Remove the bump trap completely This image shows the Rotovap in the status where the existing bump trap is removed. The new bump trap is yet to be attached.

7. Remove the existing bump trap. The existing bump trap which was attached is removed and a new bump trap of appropriate size, compatible with the yet to be installed evaporation flask is then installed on the adapter.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

49


9. Remove the bump trap completely This image shows the Rotovap in the status where the existing bump trap is removed. The new bump trap is yet to be attached. 10. Attach the appropriate bump trap This image shows the Rotovap in the status where the existing bump trap is removed. The new bump trap is yet to be attached. 11. Attach the appropriate bump trap This image shows the Rotovap in the status where the existing bump trap is removed. The new bump trap is yet to be attached.

50

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

19

110

111

112

12. The vacuum pump This particular vacuum pump shown in the image is from the same manufacturer Buchi, which had manufactured the rotovap also. But according to what we were told, many manufacturers develop and manufacture only the rotovap and a vacum pump from a third party can be installed in its place. But it should be made sure beforehand that the power input / output rating of the particular motor conforms with the rotovap.


13. The hot tub The hot tub is the place where water / oil is heated to a desirable temperature which is in turn used to heat up the solution inside the evaporation flask, for evaporating the solvent from the solution. For cases where temperatures below hundred degree centigrade is needed, water is used in the hot tub. But in cases where the desired temperature is more than hundred degrees, oil is preferred. The hot tub has a control knob as well as a display. The knob is used to et the desired temperature and the display if for a visual feedback from the

113

1 14

115

1 16

15. The condenser The condenser is the glass apparatus where the evaporated solvent is condensed. The condenser has a helical tube inside in which cold water from the chiller is passed through. Upon contact with the outer surface of the helical tube, the solvent which is in a vapour state, condenses and trickles down. The solvent then ultimately reaches the collection flask in the liquid state.

16. The chiller The chiller is the unit where water is chilled. There are cases where chiller from a third party manufacturer is installed for this purpose.

14. The main tower The main tower is the central part of the rotovap which consists of the drive unit onto which all the other glass apparatus’ are attached. There is a motorized and controllable provision for moving the arm up and down.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

51


17. The mains is switched on The rotovap, hot tub, and the vacuum pump generally have different power supplies. 18. The vacuum pump is switched on The vacuum pump shown in the image is from Buchi itself. It is turned on using the green switch visible in the image. 19. The rotovap is turned on The rotovap is turned on by using the green switch shown in the image. The display lights up as soon as it is turned on. The display generally shows the

52

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

1 17

1 18

1 19

120

20. The temperature is set in the hot tub The desired temperature of the heating agent is set in the rotovap. We were told that a maximum of 200 degrees can be set in the rotovap shown currently. Upon switching on and setting the temperature, the heating process starts and the current temperature of the heating agent is also shown in the display.


21. Up and down motion of the arm controlled by the controller The up and down motion of the drive unit situated on the main tower is performed by operating the switch the person in the image is currently touching. A slight lie towards the top side moves the drive unit towards the top and vice versa. 22. The evaporating flask is attached to the bump trap The evaporating flask is then half filled and attached to the bump trap. Upon attaching the flask to the bump trap, it should be fastened with a clip as an extra protection from leaving the flask to fall down.

121

122

123

124

23. The drive unit is lowered down so that the evaporating flask touches the surface of water. The drive unit is lowered down to the point where the evaporating flask touches the surface of the heating agent. This is done using up/down switch the person in the image is currently touching. 24. The RPM of rotation can be varied using the controller knob The knob located on the main tower is used to set the RPM count of the drive unit. We were told that more the RPM, more is the rate of evaporation of the solvent.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

53


25. Rotovap in operation The image shows the rotovap in operation. The evaporation flask is revolving at the set RPM and the heating agent [water] in the hot tub is getting heated. The display on the hot tub shows the current and the desired temperature of the heating agent. Evaporation of the solvent keeps happening and the vapours of the solvent is condensed in the condensed on the other side of the rotovap. The condensed solvent is collected in the collection flask. 26. Display The display shows the temperature status.

54

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

125

126

127

128

27. Rotovap in operation The image shows the rotovap in operation. The evaporation flask is revolving at the set RPM and the heating agent [water] in the hot tub is getting heated. The display on the hot tub shows the current and the desired temperature of the heating agent. Evaporation of the solvent keeps happening and the vapours of the solvent is condensed in the condensed on the other side of the rotovap. The condensed solvent is collected in the collection flask.

28. Condensation in the condenser The solvent which is evaporated in the evaporation flask turns to vapor. The vapor then rises to the condenser, assisted by the vacuum suction from the pump. The vapor upon reaching the condenser is assistively cooled by the cold water being circulated in the coolant. Being helical, the surface area of the cold glass surface is kept at a maximum for this to happen. The condensed solvent is then collected at the bottom in the collection flask. The vacuum inside the system can be varied by adjusting the valve shown in the image, which allows air to enter the system from outside. By allowing air, the pressure gradient maintained between the condenser and the evaporating flask can be changed.


129 29. Vertical movement stopper. The stopper is located on the underside of the drive unit. The function of the stopper, as the name suggests is to preventing the drive unit to descend excessively and make the glass components attached to it to hit the other parts of the rotovap.

130 30. Evaporated solution is collected in the collection flask The image shows the solvent being collected in the collection flask.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

55


Inferences from the visit 1. Handle for Up-down control The handle for moving the glassware attachment up and down is extremely important to the working of the rotary evaporator. The control is best experienced tactile for the reasons of precision and feedback. Any small movement is desired up or down, a touch screen system would fail because of lack of tactile feedback to the user.

2. Multiple glassware problem The problem with every rotary evaporator is the multiple glassware issue. This is the most important problem a user might face while working on the rotary evaporator. the rotovap has certain fixed components and certain movable components. an intelligent design of the rotovap would be one which allows maximum number of different types of glasswares to be accomodated and used with the existing physical parts of the rotovap with as much ease as possible, for the user. for example, a smartly designed rotovap should be able to accomodate both 50ml and 5000ml evaporatory round bottom flasks with the same hot tub and motor casing, with as low mechanical movements as possible.

56

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

3. Hot tub this issue is closely related to the multiple glassware problem, or it might even be interpreted as a different way to explain the same problem. from the working of the rotovap, it was found that the user might have been more comfortable working with a bigger hot tub, or a movable hot tub or both. using very large flasks, even if rarely, poses serious problems when smaller hot tubs are used. the situation might be worse if the hot tub is both small and immovable. 4. stopper the stopper is a small attachment at the bottom of the tower to prevent it from going down below a certain point. a small jerk was observed in the movement when the stopper hit the bottom level. the material of the stopper would have been a reason for the jerk in the movement. the experience could be better if the tower stops a little more smoothly without a disturbing jerk. 5. Display and control The Buchi rotovap which was studied at the university had a single non-removable display at the bottom of the product in front of the hot tub.

Since it was non removable, it was not possible to conduct volatile experiments remotely.


User Survey Is the display too tall / far from you while using the Rotovap? Will making it tilt-able help you? What else can be the solution? The display is not too tall, but it is preferred to be at the bottom for easy access. Keeping it on top also keeps it behind the motor casing, which sometimes obstructs the vision when the rotovap is kept on a higher table. Tiltable will not make so much sense because the issue is not about display angle, it is about display height.

More than a list of questions, the current project needed me to understand the users from a more non binary point of view. that means that all the inputs from the users cannot be obtained from them answering a set of multiple choice questions. So, a list of questions were prepared which were designed in such a way that it could spark a conversation between both of us. So the replies and inferences obtained from this conversation session was non empirical in terms of the answer being just a ‘yes’ or a ‘no’. Visits were made to the lab and users were studied when they were working and every activity of the user was noted. There were a few places where they felt uncomfortable using the equipment, and a few places they used some parts of the equipment in an unexpected way - a way it was not meant to be used for. All these nuances were noted. And being with the users when they were working on the product gives us huge insights about the improvements that can be made to the current product.

Would you be needing a bigger display? How big? A bigger display would be better for viewing more details like graphs which can be plotted etc., also, a display with more contrast would help the users see small details on the screen in day time. On top of that a matte surface finish for display glass is preferred to avoid disturbances of reflections on the screen. when it came to size, the bigger the better.

Image source: http://www.buchi.in, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

57


What sizes of glass apparatus do you use in the hot bath? Do you face issues installing the largest apparatus? Please explain. Evaporatory flasks are the major glass apparatus that the users use in the hot tub. The sizes of the flasks vary from 50ml to even 5 litres. But most of the times, flasks which are used are under one litre in capacity. But there are instances, once in a while where a bigger flask has to be attached to perform distillation of a huge volume of a solution. It was not really a problem attaching flasks under a litre, but when it comes to flasks above 1000ml, special arrangements have to be made like moving the hot tub prior to the installation of the flask etc., it would have been simpler if the rotovap comes with a guide on the hot tub which tells till where the tub should be moved. By that way, the process gets so much more easier. Do you think the heat bath is too small for operation? Would you prefer a bigger heat bath or a movable heat bath? Please explain. The heat bath is not very big in size, which makes it adequate for day to day use. It becomes an issue when we are using bigger flasks. We will have to move the hot tub and carefully attach the flask after this. People who are used to the rotovap can do this in no time, but for people who are new, it takes a while to get used to this procedure. A movable hot bath is definitely a plus point. On top of that if the movement can be done seamlessly, it will be even better. For example, if it is a motorised hot tub, which can move horizontally, and if it has an electronic setting for each size of the flask, itt will makee the job even morre easier. The current size of the tub is good enough for most operations if it is seamlessly movable.

58

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: www.buchi.in, accessed on 28th August 2013.


Does the control arm raise itself on a power outage? Do you think it should? Being in Gujarat, the users have experienced power outages very few times. But they sttrongly feel that in case of a power outage, the Rotovap should go back to its most stable position. Its most stable position, obviously is when the tower is lifted to the top. So, raising on a power outage is a must for the Rotovap.

Is it easy to remove solid sediments from the round bottom flask? What do you think can be the solution? The kind of distillation done in labs are mostly from solutions of liquid and liquid, but there are cases now and then when a solution between a solid and a liquid is separated. In those cases, there are chances of the solid sticking to the inner surface of the flask. The users generally seeem to be using a scrubber which can be inserted into the flask to clean it. It is a manual process, and they seem to have no major difficulty in doing it.

Image source: http://www.buchi.in, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

59


Would you prefer a moving / sliding hot tub or a swiveling / moving evaporatory flask?

Which assembly do you use the most? Diagonal or vertical? Why?

The users were of the opinion that a movable hot tub would be of greater help to them to fix multiple flask sizes than a swiveling mechanism for the flasks. It could be an added feature, but it should not take precedence over the mobility of the hot tub. Also, since most of the work happens with only the evaporatory flasks, the need for a swivelling mechanism for the flask was rather unnecessary.

The vertical assembly was used the most by the users. Due to space constraints, the diagonal assemby was not preferred.

Have you broken any glass apparatus while usage? What was/were the reason(s)? There were cases where apparatus were broken at the lab. Some were due to mishandling, and some were due to the inexperience in using Rotovaps. There was an instance where a breakage occured whn the tower was moved up or down. The up-down switch was pressed for a long time, it got stuck and the flask hit the hot tub, which resulted in a breakage. Do you think the device is safe for operation? If not, why? The device was felt absolutely safe for operation. Most of the distillation wok happens with non volatile solutions which are generally safe to use. Rarely, there are cases when distillation has to be performed on volatile solutions. In those circumstances, it would be better when the work is done remotely. and if the rotovap comes with a shielding mechanism.

60

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Do you face issues sliding / moving the hot bath? Please explain. The movement of the hot bath was not of any major issue in the operation f the rotovap. But it would be better if the whole process, as stated earlier, would be more seamless and less complex.


Patent Study Patent Study

Photograph showing all the patent print outs on table lying around

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

61


Relevant Patents US PATENT 4522684

US PATENT 5536374

Abstract: An elevational operating device for a rotary evaporator comprises a pole, an elevating member, which rotatably supports a sample vessel and which is mounted at its base portion to the pole to freely and vertically move, and an elevational operating pipe mounted in parallel with the pole to elevate the elevating member by the rotation of the pipe. The elevational operating device is by further provided a nut member adapted to be threadably inserted into the elevational operating pipe. The nut member is inserted into an inserting hole formed in said elevating member with a clearance for allowing a small and relative motion.

Abstract: An evaporatory flask for a rotary evaporator is formed in two portions: a bowl and a lid secured to the bowl by a connecting ring. The lid is connected to a rotary drive means, and a conduit passes through the lid to provide fluid communication between the interior of the flask and a condens-

62

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

er. A mechanical scraper or stirrer is affixed to the end of the conduit within the bowl portion of the flask.

Image source: https://www.google.com/?tbm=pts#q=rotary+evaporator&safe=off&spell=1&tbm=pts, accessed on 21stAugust 2013.


US PATENT 5919339

US PATENT 6740206

Abstract: A rotary evaporator of the present invention has an insertion area of a rotary joint in a straight shape. This area is movably inserted to a motor rotor of a motor by a sleeve in an axial direction. Bushes are inserted between the rotary joint and the sleeve for integrating the rotary joint and the sleeve by a fastening force generated by a fastening cap engaged with a screw section of the sleeve. With the abovedescribed structure, when the outer peripheral surface of the rotary joint is abraded by a sealing member, the fastening cap is loosened and the rotary joint is slightly moved to the axial direction so that the rotary joint is moved to an appropriate or an optimum position along the axial direction. On the other hand, when a sample container is small, the fastening cap is loosened and the rotary joint is moved to the axial direction so that the rotary joint is moved to an appropriate or an optimum position along the axial direction. Thereafter, the fastening cap is fastened again.

Abstract: A rotary evaporator including a rotating flask to hold the substances to be evaporated, and a drive to rotate the rotating flask around an axis of rotation that runs through the rotating flask, wherein the rotating flask additionally can be swiveled around a swiveling axis which runs outside of the rotating flask and, relative to the force of gravity, runs above the axis of rotation of the rotating flask.

Image source: https://www.google.com/?tbm=pts#q=rotary+evaporator&safe=off&spell=1&tbm=pts, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

63


Inferences from the Patent Study The patent study gave a different dimension to an otherwise monotonous and generic research. It was found from the patent study that so many innovations were made at sevaral parts of the device starting from the rotary flask, to the way in which it is attached to the rotary motor, to the up and down degree of freedom of the device, to the sealing mechanism for vacuum pressure etc., it was especially eye opening to find patents which directly fall under the realms of industrial design like the scooping mechanism of US Patent 5536374 and the swiveling flask mechanism of US Patent 6740206. this brought to realisation the immense possibilities of interventions that can be done to the current rotary evaporator in terms of geometric and physical interventions. it was found that different manufacturers have devised different ways to deal with the probems of motion and consistency in the rotary evaporator. the problem of attaching multiple flasks of different sizes has been handled beautifully in certain cases like in the one shown aside. inspired from these innovations a few ideas and concepts were thought of and a brainstorming session was carried out. the visuals of the session can be seen in the following page.

64

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: http://montreal-biotech.com/Products/?link=Strike+300+Rotary+Evaporator, accessed on 21st August 2013.


Meeting with the Client

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

65


66

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Minutes of the Client Meeting 1. A Bigger screen with 16:9 aspect ratio would be preferable to see information like graphs etc., probably a display size of 5 or 7 inches would do the job. In the current prototype, we have the display at the top of the tower. But the display cab be at a lower height also. By that, it will be user friendly for short people also. The display and the main device can communicate through RF or GSM. 2. The current Prototype has limited Automatic program settings. There can be more auto functions programmed based on the Industrial design of the Product. 3. A Movable Hot Tub is indispensable when evaporatory flasks of multiple sizes are used. So the ID should definitely contain provision for a movable hot tub. 4. It is even possible to have a Remote Display which can be detached from the main device in cases where experiments with volatile substances are done.

5. In the current prototype, we have a temperature sensor in the hot tub and the tub and the tower is connected through Radio Frequency. 6. For the Up and Down motion of the tower, right now we have a touch screen control. But brands like Buchi have a physical up and down switch. We will have to decide which one to use based on ergonomics and ease. 7. The Internals of the tower consists of majorly two parts – the lower portion houses the hydraulic mechanism which moves the tower up and down; the upper portion houses the electronics which run the device. The hydraulics is fixed and cannot be changed. The same components will be sourced from the same vendor for the final product also. But changes can be made to the electronics. The electronics used in the current prototype are a bit old. So when electronics are re-done, the size of them will probably reduce. The power supply unit can be integrated to the main tower, so there are no independent components lying around

outside the main device. 8. The overall Form of the device should be made sleeker and more expensive looking. 9. The Base on which the hot tub sits should be made sleeker; the form of the hot tub should gel with the base, but should somehow be graphically differentiated from it for the user to know which component is moving and which is not. 10. The hot tub can be powered from the base – a ‘Kettle-type’ connection which consists of a dock which can be slided over the base and the hot tub placed on the dock can be used for making this possible.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

67


Study of the Existing Prototype

68

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Hot tub and Base

The current design of the hot tub and base is very basic and rudimentary. The combo does not have the option to slide the hot tub, and it is very heavy both visually and actually. Both the hot tub and the base have to be completely reworked upon depending upon the requirements.

90 % Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

69


Tower

The tower of the prototype houses the major internal components of the device. the upper portion of the tower houses the electronics which run the machine and the lower half of the tower has the hydraulics which makes the up and down motion of the tower possible. The size and the dimensions of the hydraulics is frozen since the same design will be used for the final product also, but all the electronic components can be reworked upon. This gives the designers the freedom to make changes in terms of size and form of the upper part of the tower. 70

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Stopper

The stopper is a small device at the bottom of the tower to fix the upward and downward motion extents of the tower. It has a slidable segmented scale which can be used as a measuring reference.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

71


Motor casing

The motor casing houses the rotary motor and the pulley system associated with it. the current form of the motor casing is very dull and uninteresting. the mold

72

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

for the motor casing has been already made. Because of this, the client might be a little reluctant to make changes to the design of the motor casing. But with the

looks of the product in mind, a styling change for the casing had to be pushed for.


Dismantling the prototype

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

73


Internals

74

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Summary of Improvements to be done Hot Tub The existing hot tub is bulky and the forms tends to be uninteresting. It should be made sleeker and attractive with an option to probably attach a display to it or a display which will be integrated to it. The hot tub should be movable sideways for accomodating rotary flasks of multiple sizes. It should probably have a handle for this purpose. Display The existing display is too small for operation. The display size has to increase to either 5 inches or preferable 7 inches. The display should either be removable [wireless] or tiltable so that even shorter people could use it when the display is mounted at a higher place.

Internals The hydraulic component of the interior is finalised and cannot be changed since the same type of component will be sourced from the vendor. But the electronics have the possibility of change. the current electronics are bulky and can be reduced in size, as promised by the electronic engineers. If the size of the electronics is reduced, then the size of the tower also can become smaller and slimmer than the existing one. Styling The current form of the Product is too rudimentary and basic. It had to made expensive looking and the buid has to made to look sturdy. The Product should compete globally with players like IKA and Buchi.

Motor Casing The mold for the current design of the motor casing has been already made. It is highly unlikely for the client to invest in it more. Tower The current tower in the prototype is visually as well as actually heavy. The internals which go into the tower are basically two parts - the hydraulics for the up and down motion of the tower and the electronics which operate it. The tower can be slimmed down to a cerain extent. the measurements of the hydraulics as well as the electronics were taken. Base The base of the current prototype The base should be able to accomodate a slidable or a movable hot tub. For this purpose, the base should be having rails and electric joints which is movable / slidable.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

75


Hot Tub Study

Based on the summary of the improvements listed in the previous page, we found out that the major issue to be solved in the product is the movement of the hot tub. Movement of the hot tub called for definition of parameters on which the distance to be moved and the size and shape of the hot tub has to be calculated. So, drawings of existing parts of the rotovap as well as the drawings of the glasswares provided by vendors like IKA was taken and the pieces were laser cut to scale. The basic aim of this activity was to make an animatic stop motion movie of different geometric positions possible with as many different sizes of flasks as possible. To be sure about the sizes, the extremes of the flask sizes and one intermediate size were taken; namely, a 50mL flask [smallest], a 1000mL flask [intermediate] and a 5000mL flask [upper extreme]. Foam pieces of these flasks were cut out and frames showing different possible combinations of how they would geometrically place themselves in between the other parts of the device were photographed frame by frame using a camera mounted on a tripod. After shooting almost 300 frames of different quantums of the possible positions, a movie was made for presentation purpose for the client. On the next page, six images can be seen - the first three images are these 300 frames ghosted and super imposed on one another. The bottom three images show the geometric locii these flasks would take, when viewed the 76 Diploma Projectfrom | Design of front. a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: Author


50ml

1000ml

5000ml

The sequnce of images above show the geometric locii of the positions of all the three flask sizeswith respect to the hot tub. Blue shows the overall locii superimposition of the 50mL flask, green shows the same for the 1000mL flask and red for the largest 5000mL flask. In the next page, we can find all these three locii superimposed together to form a global locii from which we can roughly find out the various possible positions the glasswares can take. Based on this the movement leverage fot the hot tub can be calculated.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

77


78

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Snapshots from the movie

Inferences from the exercise: Either the dimension of the hot tub should be increased from 295.3mm to something more than 320mm or, a movement leverage of atleast

25mm or more should be given for the hot tub if the current design of the hot tub has to be used.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

79


Redefined Brief

80

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

81


Ideation

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

83


Initial Explorations

84

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

85


86

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

87


88

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


[17] Colour Futures 12 International Colour trends 2012 booklet. Retreived on 04 ‎July ‎2012 Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

89


90

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

91


92

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

93


94

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Concept level 1 Apart from the initial sketches and mock ups, a few options which shows the primary intent of the configurations with every permutation and combination possible was presented to the client. These include the variations in the base, the type of display and the sliding nature of the hot tub.

Slidable Hot Tub Detachable Display.

Minimal Base Detachable Display

Regular Base Detachable Display

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

95


Regular Base Regular Display

96

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Slidable Hot tub Regular Display

Minimal Base Regular Display


A few form explorations for the Main Tower was also made and sent to the client to freeze on a certain direction of form language.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

97


98

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


A few sketches were made for the side view also and sent to the client. Variations were made in the size and overall proportions of the main first level chamfer.

Normal Double Chamfer. The form is flat at the top.

Normal Double Chamfer. The form is flat at the bottom.

Normal Double Chamfer. Keeping the form a little pointed at both ends gives a very light and sporty feel.

Wavy Double Chamfer. The chamfer can accomodate surface variation in the front for display.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

99


Normal Double Chamfer. Flat at the top and bottom gives a very stable feel.

100

Normal Double Chamfer. Chamfer is brought down a bit lower.

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Normal Double Chamfer. Flat at the bottom.

Normal Double Chamfer. But loose curves gives a very organic and curvilinear feel.


Normal Double Chamfer. Variable Chamfer gives a funky and sporty look.

Normal Double Chamfer. Curvilinear chamfer.

Normal Single Chamfer. Keeping the form a little angular at both ends gives a very light and sporty feel.

Normal Double Chamfer. This was the form that was finalised earlier.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

101


Along with the form options for the main tower, a few form options were tried out for the display on the hot tub format and how it can be integrated with the body of the hot tub. The size and aspect of the display was not finalised at this point of time. That gave me the freedom to come up with very organic forms as well as forms from the safer side. Some of those are shown below.

102

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

103


A few forms were explored for the Motor Casing also keeping in mind the internals of the motor casing which consists of the motor and a pulley system.

104

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

105


Mock Up 1

Mock up 1 1. Normal wide base 2. Rectangular casing for the hot tub 3. Form of the hot tub casing is in line with the form of the tower. 4. Non slidable hot tub format 5. Chamfered edges for the tower and an angular bottom

106

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Mock Up 2

Mock up 2 1. Normal wide base 2. Rectangular casing for the hot tub 3. Form of the hot tub casing is in line with the form of the tower. 4. Non slidable hot tub format 5. Chamfered edges of the tower ends up in a more stable horizontal bottom 6. The downward slope has been removed so that it is in-line with the top edge of the hot tub

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

107


Mock Up 3

Mock up 3 1. Normal wide base 2. Rectangular casing for the hot tub 3. Form of the hot tub casing is in line with the form of the tower. 4. Non slidable hot tub format 5. Chamfered edges of the tower ends up in an angular bottom 6. The tower is mounted on a cylindrical skeleton for vertical sliding 7. A cylindrical extrusion might work well with the geometric form of the motor casing

108

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Mock Up 4

Mock up 3 1. Minimal base 2. Rectangular casing for the hot tub 3. Slidable hot tub format 4. Chamfered edges of the tower ends up in an angular bottom 5. The tower is mounted on a chamfered cuboidal skeleton for vertical sliding

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

109


110

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

111


112

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

113


Concept level 1 | Feedbacks

114

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

115


116

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Concept Level 1 | Minutes 1. Display is a little too long when compared to the proportion of the overall product. The display can come down to 5 inches. It is not absolutely necessary to have a 7 inch display.

5. Unnecessary parts of the base can be cut out. So that we can save on material as well as it takes minimum footprint on the table. The base can be made as minimal as possible.

2. And also because of it being large, it is not completely visible due to the Motor casing which comes in the middle. Not much change can be made to the motor casing. So the display has to be moved up or should be made a little smaller so that itt is not interfered by the motor casing.

6. The size of the hot tub is a little too much. The hot tub size can be reworked upon. Visual mass should be avoided as much as possible. The product should give a feel of an expensive as well as a stylish dynamic entity in the laboratory.

3. Keeping the Assembly in mind, a hancle is needed, on top which there should be a slider switch which is used for moving the tower up or down. 4. The Base can be a solid and not a sheet type. This can be done just for a visual purpose also.

7. The base should be heavier for sliding the hot tub. Although it should be actually heavy, it can be made visually as subtle as possible. 8. A proper handle is required to move the hot tub left or right. The form of the handle should go with the overall form of the product.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

117


Concept level 2 | Presentation for Opportunities The second level concept presentation was done in order to re instate the different things in the initial prototype which can be improved upon and to come to a freeze point of what all changes will be incorporated in the final product. So the presentation which was made for the client includes the major points of improvements that can be done, one by one, followed by a slide showing how other people have addressed these concerns and eventually followed by the solutions we propose to enhance the feature, and sketches demonstrating those. The main areas of concern were the following 1. The position and the kind of the display The market is filled with rotovaps with various kinds of displays - some have a single display, some have two display at two different heights, and some even go to the extent of having three displays. a few variations were thought of and proposed as concepts. Usability was one of the main concerns here. a display on the top of the tower would make a short user very uncomfortable. so a few concepts with multiple displays and lower mounted displays were thought of. 2. The form of the motor casing The form of the motor casing was a major bottle neck in the project. the current form of the motor casing is not in line with the form direction the client had chosen for the rest of the product. but since the tooling for the motor casing was made already, it was a tough decision to make when it comes to the economic viability of the project in this regard 3. Up-Down operational controls Up down motion of the tower is extremely important for making the rotovap adaptable to a variety of glass fixtures. rotovaps in the market do this in a variety of ways - some have physical sliders or buttons which

118

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

moves the tower up or down, some have controls on the display to perform this activity, some have physical buttons on the tower, and some even go to the extent of having touch screen controls for the up and down motion. 4. Combo Motion advantage It was found out in the previous analysis that the up down motion of the tower is one of the most important features the product should have. the up and down motion, coupled with the horizontal motion of the hot tub and the angular motion of the motor casing increases the adaptability of the product with a wide range of glass fixtures including spider glass apparatus. which means a lot of freedom for the user, with the same device. 5. Up-Down Stopper The up and down motion is limited by a stopper usually at the bottom of the device.


Display Position

All products in the market have either two displays or a single display in the bottom side of the device. Ease of access becomes the primary reason for having the display at a lower height.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

119


Current Prototype

Having the controls for the hot tub on the top side of the tower is not very intuitive and thereby increases the cognitive load on the user by a great extent, introducing discomfort. A display contextually close to the hot tub will ease the operation.

120

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Proposed Concepts

Dual Displays

Dual Displays - Detached bottom

Simple Display at the bottom The three concepts proposed will reduce the cognitive load on the user to a huge extent since they are closer for operation and contextually close to the hot tub.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

121


Form of Motor Casing

All the rotovaps in the market, including the ones designed in China have a very harmonious form where the form of the motor casing clearly reflects the overall form of the product. So it is strongly recommended that a harmonious form language is adopted for the rotovap being designed.

122

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: alibaba.com, accessed on August 2013.


Current Prototype

As the photographs show, the form of the motor casing in the current prototype does not gel well with the overall form of the product. A variety of formal explorations can be done in this area

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

123


Proposed Concepts

Integrated

Cross Chamfer

Linear Chamfer The three form concept directions proposed above reflect the formal essence of the overall product. The chamfers on the motor casing gels with the first level chamfers of the overall rotovap.

124

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Up-Down Operation

The up-down operation in today’s buchi evaporators are carried out with slider button on a lever connected to the movable tower itself. By this, the user gets tactile feedback of the whole process, and thereby less cognitive stress and precise control over the movement. the image on the right shows a chinese made rotovap where

the up-down slider is connected to the non movable part of the whole device. In this case, although you will get a tactile feedback of the action, you might not have an intuitive and precise control over the movement. the up-down slider which is connected to the movable part of the rotovap, that is the tower was recommended.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

125


Current Prototype

As we can see, the user does not have total intuitive control over the movement of the glass apparatus while using the touchscreen for moving the apparatus up and down. The current system [in the IKA product shown in the middle] requires the user to look at the glass apparatus, the hot tub, as well as the touch screen at the

126

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

same time. It is a highly demanding task to do all this at once. using a physical up-down slider which moves along with the rest of the apparatus will give the user a more precise and intuitive control over the whole action. The physical up-down slider which is attached to the movable part of the device was recommended.

Image source: http://www.ika.com/Products-Lab-Eq/Rotary-Evaporators-Rotary-evaporator-distilling-distillation-cph-35/, accessed on 24th August 2013.


Proposed Concepts

Attached to Base

Attached to Tower Base

Attached to Motor Casing. Can double up as rotation controller also

The proposed physical feedback systems positioned at strategic parts of the device are very intuitive in terms of operation and thereby reduces the cognitive load on the user. The option where the control is attached to the casing itself was recommended as it can perform

Attached to tower

the dual functions of up-down as well as the rotation controller of the motor casing. Thereby attaching an extra controller for either of the purpose is eliminated

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

127


Up-Down Stopper

As we can see, the user does not have total intuitive control over the movement of the glass apparatus while using the touchscreen for moving the apparatus up and down. The current system [in the IKA product shown in the middle] requires the user to look at the glass ap-

128

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

paratus, the hot tub, as well as the touch screen at the same time. It is a highly demanding task to do all this at once. Using a physical up-down slider which moves along with the rest of the apparatus will give the user a more precise and intuitive control over the whole

action. The physical up-down slider which is attached to the movable part of the device was recommended.


Rotation of Motor

The rotation of the motor casing, and thereby the glassware which goes on top of the hot tub is made seamless in IKA, Buchi, and Heidolph rotovaps by the usage of friction joints and locking mechanisms. Having this is extremely important to acoomodate multiple flasks and for ease of use.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

129


Multiple Flask Sizes

All rotovap manufacturers have devised their own methods of accomodating multiple flask sizes. IKA gives a 150mm movement leverage. Buchi uses a ‘fit all sizes’ tub that gives a 200mm movement leverage. Even chinese manufacturers give a movement leverage, though it cannot be done while you are at work.

130

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: http://www.ika.com/Products-Lab-Eq/Rotary-Evaporators-Rotary-evaporator-distilling-distillation-cph-35/, www.buchi.in accessed on 29th August 2013.


Current Prototype

The current prototype does not have a huge hot tub which can fit all flask sizes, nor does it give any movement leverage on either sides. This limitation can be over come by either using a larger hot tub or a movable hot tub, or a tub which can do both. In the previous study, we had found and concluded that ‘either the di-

mension of the hot tub should be increased from 295.3 mm to something more than 320 mm or, a movement leverage of atleast 25 mm should be given for the hot tub, if the current design of the hot tub is used.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

131


Proposed Concepts

Bigger Hot Tub

Motorised

Non-Motorised Three ways of accomodating flasks of all sizes have been shown. either one of them has their own advantages and disadvantages. Bigger tub means more material and space on table. Motorised would mean installation of a motorised sliding mechanism. Non motorised would be bare simple with just a rail and two handles to move.

132

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Combo Motion

Bigger Hot Tub

Motorised

Non-Motorised The evaporatory flask / glass apparatus can be moved in three axes with respect to the hot tub - the up-down, the angular, and the sideways movement [made possible by the hot tub itself]. Having control over movement in these three axes makes it totally possible to use flasks of different sizes without any breakage or any discomfort.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

133


Form Trends

134

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: http://www.engadget.com, http://www.core77.com, accessed on 24th August 2013.


Modern Shapes

Image source: http://www.engadget.com, http://www.core77.com, http://braun.braun.com/in/ home.html accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

135


Automotive Chamfers

136

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Image source: cardesignnews.com, accessed on 27th August 2013.


Neutral Character

Image source: http://www.ifdesign.de/awards_product_index_e, accessed on 30th August 2013.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

137


Concept Strong

Break in Chamfer to add Dynamism

Lock Knob for Motor Casing Rotation Markings for easy Motor Casing Rotation

Motor Casing form goes with the rest of the Product

Ergonomically sculpted handle for hot tub movement

Bottom display unit housing hot tub sliding control Knob

138

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

139


Concept Flow

Organic form to add fluid character

Lock Knob for Motor Casing Rotation Markings for easy Motor Casing Rotation Motor Casing form goes with the fluid form of the product

Ergonomically sculpted handle for hot tub movement

Bottom display unit housing hot tub sliding control Knob

140

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

141


Concept Organo

Fluid Chamfer

Lock Knob for Motor Casing Rotation Markings for easy Motor Casing Rotation Motor Casing form goes with the fluid form of the product

Ergonomically sculpted handle for hot tub movement

Bottom display unit housing hot tub sliding control Knob

142

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

143


Concept Minima

Break in Chamfer to add Dynamism

Lock Knob for Motor Casing Rotation Markings for easy Motor Casing Rotation

Motor Casing form goes with the rest of the Product

Bottom display unit

Manually movable hot tub

144

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

145


Concept level 2 | Feedbacks Outcome of the rotovap concept presentation. 1. DISPLAY Single removable display was required by the client, which can be docked to the tower as well as to the hot tub. In this system, volatile experiments could be carried out from a distance without any safety issue. 2. MOTOR CASING The mold was already made for the motor casing assembly. Any changes that will be made to the existing mold will only increase the size of the motor casing and negating the whole point of making a new one. So it was highly preferred to keep the existing design for the motor casing assembly. 3. UP-DOWN LEVER The up-down lever placement and the reason for the placement was absolutely fine. The only concern was to make sure the Up-Down controller and the assembly does not intrude with the other parts of the device. 4. ANGULAR MOVEMENT Having a motor for the rotary movement of the motor

146

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

casing will not be possible because there is no space inside the motor casing for accommodating a motor. A friction joint and locking mechanism would do fine.

8. MULTIPLE FLASK SIZES I have asked the drawing for the ADAPTER which is used to attach the evaporatory flask to the motor.

5. STOPPER The stopper should be variable in length [and lockable] with legible markings, as it is in the current prototype. The idea of a rubberized tip for impact absorption was well received.

9. MARKINGS ON BASE Markings are required on the base as units of glass assembly volume. Like 100ml, 200ml, 500ml, 1L, 5L etc., so that we exactly know where to push out hot tub to accommodate flask of the specific size. This is possible given the adapter for all the flask sizes are the same [universal adapter].

6. HORIZONTAL MOTION Start working on the non motorized option for now. We will take time in finalizing the size and placement of the motor for the motorized option. If the non motorized option is finalized, attaching a motor and making it a motorized option would not be a huge task. So start working on the non motorized option. 7. KETTLE TYPE JOINT We, at glassco, have a detail figured out for the kettle type movement joint. It has 2 rails on either sides and the electric connection in the middle. I have asked the drawing for the same, as well as the interior details of the hot tub.

10. FINAL CONCEPTS The client seemed to prefer the concept MINIMA, for both the tower form as well as the hot tub form.


Concept 3.1

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

147


1 2 3 4

Dock for display on Tower Detachable Wireless Display + Control Markings for Motor Rotation Pointer for Motor Rotation

148

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

5 6 7 8

Motor Casing Up Down Conrol Switch Display on Hot Tub Hot Tub

9 Pointer and Segmentation for Tub Motor 10 Minimal Base with Kettle type Connection and Rail for Hot Tub Movement


149


150

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

151


Concept 3.2

152

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


1 2 3 4

Dock for display on Tower Detachable Wireless Display + Control Markings for Motor Rotation Pointer for Motor Rotation

5 6 7 8

Motor Casing Up Down Conrol Switch Display on Hot Tub Hot Tub

9 Pointer and Segmentation for Tub Motor 10 Minimal Base with Kettle type Connection and Rail for Hot Tub Movement

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

153


Diploma Project | Range of Lab Equipments


155


156

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Concept 3.3

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

157


1 2 3 4

Dock for display on Tower Detachable Wireless Display + Control Markings for Motor Rotation Pointer for Motor Rotation

158

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

5 6 7 8

Motor Casing Up Down Conrol Switch Display on Hot Tub Hot Tub

9 Pointer and Segmentation for Tub Motor 10 Minimal Base with Kettle type Connection and Rail for Hot Tub Movement


159


160

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

161


Concept 3.3 Changes made according to Client feedbacks 1. Up-Down Lever 2. Motor Casing Comparison 3. Segmentations

162

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Proposed Motor Casing

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

163


Proposed Motor Casing

164

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Existing Motor Casing

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

165


Existing Motor Casing

166

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Comparison between Existing and Proposed Motor Casing

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

167


Digital Prototype


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

169


170

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

171


172

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator


Conclusion After the refinements, the digital and the physical prototypes were made and given to the client. The project indeed bring a new look and feel to their existing design of the rotovap and small incremental innovations like the oval hot tub, the removable wireless display etc, are expected to benefit the user immensely. From a styling standpoint, the visual language of the product was kpt minimal as well as interesting by the usage of variation of color and surface. This interesting interplay between these two parameters and the graceful curves which guide them is strongly expected to appeal to the user, especially the ones in the Asian market. After the completion of the Rotary evaporator for Glassco, we expect oher products which the company produce also to match up to the standards of the current rotovap not only in terms of performance, but also in terms of styling and visual character.

Sivakumar T | PGDPD Product Design | National Institute of Design

173


Learnings and Future Directions Working on this project gave me an immense amount of learning in terms of design, material, manufacturing, and last but not the least, how to get along with a client. Being a live project, it called for interventions at every stage which was carefully studied by the client who then gave their feedbacks, based on which the next stage was worked upon. This was also the first time I worked on a product in this category. And being a very function oriented product gave me the opportunity to think before making sketches, for it was not a standalone styling project like how most concept projects turn out to be. In the context of the product, we expect it to go into production in the near future, and a complete revamp of the entire product range of Glassco to be upto the standards of the current rotovap. Sister models of the device are also expected, with added and subtracted features etc., Working on such a product opened my eyes as a product designer to always look for improvements to be done however good what you have done already is. Also, it gave me an opportunity to work on something more function intensive, which I had been looking for. I hope I can use all this wonderful learning in the rest of my career.

174

Diploma Project | Design of a Rotary Evaporator

Rotary evaporator - design documentation  

Documentation of my diploma project at NID. Design of a Laboratory distillation equipment - Rotary Evaporator.

Rotary evaporator - design documentation  

Documentation of my diploma project at NID. Design of a Laboratory distillation equipment - Rotary Evaporator.

Advertisement