Issuu on Google+

DOCUMENT SERIES

D4/2005

Bibliography 2004 Norad Fellowship Programme A Compilation of Master Theses from the Norad Fellowship Programme in 2004 COMPILED BY SIU


Table of contents 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 2 2 How to read a record ................................................................................................................. 3 3 Fulltext published master thesis in 2004................................................................................. 4 4 Master’s degree theses by institution and programme ........................................................ 5 4.1 Agricultural University of Norway........................................................................................ 6 M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics........................................................................ 6 M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture ................................... 6 4.2 Norwegian University of Science and Technology ................................................................ 8 M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography) ................................................................ 8 M.Sc. in Hydropower Development........................................................................................... 8 M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience ............................................................ 9 4.3 University of Bergen..............................................................................................................10 M.Phil. in Gender and Development .........................................................................................10 M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health) ......................................................................10 M.Phil. in Public Administration...............................................................................................10 4.4 University of Oslo ..................................................................................................................11 M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education .................................................................11 M.Phil. in International Community Health...............................................................................11 M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE) ..........................................................................12 M.Sc. in Public Health (Information System Track) - UEM.......................................................12 4.5 University of Tromsø.............................................................................................................13 M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management............................................................................13

5 Master’s degree theses by country ........................................................................................14 5.1 Bangladesh ........................................................................................................................14 5.2 Bhutan...............................................................................................................................15 5.3 Botswana ...........................................................................................................................15 5.4 Eritrea ...............................................................................................................................15 5.5 Ethiopia .............................................................................................................................15 5.6 India ..................................................................................................................................16 5.7 Malawi...............................................................................................................................17 5.8 Mali....................................................................................................................................17 5.9 Mozambique......................................................................................................................18 5.10 Namibia ...........................................................................................................................18 5.11 Nepal................................................................................................................................18 5.12 Pakistan ...........................................................................................................................19 5.13 South Africa ....................................................................................................................19 5.14 Sri Lanka.........................................................................................................................20 5.15 Tanzania ..........................................................................................................................20 5.16 The Palestinian Territory ...............................................................................................21 5.17 Uganda.............................................................................................................................21 5.18 Vietnam ...........................................................................................................................22 5.19 Zambia.............................................................................................................................23 5.20 Zimbabwe........................................................................................................................23

6 All theses by reference number..............................................................................................24 1


1 Introduction This is the third published bibliography of Master’s degree theses from the Norad Fellowship Programme. The first bibliography of Master’s theses for the period 1998 – 2002, was published in 2003. The main objective is to make available to the public the extensive amount of research that Norad fellows generate during their studies. The Norad Fellowship Programme targets personnel employed or formally linked up to public institutions, non-governmental institutions, private sector enterprises, universities and research institutions. The aim is to promote mutual academic, social and cultural learning. SIU – Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Higher Education administers the programme based on an agreement between the Norwegian Council of Higher Education and Norad. The Norad Fellowship Programme is based on the vision that good educational opportunities at Norwegian universities and university colleges will contribute to increased competence in the South. The programme aims to contribute to: • • • •

The development of knowledge management by providing educational opportunities at Norwegian universities and university colleges. Increased expertise and institutional development at universities and university colleges in Norway’s partner countries in the South. A strengthening of the international commitment in the academic community and stimulate South-South academic cooperation. The internationalisation of Norwegian higher education where this coincides with Norwegian development cooperation objectives.

Universities and colleges in Norway offer a broad range of Master’s degree programmes where Norway is considered to have a good international standing. The programmes are of two years durations. They are part of the regular international programme of the institution, and are offered in most academic fields. The programmes are open to students from both Norway and the international community. Curricula and all lectures are in English. Most of the programmes require examination by thesis. This provides the Norad fellows with the opportunity to choose at theme relevant to their home professions, and carry out research in their own institution. In total approximately 100 Norad fellows are enrolled each year on degree courses, and submit a thesis as part of their Master’s degree. The bibliography is based on registered data procured from the participating institutions in Norway. The first main section, chapter 4 of the bibliography gives an overview of completed Master’s degree theses in 2004, by institution and programmes. In chapter 5 bibliographical references are listed by country. In chapter 6 all these are listed by reference number, as indicated on page 3 below. In this section abstracts are included when available. All Master’s degree theses submitted under the Norad Fellowship Programme from 1998 and onwards are available online at SIU’s web pages: www.siu.no

2


2 How to read a record Author’s name

Reference number: Each thesis has a unique identifier. All theses are sorted according to this at the end of the report.

↓ ↓

Thesis title ↓

Haque, Mohammad Ziaul Ref.24-2004 The Role of High Yielding Technology in Rice Production in Bangladesh: A Macro Review wiht Reference to Adoption, Productivity and Sustainability M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH

↑ Degree and location of the programme

3


3 Full text published master thesis in 2004 Full text publishing of master theses has been possible for Norad Fellowship students since 2000. In 2004, four students have published their theses online.

M.Phil. in Gender and Development, UiB: Chilimbo, Peggy Muyangana (Zambia) Ref.10-2004 Gender and Food Security in an Irrigation Scheme: Case Study of Chipapa Households, Kafue District. http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/2004/h/532002/

ISBN (Only for the electronic document): 82-8088-383-5 Taj, Farhat (Pakistan) Ref.70-2004 Policing in Purdah: Women and Women Police Station, Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2004/uib/thesis01/index.html

ISBN (Only for the electronic document): 82-8088-323-1 Serugo, Paulous (Uganda) Ref.65-2004 The concept of well being in the Butiki village: a critical perspective on development and modernization in a Ugandan village. http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/2004/h/532001/

ISBN (Only for the electronic document): 82-8088-337-1

M.Phil. in Public Administration UiB: Kyohairwe, Stella Baketuraki (Uganda)

Ref.41-2004

Women Political Recruitment within Local Councils: the selection of women political leaders in Uganda. A case of Bushenyi district local council and Kampala city council http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/2004/h/701002/ ISBN (Only for the electronic document): 82-8088-348-7

4


4 Master’s degree theses by institution and programme In this section, theses written by Norad Fellows are sorted by institution and then by programme. The reference number will take you to the last part of the bibliography where each thesis is presented.

Number of master theses completed in 2004

Institution and programme Agricultural University of Norway (NLH) M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture Total NLH Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography) M.Sc. in Hydropower Development M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience Total NTNU

4 18 22 4 9 10 23

University of Bergen (UiB) M.Phil. in Gender and Development M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health) M.Phil. in Public Administration Total UiB

3 5 3 11

University of Oslo (UiO) M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education M.Phil. in International Community Health M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE) M.Sc. in Public Health (Information System Track) - UEM Total UiO

5 8 5 2 20

University of Tromsø (UiT) M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management (UiT) Total UiT

Total all institutions

5 5 81

5


4.1 Agricultural University of Norway In 2004 the Agricultural University of Norway has delivered/prepared 22 masters of Norad Fellows.

M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics Bezu, Sosina (Ethiopia) Ref.7-2004 Addressing Vulnerability through Food-For-Work. An evaluation of the impact of food-for-work in reducing vulnerability of households in Tigray, Ethiopia. Nandi, Martha (Namibia) Ref.52-2004 Coping with drought. A case study of communal farmers in the Northern Regions of Namibia Ghebru Hagos, Hosa'ena (Ethiopia) Ref.21-2004 Factor market imperfections and rural land lease market in the northern Ethiopian highlands Matchaya, Greenwell Collins (Malawi) Ref.47-2004 The impact of rural producer organizations on people's livelihoods: The case of National Small Holder Farmers' Association of Malawi: A multiple methods approach.

M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture Piloya, Brenda Carolyn (Uganda) Ref.61-2004 Carbon sequestration potential of alnus and grevellia boundary trees and calliandra hedgerows in Kabale district, Uganda Poudel, Diwakar (Nepal) Ref.62-2004 Crop Genetic Resource Conservation: a study of farmers' willingness to pay for rice landraces in Kaski, Nepal Tsehaye Baratsion, Yemane (Ethiopia) Ref.76-2004 Diversity of Ethiopian Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Gaertn. Part 1: Variability of Finger Millet: Characterisation of Ethiopia's national Ex situ Collections. Part 2: Ethnobotanical study of Finger Millet landraces in Tigray (Northern Ethiopia) Shrestha, Basuda (Nepal) Ref.66-2004 Ethnomedico-Knowledge in Practice: A Study of Medicinal Plants in Kaski District, Nepal Getachew, Mamo Areda (Ethiopia) Ref.19-2004 Economic Dependence on Forest Environmental Resources and Rural Livelihoods: Chilimo National Forest Priority Area, Ethiopia. Dast Gal, Muhammed Essa (Pakistan) Ref.14-2004 Household income and natural forest conservation by agroforestry. An analysis based on two agroecological zones: Bagrot and Jalalabad in Northern Pakistan

6


Lwesya, Anna Handrina (Malawi) Ref.43-2004 Impact of Treadle Pump Adoption on Food Security; Kasungu District, Malawi. Madayi, Zafarani Athumani (Tanzania) Ref.47-2004 Land Transactions and Rent Appropriation in Peri-Urban Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Ghebretinsae, Feven Ghebrenigus (Eritrea) Livelihood Reconstruction and its challenges, Batticaloa: Sri Lanka

Ref.20-2004

Zeru, Daniel Maekele (Eritrea) Livelihood Reconstruction and its challenges, Batticaloa: Sri Lanka

Ref.80-2004

Kafuwa, Dalitso Kukada (Malawi) Ref.27-2004 Livelihood strategies and coping with drought among resource poor farmers in Dedza District, Malawi Aqil, Gulcheen (Pakistan) Ref. 3-2004 Morality or Rationality! Which Comes First? Mutual Insurance and Solidarity Networks in the Western Himalayan Societies Namugwanya, Margareth (Uganda) Ref.51-2004 People’s dependence on environmental income for survival and livelihoods: a case study of Mt. Elgon National Park Uganda Vu, Van Thi Khanh (Vietnam) Ref.78-2004 Phenotypic Characterization of Ex-situ Live Animal Conservation of some Indigenous Chicken Breeds in Vietnam Katto, Frank Musinguzi Justus (Uganda) Ref.33-2004 Sustainable livelihoods and environmental income dependence around Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda Sosola, Bruce Gee (Malawi) Ref.68-2004 The Contribution of Bamboo Enterprises to Rural Livelihoods in Mvera, Dowa District, Malawi Gurung, Prem Chandra (Nepal) Ref.23-2004 The Himalayan Mountain Rangelands of Chhuksang: Integrating indigenous Haque, Mohammad Ziaul (Bangladesh) Ref.24-2004 The Role of High Yielding Technology in Rice Production in Bangladesh: A Macro Review with Reference to Adoption, Productivity and Sustainability

7


4.2 Norwegian University of Science and Technology In 2004 the Norwegian University of Science and Technology has delivered/prepared 23 masters of Norad Fellows.

M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography) Kanyerere, Thokozani Olex Butawo (Malawi) Ref.30-2004 Geographical Variation in Tuberculosis as an Opportunistic Infection to HIV/AIDS and is Implications for Livelihoods: A Study of Zomba and Mangochi Districts in Southern Malawi. Khasalamwa, Sarah (Uganda) Ref.36-2004 Reflecting on NGO Interventions and Outcomes: A Case Study of ALIA in Kumi District, Eastern Uganda. Omala M., Perera (Sri Lanka) Ref.57-2004 The Concentration of Textile and Garment Industry in Colombo and Gampaha Districts, Sri Lanka. Causes and Consequences. Adhikari, Sewa (Nepal) Ref. 1-2004 Women Empowerment through Micro Credit. A Case Study on Production Credit for Rural Women Programme at Bhadgaun Sinuwari VDC, Sunsari District, Nepal

M.Sc. in Hydropower Development Bogale Gebre, Solomon (Ethiopia) Ref. 8-2004 Dam Break Inundation Analysis, Case study and a Review of Literature. Case: Jonsvatnet Reservoir, Norway. Tassew Erkyihun, Solomon (Ethiopia) Inflow forecasting and reservoir operation for Lake Tana, Ethiopia

Ref.76-2004

Le Quang, Huy (Vietnam) Ref.42-2004 Engineering Geological Assessment for the Dam Site for the Quang Tri Multipurpose Project in Vietnam Paudel, Kiran (Nepal) Ref.59-2004 Hydrological Studies for the Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project in Nepal Kalugendo, Praxeda Paul (Tanzania) Ref.29-2004 Hydropower and Water Resources Management in Pangani River Basin, Tanzania Srivastava, Vishal (India) Ref.69-2004 Karcham.Wangtoo Hydro Electric Project. Optimisation and Construction Planning of the waterways. Chitrakar, Rita (Nepal) Ref.11-2004 New Headworks for Khudi Hydropower Plant; Feasibility Level Study

8


Kumar, Prabat (India) Ref.39-2004 Sediment Handling at Salal Hydropower Plant based on Laboratory Tests of Hydraulic Slucing. Nguyen Tra, My (Vietnam) Ref.54-2004 The Study of the Tunnel and Underground Powerhouse for Huoi Quang Hydropower Project in Lao Cai, Vietnam

M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience Jahan, Nahid (Bangladesh) Ref.26-2004 A New Approach of Well Test Simulator Development: Stefhest’s Algorithm in VBA (Excel) Kidaya, Mwanamani Bakiri (Tanzania) Ref.38-2004 A Study of Aeromagnetic, Gravity and Seismic Data from Rukwa Basin – Tanzania Khattak, Shaoor Islam (Pakistan) Ref.37-2004 A study of Gravity and an Aeromagnetic data from the Jotun Nappe Complex (JNC), Southern Norwegian Caledonides Truong, Tuan Anh (Vietnam) Down-hole Oil/Water Gravity Slip Separator

Ref.75-2004

Chuvambe, Isabel Maria (Mozambique) Evaluation of Gas Production Behaviour

Ref.13-2004

Al-Assi, Haitam Tayseer (The Palestinian Territory) Ref. 2-2004 Numerical Modelling of Reservoir Compaction and Surface Subsidence Using Discrete Element Method Zewdie, Getahun Mengistu (Ethiopia) Numerical Modelling of Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Wells

Ref.81-2004

Tran, Nhu Huy (Vietnam) Ref.73-2004 Single Porosity Model Simulation for Evaluation of Fracture Basement Rock Reservoir Ferdous, Sharmin (Bangladesh) Ref.18-2004 The Sensitivity Analysis of Relative Permeability in WAG Injection Modelling for a Sector Model of a Major Field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf Obita, Philips (Uganda) Velocities from Amplitude Variations with Offset

9

Ref.60-2004


4.3 University of Bergen In 2004 the University of Bergen has delivered/prepared 11 masters of Norad Fellows.

M.Phil. in Gender and Development Chilimbo, Peggy Muyangana (Zambia) Ref.10-2004 Gender and Food Security in an Irrigation Scheme: case study of Chipapa households, Kafue district. Taj, Farhat (Pakistan) Ref.70-2004 Policing in Purdah: Women and Women Police Station, Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan Serugo, Paulous (Uganda) Ref.65-2004 The concept of well being in the Butiki village: a critical perspective on development and modernization in a Ugandan village.

M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health) Tarimo, Edith A. Mroso (Tanzania) Ref.71-2004 Assessing the impact of HIV/AIDS on informal care: A qualitative study from an urban Tanzanian context Gombachika, Belinda Thandizo (Malawi) Ref.22-2004 Experience of HIV-positive Pregnant Women: A qualitative Study from Lilongwe Urban, Malawi Buregyeya, Esther (Uganda) Ref. 9-2004 Factors associated with HIV risk behaviour among employees of Kakira sugar works in Dinja district, Uganda Bachou, Hanifa (Uganda) Ref. 4-2004 Malnutrition in children admitted to Mulago hospital: prevalence, mortality and associated factors Katoba, Juliet (Zambia) Ref.32-2004 Syphilis Trends and Relationship with Changes in HIV Prevalence among Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Zamibia

M.Phil. in Public Administration Ehsan, Mohammad (Bangladesh) Ref.17-2004 Governing Higher Education in Bangladesh: A Comparison of Two Universities Chowdhury, Saber Ahmed (Bangladesh) Ref.12-2004 Participation in forestry: A study of people's participation on the social forestry policy in Bangladesh: Myth or reality?

10


Kyohairwe, Stella Baketuraki (Uganda) Ref.41-2004 Women Political Recruitment within Local Councils: the selection of women political leaders in Uganda. A case of Bushenyi district local council and Kampala city council

4.4 University of Oslo In 2004 the University of Oslo has delivered/prepared 20 masters of Norad Fellows.

M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education Kalole, Safarani Alli Mndeme (Tanzania) Ref.28-2004 Answering Essay and Summary Type Questions in English and Kiswahili: Problems in the Certification of Secondary Education Examination, Tanzania. Mapunda, Adelgot John Baptist (Tanzania) Ref.46-2004 Progression or Regression: Language of Instruction; Students' Participation and Performance in "Fasihi" and Literature" as Taught in Tanzania Diploma Teachers Training Colleges Ngailevanu, Asixtus George (Tanzania) Ref.53-2004 The Effect of Using English Instead of Kiswahili in Teaching and Learning General Studies in Tanzanian Secondary Schools. Traore, Bourama (Mali) The Gender Gap in Higher Education in Mali: Trends and Issues

Ref.74-2004

Sigcau, Nompucuko Eurica (South Africa) Ref.67-2004 The Impact of English Medium of Instruction on Children’s' Education with Special Reference to Xhosa Learners

M.Phil. in International Community Health Devi, Shresta Sumitra (Nepal) Ref.15-2004 A Study on Mobility and Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV/AIDS risk among the mountain community of Mustang district, Nepal Nkubito, Grace Kangwagye (Botswana) Ref.55-2004 Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, Complications and Obstetric Outcome at Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana Kebede, Meselu Taye (Ethiopia) Ref.35-2004 Moral Dilemmas and Gender Scripts: A Qualitative Study among Ethiopian Women living with AIDS/HIV Besa, Eustina Mulenge (Zambia) Ref. 6-2004 Options and Contraints for Breastfeeding in the Context of HIV - A Study of Parents Perspective in Lusaka and Kitwe Districts, Zambia

11


Yimer, Solomon Abebe (Ethiopia) Ref.79-2004 Patients' and Health Systems' Delay in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia Maganga, Ellubey Rachel (Malawi) Ref.45-2004 Pneumonia Case Fatality Rate in Children under-five: Understanding Variations in District Hospitals in Malawi Kurewa, Nyaradzai Edith (Zimbabwe) Ref.40-2004 Quality of Life and Coping Styles of HIV positive compared to HIV negative Women in Zimbabwe participating in the Prevention of Mother to Child transmission of HIV Program Munjoma, Marshall W. (Zimbabwe) Ref.50-2004 Simple Method for the Detection of Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women

M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE) Kasavubu, Betty Grace (Uganda) Creating Enjoyable Reading Material for Children

Ref.31-2004

Mirembe, Eseza (Uganda) Ref.49-2004 Interaction between Teachers and Slow Learners - A Case Study in a School in Kampala District, Uganda Belay, Reta (Ethiopia) Ref. 5-2004 Major Psycho-social Factors Contributing to Dropout among Secondary School Girls in Guraghe Zone Tshering, Karma (Bhutan) Ref.77-2004 Opinions of the Teachers in Trashigang District of Bhutan on Inclusive Education Mekuria, Melkam Lengereh (Ethiopia) Ref.48-2004 The Overall Situation of Female Street Children (11 - 18 years) Engaged in Commercial Sex Work in Dire Dawa - Ethiopia (Survey in Case Study with Special Reference to Child Prostitution)

M.Sc. in Public Health (Information System Track) - UEM Patrício, Ana dos Santos Leão (Mozambique) Ref.58-2004 Avaliação do funcionamento das brigadas móveis do Programa Alargado de Vacinação - PAV, nos Distritos de Chókwe e Manjacaze Rico, Maria Manuela (Mozambique) Ref.63-2004 Estudo sobre os factores de motivação e falta de motivação do pessoal de saúde na produção e uso da informação nas unidades de saúde de nível primário: Caso do distrito do Chókwe.

12


4.5 University of Tromsø In 2004 the University of Tromsø has delivered 5 masters of Norad Fellows.

M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management Samsukal, Pamela (South Africa) Ref.64-2004 A preliminary study of effluent water quality of land-based abalone farms in South Africa. Dubula, Odwa (South Africa) Ref.16-2004 Assessment of the effects of tagging and tag-related injuries on somatic growth of male west coast rock lobster, Jasus lalandii. Kayanda, Robert Jeremiah (Tanzania) Ref.34-2004 Gillnet selectivity: A case of Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) fishery in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Pham, Phong Mai (Vietnam) Ref.60-2004 Managing the larvae/juvenile fisheries in the Mekong delta of VietNam. Hewamanage, Lalith Amaralal Kariyawasam (Sri Lanka) Ref.25-2004 Market structure and key success factors in fish marketing and distribution in Sri Lanka.

13


5 Master’s degree theses by country In 2004 Norad Fellows came from 20 countries. Country

Female 2 0 1 1 3 1 5 0 3 1 4 2 1 1 5 0 9 3 3 1 46

Bangladesh Bhutan Botswana Eritrea Ethiopia India Malawi Mali Mozambique Namibia Nepal Pakistan South Africa Sri Lanka Tanzania The Palestinian Territory Uganda Vietnam Zambia Zimbabwe Total

Male 3 1 0 1 8 1 2 1 0 0 3 2 2 1 3 1 3 3 0 1 35

Total 5 1 1 2 11 2 7 1 3 1 7 4 3 2 8 1 11 6 3 2 81

5.1 Bangladesh Haque, Mohammad Ziaul Ref.24-2004 The Role of High Yielding Technology in Rice Production in Bangladesh: A Macro Review with Reference to Adoption, Productivity and Sustainability M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Ehsan, Mohammad Ref.17-2004 Governing Higher Education in Bangladesh: A Comparison of Two Universities M.Phil. in Public Administration, UiB Chowdhury, Saber Ahmed Ref.12-2004 Participation in forestry: A study of people's participation on the social forestry policy in Bangladesh: Myth or reality? M.Phil. in Public Administration, UiB

14


Ferdous, Sharmin Ref.18-2004 The Sensitivity Analysis of Relative Permeability in WAG Injection Modelling for a Sector Model of a Major Field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Jahan, Nahid

Ref.26-2004 A New Approach of Well Test Simulator Development: Stefhest’s Algorithm in VBA (Excel) M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

5.2 Bhutan Tshering, Karma Ref.77-2004 Opinions of the Teachers in Trashigang District of Bhutan on Inclusive Education M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO

5.3 Botswana Nkubito, Grace Kangwagye Ref.55-2004 Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, Complications and Obstetric Outcome at Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO

5.4 Eritrea Ghebretinsae, Feven Ghebrenigus Ref.20-2004 Livelihood Reconstruction and its challenges, Batticaloa: Sri Lanka M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Zeru, Daniel Maekele Ref.80-2004 Livelihood Reconstruction and its challenges, Batticaloa: Sri Lanka M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH

5.5 Ethiopia Bezu, Sosina

Ref.7-2004 Addressing Vulnerability through Food-For-Work. An evaluation of the impact of food-for-work in reducing vulnerability of households in Tigray, Ethiopia. M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH

Ghebru Hagos, Hosa'ena Ref.21-2004 Factor market imperfections and rural land lease market in the northern Ethiopian highlands M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH

15


Bogale Gebre, Solomon Ref.8-2004 Dam Break Inundation Analysis, Case study and a Review of Literature. Case: Jonsvatnet Reservoir, Norway. M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Tassew Erkyihun, Solomon Inflow forecasting and reservoir operation for Lake Tana, Ethiopia M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU

Ref.72-2004

Tsehaye Baratsion, Yemane Ref.76-2004 Diversity of Ethiopian Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Gaertn. Part 1: Variability of Finger Millet: Characterisation of Ethiopia's national Ex situ Collections. Part 2: Ethnobotanical study of Finger Millet landraces in Tigray (Northern Ethiopia) M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Getachew, Mamo Areda Ref.19-2004 Economic Dependence on Forest Environmental Resources and Rural Livelihoods: Chilimo National Forest Priority Area, Ethiopia. M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Kebede, Meselu Taye Ref.35-2004 Moral Dilemmas and Gender Scripts: A Qualitative Study among Ethiopian Women living with AIDS/HIV M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Yimer, Solomon Abebe Ref.79-2004 Patients' and Health Systems' Delay in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tubercolosis in Northwest Ethiopia M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Mekuria, Melkam Lengereh Ref.48-2004 The Overall Situation of Female Street Children (11 - 18 years) Engaged in Commercial Sex Work in Dire Dawa - Ethiopia (Survey in Case Study with Special Reference to Child Prostitution) M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO Nandi, Martha

Ref.52-2004 Coping with drought. A case study of communal farmers in the Northern Regions of Namibia M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH

Zewdie, Getahun Mengistu Numerical Modelling of Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Wells M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

Ref.81-2004

5.6 India Srivastava, Vishal Ref.69-2004 Karcham.Wangtoo Hydro Electric Project. Optimisation and Construction Planning of the waterways. M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU

16


Kumar, Prabat

Ref.39-2004 Sediment Handling at Salal Hydropower Plant based on Laboratory Tests of Hydraulic Slucing. M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU

5.7 Malawi Matchaya, Greenwell Collins Ref.47-2004 The impact of rural producer organizations on people's livelihoods: The case of National Small Holder Farmers' Association of Malawi: A multiple methods approach. M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH Lwesya, Anna Handrina Ref.43-2004 Impact of Treadle Pump Adoption on Food Security; Kasungu District, Malawi. M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Kafuwa, Dalitso Kukada Ref.27-2004 Livelihood strategies and coping with drought among resource poor farmers in Dedza District, Malawi M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Sosola, Bruce Gee Ref.68-2004 The Contribution of Bamboo Enterprises to Rural Livelihoods in Mvera, Dowa District, Malawi M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Kanyerere, Thokozani Olex Butawo Ref.30-2004 Geographical Variation in Tuberculosis as an Opportunistic Infection to HIV/AIDS and is Implications for Livelihoods: A Study of Zomba and Mangochi Districts in Southern Malawi. M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU Gombachika, Belinda Thandizo Ref.22-2004 Experience of HIV-positive Pregnant Women: A qualitative Study from Lilongwe Urban, Malawi M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB Maganga, Ellubey Rachel Ref.45-2004 Pneumonia Case Fatality Rate in Children under-five: Understanding Variations in District Hospitals in Malawi M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO

5.8 Mali Traore, Bourama The Gender Gap in Higher Education in Mali: Trends and Issues

M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO

17

Ref.74-2004


5.9 Mozambique Patrício, Ana dos Santos Leão Ref.58-2004 Avaliação do funcionamento das brigadas móveis do Programa Alargado de Vacinação - PAV, nos Distritos de Chókwe e Manjacaze M.Sc. in Public Health (Information System Track) – UEM, UiO Rico, Maria Manuela Ref.63-2004 Estudo sobre os factores de motivação e falta de motivação do pessoal de saúde na produção e uso da informação nas unidades de saúde de nível primário: Caso do distrito do Chókwe. M.Sc. in Public Health (Information System Track) – UEM, UiO Chuvambe, Isabel Maria Evaluation of Gas Production Behaviour M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

Ref.13-2004

5.10 Namibia Nandi, Martha

Ref.52-2004 Coping with drought. A case study of communal farmers in the Northern Regions of Namibia

M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH

5.11 Nepal Poudel, Diwakar Ref.62-2004 Crop Genetic Resource Conservation: a study of farmers' willingness to pay for rice landraces in Kaski, Nepal M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Shrestha, Basuda Ref.66-2004 Ethnomedico-Knowledge in Practice: A Study of Medicinal Plants in Kaski District, Nepal M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Gurung, Prem Chandra Ref.23-2004 The Himalayan Mountain Rangelands of Chhuksang: Integrating indigenous M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Adhikari, Sewa

Ref. 1-2004 Women Empowerment through Micro Credit. A Case Study on Production Credit for Rural Women Programme at Bhadgaun Sinuwari VDC, Sunsari District, Nepal M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU

Paudel, Kiran

Ref.59-2004 Hydrological Studies for the Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project in Nepal M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU

18


Chitrakar, Rita

Ref.11-2004 New Headworks for Khudi Hydropower Plant; Feasibility Level Study M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU

Devi, Shresta Sumitra Ref.15-2004 A Study on Mobility and Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV/AIDS risk among the mountain community of Mustang district, Nepal M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO

5.12 Pakistan Dast Gal, Muhammed Essa Ref.14-2004 Household income and natural forest conservation by agroforestry. An analysis based on two agroecological zones: Bagrot and Jalalabad in Northern Pakistan M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Aqil, Gulcheen

Ref. 3-2004 Morality or Rationality! Which Comes First? Mutual Insurance and Solidarity Networks in the Western Himalayan Societies M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH

Taj, Farhat

Ref.70-2004 Policing in Purdah: women and women police station, Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan M.Phil. in Gender and Development, UiB

Khattak, Shaoor Islam

Ref.37-2004

A study of Gravity and an Aeromagnetic data from the Jotun Nappe Complex (JNC), Southern Norwegian Caledonides M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

5.13 South Africa Sigcau, Nompucuko Eurica Ref.67-2004 The Impact of English Medium of Instruction on Childrens' Education with Special Reference to Xhosa Learners M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Samsukal, Pamela Ref.64-2004 A preliminary study of effluent water quality of land-based abalone farms in South Africa. M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT Dubula, Odwa

Ref.16-2004 Assessment of the effects of tagging and tag-related injuries on somatic growth of male west coast rock lobster, Jasus lalandii.

M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT

19


5.14 Sri Lanka Omala M., Perera Ref.57-2004 The Concentration of Textile and Garment Industry in Colombo and Gampaha Districts, Sri Lanka. Causes and Consequences. M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU Hewamanage, Lalith Amaralal Kariyawasam Ref.25-2004 Market structure and key success factors in fish marketing and distribution in Sri Lanka. M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT

5.15 Tanzania Madayi, Zafarani Athumani Ref.44-2004 Land Transactions and Rent Appropriation in Peri-Urban Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Kalugendo, Praxeda Paul Ref.29-2004 Hydropower and Water Resources Management in Pangani River Basin, Tanzania M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Tarimo, Edith A. Mroso Ref.71-2004 Assessing the impact of HIV/AIDS on informal care: A qualitative study from an urban Tanzanian context M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB Kalole, Safarani Alli Mndeme Ref.28-2004 Answering Essay and Summary Type Questions in English and Kiswahili: Problems in the Certification of Secondary Education Examination, Tanzania. M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Mapunda, Adelgot John Baptist Ref.46-2004 Progression or Regression: Language of Instruction; Students' Participation and Performance in "Fasihi" and Literature" as Taught in Tanzania Diploma Teachers Training Colleges M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Ngailevanu, Asixtus George Ref.53-2004 The Effect of Using English Instead of Kiswahili in Teaching and Learning General Studies in Tanzanian Secondary Schools. M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Kayanda, Robert Jeremiah Ref.34-2004 Gillnet selectivity: A case of Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) fishery in Lake Victoria, Tanzania M.Sc in International Fisheries Management, UiT

20


Kidaya, Mwanamani Bakiri Ref.38-2004 A Study of Aeromagnetic, Gravity and Seismic Data from Rukwa Basin – Tanzania M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

5.16 The Palestinian Territory Al-Assi, Haitam Tayseer Ref. 2-2004 Numerical Modelling of Reservoir Compaction and Surface Subsidence Using Discrete Element Method M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

5.17 Uganda Piloya, Brenda Carolyn Ref.61-2004 Carbon sequestration potential of alnus and grevellia boundary trees and calliandra hedgerows in Kabale district, Uganda M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Namugwanya, Margareth Ref.51-2004 People’s dependence on environmental income for survival and livelihoods: a case study of Mt. Elgon National Park Uganda M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Katto, Frank Musinguzi Justus Ref.33-2004 Sustainable livelihoods and environmental income dependence around Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Khasalamwa, Sarah Ref.38-2004 Reflecting on NGO Interventions and Outcomes: A Case Study of ALIA in Kumi District, Eastern Uganda. M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU Serugo, Paulous Ref.69-2004 The concept of well being in the Butiki village: a critical perspective on development and modernization in a Ugandan village. M.Phil. in Gender and Development, UiB Buregyeya, Esther Ref.11-2004 Factors associated with HIV risk behaviour among employees of Kakira sugar works in Dinja district, Uganda M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB Bachou, Hanifa

Ref.4-2004 Malnutrition in children admitted to Mulago hospital: prevalence, mortality and associated factors M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB

21


Kyohairwe, Stella Baketuraki Ref.41-2004 Women Political Recruitment within Local Councils: the selection of women political leaders in Uganda. A case of Bushenyi district local council and Kampala city council M.Phil. in Public Administration, UiB Kasavubu, Betty Grace Creating Enjoyable Reading Material for Children M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO

Ref.31-2004

Mirembe, Eseza

Ref.49-2004 Interaction between Teachers and Slow Learners - A Case Study in a School in Kampala District, Uganda M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO

Obita, Philips

Ref.56-2004 Velocities from Amplitude Variations with Offset M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

5.18 Vietnam Vu, Van Thi Khanh Ref.78-2004 Phenotypic Characterization of Ex-situ Live Animal Conservation of some Indigenous Chicken Breeds in Vietnam M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Le Quang, Huy

Ref.42-2004 Engineering Geological Assessment for the Dam Site for the Quang Tri Multipurpose Project in Vietnam M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU

Nguyen Tra, My Ref.54-2004 The Study of the Tunnel and Underground Powerhouse for Huoi Quang Hydropower Project in Lao Cai, Vietnam M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Pham, Phong Mai Ref.60-2004 Managing the larvae/juvenile fisheries in the Mekong delta of VietNam. M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT Tran, Nhu Huy

Ref.73-2004 Single Porosity Model Simulation for Evaluation of Fracture Basement Rock Reservoir M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

Truong, Tuan Anh Down-hole Oil/Water Gravity Slip Separator

M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU

22

Ref.75-2004


5.19 Zambia Chilimbo, Peggy Muyangana Ref.10-2004 Gender and Food Security in an Irrigation Scheme: Case Study of Chipapa Households, Kafue district. M.Phil. in Gender and Development, UiB Katoba, Juliet

Ref.32-2004 Syphilis Trends and Relationship with Changes in HIV Prevalence among Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Zamibia M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB

Besa, Eustina Mulenge

Ref.6-2004

Options and Contraints for Breastfeeding in the Context of HIV - A Study of Parents Perspective in Lusaka and Kitwe Districts, Zambia M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO

5.20 Zimbabwe Kurewa, Nyaradzai Edith Ref.40-2004 Quality of Life and Coping Styles of HIV positive compared to HIV negative Women in Zimbabwe participating in the Prevention of Mother to Child transmission of HIV Program M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Munjoma, Marshall W.

Ref.50-2004

Simple Method for the Detection of Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO

23


6 All theses by reference number In this chapter all Master’s degree theses completed in 2004 are listed by reference number. When available an abstract is included.

24


Adhikari, Sewa Women Empowerment through Micro Credit. A Case Study on Production Credit for Rural Women Programme at Bhadgaun Sinuwari VDC, Sunsari District, Nepal M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The empowerment of women has been an issue of great concern in Nepal since the 1980s. The government has been trying to reach the grassroots women by different programmes. However, women’s status has not improved significantly despite all these attempts and commitments on the part of government and international organisations. These facts led me to assess the effectiveness of the government’s programme by examining PCRW programme. The major focuses of the study is to overview the objectives and project components of the PCRW programme, assess the impact of it on women at household and community levels, explore the strengths and weaknesses of it and finally provide some suggestions on the basis of the study. Broader theoretical frameworks which focus on women have been relied upon to aid explanation. Congruent with the nature of the problem, phenomenological approach and thus qualitative methodologies are applied to get in depth knowledge. Primary and secondary sources of data were both utilised to reach conclusion. The major focus of the PCRW programme is to provide institutional credit, training and community development programme. This study has been able to examine how the programme has been affecting women to improve their economic and social condition in the society, how government resources are utilised and what kind of problems are being encountered at the grassroots. It is evident from the study that the programme has multifarious challenges to operate smoothly. Some positive and negative issues were of cross-cutting ones. The study reveals that the economic impact of the programme on women is very weak because of the non-availability of credit. This situation affected all women of the programme but especially it had created severe negative effects to the new members, especially dalit women which led less attraction of the programme among women. Some default borrowers of the programme have created such a situation. This worsened the credit of the programme which has challenged women’s trustworthiness too. However, the programme has meaningful contributions to raise awareness and increase women’s mobility outside the home, thus creating women’s social recognition and integration. Women’s mobility and involvement in CBOs have created distinct social identity of women because these were a new tradition in the patriarchal society. The study draws insights on how gendered attitude, sociocultural practices, kinship relations, familial positions deprive women of full participation in development. The study is able to assess the different impacts of the programme on women and provided some suggestions to improve it. On the basis of the study it is concluded that economic empowerment, though effective to reduce poverty situation, alone is not enough to overall empowerment of women. Author’s nationality: Nepal

Ref.1-2004

25


Al-Assi, Haitam Tayseer Numerical Modelling of Reservoir Compaction and Surface Subsidence Using Discrete Element Method M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Author’s nationality: The Palestinian Territory

Ref.2-2004

26


Aqil, Gulcheen Morality or Rationality! Which Comes First? Mutual Insurance and Solidarity Networks in the Western Himalayan Societies M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This research work mainly describes the existing mutual insurance mechanisms precisely exchange and reciprocity mechanisms in the peasant societies of Baltistan (a region of Northern Areas of Pakistan) where many farmers are still practising some of traditional system of insurance because of its unique physical features as situated in the western Himalayas. In a peasant society, people hold polarity of interests by performing both the moral and rationale economies. They can be altruistic at one place and time, and rational at another place and time. Thus, people reciprocate with each other within both realms; the morality and the rationality. Baltistan, which is situated in the Western Himalayas, and one of the poorest regions of Pakistan, has still practices many traditional systems, especially for the agricultural activities including mutual insurance and reciprocity mechanisms, and solidarity networks. However, because of formal market influence and interaction with other areas, these mechanisms and networks are evolving and changing their shapes. The study finds that the mechanisms of mutual insurance and reciprocity, and solidarity networks in the peasant societies like Baltistan has a dominated role in the lives of the people in the area. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods, the study presents some interesting findings. For example, generally people think that reciprocity and solidarity networks occurs mostly within the families and clans but the study shows, in rural areas of Baltistan most of these mechanisms are happen around the community instead of relatives. This is because the people want to broaden their networks outside their clan and relatives too, which ultimately widen their scope of future insurance. Since the presence of state in the rural areas of Baltistan is very weak therefore, people have to follow their traditional system of management as they share many resources such as pasture, water for irrigation, forest, wildlife, and costumes. Thus these societies need to keep maintain their own rules and regulations and customary laws to get the maximum benefit from the available resources which necessary for their survival. In order to improve the local economy and stop the backslashes of formal market, there is a need to regulate the existing customary laws and traditions related to natural resource management, into mainstreaming rules and regulations of the state. Author’s nationality: Pakistan

Ref.3-2004

27


Bachou, Hanifa Malnutrition in children admitted to Mulago Hospital: Prevalence, mortality and associated factors M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB Subject code(s): 650 Clinical Medicine Psychiatry Clinical Psychology, 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Background: Children admitted with severe malnutrition are at highest risk of death in the first few days of treatment. Poor quality of health care is among the major determinants of the unacceptably high mortality and morbidity. These children mainly die from complications of hypoglycaemia, hypothermia, inappropriate management of dehydration, missed infections and severe anaemia. Over the last eight years, the number of severely malnourished children admitted to Mulago Hospital, Uganda has been increasing considerably. The length of hospital stay has almost doubled and case fatality is high. General objective: To describe prevalence, and outcome of malnutrition among children below the age of 60 months admitted in Mulago hospital. Specific objectives: 1) to determine the prevalence of wasting in children under the age of 60 months admitted to Mulago Hospital; 2) to determine case fatality of severely malnourished children admitted to Mulago hospital; 3) to investigate factors associated with mortality among the severely malnourished children in Mulago Hospital. Study Design: A cross sectional study carried out between 1st September and 15th November 2003. Study setting: Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Study Population: Children below the age of 60 months admitted to Mulago hospital. Study Procedures: All children below 60 months of age admitted in the hospital Acute Care Unit were screened for malnutrition between August and November 2004. A total of 220 children who met the study criteria were enrolled and followed up till outcome. This included HIV/AIDS serology, immunological status, haematological, biochemical, microbiological indices and chest radiographs. Additional information on important management aspects was obtained from patients’ medical files. Data Management: Data was analysed using Epidata version 5, EPIINFO version 6 and SPSS Version 11 computer package. Analysis included both descriptive and statistical analysis. Result: Children under 60 months comprised 85% of all paediatric admissions from September to November 2003. Twenty seven percent of these children were wasted and 10% were severely wasted. Case fatality in severely wasted children was 24% and did not differ by age group, or sex. Twenty nine percent of the children were HIV positive. Predictor factors to mortality were infusion, transfusion, hypokalaemia, and hypoalbuninaemia. Conclusion: The findings in this study show a high prevalence of wasting in children under the age of 60 months in Mulago hospital wards, a high case fatality rate in the severely wasted children with most deaths occurring in the first three days of admission. The predictor factors for death are intravenous fluids (transfusion and infusion), hypokalaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. Author’s nationality: Uganda

Ref.4-2004

28


Belay, Reta Major Psycho-social Factors Contributing to Dropout among Secondary School Girls in Guraghe Zone M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) There appear to be a general agreement that girls are less favoured, socially and culturally, than boys of the developing world. About 60% of the people of Ethiopia, most of them being women, are believed to be victims of harmful traditional beliefs. Thus, girls are marginalized and suppressed, due to long standing deeply held traditions and practices, both at family & community level. Large number of studies also indicated that such kind of environmental maltreatment of girls affect their psychosocial development which in turn affects their schooling. Hence, this study is conducted in two secondary schools in order to understand psychosocial problems contributing to girl’s dropout, and the development of psychological problems among girls in those schools. To meet this purpose, mixed (qualitative and quantitative) research approach was used. Particularly, questionnaires, semi structured interviews and observation as well as document analysis have been applied in the process of data collection. Key findings show that the dropout rate of girls is lower than that of boys as girls are now getting significant support both from government and non governmental organizations. However, unassertive behaviour, inferiority, and low self-esteem are found as the major psychological problems of girls. Besides, different harassments, lack of study time, lack of knowledge among parents about girls education, financial problem, number of children in the family, unplanned marriage and pregnancy, shyness, loneliness, and poor communication skills are identified to be some of the social problems of girls in the schools. The results of this study also showed that girls develop different psychological problems due to such kind of social, cultural and gender biased unfavourable situations. In addition, the statistical findings also indicate that peer influence increases as grade level increases but decline at a certain point. Moreover, spearman correlation showed that grade level and most of the factors that facilitate girls’ school dropout are negatively related. Most of the correlations are also identified to be significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels. Particularly, academic failure, health problem, peer influence, unplanned pregnancy, marriage, and different harassment of girls are identified to be highly statistically significant at 0.01 levels. Author’s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.5-2004

29


Besa, Eustina Mulenge Options and Contraints for Breastfeeding in the Context of HIV - A Study of Parents Perspective in Lusaka and Kitwe Districts, Zambia M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Options and Constraints for Breastfeeding in the context of HIV- A study of Parents Perspectives in Lusaka and Kitwe Districts, Zambia Great strides are being made in trying to prevent postnatal mother to child transmission of HIV AIDS. One of the strategies is through counselling on infant feeding options to HIV mothers, using the UNAIDS/WHO/UNICEF guidelines on infant feeding options. It is not clear how these feeding options and women’s knowledge of HIV transmission through breast milk is influencing mothers with unknown status in their feeding practices. The purpose of the study was to describe perceptions of the community regarding breastfeeding based on their current knowledge of HIV transmission through breastfeeding, their attitudes and beliefs about breastfeeding and HIV, and their perceived risk of infecting the child through breastfeeding. The study was exploratory involving 39 in-depth interviews and 7 focus group discussions with mothers and fathers of children below one year and pregnant women with previous breastfeeding experience. The study was conducted in Lusaka where there are interventions to reduce MTCT and in Kitwe. There was a fair amount of knowledge about chances of HIV transmission through breastfeeding among all study participants. Informants in Lusaka seemed more knowledgeable about the risk factors for HIV transmission. However, their knowledge about postnatal transmission of HIV was not matched with feeding practices. Results also show that misconceptions exist about breastfeeding and HIV in both areas. Despite the knowledge of the threat of HIV infection, attitudes towards breastfeeding remain positive as most participants said breastfeeding should still be promoted because they felt not everyone was infected, that exclusive breastfeeding reduced the chances of diarrhoea in children that breast milk substitutes were beyond the reach of most households; Data from this study suggest that there are several factors that influence decision making about exclusive breastfeeding in an era of HIV/AIDS. These include own experience with exclusive breastfeeding, perceived value of breast milk, their own traditional knowledge, including attitudes and perceptions about breastfeeding and HIV. These factors may both negatively and positively influence the feeding decisions. These results have implications for health care providers using infant feeding options as a strategy to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV. Author’s nationality: Zambia

Ref.6-2004

30


Bezu, Sosina Addressing Vulnerability through Food-For-Work. An evaluation of the impact of food-for-work in reducing vulnerability of households in Tigray, Ethiopia. M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH Subject code(s): 210 Business Studies Economics Development Economy Management Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) In this paper I have tried to assess the impact of FFW in reducing vulnerability of households in the chronically food insecure region in Ethiopia, Tigray. To this end, the paper evaluated the contribution of FFW in adopting fertilizer, precluding harmful coping response during drought and reducing seasonal and chronic undernutrition. A Heckman selection model has shown that FFW positively influence the decision to adopt fertilizer and there was no evidence of disincentive effect. A probit estimate on the distress sale has shown that FFW participating household were less likely to engage in such coping response. The statistical computation on food requirement and own food production has revealed that more than 85% of the households are deficit producers and FFW, as the second most important source of income for most households, contributed towards reducing the possible undernutrition. Author’s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.7-2004

31


Bogale Gebre, Solomon Dam Break Inundation Analysis, Case study and a Review of Literature. Case: Jonsvatnet Reservoir, Norway. M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NLH Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The construction of dams for a variety of purposes has made significant changes in people’s lives. Dams have been constructed for the purpose of food production through irrigation, for hydropower generation, for flood control, for domestic and industrial water supplies, and other human needs. The huge amount of energy stored in the reservoirs created by man also poses serious dangers to society in case of failure of the dams. With the increasing value for safety, especially in developed countries, dams have long been recognized as potential hazards. This makes it necessary to put extra effort in ensuring the safety of dams through out the dam’s life cycle. However, excessive safety measures also involve considerable cost. In Norway and many other countries dams have normally been designed to meet the same high safety standards regardless of the consequences of a failure. This leads to an over-investment in safety for dams where the consequences of a failure are small. According to ICOLD (1987); for every dam project, a balance has to be found between dam safety and economy. It is now becoming more common to adjust design standards and operational safety requirements according to the consequences of a failure. This study focuses on literature review and case study application of dam-break inundation analysis. 1. Literature Review A thorough literature study was carried out on the application of dam-break inundation analysis in the design, operation and maintenance of engineered dams. Main focus was made in the following areas: • Application of the results of dam breach inundation mapping, • The dam breaching process, hydraulic modelling of the breach outflow and inundation mapping and assessing of the consequences The main finding of the literature review is that countries in the developed world are shifting towards a risk-based approach to the design and operation of dams. Dam-break inundation analysis has been employed as a tool to determine the risks posed by a dam on downstream developments. The dam breaching process has not yet been well understood, and researches are being carried out on laboratory and field-scale experiments to increase the understanding of the breaching process. The current practice is to use empirically developed relationships based on past failure records.Compared to the breach determination, the hydraulic modelling of the breach outflow hydrograph could be done with reasonable accuracy. However, topographic data that reasonably defines the potential area to be flooded is required. The most uncertain parameter is the Manning roughness value, and there are still research needs to quantify the roughness values for structures that are not normally flooded under natural conditions. Numerical models coupled with Geographic Information system have enhanced the possibility of using digital data and the fast creation of inundation maps. 2. Case Study A case study application of dam-break analysis on the Jonsvatnet reservoir in Norway was performed based on the knowledge acquired from the literature review. The dam investigated is dam Osen, a 3 m high gravity dam on the outskirts of the city of Trondheim. A river called Vikelva drains out of the reservoir through the dam. The river system is characterized as urban. as it passes through urban areas of Trondheim. There is a second dam of height 5.5m downstream of Osen dam, called Nydammen. Three culverts and six bridges are included in the river modelling. Author’s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.8-2004

32


Buregyeya, Esther Factors associated with HIV risk behaviour among employees of Kakira sugar works in Dinja district, Uganda M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB Subject code(s): 650 Clinical Medicine Psychiatry Clinical Psychology, 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Author’s nationality: Uganda

Ref.9-2004

33


Chilimbo, Peggy Muyangana Gender and Food Security in an Irrigation Scheme: Case Study of Chipapa Households, Kafue District. M.Phil. in Gender and Development, UiB Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The objective of the study was to examine the socio-economic impact of irrigation development in rural areas where small scale farmers are members of irrigation schemes. The purpose was to find out the effects on household food security and how both men and women are affected within participating households. The study used the qualitative approach because it is multi-method in focus. The results indicate an improved situation for household food security and a positive impact on gender relations in terms of women gaining some degree of financial independence and being less dependent on men for finances. It thus can be concluded that women’s economic standing is better as they attain a certain degree of financial independence, which gives them a better fall back position and bargaining power. Author’s nationality: Zambia

Ref.10-2004

34


Chitrakar, Rita New Headworks for Khudi Hydropower Plant; Feasibility Level Study M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Subject code(s): 830 - Construction Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Headworks are composed by the structures and equipments located at the upstream end of the power plant, designed to direct the diverted discharge from the river into the power plant. The main function of the headwork structures at run of the river project is to divert water for power generation at various flow conditions in order to secure a safe and regular power production. The headworks arrangement will be site specific and it is evident the importance of a correct choice of the diversion site. A good site minimizes the potential disturbances produced by inflowing sediments. Also a wrong selected site can be hardly improved after the implementation of the project. This thesis work summaries on the design problems in Khudi Hydropower headworks and to design new headworks for Khudi Hydropower Project in Nepal. The Khudi Small Hydropower Project is a run-of-the-river (RoR) type hydropower project located in the Lamjung district. The feasibility study was carried out by Lamjung Electricity Development Company Ltd (LEDCO) in January 2001 in cooperation with Gestion Conseil SCP inc. According to feasibility study report the project will have a generation capacity of 3.45 MW and will be able to generate 24.3 GWh of energy annually. The physical model of Khudi river with the intake and diversion weir structure was built in Hydro Lab in Kathmandu and tested on abstraction of water to the intake, passage of bed load and sediment control at intake, passage of floating debris and passage of hazard floods. The findings of the model tests were presented in Marit Heier’s MSc thesis at NTNU. The model tests concluded that the originally proposed headworks were not working satisfactory. The main problems were the abstraction of water to intake and the sediment control at intake. The report recommended some modifications on existing model to improve the performance or another alternative is to move the intake structure at some distance upstream in order to change the flow pattern in front of the intake. Hydro lab tested the model with different modifications and ultimately new model has constructed at about 140 m upstream from the originally proposed intake. During the field visit in summer 2003, the candidate observed some tests in new headworks intake arrangement. The intake structure consists of a permanent diversion weir crest at 943.00 masl elevation, a side intake with bed load sluice at a lower elevation than the intake sill. Diversion structure in model study of new headworks was simple overflow with boulder lined concrete structure. Due to the occurrence of shooting flow at downstream of the weir, the diversion structure for new headworks has been designed with energy dissipator at the end. The three different type of energy dissipator have been designed and the adapted energy dissipator is bucket type founded in rock. The eighty eight meters long settling basin is provided to trap the coarser fraction of the suspended load and it will be flushed intermittently by conventional flushing system. Author's nationality: Nepal

Ref.11-2004

35


Chowdhury, Saber Ahmed Participation in forestry: A study of people's participation on the social forestry policy in Bangladesh: Myth or reality? M.Phil. in Public Administration, UiB Subject code(s): 240 - Public Administration Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This study is an attempt to study and explore the extent of people’s participation in the SF policy of Bangladesh and what are the roles of the main stakeholders: bureaucrats, Union Parishad and NGOs in ensuring the expected level of people’s participation in this policy. In this regard, several hypotheses are developed and for answering these questions, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods has been adopted. These questions can be explained or analyzed on the basis of some independent and dependent variables. The dependent variable in this study is people’s participation, which is believed to be dependent upon certain actors and factors such as political and classical bureaucrats, patron-client relationship between the participants, bureaucrats and local elites of SF policy, and socio-economic background of the SF farmers. It was assumed that variables would influence and affect who participates in SF programs and their level of participation. The above mentioned questions are addressed in the light of political and classical bureaucrats as concept analyzed by Putnam (1975, 87), as well as on the basis of patron-client relationship, and theories of social capital. In the study it is found that the people’s participation in the SF policy illustrates the dissonance between myths and reality. SFs performance in achieving the participatory goals was poor. A number of common institutional and social problems seemed to have shaped the performance. Participation of the main target group the landless, women and disadvantaged class of the society is minimal in the project. The selection of the members in the SF policy is the responsibility of the local Union Parishad Chairman. But no certain rules were followed in selecting SF members. Classical nature of the bureaucrats (role-orientation), patron-client relationship among the stakeholders, poor socio-economic background, NGOs ineffective role, lack of trust to the institutions like Union Parishad and bureaucracy are the main reasons for lack of people’s participation in the SF project. Among these factors patron-client relationship among the stakeholders is found as the most dominate because this vicious network impede the extent of peoples participation from the very beginning of the SF project to the last and demolish that objectives of the government dreadfully. Author’s nationality: Bangladesh

Ref.12-2004

36


Chuvambe, Isabel Maria Evaluation of Gas Production Behaviour M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Author’s nationality: Mozambique

Ref.13-2004

37


Dast Gal, Muhammed Essa Household income and natural forest conservation by agroforestry. An analysis based on two agroecological zones: Bagrot and Jalalabad in Northern Pakistan M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The rapidly growing population poses increasing pressure on natural resources and the environment. Among the natural resources, forest will become critical in the future because of over-exploitation for firewood and timber. Especially in the Northern areas of Pakistan, the biophysical limitations of the environment exacerbate the problem. In such conditions, agro-forestry is an appropriate alternative to combat the situation and reduce the risk and vulnerability of farmers’ livelihood. Therefore, to make the farmers realise the significance of agro-forestry, this study reveals the contribution of agro-forestry in household farm income and its impact on natural forest. The specific objectives of the study were to understand the role of agro-forestry in farmer’s livelihood by analysing the agro-forestry income, to evaluate the effect of agro-ecological zone on agro-forestry income and to identify relationships between agro-forestry and natural forest conservation. The study was carried out in two villages of Northern areas of Pakistan: Jalalabad and Bagrot valley. A total number of 120 households were surveyed randomly. Pre-structured questionnaires, key-informant interviews and direct observation were employed to collect the information. Secondary data were used to complement the information. Statistical tools were employed to analyse the agro-forestry income, agro-ecological effect on agroforestry income and impact of agro-forestry on natural forest conservation. The results revealed that the contribution of annual crops and the tree component into agro-forestry income were 63% and 37% respectively, and tree component increased the over-all household farm income. Farm size and operational costs have positive relationships with the agro-forestry income, no significant relationship was with household size. There was a significant difference in agro-forestry income in two agroecological zones. The double-cropping zone has more agro-forestry income as compared to the singlecropping zone. The agro-forestry income and cultivated land had linear relationship such that, with the increase of farm size agro-forestry income increased. It was observed that agro-forestry increased the production of tree components on farmland and minimized the dependency on natural forest for fuelwood and timber that imposed positive impact on natural forest conservation. Author’s nationality: Pakistan

Ref.14-2004

38


Devi, Shresta Sumitra A Study on Mobility and Sexually Transmitted Diseases/HIV/AIDS risk among the mountain community of Mustang district, Nepal M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Background: Available evidences show that Nepal has now entered into a concentrated HIV epidemic phase, as HIV prevalence is found above 5% among CSWs, IDUs. Studies show that mobility is one of the factors behind wide spread of HIV in African countries. This study was conducted in a remote mountain district “Mustang”, bordered with Tibet of China. People here are mainly Buddhists and socio-culturally near to Tibetan culture. As a survival strategy, inhabitants of this district were involved in Trans-Himalaya salt trade in the past. Now a day’s mobility to other part of country and India documented and observed. Some unique cultural practices like polyandry marriage, the headman system and celibacy system (a tradition of the second born to remain unmarried) still exist there. Objectives: - To assess the vulnerability of mobile people to STDs/HIV/AIDS by comparing risk exposure, condom use and treatment seeking behaviour between the mobile and non-mobile group. - To define possibilities for involving the indigenous headman system for prevention and control of STDs/HIV/AIDS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of 255 adult Nepali, where the mobile respondents and non-mobile respondents were 153 and 102, respectively. The survey questionnaire included behaviour related questions from the Behavioural Surveillance Survey package (FHI) and additional migration related questions. We did face to face interviewing with illiterates and used self-filling questionnaire with literates. Qualitative data were collected by Focus Group Discussion and focussed interviews. Results: The median age for the mobile and non-mobile group was 31 (SD 9.2) and 33 (SD 10.3) years respectively. There were significantly, more men, higher educated and unmarried in the mobile group. The self-reported STDs were significantly higher among mobile group 30 (20%) vs. 8(8%), respectively, (P = 0.01). Out of a total 176 sexually exposed to, 30 (29%) of the mobile group had more than one sex partners while there were 11 (15%) in the non-mobile group (p= 0.036). Eleven (7%) mobile people had visited commercial sex workers, but none in the non-mobile group. Consistent condom use with non-regular partner was as low as 1% with both groups. Nearly a quarter did not seek care for their reported STDs problem. Though 70% seek care from health institutions, visiting multiple sources was found. The headman system was identified as having well established, positive norms, already pursuing community development activities and showing a willingness to take part in STDs/HIV/AIDS control. Conclusions: Our findings support the study hypothesis that the mobile group have a higher risk for STDs/HIV/AIDDS compared with the non-mobile group. Consequently Nepal should expand STDs/HIV/AIDS prevention programmes to cover the so-called “mountain belt population”. Indigenous resources like the “headman system” could be tapped into for the prevention and control of STDs/HIV/AIDS. Author’s nationality: Nepal

Ref.15-2004

39


Dubula, Odwa Assessment of the effects of tagging and tag-related injuries on somatic growth of male west coast rock lobster, Jasus lalandii. M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT Subject code(s): 920 Fisheries Aquaculture Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Tagging of West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii is performed annually at many sites off the west coast of South Africa with the purpose of measuring somatic growth. Tagging in the field is done in July to August, when J. lalandii males are all in a pre-moult condition, i.e. just before moulting takes place in August and September. Commercial fishers make recaptures of tagged lobsters after September, and the growth increments (recapture length minus tagged length) of tagged lobsters are used in the stock assessment models used to determine the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) of the fishery. An important assumption of the tagging data is that tagging, and the injuries and stress suffered during tagging will not affect growth increments. This assumption has not been tested for J. lalandii. My thesis aimed to assess the effects of tagging and tag-related injuries on the somatic growth of male J. lalandii in an aquarium experiment. Eight hundred male rock lobsters with a Carapace Length (CL, mm) of 75–90 mm were collected from a slow-growth (Olifantsbos) and a fast-growth (Knol) area along the Western Cape Peninsula. The lobsters were transferred to aquarium tanks where they were subjected to four treatments: control; tagged; injured (removal of two legs); and starved (restricted feeding). To assess the effect of timing of tagging on growth, the experiment was repeated twice, once while the lobsters were in a pre-moult phase (in August 2002), and again while they were in an inter-moult phase (November-December 2002). The time period between capture and moulting in the aquarium was relatively constant for pre-moult lobsters (6–8 weeks) and also for inter-moult lobsters (28-40 weeks). In both cases moulting in aquarium tanks occurred during the same months (August–November) than in nature. Most mortalities occurred during the first 15 days after tagging, and were restricted to lobsters that were tagged during pre-moult. None of the other groups (control, injured or starved treatments) suffered note-worthy mortalities in either the pre-moult or inter-moult phases, and lobsters tagged during inter-moult suffered low mortalities (< 7 %). Tagging during pre-moult reduced growth increments at Knol by an average of 75% and at Olifantsbos by 69% compared to their respective control treatments. In stark contrast, tagging during inter-moult reduced the average increment by only 17% at Knol, and at Olifantsbos, tagged lobsters actually grew slightly more than control lobsters (+11%). This result shows that the timing of tagging is critical in determining the growth increment of tagged lobsters. Loss of two legs (injury treatment) had a negligible effect on growth increments in pre-moult lobsters at Knol (-10%) and Olifantsbos (-11%). This is related to that the injury in pre-moult lobsters occurred too close to moulting for reserve energy to be redirected towards limb-regeneration. However, the effect was larger for inter-moult lobsters: -33% at Knol, because new legs were regenerated to replace those broken off, but 0% at Olifantsbos. Restricted feeding (starved treatments) significantly reduced moult increments relative to controls in both the pre-moult and inter-moult experiments. The much longer period spent on a restricted feeding regime by inter-moult lobsters resulted in very small increments for Olifantsbos lobsters (<1 mm) and shrinkage for Knol lobsters.

Author’s nationality: South Africa Ref.16-2004

40


Ehsan, Mohammad Governing Higher Education in Bangladesh: A Comparison of Two Universities M.Phil. in Public Administration, UiB Subject code(s): 240 - Public Administration Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This study is about the higher education governance in Bangladesh and whether and how it affects the quality of education the universities impart. Though there are sixty-six universities in Bangladesh, the study focuses on two universities out of which one is public and the other is a private university. To be more specific, this study looks at the University of Dhaka and North South University. The research question of this study is to explore why the quality of higher education is deteriorating in Bangladesh? It has its hypotheses too in analyzing the research question. Questionnaire survey was used to gather data and information from both the universities. Besides, eighteen key informants have been interviewed to gather information on different aspects of higher education governance. In interpreting the data, the statistical package called SPSS has been used. Overall, the study found that there is indeed a relationship between the variables. The main focus of this study is not quality, rather the independent variables that affect the quality output. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s true to say that the governance practices are different in public and private universities which consequently is responsible for the variation and affects the quality. However, since this study covers only two universities, its not possible to generalize about the overall higher education scenario of Bangladesh. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Bangladesh

Ref.17-2004

41


Ferdous, Sharmin The Sensitivity Analysis of Relative Permeability in WAG Injection Modelling for a Sector Model of a Major Field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Bangladesh

Ref.18-2004

42


Getachew, Mamo Areda Economic Dependence on Forest Environmental Resources and Rural Livelihoods: Chilimo National Forest Priority Area, Ethiopia. M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This paper investigates the degree of economic dependence on forest environmental resources among rural community living around Chilimo National Forest Priority Area, in Ethiopia, and the household determinants of dependence. Descriptive statistics, Kuznets ratio, quintiles and regression analysis were employed to quantify the level of dependence on the forest environmental resources. Income equalizing role of forest environmental resources were also examined using Gini coefficient. Forest environmental resources play a significant role in the livelihoods of the rural communities. On average, forest environmental income contributed thirty-nine percent of the annual income in the study area, which represents fifty-nine and thirty-four percents of the total household income for the poorest and the richest income groups respectively. Although, the poorest households heavily rely on the forest environmental resources for their livelihood sustenance, the richest households derive more than double value of the resources in the absolute term. Forest environmental resources have income distribution equalizing effect among rural households. A lack of access to such important resources seriously affects the livelihoods of rural poor and widens the income distribution disparity among rural households. Regarding household determinants of dependence, family size, adult labor, household income, asset endowment, household food security, proximity to the forest and the market were found to be important factors that determined the utilization and dependence of the households on the forest environmental resources. Large family size was responsible both for high level of dependence and absolute extraction of the forest environmental resources. Availability of adult labor reduced both reliance on and withdrawals of the resources. As per capita income increased, dependence on the forest environmental resources declined whereas quantity of resource extraction increased with per capita income. Households with a large number of food deficit months strongly relied on the forest environmental resources and also extracted a greater value of the resources. Hence, the development policies that allows rural poor to access forest environmental resources, promote labor-intensive agricultural development, non-resource extractive rural self-employment opportunities, and labor based market integration could positively impact on the natural resources and livelihoods of the rural households. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.19-2004

43


Ghebretinsae, Feven Ghebrenigus Livelihood Reconstruction and its challenges, Batticaloa: Sri Lanka M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) After 20 years of ethnic conflict in North-East of Sri Lanka, the people have enjoyed only two years of peace since peace agreement signed in February 2002. In this short peaceful interval tremendous efforts were deployed to rebuild the material infrastructure that was to a great extent destroyed and to rehabilitate the livelihood of the war-affected people in North-East of Sri Lanka. It would be important to know whether the rehabilitation and resettlement program has actually improved the livelihoods of the war-affected people. The present study was carried out with the aim of assessing the livelihood assets, vulnerability context and livelihood strategies within the existing framework of policies and processes in four study villages in Batticaloa district. The study conceptualization, data collection and analysis have been guided by the sustainable livelihood framework (DFID 1999). Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from seventy-five households consisting of Tamil and Muslim communities in cleared and uncleared areas. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data. It was supplemented and verified from informants, field observation and secondary sources. The study revealed that the livelihood outcomes differed considerably depending on their location, length of displacement and relations between communities and with the government. The location is essential for the households and individuals to normalize and even expand their livelihood options in stable environments. At the same time, the trust or linkage with the power holders provides opportunities for the government to assist the victims to regain and restore their livelihood. The social disruption caused by warfare affects the coherent relations between communities developed in peacetime and the cooperation between households to link livelihoods. Prolonged displacements have also constituted to affected peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to earn and diversify their livelihood. They have delays in implementing rehabilitation and resettlement program. This study concluded that in order to achieve sustainable livelihoods, the rehabilitation program must enable reconciliation of communities and the donors should come with integrated framework to assist the victims with the lacked resources. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Eritrea

Ref.20-2004

44


Ghebru Hagos, Hosa'ena Factor market imperfections and rural land lease market in the northern Ethiopian highlands M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH Subject code(s): 210 Business Studies, Economics, Development Economy, Management Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) In response to the national land policy that bans the formal land markets (sales market) and the infrequent administrative land redistribution, the informal land rental markets in Ethiopia plays a pivotal role in smoothing the imperfections in other farm factor markets. A three round household panel data set (1998, 2001 and 2003) from the northern highlands of Ethiopia (Tigrai) has been used to empirically explore the determinants of participation and intensity of transaction in the land rental market and assess the role of the recent regional policy reform that halts further land redistribution and executes certification of rural land ownership titles. Results from the study indicate that the land rental market (which involves 53% of the sample respondents) serves as a crucial venue to correct the disproportional distribution factor endowments and the imperfections in the non-land factor markets. However, frictions in the land rental market itself cannot be denied which was found to asymmetrically (unequally) affect the demand and supply sides of the tenancy market. Though the study does not provide evidences to support the bargaining power of farm households, the large number of constrained tenant households as compared landlords implies that, even if tenants are with better endowments of farm asset and other durable asset endowments, the fragmented land holding and the observed limited response of landlords to the recent policy measures may cause the supply constrained tenancy market that favours landlord households. Thus, policy measures to facilitate the transferability of land (legal enforcement of lease contracts) and functioning of other farm input markets can significantly enhance the allocative efficiency role of the rural land rental markets. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.21-2004

45


Gombachika, Belinda Thandizo Experience of HIV-positive Pregnant Women: A qualitative Study from Lilongwe Urban, Malawi M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB Subject code(s): 650 Clinical Medicine Psychiatry Clinical Psychology, 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Background: There is scant knowledge on the experiences of pregnant HIV-positive women; their reproductive choices, their reflections about health and future for themselves and their children, and their actual handling of their precarious condition. This study aimed to generate knowledge to be applied by health service providers in planning policies and practices to improve reproductive choices and health care of HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods: Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted in October 2003 with twelve HIV-positive pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. The women were part of a project linked to a University of North Carolina (UNC) Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Project. The qualitative interviews explored the lived experiences of HIV-positive pregnant women. Results: The majority (9 out of 12) of the informants reported learning about their HIV-positive status after becoming pregnant, and had not considered themselves to be at risk of HIV. They expressed feelings of shock, disbelief, and anger towards their husbands as a reaction to the positive HIV result. All of the informants feared telling their husbands about the result, and expressed the need to include husbands in counselling sessions. Most of the informants eventually disclosed their HIV-positive status to their husbands, and some to other relatives. Whether the informants were aware of their HIV-positive status or not at the time of conception, the pregnancy decisions were dominated by the informants and their husband’s intense desire to have offspring’s. The main worry of the informants was the well-being of the coming child and their other children. They feared transmitting HIV to the new child through breast-feeding which they saw no alternative to due to lack of money for infant formulae. They moreover feared the future of their children who would eventually be left orphaned. The worries for their health and future care were located at the core of the informant’s anxiety. Although all of the informants expressed that they did not wish to have more children, the large majority (10 out of 12) was not sure about the strategies they would employ to prevent having more children. Only two of the informants were employing condoms with their husbands. Conclusions: Complex socio-cultural obligations to have children appear to outweigh the fears and risks associated with the prospects of deteriorating health, the risk of giving birth to infected infants, and as well as the fear of leaving children orphaned. Improved intervention strategies and diverse forms of support groups for HIV-positive pregnant women that constructively address issues of pregnancy decision making, disclosure and coping with the present and future condition for themselves and their children are in urgent demand. The inclusion of husbands/partners in counselling sessions would substantially ease the issue of disclosure. Author’s nationality: Malawi Ref.22-2004

46


Gurung, Prem Chandra The Himalayan Mountain Rangelands of Chhuksang: Integrating indigenous M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The study incorporates the indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK) and the ecological methods for vegetation assessment in the mountain rangelands of Chhuksang in the Trans-Himalayan region of Upper Mustang, Nepal to understand spatial and temporal changes of vegetation of the traditional pasture. The study, which covers a total area of 222.67 km2 in varied altitude from 3000 - 6000m, is geared towards guiding conservation and management policy for the rangelands in Upper Mustang, Nepal. The integration of the IEK and ecological methods to assess the range conditions and determining grazing suitability for livestock species in different periods of the year have been extensively used in other parts of East Africa but these applications have been rarely tested in the Himalayan rangeland ecosystems. To understand the IEK and social dynamics of the local pastoralists, a series of focus groups discussion (FCD) with local herders was carried out in early June 2003. The TEK included the classification of seasonal pasture such as summer, winter, autumn and their basis of delineation, perception of the local herders in degradation of the pasture, criteria for assessing range trends and health assessments both at micro-and-macro landscape levels. Similarly, for ecological assessment and to verify the ecological knowledge of the local herders, detailed vegetation assessments were carried out in two seasons; wet (June to September) and dry (October to December) seasons. Permanent plots totalling of 320 (2 x 2 sq.m for shrubs and 1 x 1 sq.m for grasses) were used to assess the floristic composition across five different vegetation on eight different seasonal pasture types (n=17). The study showed that the indigenous communities have knowledge of their environment that has been used as the survival and sustainable utilisation of the resource for centuries. They described the environmental perturbation and climatic variability contributed to the changes in the pastures and landscape rather than the over grazing. They considered the Himalayan ecosystems to be dynamic and resilient. According to them the strategic seasonal movement of the livestock herds from lower altitude to higher altitude and from one seasonal pasture to another is carried out in order to prevent degradation of the rangelands and environment. The study showed that effect of grazing pressure on plant species diversity, richness, composition (cover class, height class and life form), range trend and their interactions effects are dependent on the seasonal variability (climatic) rather than on the varied grazing pressure gradients. The floristic compositions of the vegetation and pasture types also confirmed that similar vegetation types represent similar pasture types or vice versa in the Himalayas irrespective of seasons. Moreover, the study showed that the indigenous system of rangeland assessments by the local herders could be incorporated into surveys done by ecologists in order to understand how land use impacted rangeland biodiversity in the Himalayan region of Nepal. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Nepal

Ref.23-2004

47


Haque, Mohammad Ziaul The Role of High Yielding Technology in Rice Production in Bangladesh: A Macro Review with Reference to Adoption, Productivity and Sustainability M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Scarcity and reduction of access to safe drinking water became a major health and environmental issue in Bangladesh. The rural water supply was based on groundwater through tube-wells and 97% of the total population relied on them. But few years back severe arsenic contamination of groundwater was found across the country. In this situation, rooftop rainwater harvesting could be a potential option in minimising the current crisis in safe drinking water. In the past, there were some initiatives to introduce rooftop rainwater harvesting system (RWHS), thus needed to be evaluated with other technology option in to account. This study was undertaken in order to examine potentials and limitations of RWHS for rural drinking water supply in Bangladesh in comparison with other technology options and to suggest appropriate solutions for improved access to safe drinking water for the rural population. Field research was carried out in two villages of Comilla district where arsenic contamination was severe and a good numbers of RWHS were installed. The results were analysed in order to relate them to the situation in Bangladesh in general. Altogether 55 respondent/household from users and non-users of rooftop RWHS were interviewed during a field survey. 54% of non-users were using either arsenic contaminated ground water or unsafe surface water for drinking along with 46% used water from distant arsenic safe tube-wells and shared stored rainwater with users. It was found that 78% of houses were more than half km far away from the arsenic safe tube-wells. Users of RWHS relied on stored rainwater for drinking and cooking purposes during monsoon and subsequent 1-2 months. 82% of them were satisfied with the quality along with the quantity, as they could not use rainwater round the year. Every respondent interviewed knew about the health risk of arsenic contaminated water, and they were positive towards RWHS. 68% of the respondents claimed that their RWHS encouraged neighbours. The availability of rainwater was favourable to RWHS in the study area. The rainfall met the monthly demand for drinking and cooking (1350 L) for a nuclear family (6 persons) from April to December with the tank of 3000 L. During the period (April-October) harvestable rainwater was much higher than the demand. RWHS made drinking and cooking water available at the doorstep. Per person installation cost of RWHS (about 85% of the total cost for storage reservoir) was higher than that of other technology options, but unit cost was relatively lower. In order to make the RWHS cost effective and to provide water security round the year, the system having medium size tanks (3000 L) could be combined with other water sources like distant arsenic safe tube-wells, dug-wells, PSFs, deep tube-wells, etc as per local suitability. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Bangladesh

Ref.24-2004

48


Hewamanage, Lalith Amaralal Kariyawasam Market structure and key success factors in fish marketing and distribution in Sri Lanka. M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT Subject code(s): 920 Fisheries Aquaculture Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This study sought broadly to identify the market structure, perceived key success factors of middlemen and their implications to the fish marketing and distribution in Sri Lanka. Primary data were collected through a field survey employing questionnaire method and depth interview methodology, which was analysed by SPSS statistical software. The ultimate sample was 101 persons and included 53 assemblers, 9 commission agents and 39 retailers. Secondary data came from semistructured interviewed with relevant officials and from several official documentations. The study finds that 53 percent of assemblers get their supplies from both auction and their own production while 47 percent sole from auction. Assemblers and commission agents spend 1.7% and 1.5% respectively for variable cost on sales value of fish further this vary for retailers as 17, 5, 4 and 2% for fixed, motor-bicycle, bicycle and foot retailers respectively. The pure profit on sales value for assemblers is 14% while 8% for commission agents. This amount varies for retailers as 18, 30, 26 and 29% respectively for fixed, motor-bicycle, bicycle and foot retailers. Having identified the socioeconomic conditions of middlemen in the market structure study finds that the function of fish marketing structure is oligopsonistic. Further, the retail sector of marketing structure is the most inefficiency and identified as most responsible sector for price increase to the consumer. Among perceived key success factors of middlemen traders; assemblers, commission agents and retailers of fish marketing structure 85% perceived simple organization as the most important factor for their business success followed by 82% for business experience. 46% perceived that close relationship with trading partners as key success factor and placed in third rank. Management skills placed in fourth amounting 29% while financial strength of middlemen in fifth. Family background and possession of advanced technology of middlemen were sixth and seven ranks amounting 20% and 8% respectively. Study has suggested re- structuring the marketing structure through appropriate rules and regulations and state intervention for identifying and supplying required facilities for successful fish marketing and distribution activities of the country. Key words: market structure, middlemen, key success factors Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Sri Lanka

Ref.25-2004

49


Jahan, Nahid A New Approach of Well Test Simulator Development: Stefhest’s Algorithm in VBA (Excel) M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Author’s nationality: Bangladesh

Ref.26-2004

50


Kafuwa, Dalitso Kukada Livelihood strategies and coping with drought among resource poor farmers in Dedza District, Malawi M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Rural households are vulnerable to risk, shock, stress and proneness to food insecurity. Climatic variability is one of the causes of farmers’ misery because it is a source of fluctuations in the production and price of agricultural commodities, which small farmers depend on. Agriculture is inherently vulnerable to climatic hazards such as droughts. Throughout history, many practices developed by smallholder farmers have been aimed at mitigating or avoiding risk to livelihood imposed by uncertain weather. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse and document livelihood, and coping strategies to drought among resource poor farmers. The survey objectives were: · To assess the livelihood options of the peoples in the study area · To investigate people’s perception of drought · To analyse the effect of drought on the livelihood options · To investigate coping strategies for different socio-economic groups in response to drought The survey was carried out in Dezda district in the Central region of Malawi. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire survey, which had both open- and close-ended questions administered to sixty-two households. A checklist was used in focus-group discussions, which were gender-segregated. Secondary data was sourced from books, journals, from the Bunda College Library and Noragric Library, Ministry of Agriculture data, District Commissioner’s office. Data was coded and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists. The findings revealed that farmers had relatively enough land for cultivation of crops and most respondents were poor who depended on crop sales for cash incomes. Sale of field crops and vegetables were the most important sources of families’ disposable income but production is low due to low soil fertility hence the farmers perpetually food insecure. Livestock sales were of minor importance because households had few. Households also participated (to a lesser extent) in off-farm and non-farm work, to smooth out incomes. Drought has been occurring in this area and the drought years the respondents could remember are these events; 1949, 1982, 1996-97 and 2001-02. People’s perception of drought and the effects of drought on household food security, livestock, off-farm activities, non-farm activities, water resources, social networks and migration are outlined in this thesis. The effects were disastrous because there was not much of coping mechanisms especially for poor households. This is because even in a normal year livelihood options are limited to mainly on-farm activities. Few households had multiple income sources and during drought, these opportunities were very low. Opportunities for wage employment, on labour employment for non-farm work were limited because the demand for non-food items and services was low. Households responded to low food accessibility and increased food prices by adjusting consumption of food and non-food items. Conclusion and some recommendations are given at the end. The recommendations given might help plan for future interventions that support communities in sustaining household food security. Author’s nationality: Malawi

Ref.27-2004

51


Kalole, Safarani Alli Mndeme Answering Essay and Summary Type Questions in English and Kiswahili: Problems in the Certification of Secondary Education Examination, Tanzania. M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This study highlights the problems faced by candidates when answering the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE, 2002). And, perhaps more importantly, it highlights several factors which explain why candidates gave wrong answers or failed to express fluency in the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE, 2002) in the selected questions (essays and summary writing) with special reference to selected language subjects, that is Kiswahili and English. The main objectives of this study were to identify the schools` performance in the CSEE, 2002, to study the scores awarded to the candidates from the identified schools, to identify the mistakes made by the candidates in answering essay and summary type questions and lastly to find out whether English language should continue to be the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Markers` opinions were sought by means of interviews regarding the problems faced by candidates in answering essays and summary questions in CSEE, 2002 (Kiswahili and English subjects). Furthermore, candidates` examinations scripts were observed in order to crosscheck the markers` opinions. In observing the candidates` answer scripts three groups were taken care of. That is the best schools, which normally are only ten according to the National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA) procedures. The study further observed the ten average schools and the ten bottom schools. In addition to that this study sought by the means of interviews the opinions of markers and examinations officers on the language of instructions in Tanzanian secondary schools. Key findings showed that there is a problem in answering essay and summary questions in both subjects. However, in the English examination the problem was highly pronounced because of the language inproficiency, while in Kiswahili the problem was highly pronounced due to attitude to the subject by the learners. Suggestions on what should be done in order to remove altogether the causes of candidates` wrong answers have invariably called upon the government to provide teaching and learning materials, develop language teachers through retraining, in-service seminars, including on the job training. Moreover, calls have been made on educational institutions falling under the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) to take up the challenges, which fall under their responsibilities. Although the issue of attitude is critical in the performance in Kiswahili, its solution does not lie entirely with the education system. Other stakeholders (for instance parents) in the society have to be involved. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Tanzania

Ref.28-2004

52


Kalugendo, Praxeda Paul Hydropower and Water Resources Management in Pangani River Basin, Tanzania M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The Pangani river basin in Tanzania is one of the most important rivers in the country. The river is the major source for hydropower generation, and also provides water to large and small irrigation projects of vital importance of the economy. The basin is located in the north eastern side of the country and water use in irrigation projects is increasing as the population in the Kilimanjaro foothills is increasing rapidly. Different water users in the basin are competing resulting an ever increasing pressure on the using the limited water resource. This study is one of several studies within hydrology conducted on the water management of the Pangani River basin to establish the relationship between land use and runoff response, to find out methods to balance between competing water users. Revision of previous studies on hydrology, hydropower and water management in the catchment was made to understand the background. Statistical analysis for the obtained historical information on precipitation, river discharge and power production were performed to identify the trend on these parameters as the time went on. The aim was to find out if there is trend increase or decrease in the above said parameters and their relationship into the water resource diminishing. Long term data series for precipitation, river flow and power production were sought in order to have a sound scientific concluding remarks. Unfortunately, very few data with long time record was available for the study and the year differences in time series for the three parameters was unavoidable. The hydrological analysis conducted showed that there is no remarkable precipitation decrease for the 20 to 60 observation years time. Common trend of increase or decrease of precipitation was noted during the analysis, and it was repeating after eight to ten years of observation. In some data series of river flows, the trends showed more or less peaks and lows following the precipitation trends. The power production trend followed the river flow trend. During the study, the hydropower simulation was conducted using the nMAG model program to verify if the simulated production is compatible with the observed production. Here unfortunately, the data period for observed production was too short to give reliable concluding remarks, although the obtained simulation results from Nyumba ya Mungu Power plant gave almost the same values as the observed production. More study on the possible cause of water resource diminishing is required, and it should be done in combination with all activities conducted in the basin related to water resource usage. Improvement of methods of attaining and storage of good and reliable information for water availability and usage should be made. This probably will give a good result, and the possible solution for water management of the basin will be obtained.

Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Tanzania

Ref.29-2004

53


Kanyerere, Thokozani Olex Butawo Geographical Variation in Tuberculosis as an Opportunistic Infection to HIV/AIDS and its Implications for Livelihoods: A Study of Zomba and Mangochi Districts in Southern Malawi. M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Since 1985 when the first HIV/AIDS cases were reported in Malawi, cases of TB incidence reported to hospitals have been on increase. Several sources show that 77% of TB patients in Malawian hospitals are HIV positive. Cure for TB exists in these hospitals. Antiretroviral therapy is becoming more available. However, the main problem is that many TB suspects delay to go for hospital diagnosis. In addition, there is unidentified number of TB suspects who are unwilling to go for hospital diagnosis. In countries such as Malawi where HIV/AIDS prevalence is high (15% for those aged 15-49 and 8.4% for all ages), this is a problem because the delayed TB cases result into high early death rates during and after TB treatment. Again, the untreated TB cases in the communities are likely to cause further transmission of TB particularly in homes where one or more family members are HIV positive. This study therefore, aimed at investigating perceived risk factors for TB incidence and see whether or not geographical variation has effect on the cases for TB. Also, the study wanted to explore reasons why the TB suspects hurry, delay or unwilling to go for hospital diagnosis. Study areas were Zomba and Mangochi districts in Southern Malawi, Africa. The study used methodological pluralism during data collection and analysis from the structurationist perspective using political ecology of disease as analytical theoretical framework. Results have shown that cases of TB incidence in colder area (Zomba) are almost twice as higher than in hotter area (Mangochi) but many people in the study areas did not recognize the effect geographical variation on cases of TB incidence. So, geographically, people in Zomba live in more elevated risk regions for TB than the Mangochi counterparts. The built conditions and socio-cultural practices were perceived as risk factors for TB incidence. On delays, results showed that the main reasons for delay were: TB stigma due to HIV/AIDS prevalence, lack of knowledge about TB, lack of transport and using alternative source to treat TB. Comparatively, results showed that Zomba people delayed more despite having higher educational levels than those in Mangchi. Statistically, gender and marital status showed a significant relationship on delaying TB suspects in Mangochi and not in Zomba. This difference suggests the gender gap in the Muslim dominated societies regarding power relations within households when it comes to decision making on who goes to hospital quickly in times of sickness between men and women. Such findings are useful in knowing who to target in the TB/HIV studies. The study recommends proactive approaches such as active case detection approach for TB suspects, collaborative program for TB/HIV activities and continuous operational research for TB/HIV issues. The conclusion of this study is that, the risk factors for cases of TB incidence that result from the geographical variations between places, built-environments and socio-cultural environments are of primary importance in the study of TB disease as an opportunistic infection to HIV/AIDS. Understanding cultural frameworks for different groups of people in spatial patterns needs to be considered at all time in the studies of disease such as TB/HIV epidemic. Key words: geographical variation, opportunistic infection, prevalence and incidence, patientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; delay, TB suspects, TB diagnosis, perceived risk factors, methodological pluralism, structurationist perspective, natural, built and socio-cultural environment. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Malawi Ref.30-2004

54


Kasavubu, Betty Grace Creating Enjoyable Reading Material for Children M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The study was carried out in an attempt to investigate how different aspects of reading materials developed for children could be used to arouse enjoyment in reading. This is in a bid to motivate children to read further. It was based on an action research model and was done in two parts. The first and major part of the study involved the production of reading materials based on information derived from organisations and professionals working with childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s literature for classroom use in Uganda as well as theoretical perspectives on the development of suitable reading materials for children. Evaluation of the materials developed was carried out in out in a semi-urban primary school in Kampala District in Uganda, using pupils of Primary Two as subjects in a type of quasi- experimental design. The main method for collection of data was observation and to supplement the findings, a class group interview and informal conversational interviews were carried out. Results from the study seemed to indicate that use of pictures and familiarity of the content of the reading material positively influenced enjoyment of reading and that the layout and readability of the text contributed to enjoyment and affected the accessibility of the material. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Uganda

Ref.31-2004

55


Katoba, Juliet Syphilis Trends and Relationship with Changes in HIV Prevalence among Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Zamibia M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health), UiB Subject code(s): 650 Clinical Medicine Psychiatry Clinical Psychology, 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Objective: To examine ANC- based syphilis trends and the relationship with changes in HIV prevalence. Methods: Data from 1994-2002 was obtained from the national antenatal clinic-based surveillance system on syphilis and HIV. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to Treponema Pallidum (screened by Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and reactive samples confirmed with Trepanoma Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA)). Trend analysis for syphilis and respective change in HIV trend, was restricted to 12 sites because available syphilis data from 1994 included only half of the sentinel sites (12 sites). Results: There was no statistically significant change in overall syphilis prevalence. However, the overall trends masked sharp geographical differential syphilis trends. Syphilis prevalence remained significantly higher in urban compared with rural residents i.e. urban/rural prevalence ratio, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.15-1.48. The relationship between trends in HIV prevalence and syphilis prevalence at site level showed HIV declines (in age-group 15-24 years) to be parallel with syphilis declines and vice versa. In sites with stable HIV trends in young people, syphilis prevalence was stable except from one site. At the individual level, the associations between syphilis and HIV (age group 15-24, data from 2002) was higher among rural residents (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.31-4.86) than urban residents (OR, 2.0, 95% CI; 1.59-2.45). Conclusions: These findings showed high and marked geographical differences in syphilis trends that corresponded well with parallel changes in HIV prevalence. This underscores the importance of effective syphilis control in HIV prevention. Moreover, syphilis trends could be used as a sensitive marker of HIV incidence. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Zambia

Ref.32-2004

56


Katto, Frank Musinguzi Justus Sustainable livelihoods and environmental income dependence around Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) A decade ago, Mount-Elgon changed from a forest reserve to a National Park. The access to different environmental resources by people living close to the park since then became limited. However, the extent to which the people depend on the environmental resources for their livelihood has not been widely studied. The study assessed the extent to which this sample population depends on the environmental incomes (park area and non-park area) for their survival and sustainable livelihoods. A household survey was carried out using semi-structured questionnaire to collect household information pertaining to their present economic adaptation with regard to environmental incomes and incomes from other sources. A total of 100 randomly selected households were surveyed in the twelve randomly selected villages around Mt. Elgon National Park. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools (focus group interviews) were also used to collect the general information associated with peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s livelihoods in relation to environmental and non-environmental resources. Regressions, environmental Kuznet curves, Diversification index and Gini-coeffients were used to explore the different variables that impact the environmental income dependence. The households studied correspond, on average, to the definition of peasants as they depend mainly on agriculture. But environmental income contributes significantly to their livelihoods. We found out that agriculture constitutes 65% of total income and environmental income constitutes 19%. Within the communities studied, we found out that poor people depend more on the environmental incomes than wealthier households. The park is the main source of environmental incomes (80%). But the level of total income and assets do not significantly influence their absolute park income. Park income showed to reduce income inequality. Households that were close to the park get resources from the park than far way households. They are also more dependent on environmental incomes than households far away from the park. The relatively older people tended to extract higher incomes from the park than younger households. Ethnicity and household size was also found to influence significantly the total income extracted from the park. Crop and animal loss is a cost to the people living close to the park. We also find that the park resources have played a safety net function during periods of natural and social disaster. In addition the park resources play a supportive role to the current consumption among the sample population. But we cannot say that, environmental incomes can drive the poor people out of poverty. The sample population is constrained by land scarcity, low-income levels and lack of access to formal credits and loans. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Uganda

Ref.33-2004

57


Kayanda, Robert Jeremiah Gillnet selectivity: A case of Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) fishery in Lake Victoria, Tanzania. M.Sc in International Fisheries Management, UiT Subject code(s): 920 Fisheries Aquaculture Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Gillnet selectivity study for Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) fishery in Lake Victoria was carried out in Shirati bay between July and August 2003. Seven mesh sizes (76, 102, 127, 154, 178, 203 and 254 mm) were used to determine selectivity. Bi-modal selectivity curves were fitted by means of the ‘Generalized Including Log-Linear N Estimation Technique’ (GILLNET) software. The method is based on the ‘Share Each LEngth-class Catch Total’ (SELECT). For all mesh sizes, Nile Perch were caught between 10 and 131.1 cm of total length. Fitted selectivity curves were narrower than their corresponding size frequency distributions. Selection range increases with increase in mesh size. Estimated modal lengths were 28.4, 38.1, 47.5, 56.8, 65.5, 75.9 and 94.9 for 76, 102, 127, 154, 178, 203 and 254 mm mesh sizes, respectively. Modal length and spread increase with mesh size. For management purposes, minimum mesh size for Nile Perch fishery should be raised to 152 mm, corresponding to modal length of 56.45. Recommendation is based on biological information of length at first maturity (Lm50), which is 54.3 TL for male and 76.7 TL for female. Key words: Lake Victoria, Nile Perch (Lates niloticus), gill net, selectivity, Fishery management. Author’s nationality: Tanzania

Ref.34-2004

58


Kebede, Meselu Taye Moral Dilemmas and Gender Scripts: A Qualitative Study among Ethiopian Women living with AIDS/HIV M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.35-2004

59


Khasalamwa, Sarah Reflecting on NGO Interventions and Outcomes: A Case Study of ALIA in Kumi District, Eastern Uganda. M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Despite the massive flow of foreign aid and technical assistance to developing countries, the progress in human development is proceeding too slowly. Global statistics reveal that the absolute number of people living in extreme poverty has increased. Over 24% of the world’s poorest people live in SubSaharan Africa. In spite of the impressive economic growth and improved quality of life in Uganda, a closer look at the situation reveals a less encouraging picture. The Government formulated the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) that serves as its main development and planning framework for fighting poverty. It embraces many programmes that specifically target the poor people. However, these programmes have not translated into significant improvement in the quality of life. The increasing levels of poverty call for a review of the current interventions. This study focuses on interventions promoted by NGOs, which directly link to improving welfare at the household. It examines the nature of NGO interventions in order to assess relevance and significance. It also seeks to identify factors influencing the outcomes of NGO interventions. The Study used Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum Alternative Approach, which argues for a capabilities approach for measuring development. The Capabilities Framework was used to appraise interventions of ALIAT Women’s Project in Kumi district, Eastern Uganda. ALIAT seeks to empower women and alleviate poverty through provision of livestock. The study used a qualitative approach for its data collection specifically the in-depth interviews. It also used data from various published as well as unpublished sources. The study revealed that ALIAT intervention has achieved considerable success from the women’s perspective. However, there are factors at the local level, which have influenced the overall outcome specifically, the social context and household diversities. It also revealed that type of intervention plays a major role. Resources are critical but the ability for effective conversion into improved livelihoods presents a key challenge. Therefore, interventions should build diverse capabilities of the poor people to deal with new emerging patterns of poverty. Poverty manifests itself in various forms, which require proactive solutions. Key Words: Interventions, Outcomes and capabilities. Author’s nationality: Uganda

Ref.36-2004

60


Khattak, Shaoor Islam A study of Gravity and an Aeromagnetic data from the Jotun Nappe Complex (JNC), Southern Norwegian Caledonides M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Pakistan

Ref.37-2004

61


Kidaya, Mwanamani Bakiri A Study of Aeromagnetic, Gravity and Seismic Data from Rukwa Basin - Tanzania M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Tanzania

Ref.38-2004

62


Kumar, Prabat Sediment Handling at Salal Hydropower Plant based on Laboratory Tests of Hydraulic Slucing. M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology

Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The Salal Hydroelectric Project is located in the Indian State of Jammu & Kashmir and was constructed during early eighties on the Chenab River which is part of Indus River Basin. The 690 MW (6 X 115MW) Project has been constructed within the framework of Indus Water Treaty 1960 and regulation of flow is not allowed beyond 24 hours for the inflow to the river. The project has been constructed as run-of-the River scheme with provision of daily peaking power supply but the reservoir is almost full of sediments. Almost 97% of the original reservoir capacity (285 Mm3) has been lost only within 12 years of operation. Since there is no bottom outlet in the dam to flush the sediment deposit, large quantities of sediments are passing through the turbines, causing severe sediment induced wear of runners, guide vanes and electromechanical parts. Demand for various use of water for worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s growing population coupled with gradual lost of storage reservoir is one of the main areas of concern for the future planners of water resources. Asian countries are perhaps facing the worst of the sedimentation problem and continuous researches are going in different parts of world to minimise the effect of sedimentation to the reservoir. Hydraulic sluicing of sediment seems to be a promising method for increasing the active storage of the reservoir. For removing the sediment deposit, hydraulic sluicing method using inverted cone type inlet is being applied at the Salal Project site during lean discharge period in addition to the flushing of reservoir during monsoon. Saxophone sediment sluicer invented by Tom Jacobsen is also meant for similar purpose. A physical model study for comparison of two different inlets has been done by the Candidate at SINTEF laboratory at NTNU. The outputs from the saxophone and the cone type sluicer have been compared for three different conditions: 1) Hydraulic Sluicing of Sediment using available intake model in the test rig. 2) Siphon Sluicing of sediment using both kinds of inlets under normal operation 3) Siphon sluicing of sediment for sliding effect on the mouthpiece The Results from the test has been presented in the form of graphs, tables and chart. The saxophone sediment sluicer has advantage of better handling for sliding mass during its operation whereas cone type inlet gives 3-5 times more output. The choking due to high picking concentration is a problem with the cone type sluicer. There is further scope for improving the efficiency of inlet by changing design. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: India

Ref.39-2004

63


Kurewa, Nyaradzai Edith Quality of Life and Coping Styles of HIV positive compared to HIV negative Women in Zimbabwe participating in the Prevention of Mother to Child transmission of HIV Program M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Zimbabwe

Ref.40-2004

64


Kyohairwe, Stella Baketuraki Women Political Recruitment within Local Councils: the selection of women political leaders in Uganda. A case of Bushenyi district local council and Kampala city council M.Phil. in Public Administration, UiB Subject code(s): 240 - Public Administration Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Most contemporary research on women in politics has barely attempted to explore women political opportunities beyond political participation and representation. The women problem however is a continuous one and it extends higher in the political hierarchy. Women from their traditional nests of private sphere life have in the recent decades not only assumed political representational roles but also positions of political leadership as well. This research was conducted in July and August 2003 among Bushenyi local government council (BLG) and Kampala City Council (KCC) councillors, technical staff and some Ministry of Local Government officials. Employing a mixed method approach, the study by rural-urban local councils contrast examined structural and individual factors that enable women to advance in political careers. The study highlighted the challenges and obstacles met by women who attempt to venture politics. It established the political problem of women that traverses their political participation, representation to political leadership within the local politics with a focus on the socio-political structural impacts. The nature and complexity of the women political problem that called for pragmatic approach of the study; together with the quest for the sustainability and continuity of women political involvement leads to the proposals of possible solutions to alleviate the outstanding barriers in the women political passages. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Uganda

Ref.41-2004

65


Le Quang, Huy Engineering Geological Assessment for the Dam Site for the Quang Tri Multipurpose Project in Vietnam M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Quang Tri Multipurpose Project is located on Quang Tri River, Quang Tri province in the central part of the Social Republic of Vietnam. Main objectives of the project are irrigation, power generation and flood control. The project composes of a main retention structure, a spillway on a saddle in the right abutment of the dam, and headrace and tailrace tunnel and an underground powerhouse all on the right bank. The main dam with a maximum height of 85 m is positioned on a complex geological foundation. On one hand, he left bank and the river bed are occupied by granitic rocks and gneiss with good quality and relatively thin weathering cover. On the other hand, ancient soil strata are covered by products of different basalt flows with various degrees of weathering on the right banks. These materials combine with gneiss and schists underneath, making a kind of “hamburger” which strong and weak rocks are intercalated each other near the river bed. Further from the river intensively weathered rocks developed on basalt and schists create an overburden up to 80 m thick. Three fault systems were found: North West – South East, North East – South West and North – South. There is a major fault (Khe Trua fault) deeply covered by overburden under the dam. Geological investigations and tests were extensive and provide basic knowledge about the dam foundation. However, some vital information is in short or missing. Most notably, joint mapping is only available limited in a limited area in granite. Drill cores were very disturbed. The properties of intensively weathered rocks (IA1) developed on basalt and schists where the right dam abutment is located are mostly unknown. This leads to some uncertainties in the analysis. Based on baseline data of PECC1, an engineering geological evaluation for the dam site is carried out. Some missing data are estimated, such as properties of intensively weathered rocks, joint strengths, strengths and deformations of rock masses, etc. Except in the fault zones, relatively near rock masses on the left bank and in the river bed are considered as good foundation, whereas the soil and rock masses on the right bank have various qualities, making a low quality foundation area. The fault III-1 (Khe Trua fault) on the right bank seems not to create any severe problem for the dam site. Ground and surface water does not possess any adverse impact for concrete. The analysis shows that a full concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) is not soundly justified. It leads to a proposal of a combination of a rockfill dam with central earth core, an earthfill dam and a transition between them. The rockfill dam must be at least located on strongly weathered rocks. The earthfill dam should have the intensively weathered rocks as its foundation. Main measures to prevent leakage in the foundation are an integration of cutoff and grouting curtain. Consolidation grouting is necessary in the area of cutoff. Dental treatments are provided in fault zones and seam areas. The abutment slopes need to be modified to accommodate the dams and the cores. A kinematic analysis has been done for rock slopes on dam abutments and around inlet and outlet of diversion tunnels. Stable angles in construction case for each slope have been found. A preliminary design for diversion tunnels proves that the diversion tunnels must be positioned on the left bank. Two unlined tunnels, each with an area of 150 m2, are proposed. Support measures are predicted as mainly systematic bolts, supplemented by an optional layer of unreinforced shotcrete. Finally, further studies for the next phase of project implementation are recommended. Author’s nationality: Vietnam Ref.42-2004

66


Lwesya, Anna Handrina Impact of Treadle Pump Adoption on Food Security; Kasungu District, Malawi. M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This thesis assesses the impacts of treadle pump adoption on food security. Three sub-objectives were addressed: presenting general adaptation and livelihoods among different groups of households; explaining present adoption levels of treadle pumps and describing and explaining the role of extension services to farmers in general and in particular on adoption of treadle pumps. The study was conducted in Kasungu –Chipala and Chulu EPAs in Kasungu district, Malawi. Focus group discussions and a household questionnaire were used to collect information. A total number of 90 households were interviewed. The recorded levels of GOV indicate that households are generally poor and live below the poverty line. Households face constraints in accessing endowments like land, labour and capital to improve their livelihoods. Treadle pumps are expensive for most smallholder farmers and adoption levels are still low. Farmers have poor access to credit for adopting the pumps. Adopters are found to be more food secure than non-adopters. Adoption of the pumps have enabled more food production, higher income levels and improved consumption levels. Treadle pump utilisation has also improved the social capital of the involved societies. The pumps do not imply negative environmental impacts. The extension services are playing an important role in disseminating information on treadle pumps and also on general agronomic practices to improve food security. Extension workers are mainly using the ‘block extension’ system in ‘transmitting’ information. A ‘demand driven’ extension system is less present. Extension workers major constraints in effective delivery of their services are lack of training for themselves poor transport facilities and also a general lack of funds. Author’s nationality: Malawi

Ref.43-2004

67


Madayi, Zafarani Athumani Land Transactions and Rent Appropriation in Peri-Urban Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Land is a primary means of both subsistence and income generation, access to it and security of land rights are of primary concern to poverty eradication in peri-urban areas. In this thesis I studied the urbanization process in Bunju and Pugu peri-urban areas in Dar es Salaam to examine land transactions and land rent distribution among the actors involved in the market chain and to investigate the Survey Project of 20,000 Plots. The methods used were interviews, discussions and observations. In addition, secondary data on land policies and land laws and other land related issues were collected. The study revealed that the land market is rapidly growing in the peri-urban areas following rapid population growth and city expansion. The land market operates both formally and informally. The informal land market is a vibrant market, although the land laws restrict it. This has led to high transformation of agricultural land into other peri-urban uses. Various actors with different motives are involved in the market chain ranging from buyers and sellers to the land authorities, but rent generated is unequally distributed among them. Most customary landholders regard land formalization as a cumbersome and tedious process. As a result, a majority has been unable to title their land and few respondents with title have never mortgaged their land. I revealed that the Survey Project of 20,000 Plots involved land expropriation in peri-urban areas including Bunju in order to accommodate the growing land demand for urban expansion and control informal land markets. The previous landholders were compensated for both crops and bare land. I conclude that peri-urban customary land has acquired an investment potential by urban residents and so land transactions are widespread. The peri-urban land is needed for both intermediate and future use to accommodate urban expansion and for agriculture. This has caused land values to increase. Although many actors are involved in the market those with power and information about the market systems, enjoy the main share of the rent. Land authorities are the winners, followed by urban residents, middlemen and village governments, whilst customary landowners, are the losers in this game. Besides, most banks are still reluctant to give loans to the few who have attained title deeds. In addition, some landholders are also sceptical to mortgage their land. The survey project of 20,000 plots has been able to provide enough surveyed plots for urban expansion and to speed up the process of issuing title deeds. The project implementation does not benefit the urban low-income earners because prices for the plots are too high. Since there is no limit of plots one person should buy, it has given an advantage to the well-off people to buy as many plots as possible. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Tanzania

Ref.44-2004

68


Maganga, Ellubey Rachel Pneumonia Case Fatality Rate in Children under-five: Understanding Variations in District Hospitals in Malawi M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Pneumonia case fatality rate in children under-five: Understanding variations in District Hospitals in Malawi The Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) programme in Malawi aims to reduce pneumonia deaths among children under-five years of age. Pneumonia standard case management is implemented through the Child Lung Health Project. After 24 months a significantly reduced pneumonia death rate has been observed throughout the districts where the programme has been implemented, however, the reduction has varied from district to district. In some districts the pneumonia case fatality rate was reduced by 60%, while in others it was less than 10%. Aim of the study: Was to investigate reasons for pneumonia case fatality rate variations in the different district hospitals in Malawi. Methods: This was a retrospective study of all children less than five years admitted in the district hospitals with a cough and difficult breathing from 1st July 2002 until 30th June 2003. A total of 6480 children were admitted. Of the 6480 children, 6202 (95.7%) met the study criteria. Out of 6202 children, 523 children died (8.7% CFR). We also conducted structured interviews with district health management team members on health service delivery at the district hospitals. Logistic regression was applied to measure the effect of the patient related factors and examine the health service delivery factors on pneumonia deaths with adjustment for potential confounders. Adjustment for age and sex was made to separate the effect of the study factors on pneumonia deaths. Results: We observed that case fatality rate was twice as high in Thyolo (14.1%) and in Machinga (14.6%) compared with Dedza (7.3%). In Mulanje the case fatality rate was lowest (4.9%) among the ten districts studied. The risk of death changed little after adjustment for age and sex. However, after adjusting for severity of disease at admission, the increased risk in Thyolo and the decreases risk in Mulanje were attenuated and no longer significantly different from Dedza. This implies that there were more children with very severe pneumonia admitted in Thyolo. On the other hand, the increased risk in Machinga persisted and increased risk was also found in Salima. After adjusting for missing doses of antibiotics in addition to age, sex and severity of disease, the risk of death in Machinga was almost twice that of Dedza, while in Ntcheu, Mulanje, Kasungu and Salima it was lower than Dedza. This implies missing doses was the main problem. Possible causes of variations in pneumonia case fatality rate across districts in this study include the admission of more severely ill children and missing doses of antibiotics. Conclusion: The findings contribute to the hypothesis that pneumonia case fatality rate variations are influenced by district service delivery factors. The results suggest some evidence for improving within-hospital management to reduce pneumonia deaths. If the children could receive the prescribed doses of antibiotics, the outcome may improve. Key words (MeSH): community-acquired pneumonia, children under five years, patient related and health service delivery factors. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Malawi

Ref.45-2004

69


Mapunda, Adelgot John Baptist Progression or Regression: Language of Instruction; Students' Participation and Performance in "Fasihi" and Literature" as Taught in Tanzania Diploma Teachers Training Colleges M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The role of language in learning cannot be downplayed. Language is basis for human communication. This gives language a central role in Learning. This study focuses on the Regression or Progression in relation to language of instruction; students' participation; and performance in "Fasihi" and "Literature" as taught in Tanzania diploma teachers colleges. Teaching and learning is a problem due to insufficient language knowledge with both teachers and students (Mazrui, 1997). In recent years it has been observed that the number of students taking literature in English course in diploma teachers training colleges has gone down compared to enrolment in literature in Kiswahili i.e. Fasihi. In the early years, the enrolment rates in literature in English were high compared to the present status. This study ought to find the role of the language policy in the way English and Kiswahili development take place. The role of dominance and prestige of English in Tanzania in 1980s t 1990s and the turn of the 21st century as indicative of the unequal power relation between ex-colonial and indigenous languages. Moreover, the study continues on focusing extend to which language policy is violated in Tanzania diploma teaching colleges. The study has revealed that a lot of code-switching and concurrent translation between English Kiswahili is used in the class and the objectives of education are not attained. A comprehension test using a cartoon is used to find the difference students in first and second year in using Kiswahili compared to English as a language medium. The implications of students' differences in using Kiswahili or English are discussed in view of language of instruction current in view. The study seeks the opinions of diplomas teachers training colleges' tutors and some education officials on contemporary views on the language of instruction in Tanzania. The study has also revealed that students are exceedingly proficient in Kiswahili compared to English. ALl tutors and education officials admit that English as a medium of instruction causes difficulties to students understanding and performance. A slight majority of turors and some education officials nevertheless prefer that English continue to be the language of instruction. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Tanzania

Ref.46-2004

70


Matchaya, Greenwell Collins The impact of rural producer organizations on people's livelihoods: The case of National Small Holder Farmers' Association of Malawi: A multiple methods approach. M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH Subject code(s): 210 Business Studies Economics Development Economy Management Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This paper analyses the impact which National Smallholder Farmers Association of Malawi, a rural producer organisation in Malawi, has had on the lives of its members. The association might have impacted on its members in many ways some of which might be complex. This paper reports analyses based on income per capita fertilizer expenditure, access to credits, quality of housing under five child nutrition, child school enrolment and changes in life (as reported by the respondents themselves), as endogenous variables on which to base the evaluation. A wide array of other variables is used together with the former in the analyses employing a variety of techniques namely; instrumental variables, Treatment regressions binary probit and ordered probit models to test various hypotheses. Realizing that impact analyses are often confounded by problems of selection bias, this thesis reports estimates with prior consideration of selection bias. Wherever appropriate, several methods have been employed to correct for selection bias and endogeneity which would otherwise render estimates inconsistent. Upon employment of the aforementioned econometric techniques, this thesis has unravelled strong evidence that NASFAM has impacted positively on all the endogenous variables of concern except child nutrition and housing. This strong evidence has prompted this thesis to conclude that there is great need for Nasfam's proliferation to areas where it currently does not have activities, as that will be for the benefit of the rural masses. If for some reason, Nasfam cannot afford to expand its sphere of influence, this thesis advises that other initiatives should be taken by government or the private sector to extend services similar to those provided by Nasfam to smallholder farmers in other places where Nasfam does not operate. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Malawi

Ref.47-2004

71


Mekuria, Melkam Lengereh The Overall Situation of Female Street Children (11 - 18 years) Engaged in Commercial Sex Work in Dire Dawa - Ethiopia (Survey in Case Study with Special Reference to Child Prostitution) M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Prostitution in general and child prostitution in particular as a major social problem is a common phenomenon for many countries in the world. Different causes can propel children towards street life and street activities. One of the street activities available for female street children is prostitution. As one of the underdeveloped and poor countries, economic problem in Ethiopia is the major cause for child prostitution. The strong relationship between poverty and prostitution is stated as, “…as long as there is poverty, prostitution will exist. As long as the root is wet, the tree survives” (Gedu, 1995, p. 12). Though poverty is the major reason for child prostitution, it can not be the only cause. For this reason, the study was attempted to look into the overall situation of female street children (11 – 18) engaged in prostitution in Dire Dawa town – Ethiopia. In conducting this descriptive research, the two main objectives were; identifying if street child prostitutes have their own special educational needs or not and to expose their overall situation to the rest of the society. Their overall situation in this study is all about their general background, their current situations and the possible consequences of child prostitution. In studying the overall situation of street child prostitutes, triangulation of methods as well as designs were implemented. In this regard, the combination of two designs (survey and case study) was used. The different methods implemented in the study are interview, questionnaire, focus group discussion and informal observation. Instruments such as interview guide, questionnaires, focus group discussion guide and log – book were used for data collection. The number of informants participated in the study were 62 street child prostitutes, 2 key persons from the society and an expert from women’s affair office. The findings of the study revealed that poverty is the major cause for street child prostitution. However, it is not the only cause of street child prostitution as other causes were identified in the study. It is also shown in the study that children engaged in street prostitution have their own special educational needs as they all are not enrolled to school currently. Moreover, the different consequences of child prostitution were addressed in the study. Finally, based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that, street child prostitution in Dire Dawa is survival prostitution. At the end, recommendations which are directed towards the society, the family, government and NGOs are made so that the problem of child prostitution can at least be curtailed if not eliminated. Author’s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.48-2004

72


Mirembe, Eseza Interaction between Teachers and Slow Learners - A Case Study in a School in Kampala District, Uganda M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Interaction is the road to learning and development. It involves what people do to influence each other’s behaviour for better or for worse, and is therefore a central issue in the classroom situation. The study focuses on the interaction between teachers and slow learners in inclusive classrooms. Slow learners have special educational problems in all or nearly all the subjects in the curriculum. There are more or less slow learners in almost every class in Uganda. The quality and quantity of interaction the slow learner has with the teacher s in the classroom will go a long way to promote, sustain or even retard her\his learning and development. The study attempted to explore, describe and investigate on how interaction goes on between teachers and slow learners in class, basing on three theories: Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, Vygotsky,s Theory of Proximal Development and Feuerstain’s Theory of Mediated Learning Experiences, A qualitative approach using a case study design was used to explore, describe and investigate the phenomenon. However, a qualitative approach was used as well during data analysis and discussion of results. The main method used to collect data was observation. It was supplemented by semistructured interviews and informal talks. The findings obtained indicated that there were no initiations at all made by the teachers to interact with the slow learners in the classroom. The slow learners tried to initiate interaction with the teachers by looking at the teachers and putting up hands so that teachers could choose them to answer but they were not chosen. They also did the exercises the teachers gave them to do. Recommendations were made that could be tried to help improve classroom interaction to benefit slow learners in similar inclusive classes. Author’s nationality: Uganda

Ref.49-2004

73


Munjoma, Marshall W. Simple Method for the Detection of Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Women M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Objectives: To investigate the use of lactobacillus as a simple tool for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) using wet mounts in pregnant women and to assess the positive predictive value of absence of lactobacillus for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Methods: 409 pregnant women were enrolled from three randomly selected clinics around Harare. The women underwent clinical examination during which a speculum-aided high vaginal swab was obtained and tested for BV using Amsel criteria, Nugent criteria and the simple lactobacillus method. Results: The prevalence of BV was 29% by Amsel criteria, 34% by Nugent criteria and 49% by the simple lactobacillus method. The sensitivity and specificity of the simple method using Amsel as the gold standard is 83% and 65% respectively with a kappa value of 0.40. The sensitivity and specificity of the simple test using Nugent as the gold standard is 86% and 82% respectively with a kappa value of 0.68. Sensitivities and specificities of individual Amsel criteria including lactobacillus for determining bacterial vaginosis with Amsel as the gold standard were as follows; discharge 15% and 99%, whiff 96% and 85%, clue cells 96% and 75%, pH 99% and 22% and lactobacillus 83% and 65%. Using Nugent as the gold standard the respective sensitivities and specificities were as follows; discharge 08% and 99%, whiff 70% and 87%, clue cells 67% and 73%, pH 92% 22% and lactobacilli 86% and 82%. The HIV-1 prevalence in the BV study sample (n=392) was about 46%. According to Amsel criteria only 26% (OR= 0.78) of the HIV positive participants have BV while according to the lactobacilli method 59% (OR=2.14) of the HIV positive participants do not have lactobacillus as part of the normal flora of the lower female genital tract. Amsel BV positive predictive value for HIV is 42% while lactobacillus positive predictive value for HIV is 56%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the lactobacillus method is as good as Nugent criteria using Amsel as the gold standard. It is much simpler to perform, less expensive, easy to train and takes much shorter time to perform and therefore has a potential for a much wider use than both Amsel and Nugent criteria. The simple lactobacillus method has a better PPV for HIV-1 compared to both Amsel and Nugent. Amsel criteria can be improved by removal of subjective criteria. Key Words: Lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, Amsel criteria, Nugent criteria, diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Zimbabwe

Ref.50-2004

74


Namugwanya, Margareth Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dependence on environmental income for survival and livelihoods: a case study of Mt. Elgon National Park Uganda M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Rural people who depend heavily on natural forest resources are affected by conservation interventions. In 1993, Mt. Elgon was proclaimed a National Park under management of UWA, imposing restrictive use and access to forest resources from the park. This affects livelihoods of local people. For sustainable use and conservation of resources from Mt. Elgon, an enhanced understanding of the extent to which households around the park use resources is needed. Estimating the economic contribution of forest resources is a key step towards understanding the role of forest resources in rural livelihoods. This study assessed the extent to which households in Wanale depend on forest environmental incomes, how the dependence is influenced by different household factors. Substitutes for forest environmental resources were also identified. The goal of our study was achieved by carrying out household surveys on 94 randomly selected households using semistructured questionnaires, focus group discussions, direct observation and key informant interviews. Forest environmental income on average comprised of 14.1 % of total household income. Firewood, medicinal plants, and crop stakes are the most economically important resources constituting 53.1 % and 21.7 %, and 20.5 % respectively of total forest environmental income. Second degree regression models showed that level of dependence on forest environmental income is influenced by household income level, land holdings, and sex. However, household size, education level and age of household head do not influence the level of dependence. The major problem associated with living close to the park was crop damaging by wildlife causing 18.5 % loss of the gross household income. The compensation programme proposed by UWA to offset such costs is not fully implemented. On farm tree planting was the main source of substitutes for forest resources. This was constrained by shortage of land and limited access to capital. Poor households with small land sizes cannot afford planting trees. The role of forest environmental income in securing household livelihoods and costs of being close to the park should sufficiently be addressed when dealing with management of Mt. Elgon through signing resource use agreements. Direct compensation to affected households and providing employment to local people should be also another way of offsetting costs incurred by communities around the park. However, dependence on forest resource can be reduced by identifying multiple tree species together with local people. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Uganda

Ref.51-2004

75


Nandi, Martha Coping with drought. A case study of communal farmers in the Northern Regions of Namibia M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics, NLH Subject code(s): 210 Business Studies Economics Development Economy Management Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Communal farmers in Northern Namibia are quite vulnerable to drought because they depend on rainfall for their livelihood (crop production and livestock rearing). Empirical studies have shown that communal farmers use different strategies to cope with drought, when droughts strike. I have studied the drought coping strategies that are employed by the northern communal farmers in Namibia during the 2002/2003 drought. I have also analysed the food security for different wealth groups of farmers and tried to determine the effectiveness of the government drought responses and schemes. The results show that the sales of cattle (26% of the total value of sales of livestock), recorded during the period May 2002 -May 2003 were mainly to avoid stock loss due to drought. The sales of goats and pigs (60% of the total value of sales of livestock) were mainly to generate cash for the non-food expenditure. The sales of chicken accounts for only 14 % of the total value of sales of livestock and the sales of chicken were mainly to generate cash for food expenditures. As far as the government responses to drought are concerned, I discovered that those governmental responses were not effective. The drought relief food ends up in the hands of the less needy farmers and it excludes the needy groups of farmers. In addition, farmers do not make use of the drought relief subsidy, which they are eligible for. This is because they have limited access to the marketing of livestock; hence they cannot make use of the market incentive subsidy. Most of the communal farmers could also not qualify for the sliding crop compensation subsidy because most of them (although none in my sample) do not grow cash crops even though they do not have Agricultural bank (Agribank) loans which exclude farmers from benefiting from the crop compensation scheme. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Namibia

Ref.52-2004

76


Ngailevanu, Asixtus George The Effect of Using English Instead of Kiswahili in Teaching and Learning General Studies in Tanzanian Secondary Schools. M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) In May 1993 the Ministry of Education and Culture issued the education Circular No ED/OKE/S.45 that introduced the General Studies subject in Tanzanian secondary schools. Previously the subject was called Elimu ya Siasa (Political Education) and was taught in Kiswahili. Now General Studies subject is taught in English, the language that researchers such as Brock-Utne (2000), Roy-Campbell and Qorro (1997), Mlama and Materu (1978) have proved that it has cesed to be an effective medium of instruction in Tanzanian secondary schools. This study looks at the effects of using English instead of Kiswahili in teaching and learning General Studies in Tanzania secondary schools. Effective teaching and learning is not taking place due to lack of English proficiency by both teachers and learners. The use of English language as a language of instruction at all levels of secondary schools is pedagogically ineffective. The use of code-switching, code-mixing and translation are a clear indication of language policy violation. These reasons are clearly indicated in this study. This study adopted the qualitative approach in data collection, analysis and discussion. The data were obtained through interviews and class observations. In addition to that different documents were analyzed; these include the Education and Training Policy, Cultural Policy and General Studies Syllabus. This study is guided by three theories namely, Linguistic theories, Education for SelfReliance and Dependence Theories. Basing on Linguistic theories, the data analyzed revealed that communication between students and teachers is not taking place. The reason is that both teachers and students lack proficiency in English language, hence little knowledge is getting across to students. Data gathered from class observations revealed that, students can express themselves better in Kiswahili than in English. The reason behind is that Kiswahili is the language they use in their daily life. English is the language they use in class. The study also found that, the teachers and students who used Kiswahili for Elimu ya siasa (Political Education) subject, has good opportunity to teach (teachers) and learn (students) that subject. The reason is that teaching and learning took place in the language which teachers and students command well. The findings also showed that teachers are not consulted when it comes to the decision of language of instruction, only governments decides which language to be the medium of instruction. Concerning the suggestion for the language of instruction in Tanzania, students who used Kiswahili when it was Elimu ya Siasa (Political Education) preferred Kiswahili to continue. Majority of teachers who taught Elimu ya Siasa using Kiswahili also preferred Kiswahili to continue as MOI. For students who are using English to learn General Studies, majority of them preferred English although it is a barrier to them. The suggestion was the same from teachers who have used only English to teach General studies. Reasons given for their stance are misconceptions concerning the use of English as a language of instruction Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Tanzania

Ref.53-2004

77


Nguyen Tra, My The Study of the Tunnel and Underground Powerhouse for Huoi Quang Hydropower Project in Lao Cai, Vietnam M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Huoi Quang Project is located on Nam Mu River, Lao Cai province in the north part of the Social Republic of Vietnam. Main objectives of the project are power generation and flood control. The project composes of a gravity dam, a spillway, and headrace and tailrace tunnel and an underground powerhouse all on the right bank. The pre-feasibility was carried out by Power Engineering Consulting Company No1 After the study, the power plant was defined with the following parameters: Maximum head: 150 m Discharge: 420m3/s. Installation capacity: 3x180 MW. The Norwegian approach in designing underground structures had been introduced briefly, and from that, the tunnel, the pressure shaft and the powerhouse of Huoi Quang hydropower project had been redesigned. The headrace and tailrace tunnels are optimised and designed as an unlined tunnel. The Q and RMR method was used to classify the rock mass and the tunnels support was designed based on this method. The design procedure was introduced in this section. Underground powerhouse is also designed according to Norwegian approach. Numerical models are established to evaluate virgin stress situation, stress after excavation of tunnel and to find the sound location for powerhouse. Some recommendations were made in order to improve the models by taken into account some factors, which had not been involving in the created models. The factors can be the water table, the excavation of the opening and the support methods. In order to reduce numbers of the assumptions in the analyses, some recommendations about the geological investigation were also made. Finally, further studies for next phase of project implementation are recommended. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Vietnam

Ref.54-2004

78


Nkubito, Grace Kangwagye Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, Complications and Obstetric Outcome at Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) To determine the prevalence, maternal complications, foetal outcome and characteristics of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. SETTING: Princess Marina Hospital, a tertiary and referral Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all hypertensive women who delivered at Princess Marina Hospital from December 2002 to April 2003 was done. Information from patientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; records was entered on a compilation sheet which was entered in SPSS program and analyzed. Prevalence rates (per 1000 deliveries) were estimated by type of hypertension. Demographic characteristics, maternal complications and perinatal outcome were also determined. RESULTS: Of 1919 deliveries at Princess Marina Hospital during the study period, there were 100 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy giving a prevalence of 52.1 per 1000 deliveries. Twenty one cases had chronic hypertension of which 11 (52%) developed superimposed pre-eclampsia while 10(48%) had no proteinuria. Of 79 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension, 36 (46%) had hypertension without proteinuria, 42(53%) had pre-eclampsia and 1(1%) had eclampsia. Age ranged from 18 to 47 years with a mean age of 29.5 years. Teenagers were 8 cases out of 100. Maternal complications were HELLP syndrome (3 cases), acute renal failure (2 cases), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (1 case). There were no cases of abruptio placentae, cerebral haemorrhage or maternal death. Of all deliveries, perinatal complications included preterm deliveries (45%), low birth weight (41%) and still births (17%). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was high but there were few maternal complications. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Botswana

Ref.55-2004

79


Obita, Philips Velocities from Amplitude Variations with Offset M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Uganda

Ref.56-2004

80


Omala M., Perera The Concentration of Textile and Garment Industry in Colombo and Gampaha Districts, Sri Lanka. Causes and Consequences. M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography), NTNU Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of concentration of Textile and Garment industry in Colombo and Gampaha districts. Ten key informants representing (Gampaha), Biyagama (Gampaha) and Ratmalana (Colombo) industrial clusters were interviewed using an interview guide and the results focus these three areas. In peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s point of view, accessibility has been identified as a crucial factor in industrial location. Proximity to Colombo City, Colombo Port, Airports and the wide network of roads have created a suitable location for industries. Political perspectives of the governing parties have also influenced the location of industries through industrial policies. International influence in this regard is invisible to common people, but crucial. The pattern of the concentration was identified through secondary data. Colombo and Gampaha districts have attracted the majority of the employees in the industrial sector as well as in Textile and Garment industry. Textile and Garment industry demonstrates scattered pattern in terms of establishments with fewer numbers of workers while an obvious concentration of establishments with large number of workers can be identified in Colombo and Gampaha districts. The process of industrialisation has created economic, social and environmental changes within these areas. In addition to the employment opportunities in the factories, the flow of young female migrant workers from distant areas has created many economic opportunities such as providing board and lodging, meals, transport service and trade. The female workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behaviour in the new culture is highly condemned by the residents. In contrast, these girls frequently get into troubles particularly in socio-cultural concern; due to the lack of experience and the depression from their working and living conditions. The relationships with the migrant girls vary by the socio economic status and the age of the residents. Textile and Garment industry has been perceived as a less pollutant industry. But there are several environmental problems in these areas either caused by the other industrial activities or by the pressure of high density of population. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Sri Lanka

Ref.57-2004

81


Patrício, Ana dos Santos Leão Avaliação do funcionamento das brigadas móveis do Programa Alargado de Vacinação - PAV, nos Distritos de Chókwe e Manjacaze M.Sc. in Public Health (Information System Track) – UEM, UiO Subject code(s): 420 - Informatics, Computer Science; 700 - Public Health, Preventive Health, Community and Primary Health Care, Health Information and Administration, Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Abstract available in Portuguese only As grandes distâncias que separam as unidades sanitárias (US) e a falta de transporte, fazem com que a população residente em algumas zonas do país não tenha acesso aos cuidados de saúde primários principalmente os referentes ao programa alargado de vacinações (PAV). Como alternativa, o Ministério da Saúde (MISAU), criou as brigadas móveis (BM) que têm a função de abranger as áreas de dificil acesso para a vacinação. O presente estudo teve como objectivo descrever o funcionamento e implicações nas coberturas pelas brigadas móveis do Programa Alargado de Vacinações nos distritos de Chókwe e Manjacaze. Para antigir o objectivo foi usado o tipo de estudo de caso transversal aplicado as realidades de dois distritos nomeadamente de Manjacaze e Chókwe onde foram compilados dados já existentes referentes as BM do PAV do ano 2002 e do 1º semestre do ano 2003 (provenientes dos ficheiros), fezse observação directa durante três semanas; e entrevistas semi-estruturadas aos funcionários que realizam as brigadas móveis, aos dirigentes distritais de saúde e do PAV a nível provincial , e aos dirigentes do MISAU- órgãos centrais e as ONG que apoiam os serviços das brigadas móveis nestes distritos. Durante o estudo foi constatado que a agregação de dados a nível distrital não permite destrinçar a qualidade dos mesmos e identificar a origem de determinado problema devido à ausência de pormenor sobre quem originou e onde se originaram tais dados. Outras dificuldades encontradas neste estudo referem-se ao pessoal e ao transporte. Em relação ao pessoal verificou-se por um lado alguma escassez deste e por outro a ausência de rigor que se revelou, como o mau preenchimento dos dados nos impressos e/ou por vezes preenchimento incompleto. Também houve falta dos impressos o que contribuiu para que a informação fosse de baixa qualidade. Este aspecto sobre o pessoal é particularmente importante e urge a sua correcção dado que a informação recolhida presume-se que seja usada na tomada de decisões como por exemplo na planificação das actividades e os cálculos dos orçamentos para as campanhas seguintes, etc. O estudo mostrou que há falta de retro-informação do nível distrital para as localidades e por vezes de provincial para o nível distrital. Devido a esta falta de retro - informação o pessoal de base não conhece a utilidade dos dados que recolhe facto este que leva a falta de rigor no registo destes. No respeitante ao transporte há a salientar a sua falta e a dificuldade encontrada em algumas vias de acesso que por vezes inviabilizavam o cumprimento dos planos traçados pelas brigadas móveis devido a intrasitabilidade das mesmas. Os dados recolhidos nas brigadas móveis são processados no distrito em representação das US individuais cumulativamente com outros dados de actividades, utilizando como instrumentos o computador e máquinas calculadoras. A substância desses dados é viciada no pormenor de qualidade e como esta é a informação que depois é enviada para os níveis hierarquicamente superiores i.e. a nivel provincial e central, ela não reflecte a situação de como seria de esperar, comprometendo eventuais processos de tomada de decisão. É de importância também o problema da falta de pessoal assim como os aspectos relacionados à sua formação, motivação e estimulo por forma a garantir-se uma melhor qualidade do seu trabalho.Uma outra componente é o da logística pois é importante e contribui para o sucesso das brigadas móveis. Sem o melhoramento nos transportes o que passa necessariamente por alocar mais viaturas, do abastecimento regular dos impressos e outros materiais necessários para o melhor funcionamento das brigadas móveis e finalmente do melhoramento das vias de acesso, não será possivel garantir um bom serviço pelas brigadas móveis do PAV. Author’s nationality: Mozambique

Ref.58-2004

82


Paudel, Kiran Hydrological Studies for the Upper Tamakoshi Hydropower Project in Nepa M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Tamakoshi River basin in central-northern part of Nepal is one of the river basins having good hydrology and a suitable topography for planning any type of hydropower schemes. Although many institutions have studied the potentiality of development and come up with a positive notes, basic parameters such as catchment area, precipitation, runoff as well as the hydrological risks due to sudden flood event, are still not properly assessed. The river basin is shared between Nepal and China and is remotely located. There are very few meteorological stations in Nepal and none in China. For this reason, those basic hydrological parameters are not assessed properly. Beside these the other factors responsible are the harsh topographical condition with high peaks within the catchment and presence of many glaciers and glacial lakes. Previously the catchment has been found out by the conventional method. This method is well acceptable as long as the maps of proper scales are available. But the maps from the Chinese territory were difficult to acquire. So as an alternative method, the catchment area is computed with the help of integrated geographic information system (GIS) and found to be trustworthy in such situation. The digital elevation data with resolution 1000m by 1000m was good enough to mark and compute the catchment boundary. With the same technique, the land use data and presence of any lakes in the catchment was tried to found out but was not possible to get the details on them because of the resolution of map. There are very few precipitation station in Tibet. Mostly they are aligned along the Bramhaputra river basin and none in Tamakoshi basin. So the precipitation pattern in Tibet is not clear. The presence of great Himalaya range has given a shadowing effect regarding the precipitation in Tibet. Although the precipitation is not properly analyzed in Tibetan plateau, a simple rainfall runoff model (HBV model), based on the precipitation, temperature and evaporation recorded in the Nepalese meteorological station at Jiri (2003) masl, has been calibrated, which is found to be behaving satisfactory. Due to global increase in temperature, glaciers in Himalaya are retreating at an alarming rate, creating many glacial lakes. These lakes are getting bigger in size and posing a threat of outburst of end moraine dam. An assessment on the development and expansion, bursting mechanism, estimation of GLOF discharge, geomorphic effect of such flood and some mitigation measures have been made. Referring a study made on the similar GLOF event in the adjacent river basin, dam site at Lamabagar has been studied and found that in case of such event even on a lake situated 40-50 km upstream, it can yield a very devastating effect at the dam site. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Nepal

Ref.59-2004

83


Pham, Phong Mai Managing the larvae/juvenile fisheries in the Mekong delta of VietNam. M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT Subject code(s): 920 Fisheries Aquaculture Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The Mekong river and delta stage one of the largest inland fisheries of the world, with an estimated annual production in excess of 1.8 million metric tonnes. An economically important fishery for larval catfish (Pangasidae) takes place in the Bassac and lower Mekong rivers, in the Vietnamese side of the border with Cambodia. In the 1990â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s these fisheries were banned because there were suspicions unsupported by quantitative studies, that they affected the recruitment of many wild stocks. The demand for superior seed in aquaculture gave rise to a continued, and unchecked, illegal fishery for wild larvae. This preliminary study was the first to address the seasonal dynamics of the fry-drift to the floodplains of the Mekong in a perspective useful for fishery management. Drifting larvae/juvenile of over 176 fish species were recorded during an intensive sampling performed on a dial basis in 1999 and 2003, in the lower Mekong and Bassac. Sampling was performed using adapted Dai bag nets, the traditional passive gear of the flood fishery. A total 129 species was sampled in the Bassac, and 152 species in the Mekong. Larval assemblages were dominated by Cyprinidae (about 1/3 of all species), and the patterns of association seemed to be linked to the flood regime of the rivers. The two highest peaks in the abundance of larvae occurred in the last week of June and July in the two rivers, and lasted from three to five days. Cyprinids showed the highest larval densities, about 80% of the thousands of individuals caught per hour, followed by the catfish, with about 10%. Larvae of many species were found to occur in a wide spectrum of sizes (10-50 mm) along the whole flood season (June-September), and this may be indicative of continuous spawning. In contrast to cyprinids, catfish larvae showed peaks of occurrence normally limited to the month of June. It is suggested that a fryfishery limited to two-three weeks in June may not be detrimental to other fisheries later in the lifecycle of fish. A simple analysis of the tradeoffs of this short fishery shows that under controlled conditions fry-fishing may be acceptable to most important stakeholders, and that compromises can be reached. Although further quantitative studies of this fishery are called upon, the major threat to migratory species might come from the implementation of large-scale flood control schemes in the Mekong. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Vietnam

Ref.60-2004

84


Piloya, Brenda Carolyn Carbon sequestration potential of alnus and grevellia boundary trees and calliandra hedgerows in Kabale district, Uganda M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas emitted by human activity. It is responsible for over half the enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased by more than 28% over the past 150 years. Human activity is responsible for only a fraction of the CO2 in the carbon cycle but this is however sufficient to alter the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Unless emissions of green house gases are reduced, the global community risks major climatic change and serious environmental problems in the future . Through photosynthesis the plants are able to capture carbondioxide in the atmosphere and convert it to plant biomass. Agroforestry offers a promising avenue for carbon storage in trees and soil and potential to off set immediate green house emissions associated with deforestation and subsequent shifting cultivation. Agroforestry systems offer multiple benefits such as fuel, fodder, fruits and soil conservation. It improves soil fertility maintaining agricultural productivity and thus reducing the need for forest clearance to create new and more productive land. The goal of the study was to assess the potential of some agroforestry systems for carbon sequestration and income generation. The specific objective was to assess the above ground carbon sequestration potential of calliandra hedgerows and alnus and grevillea boundary trees and to compare the profitability of the agroforestry systems and the annual cropping systems. To obtain the quantity of aboveground carbon sequestered, dry biomass of the hedgerow and boundary trees were multiplied by 0.50 and 0.445 respectively. Alnus and Grevillea accumulated 12.8 and 11.7 tons ha-1of above ground plant carbon respectively equivalent to removal of 46.8 and 42.8 tons of CO2 ha-1.Calliandra hedgerow accumulated 14.3 tons C ha-1equivalent to removal of 52.3 tons of CO2 ha-1. The Net present value with and without a carbon market was used to compare profitability of the agroforestry and annual cropping systems. The results showed that agroforestry system was more profitable even without a carbon market. It had the highest NPV of 344,052 shillings compared to 192,636 shillings of annual crops. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Uganda

Ref.61-2004

85


Poudel, Diwakar Crop Genetic Resource Conservation: a study of farmers' willingness to pay for rice landraces in Kaski, Nepal M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) In the context of biodiversity conservation, the conservation of crop genetic resources is inevitable because they are valuable directly to the farmers and indirectly to all the human kinds. The rich crop genetic diversity is decreasing due to land conversion and invasion of exotic and modern species. Parts of the problem is the total economic value of such crop genetic diversity is not known, which is important for rational decision making and policy context in implementation of conservation programs. Therefore, the study estimates the economic value of crop genetic resources (CGRs) by assessing farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation, specifically rice (Oryza sativa) landraces using the contingent valuation method. A total of 107 household surveys were conducted in Kaski, Nepal during November 2003. The study estimates farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; willingness to pay (WTP) for rice landraces conservation in different conservation approaches; in situ (household level and community gene bank) and ex situ. All the farmers were willing to contribute in conservation. Of the different methods of conservation, the mean willingness to pay (WTP) was USD 4.18 for in situ (household level), USD 16.75 for community gene bank and USD 2.20 for ex situ per annum. Mostly bigger landholding size, better socio-economic status, male decision makers, lower number of crop landraces grown, and higher knowledge on diversity increased the willingness to pay. A significantly higher contribution was in favour of fine and medium grain quality landraces than coarse grain. Similarly, respondents were willing to contribute more for the landraces, which are under threat of extinction than those abundant in the locality. People are willing to contribute significantly higher amount for the community conservation approach than conservation in situ (household level) or ex situ. This might be because of the additive effect of direct use and direct involvement in the in situ conservation program. The study indicates that farmers value the crop genetic resources both for the use, and the non-use values and there is considerable support for the conservation. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Nepal

Ref.62-2004

86


Rico, Maria Manuela Estudo sobre os factores de motivação e falta de motivação do pessoal de saúde na produção e uso da informação nas unidades de saúde de nível primário: Caso do distrito do Chókwe. M.Sc. in Public Health (Information System Track) – UEM, UiO Subject code(s): 420 - Informatics, Computer Science; 700 - Public Health, Preventive Health, Community and Primary Health Care, Health Information and Administration, Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Abstract available in Portugese only O presente estudo constitui um dos requisitos necessários a submeter à Universidade Eduardo Mondlane--Faculdade de Medicina, para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Saúde Pública. Ele aborda a questão da motivação e/ou de desmotivação do Pessoal de saúde na produção e uso da informação nas Unidades de Saúde de nível primário Numa altura em que quase todos os gestores do sector de saúde tendem a falar dos seus funcionários como indivíduos sem motivação ou, na maior parte dos casos destituídos de compromisso com a área, ou com seu trabalho e com a sua organização. O Sistema de Informação é fundamental para uma gestão efectiva ao nível local. No entanto, estudos de avaliação e os trabalhos de campo realizados ao longo da formação indicam não haver evidências do uso efectivo do SIS para a tomada de decisões. A pretensão deste estudo é de olhar uma das possibilidades ou as razões pelas quais os trabalhadores não parecem estar interessados no uso da informação do SIS: a questão da motivação ou fraca motivação do pessoal. Como consequência deste exercício, e enquanto motivação interna do presente estudo, os seus resultados (imputes) poderiam servir de base para passos correctivas que poderiam ser levados a cabo no sentido de incrementar a motivação do pessoal. Diversas medidas de carácter metodológico foram tomadas para a efectivação deste trabalho. Assim, a revisão da literatura consultada sobre o assunto mostra, por exemplo, que no campo de Sistemas de Informação, observa-se, quase sempre, que todos os problemas a ele relacionados tendem a ser analisados e interpretados à luz de conceitos e técnicas de sistemas, projectos, processamento de dados e não das pessoas ligadas a tais sistemas. Esta constatação foi de fundamental importância no reforço da principal hipótese deste trabalho que sugere, entre outros, o facto de que as pessoas e a sua motivação é um aspecto relevante para o sucesso de qualquer organização. Por outro lado fica claro que a motivação depende duma complexa rede de factores, justamente porque trata-se de pessoas que se debatem com problemas materiais, psicológicos, financeiros. Portanto, neste sentido, o estudo visou ouvir das próprias pessoas envolvidas o que pensavam não somente sobre o SIS em si, mas também sobre esses aspectos de motivação e não motivação no exercício das suas actividades. O estudo, feito no modelo dos estudos qualitativos dos «case studies», consistiu na da administração de entrevistas por questionário auto-adminaistrado (ou administração indirecta) e dirigido. Também foram cruciais as reflexões resultantes da observação directa com particular interesse, dedicada ao comportamento do pessoal durante o preenchimento de fichas de recolha de dados e sua entrega a DDS, e nas relações interpessoais. Foram entrevistados 28 profissionais de 10 unidades de saúde do distrito agregados em três diferentes categorias, a saber básico, médio e elementar. Foram 16 profissionais do sexo feminino e 12 do sexo masculino. A idade média dos entrevistados é de 40 anos. O tempo médio de serviço varia entre 21 a 30 anos. Destes trabalhadores apenas 34% foram promovidos. Author’s nationality: Mozambique Ref.63-2004

87


Samsukal, Pamela A preliminary study of effluent water quality of land-based abalone farms in South Africa. M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management, UiT Subject code(s): 920 Fisheries Aquaculture Abstract: (maximum 450 words) A preliminary study of effluent water quality was conducted on land-based abalone farms in South Africa. The study was conducted from June to July 2003 in Hermanus and Gaansbaai on the south coast and Paternoster on the west coast situated 140 km east of Cape Town and 120 km north respectively. Effluent water samples were collected from seven farms during standard farm operations and during cleaning. Both inorganic (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate) nutrients as well as organic nutrients (dissolved organic nitrogen –DON and dissolved organic phosphorous- DOP) were measured. Ammonium was measured by the Indophenol Method, Nitrite was based on the formation of azo-dye with sulphanilamide, Nitrate was measured by Cadmium Reduction, Phosphate by the Acid Molybdate Method and both DON and DOP were measured by Persulfate Oxidation. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) was calculated after drying samples in an oven at 60º. All nutrients measured were found at acceptable levels and did not seem to pose a direct threat to the recipients. The concentration ranges were as follows: Ammonium: 0.44-19.25 µmol N/L, Nitrite: 0.15-1.10 µmol N/L, Nitrate: 4.92-21.71 µmol N/L, Inorganic Phosphate: 0.65-6.04 µmol P/L, DON: 0-14.25 µmol N/L, DOP: 0-1.86µmol P/L, >63µm Suspended Matter: 3.24-18.80 mg/L and <63 µm Suspended Matter: 0.71-21.10 mg/L. SPM levels in the effluent were high during cleaning operations. The variables biofilter and feed (Abfeed) and Kelp were not significant. Within the farms the concentration of nutrients varied in the outlets from different farm sections. Thus, hatcheries dispersed low in all types of nutrients but relatively rich in fine particulate matter. Abalone grow out and fish farms section son the contrary, released higher concentrations of all types of nutrients. This must be related to the higher biomass kept because food loads did not seem to substantially affect the effluent. There was a trend for higher nutrient loads in farms situated on the west coast (upwelling). These regional differences should be taken into consideration in future environmental guidelines. An approach for setting water quality guidelines for land-based abalone aquaculture in South Africa is provided. Author’s nationality: South Africa

Ref.64-2004

88


Serugo, Paulous The concept of well being in the Butiki village: a critical perspective on development and modernization in a Ugandan village. M.Phil. in Gender and Development, UiB Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Uganda

Ref.65-2004

89


Shrestha, Basuda Ethnomedico-Knowledge in Practice: A Study Of Medicinal Plants in Kaski District, Nepal M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 220 - Sociology; 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This study was carried out to document the extent and distribution, and local knowledge associated with medicinal plants in Kaski district of Nepal. Pachbhaiya community forest and Lohse Pakha Raniban community forest were two study sites. Variety of methods and approaches were employed including workshop, household survey, focus group discussion, interview and field visits. Focus group discussion was conducted with member of Community Forest Userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Groups whereas key informants were involved in the interview. A total of 91 households were surveyed using systematic random sampling technique. Local knowledge in medicinal plant was analysed on the basis of respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; age, sex, education, household size socio economic status and home distance to the local health post. The majority of the respondents comprised of male, with an average age of 50 year. By occupation, half of the respondents were engaged in agriculture and from socioeconomic point of view, almost 50% respondents were poor. A total of 158 medicinal plant species belonging to 78 families were recorded. Herb was dominant medicinal plant species (42%) followed by tree (28%), shrub (22%) and others (8%). About 75% medicinal plants were collected from the nearby community forests while it was also available in other land use systems such as national forests, irrigated lowland, non-irrigated upland, lakes, mountains and pastureland. Different plant parts were used as medicine includes roots, leaves, fruits, barks, flowers, stems, seeds and tubers. These parts were served either fresh or in processed forms: juice, powder, paste, decoction, or infusion. These were administered orally or used as poultice/applying, massage, instillation and inhalation. The use of medicinal plants depended largely upon the distance to the health post and household size while it was independent of sex, education and wealth class. They used medicinal plants in the initial stage of the diseases or disorders and usually go for modern medicine in chronic stage only. Elderly people heavily relied on local treatment methods than young generation. Respondents with primary and secondary education had less knowledge on medicinal plants compared with illiterate and highly educated respondents. In summary, indigenous plant species are highly important for their medicinal values. It has an immense potential in medical science even today. The preservation of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants, diversity and their uses are very vital for their conservation and continual exploration. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Nepal

Ref.66-2004

90


Sigcau, Nompucuko Eurica The Impact of English Medium of Instruction on Childrens' Education with Special Reference to Xhosa Learners M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This study investigates the impact of English medium of instruction on children’s’ education with special reference to Xhosa learners. The main aim of the study is to find out if learners’ performance in grade 12 is not affected by the use of English as a medium of instruction. Generally the study looks at the role played by sociolinguistic factors such as language attitudes, language policy, and language use in multilingual societies in influencing English as the medium of instruction in schools which are predominantly filled by African learners. The study assesses the competence of learners and educators in English, as well attitudes of teachers, learners and parents towards use of English as a medium of instruction. The learners’ results in the survey demonstrate that learners lack proficiency in English and that English medium of instruction is disadvantaging them. Surprisingly, although learners seem not to be competent in English, they do not want Xhosa medium of instruction because of economic and political forces. Parents’ results showed different views with regard to mother tongue education in African schools. Those who are for mother tongue education indicate that they want their children to embrace their culture, take pride in, celebrate and respect their customs while those who are against mother tongue education hold the view that their children will be disadvantaged in that they would not be able to communicate internationally. The study recommends that both English and African languages be used in pursuing teaching to avoid the practice of devaluing African languages as a tool to proper acquisition of knowledge. The stakeholders need to understand that mother tongue has serious social functions and not to devalue it. Therefore mother tongue should be seen as a linguistic resource, which educators can use to pursue multilingual learners’ education. The study concludes by stating that the Government should not make the implementation of the new Language in Education Policy difficult, instead it needs to see the development of African languages as a step forward to the recognition of human rights. Author’s nationality: South Africa

Ref.67-2004

91


Sosola, Bruce Gee The Contribution of Bamboo Enterprises to Rural Livelihoods in Mvera, Dowa District, Malawi M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s):250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The bamboo enterprises involving handicraft making and culm vending in Mvera, Dowa district in Malawi were studied from October 2003 to December 2003. The aim of the study was to examine the significance of bamboo enterprises to rural livelihood security and how bamboos are managed by the bamboo entrepreneurs themselves and other stakeholders. The stakeholders in bamboo enterprise promotion and bamboo resource management and their roles were also identified and assessed. The four villages Katengeza, Mulenga, Mpanje and Dzuwa were chosen to represent mainly the handicraft making communities and Chilombo to represent the bamboo culm vending communities. Eighteen respondents were randomly selected from bamboo culm vending community for household survey and stratified random sampling was used to select seventy four respondents from each of bamboo handicraft making villages. Focus groups discussions on issues of bamboo enterprises were conducted in each of the villages selected. Perceived stakeholders were consulted to examine their roles in bamboo enterprises. It was found that an average bamboo handicraft maker used 681 bamboo culms per year and an average bamboo culm vendor cut 1146 culms per year. It was also found that an average bamboo handicraft maker obtained MK 20684 per year from the cash sales of assorted handicrafts and an average bamboo culm vendor obtained MK 10833 per year from bamboo culm cash sales. An average bamboo entrepreneur obtained MK 3251 from farm cash sales. However, considering own farm consumption, the average bamboo entrepreneur consumed own farm produce worthy MK 26679 which was about one and a half times greater than average bamboo income of MK 18417. All respondents indicated that the income from bamboo enterprise was mainly for household petty cash i.e. hand to mouth consumption. No significant bamboo management practices were carried out by the entrepreneurs. Bamboos were naturally growing in Thuma Forest Reserve where most of the bamboos were collected. A few stakeholders in bamboo enterprise and resource management were merely involved in actual promotion of bamboo handicraft industry and actual bamboo management by their policies and interventions. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Malawi

Ref.68-2004

92


Srivastava, Vishal Karcham.Wangtoo Hydro Electric Project. Optimisation and Construction Planning of the waterways. M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NTNU Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) In order to overcome the power shortage of northern states in India as well as bridge the gap in peak load, M/s. Jaiprakash Industries Limited (JIL), New Delhi proposes to tap the hydropower potential of the Sutlej river in Himachal Pradesh (India). A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) has been signed between Govt. of Himachal Pradesh and JIL in August 1993 to build Karcham-Wangtoo Hydro-Electric Project on river Sutlej, District Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh (India). The 1000 MW Karcham-Wangtoo hydroelectric Project (run-of-the-river development) envisages construction of a dam on Sutlej river at Karcham, an underground diversion tunnel, intake tunnel, sedimentation chambers, head race tunnel, power house and tail race tunnel. The present report deals with the cost effective design alternatives of HRT in the proposed project. The project is planned with an approximately17 km long 10.5m diameter circular concrete lined finished Head Race Tunnel. Considering high cost and large time period for construction of proposed HRT, the objective of this report is to select other cost & time effective alternatives for HRT in order to reduce the financial risks involved with the construction of project. To achieve this objective following studies have been done: § Power studies to check the feasibility of project & discharge for HRT because of revised hydrology § Geological data interpretation and establishing a model for the tunnel route, to be used for advance rate and rock support estimates in both Drill & Blast and TBM alternatives. § Economic optimum cross-section of tunnel is evaluated from the selected drill & blast (D&B) and Tunnel boring machine (TBM) alternatives for detailed studies. § Detailed analysis of selected unlined twin tunnel D&B has been done by using Norwegian model of time and cost calculation as per Project Report 2A-95 (Blast Design), 2B-95 (Prognosis for Drill & Blast) and 2C-95 (Cost for Drill & Blast) developed by Department of Building and Construction Engineering – NTNU. § Detailed analysis of selected unlined twin tunnel TBM has been done by using windows software IBA FULLPROF as a tool for estimating time consumption and costs for hard rock tunnel boring. § In the detailed analysis, all risks related to HRT construction time and cost are analysed and mitigation of those risks has been proposed. § To analyse the results in Indian context of tunnelling, conversion of the calculated Norwegian cost into Indian has been done. According to the results obtained from this study, unlined twin tunnel (D&B) is cheaper than unlined twin tunnel (TBM) in case of Indian costing, whereas in case of Norwegian costing there is not much difference. D&B option is also having less time consumption in construction than TBM option. Another drawback of TBM alternative is that, it has high equipment investment cost comparative to D&B as well as it is more sensitive to changed geological conditions from the assumed or interpreted conditions. Thus unlined twin tunnel (D&B) is the best suitable option found in Indian context for HRT in Karcham-Wangtoo Hydro Electric Project. With this suitable unlined twin tunnel (D&B) as HRT, it is possible to commission the Power-house at least six months earlier than the base programme, even if progress of any other component of the project will not change. By saving six months of construction of project, the benefits in monetary terms are substantial as it saves the interest during construction and added early revenue generation from energy sales. Thus results concluded from the studies confirm that, unlined twin tunnel (D&B) alternative of HRT in this project is attractive and effective in saving both time & cost. Author’s nationality: India

Ref.69-2004

93


Taj, Farhat Policing in Purdah: Women and Women Police Station, Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan M.Phil. in Gender and Development, UiB Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Women police stations staffed by only women police officers were established by the government of prime minister Benazer Bhutto(1993-1996). The objective was to provide a relief to those women victims of violence who felt reluctant to approach the male dominated police stations with their complaints. These police stations were also assumed to treat the female accused according to the law and to avoid the custodial power associated with the policemen. Initially these police stations were established in the big city centres of Pakistan. The North-West Frontier Province, NWFP, a federating unit of Pakistan, has two women police stations, one each in its cities of Peshawar and Abbottabad. Till to date not even a single case has been registered in the women police station, Peshawar, since its establishment nine years ago, whereas about 500 cases have been registered in the women police station, Abbottabad, since its establishment in 1994. However, in August 2002, the women police station, Abbottabad, was ordered to stop registering any more complaints. This research mainly conducted on the women police station, Peshawar, has explored why women donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t register cases in it and what are the functions of this police station. A smaller part is also conducted on the women police station, Abbottabad, to make compression between the two police stations. The research findings show that the women police stations are misfits in the male-dominated police system of Pakistan. These police stations are not allowed to register and investigate cases. Most of the staff is untrained and some are even illiterate. They are without necessary infrastructure, i.e. transport, telephone etc. In Peshawar the policewomen are not even allowed to leave the door step of their police station without the permission of the senior male police officers. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Pakistan

Ref.71-2004

94


Tassew Erkyihun, Solomon Inflow forecasting and reservoir operation for Lake Tana, Ethiopia M.Sc. in Hydropower Development, NLH Subject code(s): 830 Construction technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Ethiopia is endowed with abundant water resources. A large number of rivers flowing on either side of the rift valley form a drainage network that covers most of the country. The total water resources of the country, coming from the 12 river basins, are estimated to be in the order of 112 billion meter cube per year. But the distribution of water in space and time is uneven. There is a wide range of annual rainfall all over the country. It varies from over 2700mm to less than 200mm in the low lands. Some parts of the country receive rainfall in one season while in others it is bimodal. The Central and Eastern highlands enjoy temperate climate, with mean annual temperature rarely exceeding 200C. The sparsely populated lowlands, on the other hand, typically have subtropical and tropical climates. The study area, Lake tana drainage basin, is located in the north western part of the country between latitudes 11°00’ to 12°45’ and longitudes between 36°48’ to 38°15’. The Lake is the source of a bay river, which is known internationally as the Blue Nile. It is one of the biggest rivers in the country. The Lake Tana catchment is about 15320km2. The area consists of numerous rivers/stream, which drains into the lake. There are four major rivers feeding the Lake throughout the year. The main purpose of this study is to establish the lake operation strategy. The operation of the lake is assisted by the lake inflow forecasting model. The model will provide the most likely reservoir inflow; thereby the optimum level of water usage is decided by the reservoir guide curve specification. To arrive at the optimum reservoir operation strategy, the present study follows the following logical steps. • • •

Hydrological investigation Inflow forecasting Reservoir operation

Author’s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.72-2004

95


Tran, Nhu Huy Single Porosity Model Simulation for Evaluation of Fracture Basement Rock Reservoir M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Vietnam

Ref.73-2004

96


Traore, Bourama The Gender Gap in Higher Education in Mali: Trends and Issues M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education, UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) This study aimed at exploring and examining the gender gap among students, faculty members and administrators in higher education in Mali both horizontally and vertically. In this study, I have used both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative methods were used in order to determine the extent to which the gender gap exists among students, faculty members and administrators in higher education in Mali. Although both methods were used, I emphasized on qualitative approaches. In addition to the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches, triangulation method was used. Forty interviews were taken, both individual and group discussions in order of men and women to get an understanding of why there are so few women representation in higher education in Mali. In order to better understand the causes of the gender gap in higher education in Mali, an attempt was made to that of the primary and secondary education. However, it is important to let the readers know that there is no separate school for boys and girls in Mali. The two major dimensions of the gender gap among students, faculty members and administrators in Mali that have been explored and examined during this study are: the horizontal and the vertical dimensions. Both horizontal and vertical dimension aspects were explored for male and female students. The horizontal aspects concerned the fields of study among male and female students and the vertical aspects concerned their advancement within their university studies. The study revealed that female students are under-represented both horizontally and vertically. Horizontally, the feminization of some fields of study such as humanities and medical sciences is visible in higher educational sector in Mali. This is certified by the statistical data through the study. Pattern appears in other African countries studied, with few exceptions such as Algeria. Looking at the vertical aspect of the gender gap among students, we also found that there are less female students at the higher level of study, for instance the postgraduate. The vertical aspect, rank and power differentials among faculty and administrators are taken into consideration in this study. I concentrated first on female faculty. In this aspect, female administrators are not only a minority, but also occupy lower positions in the university. The scarcity of females at higher positions at the University of Mali is also found in most of the African countries. The feminization of lower ranks in higher education seems to be universal. During this study, the problems faced by female students as well as faculty women in higher education Mali, have been explored through interviews and explained in relation to the theoretical perspective of the study. Lastly, the study provides some suggestions to diminish the gender gap in higher education in Mali. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Mali

Ref.74-2004

97


Truong, Tuan Anh Down-hole Oil/Water Gravity Slip Separator M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Vietnam

Ref.75-2004

98


Tsehaye Baratsion, Yemane Diversity of Ethiopian Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.) Gaertn. Part 1: Variability of Finger Millet: Characterisation of Ethiopia's national Ex situ Collections. Part 2: Ethnobotanical study of Finger Millet landraces in Tigray (Northern Ethiopia) M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) A total of 7792 finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) individual plants derived from 392 ex situ collections sampled from ten Ethiopian regions (former administration regions) were characterized for twelve quantitative and five qualitative morphological traits. At population level, the H’ value ranged from 0.08 (monomorphic) for finger branching to 0.93 (polymorphic) for seed colour. The highest mean diversity index ( ) pooled over traits was shown by populations from cluster 3 ( =0.80±0.05), while the lowest was from populations in cluster 7 ( =0.35±0.01). An increase in polymorphism from higher to lower altitude range was found for all the traits except seed colour showed the opposite. Much of the variation for most of the traits was found among populations between clusters, altitude range and year of collection that confirmed the existence of places with astonishing diversity in many geographical areas that could be selected as microcenters and as in situ conservation sites. The over all mean of the traits pooled over clusters in this study was =0.72±0.06. The grouping of the populations into ten clusters based on the quantitative traits and wide and significance distance (Mahalanobis’ distance) among clusters showed considerable genetic variability important for enhancement and improvement programmes of the crop. An ethnobotanical research was undertaken in the Tigray region, north Ethiopia, to explain the pattern of finger millet varietal diversity that exists in the area and document the associated indigenous knowledge. The region is one of the major finger millet growing areas in Ethiopia. For many crops including finger millet, Tigray is an important site from an archeobotanical point of view. Three zones (eastern, central and western zone of Tigray) were selected as representative of the finger millet growing areas in the region and a total of 14 districts (‘Woreda’) and five villages from each Woreda were surveyed to include the greatest possible variation in agroecosystems and environment. Thirtyseven named local varieties (farmer’s varieties) of finger millet were recorded. The diversity is reflected in a multiplicity of local names. Farmers in Tigray undertake pre and post harvest selection in finger millet and sometimes they also select seeds from storage based on a number of attributes. The finger millet production system in this region is totally traditional and is a de facto in situ conservation portfolio. The traditional management of finger millet in the entire study area is generally found to be demand driven, showing the existence of potential sites for on-farm conservation. Possible intervention strategies for in situ conservation are discussed in this paper. The high morphological diversity found in the gene bank collections of Tigrayan origin also reveals the importance of linking ex situ with in situ conservation activities. This also supports the view that farmers keep diversity as a way to ensure harvest security or stability of production, to promote diversity of diet and income sources, minimize risk, reduce insect and disease incidences and ensure efficient use of labour and the like. The enhancement and conservation significance of the crop is discussed. Author’s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.76-2004

99


Tshering, Karma Opinions of the Teachers in Trashigang District of Bhutan on Inclusive Education M.Phil. in Special Needs Education (MPSNE), UiO Subject code(s): 280 Education Special Education Educational Science Didactics Teacher Training Distance Learning Abstract: (maximum 450 words) The present study explored teacher’s opinions about inclusion of students with disabilities and special needs in to regular local schools, and factors that influenced such opinions. As Bhutan has recently embarked and is committed to diversifying education system so that children with disabilities and with special needs will also be able to access and benefit from education. They will, to the extent possible, be able to attend a local school together with their non-disabled peers. The fact that most of the teachers in Bhutan are not trained in this field, education has set a vision and objective to re-orient the teacher training in future. As such, it was interesting to survey the teachers’ opinions as well as their understanding of the relevant concepts. The findings could be a starting point to achieve this objective of educating teachers. It is my assumption that teachers’ understanding and acceptance of the policy and philosophy of inclusive education is a significant predictors of the degree to which they carry out ‘inclusive practices’ and the out comes of such practices. The sample consists of 100 teachers in nine different schools- 4 primary, 2 lower secondary, 1 middle secondary, 1 higher secondary and an institute in Trashigang, an Eastern District of Bhutan. Survey was the main design, where questionnaires were the main instrument supplemented by semistructured interviews of selected respondents. 46 % of the teachers had experience of teaching students with disabilities in their class up to 2003. Even though, in general 90 % of the teachers feel that it is the right of every child (including with disability) to attend school in their home community, yet only 55 % of them support the idea of educating children with disability in the local schools, along with their non-disabled peers in the same classroom. 64 % of them say they are not clear about the meaning of the concept of ‘inclusive education’ and 56 % say the same for integrated education. Many confuse ‘subject integration’ and ‘wholesome education’ with these two concepts. 70 % of them expressed the need to acquire skills and knowledge on Special Needs Education that could empower them as teachers. Further, 58 % of the teachers prefer a model, where children with disabilities learn some lessons in the regular classroom as well as some in special classes. 72 % of my respondents are of the opinion that there is still the need to raising public awareness regarding the education of children with disability. The focus of teachers’ suggestions were on building their own competence by acquiring more knowledge and skills, which could empower them as teachers to help their students better in the inclusive setting. Author’s nationality: Bhutan

Ref.77-2004

100


Vu, Van Thi Khanh Phenotypic Characterization of Ex-situ Live Animal Conservation of some Indigenous Chicken Breeds in Vietnam M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s): 250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Finding a suitable chick stock to thrive well under existing natural hazards in rural areas is a necessity. There is a considerable opportunity to utilize the genetic variability that exists among indigenous stocks, in particular, the meat producing breed (Mia breed), dual production breed (Ri breed), and medicinal purpose breeds (Ac and H’mong breeds) that are better able to survive under the prevailing conditions and with the ability to produce increased meat and eggs. Data were collected as individuals and population means from Ac, H’mong, Ri and Mia breeds as live animals conserved at the National Institute of Animal Husbandry (NIAH), Hanoi, Vietnam in the years 2002 and 2003. The objective of this study was to identify phenotypic characteristics and investigate the possibilities of conserving those breeds as live animals at NIAH. The results obtained revealed that the mortality rate of Ac, H’mong, Ri an Mia breeds was low, and thus these breeds can be adapted in conserved conditions at NIAH. The results of productive performance showed males with higher body weights and body measurements than females. The Ac breeds had lower body weight, while the Mia breed had the greatest. It is expressed that the wide chest in the Mia breed as an important characteristic for meat production. The coefficient of variance (CV values) was relatively high in H’mong breed, compared to the others. This suggest that the H’mong breed may need more time in order to adapt and express their genetic potential in a new conservation environment. The Ac and Ri breeds were fed ad libitum with the same diet. The results showed that a good slaughtering time should be at week 8 and week 9. Among carcass characteristics, the dressing percentage of Ac breed was less than of Ri breed. In contrast, the percentages of breast meat of Ac breed were higher compared to Ri breed. The feed conversion per kg gain of the Mia breed was lower than of the other breeds. The Ac breed had an advantage over the Ri breed in terms of meat quality traits such as high protein as well as fat content. Regarding the results of reproductive performance, the Ac breed showed the earliest sexual maturity, while latest in Mia breeds. The hatchability rate was very low in Ac and H’mong breeds. The egg parameters of Ac and H’mong breeds are less favourable for hatching eggs than Ri and Mia breeds. In conclusion, those breeds can be conserved at NIAH as nucleus herds for crossbreeding or transfer of successive generations for medicinal purpose in mass production. Author’s nationality: Vietnam

Ref.78-2004

101


Yimer, Solomon Abebe Patients' and Health Systems' Delay in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia M.Phil. in International Community Health, UiO Subject code(s): 700 Public Health Preventive Health Community and Primary Health Care Health Information and Administration Nursing and Nursing Science Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) causes more severe illness, more complication and an increased period of infectivity in the community. A study in Amhara region, North West Ethiopia in 2001 showed that, among those who had history of cough of more than 3 weeks, only 30% visited the formal health care facilities. We hypothesized that there was a significant patients’ and health systems’ delay in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in Amhara region, and this study was conducted to test our hypothesis. Objectives: To determine and analyze the length and associated risk factors of patients’ and health systems’ delay among new smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Within the setting of health centres and hospitals in Amhara region, we conducted a crosssectional study from September 1 - December 31/2003. A total of 384 new smear positive pulmonary TB patients participated in the study. Patients were interviewed on the same date of the diagnosis using a semi-structured questionnaire. Result: The median total delay was 80 days (IQR 44-130 days) and the median patients’ delay was 30 days (IQR 15-90 days). Forty eight percent of the subjects delayed for more than one month. The median health providers’ and health systems’ delays were 61 and 21 days, respectively. In logistics regression analysis, home distance >10 Km to a medical provider (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 3.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.21-6.57) and self-treatment (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86-6.57) were associated with patients’ delay. Prior attendance to a health post/clinic (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 3.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86-6.57) and consulting private medical providers (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-3.71) were associated with health systems’ delay. Conclusion: Delay in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB is unacceptably high in Amhara region. The delay is primarily related to the health providers. To reduce delays, due emphasis should be given to increasing public awareness of the disease and encouraging a dialogue among all health providers. Besides these, further decentralization of DOTS to the periphery, and training of health workers at all levels of health care to maintain high index of suspicion are imperative interventions. Author’s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.79-2004

102


Zeru, Daniel Maekele Livelihood Reconstruction and its challenges, Batticaloa: Sri Lanka M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture, NLH Subject code(s):250 - Anthropology, Development Studies, Political Science; 290 - Geography, Resource and Environment; 540 - Botany, Ecology, Environmental Sciences; 910 - Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Forestry, Soil and Water, Resource Management, Nutrition, Food Sciences Abstract: (maximum 450 words) After 20 years of ethnic conflict in North-East of Sri Lanka, the people have enjoyed only two years of peace since peace agreement signed in February 2002. In this short peaceful interval tremendous efforts were deployed to rebuild the material infrastructure that was to a great extent destroyed and to rehabilitate the livelihood of the war-affected people in North-East of Sri Lanka. It would be important to know whether the rehabilitation and resettlement program has actually improved the livelihoods of the war-affected people. The present study was carried out with the aim of assessing the livelihood assets, vulnerability context and livelihood strategies within the existing framework of policies and processes in four study villages in Batticaloa district. The study conceptualization, data collection and analysis have been guided by the sustainable livelihood framework (DFID 1999). Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from seventy-five households consisting of Tamil and Muslim communities in cleared and uncleared areas. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data. It was supplemented and verified from informants, field observation and secondary sources. The study revealed that the livelihood outcomes differed considerably depending on their location, length of displacement and relations between communities and with the government. The location is essential for the households and individuals to normalize and even expand their livelihood options in stable environments. At the same time, the trust or linkage with the power holders provides opportunities for the government to assist the victims to regain and restore their livelihood. The social disruption caused by warfare affects the coherent relations between communities developed in peacetime and the cooperation between households to link livelihoods. Prolonged displacements have also constituted to affected peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to earn and diversify their livelihood. They have delays in implementing rehabilitation and resettlement program. This study concluded that in order to achieve sustainable livelihoods, the rehabilitation program must enable reconciliation of communities and the donors should come with integrated framework to assist the victims with the lacked resources. Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Eritrea

Ref.80-2004

103


Zewdie, Getahun Mengistu Numerical Modelling of Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Wells M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience, NTNU Subject code(s): 810 - Petroleum Technology Abstract: (maximum 450 words) Authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nationality: Ethiopia

Ref.81-2004

104


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This publication is compiled by The Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Higher Education (SIU) Editor-in-Chief: Bjørn Sandnes Print: Netprint Bergen Circulation: 150 Published July 2005 Also available for download in the pdf-format from SIU’s website at www.siu.no

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Postal address: Visiting address: Telephone: Fax: Email: Internet:

P.O. Box 7800, 5020 Bergen, Norway Vaskerelven 39, 5020 Bergen +47 55 30 88 00 +47 55 30 88 01 siu@siu.no www.siu.no/norad


http://new.siu.no/nor/content/download/970/9813/file/norad_fellowship_bibliography2004_web