Exploring Nature and Society Cooperation in Higher Education and Research between Norway and Russia 2002-2006
Contents 03 Everything Revolves around Knowledge 07 The Programme Presentation of projects 08 From Telemark to Novgorod – The Norman Programmes 19 Sampling Russian Arctic Rivers – The MAREAS Project 10 Psychiatric Health Care in Northwest Russia and Northern Norway – The Barents Project in Psychiatry–
20 A Bridge to Business - Research and Education in a Northwestern University Alliance (BRUA)
12 Life at the Edge – Benthic Fauna at the Barents Sea Ice Edge in a Changing Climate (BASICC)
22 The Legal Challenges of Russia’s New Economy
14 Reconstructing the Ice-Age History of the Russian Arctic
24 Collaborating in Social Work – The Pomor III Project
16 Sustainable Exploitation of Hydrocarbons in the Barents Sea
26 Analysing the Structure of Pollutants 27 Project overview
18 Market Regimes in the Resource Management of Northwest Russia
Published by the Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Higher Education (SIU) and The Research Council of Norway, March 2007
2 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
Editor-in-chief: Hanne Alver Krum Editorial staff: Birgit Jacobsen, Bente Gundersen, Arne Haugen, Ragnhild Solvi Berg
Connie Stultz - translation (pages 3-6) Søren Munch - text revision of project presentations The project coordinators have contributed with texts describing their projects
Cover photo: Arkhangelsk region, Kenozero National Park photo by: Mikhail Kudryavtsev Layout: Konvoi as Printed by: Bryne Offset Circulation: 500 ISBN 978-82-997480-3-2
Foreign ministers Jonas Gahr Støre and Sergey Lavrov in good mood in the Russian Government's guesthouse in Moscow, February 2006. Photo © Sergey Gratchev.
Everything Revolves around Knowledge BY MORTEN STRAND
“Research and education is the focal point of the collaboration between Norway and Russia. All other cooperative efforts revolve around it,” says Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs Jonas Gahr Støre. Støre is the architect behind the Norwegian Government’s High North strategy, one of the centre-left government’s fi rst and most important focus areas. The Norwegian Government has identified
Norway’s relationship with Russia as one of its most important policy areas, and ambitions are high. “Our vision must be to establish a relationship between Norway and Russia like the one we have with Sweden and Denmark. I am aware, of course, of the cultural differences, but we must have a vision,” said Støre to this author one year ago. To say that Støre had his feet fi rmly planted on the ground would not be quite accurate since the conversation took place 10 000 feet over the Baltic Sea. But the cabin pres-
sure was normal, and nothing otherwise indicated that the then relatively new Minister of Foreign Affairs had lost his senses.
History and opportunities Støre was enthusiastic following his marathon visit to Russia which had taken him to Murmansk, St. Petersburg and Moscow. And in our conversation on the way home to Oslo, he emphasised the opportunities – Russia as the land of opportunity. Støre is not the fi rst to do
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 3
so. As long as Norway and Russia have existed, the two countries have had contact with each other. In the beginning the contact also took place at the highest levels. A thousand years ago pretenders to the throne came from Norway to Russia as political refugees, child slaves and fortune seekers. They returned home as men richer in terms of wealth, experience and in at least one case – we are told – love. When Harald Hardrada, the future king of Norway, left Kiev and headed back to his homeland, he brought with him the Russian princess Elisaveta and a cargo of gold and other valuables. In about 1046 he returned to Norway after over 20 years of service to his father-in-law, Yaroslav the Wise, and the ruling sovereigns of the Byzantine Empire. And if we believe the sagas, his ships were loaded with so much gold and other valuables that the water reached up to the gunwales. Today there is another, but equally rich, cargo afloat, so to speak. The Norwegian Cooperation Programme with Russia (2002-2006) has facilitated and funded a broad professional collaboration between Norwegian and Russian actors. Dynamic research communities have found each other. Exciting research fi ndings have been made. New educational programmes and opportunities for young people have been established. But perhaps most importantly, the collaboration has promoted changes on a human scale, changes in thoughts and perceptions.
Changing times A thousand years later, economics, experience or knowledge, and interpersonal relationships still lie at the core of cooperation between Norway and Russia. But another element is becoming more prominent. We live in a time of change. This is clearly manifested in the collaboration on research and education between Norway and Russia. The research fi ndings show that change
4 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
is impacting society and nature, the economy and the environment. And with change comes the need for knowledge. In 2006 the Russian economy grew by 6.7 percent. This growth has made Russia a stronger player on the world stage. Russia is about to become a European catalyst for economic growth.
(...) the collaboration has promoted changes on a human scale, changes in thoughts and perceptions.
And even though the political system is becoming more centralised and the media are subject to greater control by the central authorities, the courts and judicial system as a whole are developing their new role as the third branch of government. The system functions better and is less corrupt that it was just fi ve or ten years ago. This has been documented in research conducted by Dr. Louis Skyner of the University of Oslo, Centre for European Law, in cooperation with the Russian Centre for Environmental Research, Institute for Law and Public Policy in Moscow. Changes have also been documented in a research project conducted by AKVAPLAN-Niva. “We are studying the impact of the ice sheet on the biological diversity of the ocean floor. There is a very short food chain in this area in which the food drops straight down to the seabed and is taken up in the food chain. We have found that areas which are periodically covered with ice have a rich diversity of plant and animal life on the ocean floor with high biological activity,” explains Sabine Cochrane of AKVAPLAN-Niva in Tromsø. The project has mapped 47 stations in a 400,000 km2 area that is affected by both Atlantic and Arctic water masses. “When the ice sheet retreats, we would expect
to see consequences for the biological diversity of the ocean floor, as well as for the food chain in general,” explains Cochrane. In other words, we are talking about changes – some very fast, others a bit too slow.
We reap what we sow Norway spent a total of over NOK 30 million on projects related to higher education and research under the Cooperation Programme. “I view our cooperative ef forts in research and higher education as sowing seeds for the future. We reap what we sow. At any one time we have 700 to 800 Russian students in Norway. You fi nd former Russian students who have studied in Norway in key positions in Nor wegian companies, or you run into them as interpreters, important contact persons on the Russian side, and employees of the Norwegian embassy in Moscow or the consulates in St. Petersburg or Mur mansk. And students currently studying in Norway will assume similar positions in the near future,” says Støre. He strongly believes in direct contact between people. And he feels certain that we get back more than we give. The 19thcentury poet Fyodor Tyutchev contended that Russia was a different kind of place. Louis Skyner of the Centre for European Law can show that this holds true for the judicial system in Russia.
I view our cooperative efforts in research and higher education as sowing seeds for the future. We reap what we sow.
Lack of legitimacy The starting point after the collapse of the Soviet Union could not have been more difficult. The concept of private property virtually did not exist. The average person had practically no contact with the judicial system. “The law was something that came and took you if you were a
criminal or challenged the authorities. It had almost no legitimacy,” says Louis Skyner. He explains that the law plays a more important role today than it did ten years ago. But we are far from a system in which the courts are viewed as a legitimate instrument of confl ict resolution for most people. “Big business, the government and informal networks play an important role in the administration of justice in Russia. And in prestigious cases it is difficult for a court not to follow political instructions, such as in the Khodor kovsky case,” says Skyner. He believes that one of the problems is that legislation is still declamatory and full of contradictions. But Skyner also points out, “It is wrong to say that the law is only a tool of the power elite. But there are many loopholes in the legislation, and institutions and people with power are of course more adept at exploiting these loopholes.” He also notes that there is a substantial difference in the way justice is administered in the large cities such as Moscow and St. Petersburg compared to small towns, where it is much easier to “buy” a court decision. It is true that corruption continues to be widespread, Skyner adds.
Modern day raid on Novgorod Telemark University College has made a modern day raid on Novgorod and established a collaboration agreement with Novgorod State University. Novgorod is the city where the saga kings such as Olaf Tryggvason, Olaf the Holy, and Harald Hardrada left their mark. It is also the city in Russia that has an ageold tradition of a kind of representative people’s council. However, Telemark University College’s Norman Programme in Novgorod looks forward, not backward, in time, and the abbreviation stands for “North Management Programme”. “The
Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs Jonas Gahr Støre meeting students and teachers at the Moscow State University, MGU, in February 2006. Photo © Sergey Grachev
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 5
Exploring the Arctic sea. Photo © Chris Emblow/Sabine Cochrane
Norman Programme is a huge success and the most important academic boost our university has received from the outside,” says Alla Zavodina. She is a professor of applied economics and has participated in the Norman Programme since 2000. Zavodina explains that there are both German and Swedish programmes at the university, and that both of these have gained important experience from the Norman Programme, which has become a blueprint of sorts for the university’s cooperative programmes. Hans Martin Rugstad heads the Department of Economics and Computer Science at Telemark University College in Bø, Norway.
The Norman Programme is a huge success and the most important academic boost our university has received from the outside, says Alla Zavodina.
He has participated in the collaboration with Novgorod State University since its inception in 1992. The study programme in economics and business administration, which Telemark University College has developed with Novgorod State University, now offers a complete bachelor degree. Rugstad says that 20 to 30 students from Novgorod have studied in Norway, and one of them has completed a doctoral degree and now works at a Norwegian University College in Agder, in Norway.
NORMAN-graduates visiting Hydro company. Photo © NORMAN project
6 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
“On the whole the Russians who have participated in our programmes have been outstanding students. They are highly motivated and attractive to employers after they complete their
studies. The language of instruction is now English, and many students have gotten jobs in export-import companies,” says Rugstad. He also explains that the candidates from the study programmes are important for the development of local trade and industry. “The Norman Programme is the best educational programme in Novgorod,” says Zavodina. And again, the collaboration is not only academic in nature, but social as well. While Zavodina has been paddling on the Telemark Canal, Rugstad has experienced the natural beauty in and around Novgorod. Once again - business, learning and interpersonal relationships. The Cooperation Programme has resulted in joint knowledge development in fields of great importance for both Russia and Norway. Perhaps even more importantly, the cooperation projects have strengthened the relations between two neighbouring countries sharing many of the same challenges and opportunities in the North of Europe.
The Programme The Norwegian Cooperation Programme with Russia 2002–2006 supported twelve long-term collaboration projects in higher education and research between universities, university colleges and research institutes in Russia and Norway.
Background The Norwegian Cooperation Programme in higher education and research with Russia 2002-2006 was established in February of 2002. The programme was based on an agreement between the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Norwegian Research Council and the Norwegian Council for Higher Education. It succeeded a similar cooperation programme, established in 1997, between Norway and Northwest Russia, the Baltic States and Poland.
Objectives and aims of the programme The main purpose of the programme has been to contribute to democratic and economic development in Russia. The programme has been accomplished through direct cooperation between research institutes, universities and colleges in Norway and Russia. Geographically, the programme focused on Northwest Russia, but there is also one institution from Moscow in the list of participators. In the selections of projects, the following subject fields were prioritised: • Environmental protection, environmental and marine technology • Medicine and health • Social science, including economics • Legal science and democracy-building measures • Humanities and language
In order to secure the academic quality and relevance of the projects, a programme board representing higher education and research institutions in Norway was given the responsibility for selecting projects. Twelve projects were selected among approximately 50 applications in 2002. The research projects have to a large degree examined subjects related to natural resources and environment, but health and legal issues are also present. In the field of education, economy and business administration has been at the heart of the cooperation. The fact that Russia signed the Bologna process in September 2003 had great implications for the potential of international cooperation. In connection to this, the Cooperation Programme arranged a seminar in St. Petersburg on “International business administration education and the Bologna process”. In addition, the Cooperation Programme has funded a separate scholarship programme for the mobility of researchers and students between Russia and Norway. In the years from 2002-2006, the Programme Board has allocated approximately NOK 40 000 000 for project cooperation and mobility.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 7
In the hall of fame: Project Coordinators Valery Zelenin and Frode Lieungh. Photo © NORMAN project
From Telemark to Novgorod The Norman Programmes Shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union, in 1992, Telemark University College initiated an educational programme in the ﬁeld of business administration, in cooperation with Novgorod State University. Since then approximately 160 Russian students have graduated from the Norman Programmes. “To be a Norman” is the most well-known academic expression in the city of Veliky Novgorod.
8 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
Mutual beneﬁts The first Norman students were members of the academic staff at Novgorod State University. The objectives were to create a modern department for business studies in Novgorod and to introduce professors to European lecturing techniques. This fi rst Norman programme, Norman I, was a success. Modern textbooks, computers, copy machines and communication equipment were purchased. With great enthusiasm the Russian professors implemented new knowledge and tools in their education while the lecturers from Telemark achieved a better understanding of a society in transition.
(…) the Russian professors implemented new knowledge and tools in their education while the lecturers from Telemark achieved a better understanding of a society in transition.
Norman II (1996–99) was fi nanced by the Norwegian Cooperation Programme for Central and Eastern Europe and directed towards students at Novgorod State University. The programme was adapted to the Russian pedagogic situation. Russian and Norwegian lecturers supplemented each other. Businesses in the Novgorod region displayed great interest for Western-oriented managers and the candidates had no difficulty fi nding jobs afterwards. The Norman Programme grew in popularity. When the Norman III Programme (1999–2006) was announced, approximately 300 students applied. Only 30 were admitted. Norman III was designed as a separate programme at Novgorod State University, as the university had plans to create a School of Business and a Centre of Excellence in the areas of economics and business administration. Norwegian and Russian professors lectured in parallel. The best students from each year received scholarships from the Norwegian Quota Scheme to pass the MBA qualifications at different Norwegian business programmes. Two of these students even achieved a PhD degree in Norway. The majority of the graduates received joint Novgorod and Telemark undergraduate diplomas and was employed by local companies in Novgorod.
Tailor-made programmes The Norman IV Programme, the Euro-Norman (2002–2006), was based on the Bologna curriculum
principles and the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) standards. Since the Russian Federation had not yet signed the Bologna Declaration (2002), the 40 Novgorod students in the programme passed a Norwegian tailor-made ECTS programme and were granted Norwegian diplomas. All lecturing took place in Novgorod with both Russian professors and professors from Telemark University College. The popularity of the programme and its usefulness in relation to the Russian business environment resulted in most of the students having job offers even before graduation. Out of 40 students 36 passed the undergraduate examinations of the 160 ECTS, with excellent average marks.
Business Administration COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS: Novgorod State University, Telemark University College PROJECT COORDINATORS:
Vice President Valery N. Zelenin, Assistant Professor Frode Lieungh TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 3 495 000
One central objective of Norman IV was to integrate the ECTS-programme into the standard curriculum of Business Studies as found at Novgorod State University. This met with various obstacles. The university system was not yet ready to implement these principles. All programmes used English as the teaching language and all textbooks and exams were in English. Both the Norwegians and the Russians benefited from this. The Norwegian professors had to adapt and prepare all their lecturing materials and manuals in English.
'To be a Norman' is the most well-known academic expression in the city of Veliky Novgorod.
At the end of the programmes a study trip for the students was organized. Here the Russian students were introduced to some Norwegian businesses and had to present their bachelor diploma works. The Norman programme was a huge success. The main reason is the enthusiasm and the seriousness of project coordinator Vice President Valery N. Zelenin. As Head of the international office at Novgorod State University, he dedicated most of his work to the Norman Programme. Sadly he died of a heart-attack just before the closing of the Norman IV Programme. The key to the success of the programmes lies in the establishment of good relationships, the mutual trust and cultural understanding between the project managers, and the dedication of the participating professors in making the project a sustainable cooperation endeavour.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 9
Psychiatric Health Care in Northwest Russia and Northern Norway The Barents Project in Psychiatry
Psychiatry, psychology COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS: The Department of Clinical Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk
Over the past 10-15 years increased contact between Northwest Russia and Northern Norway has revealed interesting differences between the mental health care services of the two countries, in terms of organisation, procedures used and treatments given to people with mental disorders.
Associate Professor Reidun Olstad TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 3 745 000
Furthermore, we had indications that the understanding of diseases and the utilisation of the diagnostic system were different, despite the fact that we officially use the same diagnostic system. Describing these differences in a systematic way, using internationally validated instruments developed for crosscultural research, would provide new knowledge on how cultural factors, different professional traditions and history influence the structure and function of the mental health care and social support systems. This new knowledge could be instrumental in the further development of the mental health care and social support systems in the two countries.
Different structure, different procedures The primary goal of the project was therefore to systematically compare the structure and function of the psychiatric health care system in Arkhangelsk County and the counties of Northern Norway. Furthermore, the project set out to describe differences and similarities between the two countries with regard to the structure of the psychiatric health care system, the content of this psychiatric care (procedures and treatment programs), the diagnostic practise and the relationship between the mental health care system and the social insurance system. In terms of structure and capacity, primary health care is poorly developed in Arkhangelsk County; the mental health care system is still dominated by large hospitals, and the system is less decentralised and differentiated
10 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
than in Northern Norway. The total number of beds and acute beds per capita is comparable between the two regions, but there are more security beds per capita in Arkhangelsk County and more non-acute beds in Northern Norway. The number of psychiatrists per capita employed in the mental health care system is almost twice as high in Northern Norway as in Arkhangelsk County, and the number of psychologists is almost ten times higher in Northern Norway than in Arkhangelsk County. As for the content of the services – the general (somatic) health care assessment and treatment of patients is highly developed in Arkhangelsk County and the daily life activities of the hospitalised patients are taken over by the professionals to a higher degree compared to the situation in Northern Norway. In Northern Norway treatment coordination, psychopharmacological treatment and rehabilitation activities are more developed than in Arkhangelsk County.
The Russians tended to use the diagnosis of schizophrenia more often than the Norwegians
Schizophrenia The study of diagnostic practises showed that, even if we officially use the same diagnostic system, there were several differences between the two regions in the application of this diagnostic system. The Russians tended to use the diagnosis of schizophrenia more often than the Norwegians, while the Norwegians tended to put more emphasis on affective symptoms in the case stories. The diagnosis of schizophrenia was subject to gender differences in both countries. Men were more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, given that the symptoms were identical in women. Furthermore, there are considerably more
The number of psychiatrists per capita employed in the mental health care system is almost twice as high in Northern Norway as in Arkhangelsk County.
patients with mild mental disorders who are granted disability pensions (DP) in Norway than in Russia. Temporary DP may be given to Russian patients after a disease history of one year, whereas in Norway a three-year period of rehabilitation and treatment is mandatory before a temporary DP is granted. In Russia the decision-making process is characterized by experts making collective decisions. In Norway, individual doctors and social insurance officers have much more independent positions. General practitioners play a prominent role in the Norwegian system. The level of the pension granted is much lower in Russia than in Norway.
Making results The project has resulted in three scientific articles published in an international peer review journal. A manuscript covering differences and similarities in the relationship between the mental health care system and the social insurance system has been submitted for publication. The project is supposed to result in a PhD in medicine for research fellow Grigory Rezvy during the spring of 2007. In addition to the scientific articles, a total of fi ve project-related seminars and conferences were held on the Russian side, during which the results and implications of the project were discussed. Towards the end of the project two large conferences were held in the town of Kotlas and in Arkhangelsk city, in order to communicate the results of the project to clinicians on the Russian side. The results of the project have also been presented at ten conferences in Norway and at four international conferences. A research seminar with special focus on research ethics and qualitative research was held in August 2006. The project has given valuable contributions to the education of doctors and psychologists in Russia and to the further development of the mental health care system in Russia.
Monastry in morning mood. Photo © Randi Olstad
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 11
Life at the Edge Benthic Fauna at the Barents Sea Ice Edge in a Changing Climate (BASICC)
Ecology, zoogeography, zoological ecology COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS: Norway: Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, University of Tromsø, Norwegian Polar Institute, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) Russia: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Russia, USA: University of South Carolina, USA, Bates College, Maine. PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Researcher Sabine Cochrane
Sea ice is a major factor inﬂuencing the ecology of the Barents Sea. However, most of the Barents Sea shelf area has very variable conditions in terms of both water movements and ice conditions.
from Norway (Akvaplan-niva, University of Tromsø and NIVA), Russia (Zoological Institute, Murmansk Marine Biological Institute) and USA (University of South Carolina, Bates College, Maine). Further, the project is integral to the MarBEF responsive mode project ArctEco (see www.marbef.org).
Reduction in ice cover and thickness in the Arctic in response to climate change have already been taking place for several decades and are projected to continue. How will changes in ice conditions affect the Arctic ecosystem in general and the Barents Sea in particular? Preliminary evidence suggested that the benthos, i.e. the communities of organisms living at the sea floor, have consistently greater biomass at the ice edge than in adjacent and otherwise similar areas in predominantly open water or the quasi-permanently ice covered areas. This collaborative project therefore set out to investigate how the benthic fauna in the Barents Sea is affected by the ice edge.
TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 3 250 000
International research project For the past three years, we have been investigating the relationship between the abundance, richness and biomass of benthic organisms and sea ice cover. We further examine the possible cascade effects that may be expected in the future. The project, fi nanced through the programme and with additional support from Hydro Norway, has involved scientists
12 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
In this era where there is increasing interest in petroleum exploitation in the Barents Sea (…) the implications of biological mixing are of prime concern.
We sampled 47 stations, within an area of around 400 000 km2 covering areas influenced by both Atlantic and Arctic water masses, with various mixing zones in between. Further, there is a range of water depths and sediment types across the area, and a wide range of benthic organisms might therefore be expected. We recorded around 663 taxa (species or genera), represented by just under 60 000 individuals.
Benthic fauna – sampling results All the main taxonomic groups generally were well represented at most stations. However, faunal abundance was highest levels in the area of intermittent ice cover (the middle zone of our station network),
Life on board and on the sea ﬂoor. Photos © Chris Emblow/ Sabine Cochrane
with an average of more than 130 taxa per station represented by 1760 individuals (maximum around 180 and 2600, respectively). Faunal abundance was notably lowest in the predominantly ice-covered area (the northernmost stations), with an average of 90 taxa per station represented by less than 600 individuals. The total biomass varied greatly among stations, depending on the animals present, but values ranged from less than 10g per m2 in the predominantly ice-covered area up to 780g in the area of intermittent ice cover. There was a notable increase in the numbers of animals that actively mix the sediments in the area of intermittent ice cover, in the middle part of our sampling network. This was supported by laboratory analyses of sediment mixing using a 234Th tracer. Also organic carbon flux to the sediments (mg/cm 2 yr), calculated by 210Pb was greatest in this area. There were no consistent trends in the feeding modes of the benthic fauna across the area at large, but some of the heavily ice-influenced stations did show a higher representation of taxa that move around relative to sessile organisms. In this era where there is increasing interest in petroleum exploitation in the Barents Sea, and concerns about long-distance transport of contaminants and threats to the food web, the implications of biological mixing are of prime concern.
mass. Biological mixing (bioturbation) and vertical transport of carbon within the sea floor sediments also are enhanced. All scenarios of climatic change have cascade effects involving the ecosystem as a whole, including ultimately commercial fi sheries and other human interests. Further warming will induce warm Atlantic water to penetrate farther north, causing retreat of the ice edge and thinning of ice cover. By extrapolation of the results of this project, we may infer that the area of expected ‘peak’ in faunal abundance, biomass and biological sediment mixing may be expected also to move farther north. Therefore, the area currently supporting the richest and/or most abundant benthic fauna may become less so, and of a more ‘regular’ Atlantic character.
Discovering the benthic fauna within 400 000 km2. Photo © Chris Emblow/ Sabine Cochrane
Conclusions – consequences for the benthic fauna In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that the benthic fauna is affected by ice-cover. We show a rich benthic fauna, in terms of abundance and biomass, to occur in conditions of intermittent ice-cover. In heavily ice-influenced areas, the fauna was lower in abundance and generally also in bio-
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 13
Reconstructing the Ice-Age History of the Russian Arctic The project Paleo Environment and Climate History of the Russian Arctic (PECHORA I & II) has studied the Ice Age development in the Barents-Kara sea region and the earliest human settlement in northern Russia.
Geology, glaciology, geography, archaeology, biology and climate modelling COOPERATING INSTI TUTIONS: The University of Bergen/ Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research The Institute of Remote Sensing Methods for Geology, St. Petersburg St. Petersburg University Komi Scientiﬁc Centre of the Russian Academy of Science, Syktyvkar National Geological Institute, St. Petersburg PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Professor John Inge Svendsen PROJECT PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 3 340 000
The studies covered a vast area of the Russian Arctic, including the Pechora drainage basin, the northern Ural Mountains and the West Siberian Lowland. The studies involved geology, glaciology, geography, archaeology, biology and climate modelling. Some of the main fi ndings are outlined below.
New reconstructions of the Eurasian Ice Sheets A key fi nding was that, unlike the Scandinavian Ice Sheet and presumably most other glaciers in the world, the southern and eastern flank of the BarentsKara Ice Sheet attained its maximum position during the early stages (90 and 60 000 years ago) of the last Ice Age. At that time the ice sheet expanded far onto the continent and formed major ice-dammed lakes in the lowland areas between the ice front and the water divide. Modelling experiments indicate that the existence of such lakes represents a hitherto unrecognized positive feedback mechanism, i.e. the ice sheet growth causes the formation of an ice-dammed lake, and, as a chain reaction, that lake causes the ice sheet to grow even more. A surprising discovery was that the Russian mainland east of the White Sea was not glaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at which time the Scandinavian Ice Sheet reached its
Exploring the Ice Age development brings new knowledge of the Neanderthals. Map showing the Last Glacial Maximum ice sheet and European Palaeolithic sites.
14 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
maximum size. Furthermore, our investigations suggest that the glaciers in the Polar Urals during the Last Glacial Maximum were only slightly larger than the present small glaciers.
(…)modern humans were present in this part of northern Russia not later than 32 000 years ago.
Ice Age humans in the Arctic Nearly 40 000 year-old traces of human settlement were discovered at Mamontovaya Kurya, a Palaeolithic site in the European part of the Russian Arctic. Here we uncovered stone artifacts, animal bones and a mammoth tusk with human made marks from strata covered by thick Quaternary deposits. This is the oldest documented evidence of human presence at this high latitude and it opens up for new perspectives on the early colonization of the continent. The fi ndings imply that either the Neanderthals expanded much farther to the north than what was previously thought or that modern humans were present in the Arctic only a few thousand years after their fi rst appearance in Europe. The excavations at the site Byzovaya, which is located approximately 300 kilometres further to the south, revealed diagnostic artifacts showing that anatomical modern humans were present in this part of northern Russia not later than 32 000 years ago. The bones and artifacts of most investigated sites are covered by thick layers of wind-blown sand, possibly reflecting a pronounced cooling that eventually resulted in the formation of the youngest generation of the Eurasian Ice Sheet.
” Further research This project has shown that the Russian territory offers unique possibilities to study the long term climate evolution, the glaciation history and the early human colonization of northern Eurasia, including the Arctic. In contrast to Svalbard, Scandinavia and much of Northern Europe, where the youngest ice sheets erased most of the pre-existing records from earlier periods of the Quaternary, Northern Russia contains much more complete geological and archaeological archives that are essential for deciphering the history of the entire Barents/Kara Sea region as well as adjacent areas. As a contribution to the Inter-
This is the oldest documented evidence of human presence at this high latitude (…)
national Polar Year 2007–2008, the research team that was established under the PECHORA project will continue to do collaborative work in the Russian Arctic. A main target will be to core lake floor sediments in the Polar Urals, which according to our hypothesis may contain uninterrupted records of the climate evolution during the last Ice Age and perhaps even beyond.
Northern Eurasian ice sheet extent at 90 000 years ago with ice-dammed lakes and rerouting of drainage. The Quaternary glaciation limit is also shown.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 15
Sustainable Exploitation of Hydrocarbons in the Barents Sea Through education and research, the project “Arctic Marine and Environment Technology for Sustainable Exploitation of Hydrocarbons in the Barents Sea” has sought to develop technology that makes sustainable hydrocarbons exploitation in the Barents Sea possible.
Arctic technology and environmental technology
The project joined the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim and the University Centre in Svalbard, UNIS and St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University in Russia.
COOPERATING INSTI TUTIONS: St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Russia; the University Centre in Svalbard, Norway and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim. PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Professor Sveinung Løset TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 2 780 000
Student exchange In the Arctic climate, there is particular concern about keeping a clean environment and ensuring the safety of people working there. It is important to reduce the risk of an incident by developing technology with a minimal probability of damage to personnel, the environment and assets. In this context it is equally important to increase the awareness of students, future Arctic engineers, scientists and engineering managers about the importance of protecting the fragile Arctic environment. These issues have been crucial in the student exchange programme with Russia. This exchange has turned out to be quite productive both for the educational institutions involved and for the industry in Norway and Russia. Several of the students involved have been hired by engineering companies and international oil companies like Statoil and ExxonMobil.
PhD studies – Sea ice ridges Two Russian doctoral students have stayed at UNIS and carried out research on ice mechanics (small-scale
16 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
Russian students on a ﬁeld course in the Van Mijenfjord, Spitsbergen. Photo © Sveinung Løset
Numbered ice-blocks for testing. Photo © Knut Høyland
mechanical properties of sea ice ridges): Pavel Liferov and Svetlana Shafrova. Shafrova has worked on analyzing two sets of data on properties of fi rst-year sea ice ridges; the fi rst dataset contained measurements of spatial distribution of ice strength - and contact areas in fi rst-year ice ridges. The second dataset was from small-scale tests of the strength of freezebonds in-between ice blocks in the lower parts of the keel in ice ridges. In the fi rst paper, results about the contact area in-between the ice blocks in ice ridges and the spatial distribution of small-scale strength were reported and analyzed for the fi rst time. A ratio of the contact area divided by the block thickness was introduced and suggested to correlate with the better known block thickness to block length ratio. The spatial distribution of strength was compared with similar data from level ice. The strength of the freezebonds in-between the ice blocks in the lower parts of keels in ice ridges was found to be significantly less than the strength of the ice blocks themselves, and a clear correlation between the strength and the ingoing parameters such as ice temperature and physical properties was shown. These results are useful when estimating the actions of ice on offshore and coastal structures. The Shtokman gasfield development highlights the need for such data in the design of the various concepts that have been proposed for the site.
This exchange has turned out to be quite productive both for the educational institutions involved and for the industry in Norway and Russia.
Research projects A joint Norwegian-Russian research project about ice ridge pipeline interaction started the winter of 2001 and continued throughout the entire research project’s period. Unique experiments have been executed on ice ridge seabed interaction and develop numerical models to simulate this phenomenon. A second joint Norwegian-Russian research project deals with experimental and numerical aspects of level ice-structure interaction. Unique research has been conducted through a series of measurements where simultaneously the force, the towing speed and the internal ice stresses in an ice floe is measured while it is being towed against a pillar. The results will be used to validate the numerical model of Shkhinek et al. (2001) and it has lead to a doctoral thesis.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 17
Market Regimes in the Resource Management of Northwest Russia ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE:
Social sciences COOPERATING INSTI TUTIONS: The Institute of Economic Problems (IEP), Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Science, Apatity, Norut NIBR Finnmark, Alta. PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Director Sveinung Eikeland, Norut NIBR Finnmark TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 3 000 000
This project investigated how market regimes have been implemented in the resource-based industries of Northwest Russia since 1990. Modern resource management involves selling the harvesting rights of natural resources through different markets in order to maximise proﬁts, or the “resource rent,” from these resources. The project studied the implementation of market regimes in the management of forestry, cod fi shing in the Barents Sea and salmon fi shing in the rivers of the Kola Peninsula. All these resources are formally owned by the Russian state. Some of the questions addressed were: • How are prices on harvesting rights determined? • What are the social and territorial effects of distributing the rights through markets? • How do these markets affect the sustainability of the harvesting? • Are there any indications that private ownership rights to the resources have become a reality?
Imperfect markets The most important fi nding of the project was that the market regimes of resource management do not work “by the book.” The private players who acquire the harvesting rights receive most of their income from outside these markets, i.e. they profit from resources that are not sold through these markets regimes, and they are able to harvest more than merely what the rights they have bought entitle them to. Consequently, the prices of harvesting rights are much higher than they should be if one were to create an environmentally and economically sound resource trade, the reason being that the institutions handling the distribution of these rights (i.e. the resource management) is not working well enough. According to scientific communities in Russia and other countries, the new markets for harvesting rights in Russia have developed harvesting practises
18 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
that are not sustainable. Nevertheless, both the Russian and the European resource protection systems have lacked enforcement capacity, in effect allowing illegitimate fi shing and forestry. In forestry, the role of local management units in protection, mediation, harvesting and production was problematic. Short-term and loosely based harvesting contracts encouraged quick profits rather than long term investments, e.g. in forestry infrastructure. In the salmon rivers, global enterprises were able to exploit a new market for recreational fi shing with high licence prices, while local fi shermen could not afford the market conditions and turned to illegal fi shing.
(…) the prices of harvesting rights are much higher than they should be if one were to create an environmentally and economically sound resource trade.
The way ahead Up until now, the state-driven market strategies and the overexploitation and short-term investments of private enterprises have not been sustainable. On the positive side, the profits of the state have increased, which has enabled the state to change from being a poor property owner to becoming a rich landlord in only a few years. Now it looks as though the new rich landlord is about to reduce the influence of the markets as the auctions of fi shing rights have been substituted by a fee set by the state. However, according to the new Forest Code, the regions will be taking over the leading role in the forestry management system. In the preparations of the new Forest Code, long-term private leasing contracts and privatisation were discussed. Time will tell if the state is willing to give more priority to its role as a protective institution than to its role as a property owner.
Sampling Russian Arctic Rivers The MAREAS Project At a time when data are especially needed in order to understand the impacts of climate change, collection efforts in the Russian Arctic have been severely reduced. The Ob and Yenisey are among the largest rivers that flow into the Arctic, supplying huge quantities essential nutrients, contaminants, dissolved organic matter and other reactive elements to the adjacent marginal seas. The project “Material fluxes from the Russian Rivers Ob and Yenisey: Interactions with climate and effects on Arctic Seas (MAREAS)” sought to jointly investigate the spatial extent to which the Ob and Yenisey material discharges influence the adjacent coastal ecosystems and its impact on the Arctic Ocean.
Norwegian-Russian ﬁeld cruises Two Norwegian-Russian field cruises were conducted in 2003 and 2005, during which stations were occupied along transects extending from the Ob and Yenisey rivers, through the estuaries and into the adjacent open sea. Variations of water transparency and algal biomass in offshore direction were also assessed from satellite ocean color images. The studies reveal high levels of nutrients but low levels of chlorophyll in both estuaries. The high concentrations of dissolved organic matter yielded extremely low attenuation coefficients for both visible and ultraviolet light. This leads to light limitation and very low productivity in the estuaries, but also provides an efficient screening of potential harmful UV-radiation over vast areas of the Arctic Ocean. Through the present study we estimate that the direct supplies of dissolved organic matter to the ocean from these rivers is in the order of seven-nine million tons of organic carbon per year. This matches our MODIS satellite Earth observation data for the assessment of DOC concentration in the estuaries. The riverine flux affects not only the central but also peripheral regions of the Kara Sea, including the vicinity of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago and the northern and north-western neighbourhood of the Yamal Peninsular. Dissolved organic matter accounts for more than 90 percent of the total organic carbon supply (particulate and dissolved) with the majority of the input occurring
during the time period of spring flooding (May-July). The fate of dissolved organic matter governs the spectral properties and overall light attenuation in recipient marine waters while the balances between nutrient availability and light attenuation in the estuaries govern the productivity in these systems. Further off shore major currents divert freshwater inputs eastwards and northwards along the Siberian coast and the Polar Sea, and the flux and fate of elements from the rivers are thus of vital importance for the ecosystem productivity not only in the Kara Sea, but also for large upstream areas in the Polar basin. The extent to which the nutrients and dissolved organic matter influence marine areas outside the estuaries, depends on nutrient uptake and production in the estuaries themselves as well as the bacterial utilisation, photo-oxidation and sedimentation of dissolved organic matter. Supplies of persistent organic pollutants to the Kara Sea from the Yenisey and Ob Rivers include organo-chlorine pesticides, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenols. With the exception of DDT, concentrations of pesticides in these rivers remain relatively low compared to other circum-arctic rivers. The Ob and Yenisey Rivers are also sources of significant amounts of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons, the result of ship traffic and on-going petroleum exploration activities within their catchment areas.
Interdisciplinary mathematics and natural sciences COOPERATING INSTI TUTIONS: Akvaplan-niva, NERSC, NIVA, the University of Oslo, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (GEOKHI) PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Professor Dag O. Hessen TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 6 000 000
The studies reveal high levels of nutrients but low levels of chlorophyll in both estuaries.
Increased freshwater runoff During the past two decades, a large increase of freshwater runoff has been documented in major Siberian rivers. This could further increase the overall impact of riverine outputs to the Kara Sea and the Polar basin. Global temperature increases will also most likely cause decreased snow cover, decreased albedo, increased heat absorption and permafrost thawing. These changes are expected to cause increased oxidation of tundra peat-lands and soils, but also increased export of organic carbon to surrounding shelf seas.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 19
A Bridge to Business Research and Education in a Northwestern University Alliance (BRUA) For more than 15 years Bodø University College (BUC) has developed bilateral cooperation with the universities of Northwest Russia in the ﬁeld of business education and research as part of its internationalisation strategy.
Business Administration COOPERATING INSTI TU TIONS: Bodø University College, Arkhangelsk State Technical University, Baltic State Technical University, St. Petersburg, and Murmansk State Technical University. PROJECT COORDINATORS:
Associate Professor Anatoli Bourmistrov Professor Georgina Nevzorova TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 5 681 000
The idea of the BRUA project (literally meaning “the bridge” in Norwegian) was to build a northwestern university alliance in business-related research and education between BUC and its Russian partner universities: Arkhangelsk State Technical University (ASTU), Baltic State Technical University (BSTU) in St. Petersburg and Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU).
tee. Ten Russian PhD students were admitted to the International PhD programme. Their studies cover a wide range of subjects, e.g. management related to the university and state sector, energy enterprises, environmental management issues and entrepreneurship and venture capital in Russian and international settings. Two students are expected to defend their PhD theses in 2007.
The transition of Russian society made Russian universities more dependent on the market for educational services. On the one hand, closer cooperation with enterprises and public sector organisations was needed to secure fi nancial inputs to the universities. There was also a growing demand for commercial retraining and competence improvement programmes in the field of business administration. On the other hand, Russia needed young teachers and researchers capable of carrying out internationally oriented research and teaching at business administration programmes. To address these challenges, the NorthWestern University Alliance was formed.
The PhD programme In 2002 an International PhD Programme in Business Studies was developed in cooperation with Russian universities, offering a doctoral education based on the principles of the Bologna Declaration. The PhD students are formally tied to a Russian home university while they follow the PhD programme in Bodø, meet supervisors and write their thesis. The research work is also supervised by an international commit-
20 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
In all the education programmes in which the BRUA universities are cooperating, more than 2000 students have graduated in the field of business administration.
The MBA programme: combining Russian and international contexts A two-year Master of Business Administration programme was also developed in the Alliance to meet the need for increasing business administration competence from managers in Russian enterprises. Each year MBA students from Russian universities gather in Bodø to follow the course “Business Practice in Norway”. They learn about the Scandinavian perspective on management as well as cross-cultural communication. The fi rst MBA students were enrolled in 2001. Since spring 2003 around 80 students have defended Master theses in English and received both Russian and international MBA diplomas. Following the records from the alumni club, the employment status of the graduates has improved after receiving
Russian MBA students in Bodø, participating in the course “Business Practice in Norway”, August 2005. Photo © Svein-Arnt Eriksen.
MBA education. In all the education programmes in which the BRUA universities are cooperating, more than 2000 students have graduated in the field of business administration.
Increasing mutual research in management Increasing research cooperation was an important part of the cooperation. Since 2001 a substantial amount of research has been produced: Master and PhD theses, articles in journals, books, peer reviews, working papers, conference papers and presentations at seminars and workshops which describe and analyze business activities in Russia. The number of publications is more than 350. Many of these papers were published in a co-authorship between Norwegian and Russian professors. These publications develop knowledge of how Russian economy and markets are functioning, and how to operate international business activities in the Russian society.
Spin-off effects: extending the Alliance The aim of the Alliance was also to extend the network by including other educational institutions, enterprises and public institutions inside as well as outside Russia. In 2003 BUC established the Center for International Business Studies (CIBS). Hence, Russian universities could increase their internationalisation activities, for instance by joining international management associations and participating in EU-related research projects. Since 2003 the Alliance has also been focusing on energy management and development of energy
resources. The Alliance has therefore accepted a new member, the Moscow University of Foreign Affairs (MGIMO University). By involving MGIMO in the Alliance, it was possible to explore new possibilities in education programmes, particularly by creating a joint-degree Master of Science in Energy Management programme and the Russian-Norwegian MBA Programme “International business in the oil and gas industry” for management of the Russian oil enterprise “Rosneft”.
The future The results of the five-year cooperation and its future directions were presented and discussed at the international conference "Higher Education and Research: Visions and Challenges in Perspectives of the High North," which was held in September 2006 in St. Petersburg. The conference resulted in the publication of a book. The Norwegian Minister of Education and Research, Øystein Djupedal, attended. He emphasized that the cooperation established through the university Alliance has a long-term perspective, which is to gain experiences and develop the understanding between the two countries. Therefore, the Alliance was active in setting up a representative committee which may influence the future development of national as well as international education and research in the field of business administration in the Northwest region. Based on the experiences of BRUA, the High North Centre of Business Cooperation will be established in 2007 with focus on developing knowledge that is important for business cooperation in the High North.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 21
The Legal Challenges of Russia’s New Economy Cooperation between researchers, governments, civil servants and lawyers has contributed to the development of new legislation in Russia.
Law, economics COOPERATING INSTI TUTIONS: The Faculty of Law, University of Oslo, Russian Centre for Environmental Research, Institute for Law and Public Policy in Moscow PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Researcher Louis Skyner TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 6 000 000
In the project called “the Development and Consolidation of Market Enabling Legislation in the Context of Russian Judicial Reform” the overall focus has been to consider whether the modernisation of economic legislation, administrative procedure, and the reform of judicial procedure, are effectively securing the development of the rights proclaimed in the Constitution and Civil Code of the Russian Federation over a decade ago. As the project progressed, and the characteristics of the ‘transition economy’ became apparent, our research focused on the contradiction between the aims and provisions of new legislation and the retention of existing patterns of administrative authority. Furthermore, it identified the consequences of this contradiction, i.e. the absence of systematisation both in legislation and the practice of state institutions charged with implementing it, and the failure to establish a consistent relationship between public authority and the subjects of civil law. The substance of law becomes the subject of continual change, the effective application of the law by the judiciary plagued by both the instability of the law and the contradictions arising in its interpretation, and its consequent weakness in comparison with executive authority. Put simply, risk abounds but it is not allocated effectively in a way that would optimally benefit all economic actors.
New markets, new laws In the fi rst stage of the project attention was focused on the attempt to ‘legislate’ the framework of a new market model, the study encompassing both the development of legal rights, mechanisms and regulatory institutions, i.e. land legislation, anti-monopoly legislation, housing reform, and the development of small and medium sized enterprises. In the second
22 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
phase our research focused on the purpose of law in a transitional economy in terms of widening and consolidating the process of reform, i.e. the establishment of transferable rights and a system of mortgage credit, the move away from a system of administrative regulation to the civil law regulation of use rights, and the establishment of contractual relations in the sphere of labour law. In addition, the nature of the developing relationship between public authority and economic actors was analysed in the context of the development of procedural law and judicial practice, i.e. the notion of the bona fide tax payer. Throughout the relevant developments in European law and judicial practice have been analysed to illustrate the similarities and differences in approach in resolving the challenges faced with the development of transnational economies and fi nancial markets.
Overcoming “legal dualism” Our research has revealed how law is perceived and used both as a regulatory ‘administrative’ instrument and as a declaration of ‘democratic’ intent. The very nature of this contradictory relationship explains the actual course the de-monopolisation and de-regulation of ‘State’ property has in reality taken. Our conclusion has been that it also explains the phenomenon of ‘legal dualism.’ Two legal systems co-exist, one of which is contained in the enacted positive law, and the other determined by the level of legal awareness of the public at large and their reserved attitude towards the institutions of private law. This dualism was also identified as explaining the actual use and performance of the courts in establishing ‘State’ liability and providing compensation. A consistent judicial interpretation of the law has
only partially evolved despite the implementation of procedural codes, primarily because of the failure to develop a system of administrative courts and clearly defi ne the disputes that they have jurisdiction to resolve. Although the government has declared its ambition of administrative reform, i.e. the eradication of the duplication of functions and powers of executive agencies, and the separation of the function of state supervision from that of the management of state property, our research has illustrated how in practice its ambitions have not been implemented. It concludes that only with the purposeful implementation of such a reform will the cycle of transition be broken in which the reinforcement of administrative methods of regulation and the expansion of executive power is perceived as the only resort to overcome this dualism, a tendency that more often than not serves to exacerbate rather than resolve the problem at hand.
Although the government has declared its ambition of administrative reform (…) our research has illustrated how in practice its ambitions have not been implemented.
Environmental protection The aim of the fi nal stage of the project has been to establish an exchange of information and analysis in an area of great common interest, the regulation of natural resource use and environmental protection. The research has highlighted the similarities and differences between the two countries in their approach towards environmental management: the
incorporation, or failure to incorporate, key ‘principles’ from international conventions into national legislation, and; the development of various procedures and instruments to give effect to these principles in practice. The function of the environmental impact assessment was analysed in comparative perspective to illustrate the difference in approach between the two countries in terms of identifying and dealing effectively with risk. The results of our work were the subject-matter of a seminar staged in the Russian Parliament in Moscow in December 2006 where presentations were given by the Norwegian Ministries of Environment and Petroleum and their Russian counterparts. As is illustrated in the preceding paragraph the research produced in our project has been of both an academic and applied nature. Indeed, many of the project participants have been drawn not only from academic institutions but from the legal profession in its various guises: representatives of the Russian and Norwegian judiciary; civil servants and members of the Russian government, and; practising lawyers from Russia, Norway, the UK, and Germany specialising in the areas of law examined. Their work within the project has subsequently been used in the development of new legislation in Russia, i.e. the legislative framework for mortgage fi nancing in 2004 and the legislative framework for concession agreements in 2005. In addition, it has been incorporated within larger bi-lateral projects between Norway and Russia, i.e. on the development of a common approach to environmental management in the Barents Sea region, and multi-lateral technical assistance projects, i.e. the EU TACIS project on the harmonisation of energy policies.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 23
Collaborating in Social Work The Pomor III Project Pomor III was the third collaborative project on prevention in childcare, drug and alcohol abuse and criminality. It involved the Faculty of Social Sciences at Bodø University College, the Faculty of Social Work and the Norwegian Pomor University Centre in Arkhangelsk, Pomor State University, Arkhangelsk.
Social sciences COOPERATING INSTI TUTIONS: Bodø University College, Norwegian Pomor University Centre Arkhangelsk, Faculty of Social Work, Pomor State University, Arkhangelsk. CO-PARTNERS:
The Mediation Board in Trondheim The Tyrili Foundation The Norwegian Ministry of Justice and KRUS
The Pomor III Project (2003–2006) continued and developed cooperation on a wide range of educational topics and established professional networks in research and practical social work. It also strengthened cooperation with institutions and voluntary organizations in Russia and people from Scandinavian countries through seminars, courses and conferences. The project was funded by the Cooperation Programme with Russia and by the Barents Secretariat. Three of the main targets of the project were: • Educational cooperation and creation of a joint course in comparative social policy. • Prevention in the field of social work. • Building professional networks in the Barents Region and the University of the Arctic.
Dean Larisa Malik Director Marina Kalinina Assistant professor Ståle Sårheim WEB-SITE:
www.uarctic. org/completeArticles. aspx?m=281 TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 2 800 000
Student and staff exchange During the project period more than 60 students from Russia and Norway crossed the border to carry out practice studies and fieldwork. We also developed a joint bachelor program for practice studies. This program has proved to be very popular and the students compete to enter the program at both institutions. Both Russian and Norwegian postgraduate students of social work have received funding from the project for their fieldwork. Colleagues from both educational institutions have given guest lectures in social work. In 2005 and 2006 we ran seminars for colleagues on the topic of critical thinking and reflection in social work.
Joint courses in social policy The Pomor III Project concentrated on curriculum and study-programmes in English at both institutions. In
24 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
2005 we decided to develop a ten ECTS points joint course in comparative social policy within the framework of the Bologna Process. In this course, students deal with questions relating to governance and social politics in Russia and Scandinavia. To put these topics in a broader perspective, the course focuses on European developments and the effect of globalisation on social politics. In November 2006 we held the fi rst seminar in Arkhangelsk with students and lecturers from both institutions. In this course we explored the concept of social policy in relation to other fields of politics and we discussed social politics in a global frame. The next seminar, which is to be held in February 2007, will focus more on social politics in Russia and Norway, and on the connection between policymaking and development of services. Finally we will also discuss social politics from a user’s point of view. All the time the comparative perspective – also when it comes to research – links the program together. The course ends in May 2007. A written assignment will be evaluated by a team consisting of two teachers from both universities.
Prevention in social work Social work is a new profession in Arkhangelsk, and the working seminars can give the social workers legitimacy within organizations, e.g. prisons and institutions for children, juveniles and women. We also tried to strengthen the profession of “the social worker” by crossing departmental staff groups in seminars and including cooperation with non-governmental organisations like “Rassvet” and “Duska”. We informed coordinators of international projects in Arkhangelsk about our pro-
jects and working seminars, where we had participants from Murmansk and Karelia. Sharing good experiences has been an underlying principle of the project.
Certiﬁed training The Pomor projects have cooperated with the creator of the Swedish criminal prevention program “Brottsbrytet” since 2002. In 2002 the manuals for the program were translated from Swedish to Russian. In 2004 12 participants from Arkhangelsk and Murmansk received their diplomas as instructors in “Brottsbrytet”. The head of the Mediation Board in Trondheim, Iren Sørfjordmo, has been involved in the Pomor cooperation since 2000. Eighteen participants from Arkhangelsk received their certificates as mediators in 2005. They have been trained and educated in mediation and restorative justice at three seminars. The Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Correctional Service of Norway Staff Academy, KRUS, have cooperated with the Pomor projects. One of the results of the cooperation was working seminars on the programme for women in problematic life situations, WIN. Marna Størkersen, head of the Østfold Clinic of Drug and Alcohol Abuse and Torunn Højdahl, senior adviser at KRUS, developed the WIN program together. Sixteen participants from Arkhangelsk and other parts of Russia received their diploma as instructors in Arkhangelsk in 2006. The participants work at clinics for drug and alcohol abusers, shelters for abused women and in prisons.
Professional networks The fi rst international conference of the project called “Prevention strategies in Social work” took place
in Arkhangelsk in 2004. 80 people from Russia and Norway attended the conference, which sought to promote an understanding of the role of prevention work and dissemination of knowledge amongst practical workers, university staff and researchers in Norway and Russia. The Pomor III Project and the Norwegian research institute FAFO (Institute of Labour and Social Research) also organised an international research seminar on family and social policy in Arkhangelsk. The closing conference of the project was held in Bodø in 2006 under the title “International Cooperation in Social Work and Social policy.” The conference had more than 50 contributions at plenary and parallel sessions. Participants from seven countries attended. A direct result of the cooperation project was the creation of a thematic network in social work within the framework of the University of the Arctic. Bodø University College is the host institution of the network.
Pathway on Dvina. Photo © Ståle Sårheim
Students and lecturers from the joint course in comparative social policy, Arkhangelsk 2006. Photo © Tatiana Nosova.
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 25
Analysing the Structure of Pollutants ACADEMIC FIELD: Toxi-
cology, ecotoxicology, chemical research, environmental risk evaluation COOPERATING INSTI TUTIONS: Norwegian
Institute for Air Research, University of Tromsø, St. Petersburg State University PROJECT COORDINATOR:
Senior Researcher Roland Kallenborn, NILU TOTAL PROGRAMME FUNDING: NOK 1 260 000
The study of chemical components in insecticidal agents has lead to the development of new technology for environmental risk evaluation. The cooperation project “Semi-preparative separation and characterisation of selected enantiomers derived from the technical Toxaphene mixture” focused on the combination of trace analytical and chemical synthesis as scientific tools for the identification, isolation and production of enantiomeric pure chlorobornane isomers. Chlorobornane or polychloroterpenic mixtures (e.g., Toxaphene, Melipax, etc.) have been used as insecticidal agents for several decades until they were banned for agricultural usage in the western world (including Russia) during the 1980’s. Chlorobornanes are derived from exhaustive chlorination processes of natural products like α-pinene and terpenes. Most of the products are chiral and thus present as stereoisomers (enantiomers) in the technical mixture and the environment upon application. Single enantiomers are known to express unlike toxic effects in biological processes. Well characterised enantiopure standard materials are thus mandatory for comprehensive and reliable ecotoxicological evaluations. Therefore, one of the major goals of the project was to produce a set of well defi ned enantiopure standards for a selection of chlorobornanes through combination of chemical synthesis and analysis. The project was, thus, based upon three important scientific pillars within (environmental) chemical research: Profound knowledge in chemical synthesis (Prof. Dr. V. Nikiforov, SPSU), Structure elucidation (Prof. Dr. A. O. Smalås, UIT) and trace analytical methods (Dr. R. Kallenborn, NILU). These three research topics have been professionally combined. This strategy lead to new highly promising results. A wealth of new well characterised standard materials for subsequent environmental enantioselective analysis of chlorobornanes and related environmental studies is now available and will be used for future cooperation projects. In addition, similar strategies are expected to lead to comparable results for other chiral environmentally relevant chemicals.
26 • EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY
Meetings between researchers in Russia and Norway have been an important part of the project. Photo © Walter Vetter
New approaches It should be noted that investigation into the very nature of the racemization process in formation of polychloroterpenic mixtures brought valuable information on the properties of non-classical carbocations. In the future this may have an impact on novel approaches in mechanistic studies and on the general theories of chemical reactivity. As part of the project cooperation, the Russian partners (Vladimir Nikiforov) and two guest scientists (PhD students) from the St. Petersburg State University spent 11 person-months as guest researchers in Tromsø by invitation of the Tromsø University and the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). The major implications of the project have already been presented at several international conferences and concluded in a fi nal open workshop in St. Petersburg, organised by the Russian partner from the St. Petersburg State University. International key experts were invited to present their view on the role of Chirality in environmental chemistry. A concluding discussion revealed the immense potential of this new technology for environmental risk evaluation. The results of the project have received high attention from the international research community so far.
Project overview FUNDING (NOK)
Telemark University College
Novgorod State University
3 495 000
The Barents Project in Psychiatry
University of Tromsø
Northern State Medical University
2 050 000
Life at the Edge – Benthic Fauna at the Barents Sea Ice Edge in a Changing Climate (BASICC)
AKVAPLAN-Niva, Polar Environmental Centre, University of Tromsø, Nor wegian Polar Institute, Nor wegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)
Russia: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Russia, USA: University of South Carolina, USA, Bates College, Marine.
3 250 000
Paleo Environment and Climate History of the Russian Arctic - PECHORA II
University of Bergen, Bjerknes Centre for climate Research, (UNIFOB)
The Institute of Remote Sensing Methods for Geology (NIIKAM), St. Petersburg University
3 340 000
Arctic Marine and Environment Technology for Sustainable Exploitation of Hydrocarbons in the Barents Sea
The University Centre in Svalbard and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University
1 570 000
The Battle for the Resource Rent. The implementation of market regimes for allocation of harvesting rights in North West Russian state forests
Norut NIBR Finnmark
The Institute of Economic Problems (IEP), Kola Science Centre and Russian Academy of Science, Apatity
3 165 850
Material Fluxes form the Russian Rivers Ob and Yenisey: Inter-Actions with Climate and Effects
University of Oslo Institute of Biology
Murmansk Marine Biological Institute
3 225 000
Business Research and Education in a Northwestern University Alliance (BRUA)
Bodø Regional University, Bodø Graduate School of Business
Arkhangelsk State Technical University (ASTU), Baltic State Technical University (BSTU), St. Petersburg, and Murmansk State Technical University (MSTU)
5 681 000
New Developments in Russian Judicial Reform: Administrative Courts, Procedural Rules and the Consolidation of Private Rights
University of Oslo, Faculty of Law
The Center of Environmental Legal Studies at the Institute of State and Law, Moscow
3 350 000
The Pomor III Project
Bodø University College
Norwegian Pomor University Centre, Arkhangelsk and Faculty of Social Work, Pomor State University
2 800 000
Semi-preparative Separation and Characterisation of Selected Enantiomers Derived from the Technical Toxaphene Mixture
NILU - Tromsø NILU
The Chemical Institute and the St. Petersburg State University
1 200 000
Norwegian for Russian Students (advanced) from Pomor State University
University of Tromsø
Pomor State University
Total allocation NOK Scholarship programme
33 526 850 5 000 000
EXPLORING NATURE AND SOCIETY • 27