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Social Exclusion Field Research

TEKVAR LIMITED


Theme: seven categories of outcome • Attainment – curriculum-based or measures of basic competence in the workplace • Understanding - of ideas, concepts, processes • Cognitive and creative – imaginative construction of meaning, arts or performance • Use – how to practice, manipulate, behave, engage in process or systems • Higher order learning – advanced thinking, reasoning, metacognition • Disposition – attitudes, perceptions, motivations • Membership, inclusion, self-worth


THEME: TWO METAPHORS OF LEARNING (SFARD, 1998) Acquisition Participation Individual enrichment

Goal of learning

Community building

Acquisition of something

Learning

Becoming a participant

Recipient (consumer), (re) constructor Provider, facilitator, mediator Property, possession, commodity Having, possessing

Student

Peripheral participant, apprentice Expert participant, preserver of practice Aspect of practice/discourse Belonging, participating, communicating

Teacher Knowledge, concept

Knowing


Lifelong learning in society


IMPACT: PERSONALISED LEARNING “This

is what I mean by ‘Personalised Learning’. High expectation of every child, given practical form by high quality teaching based on a sound knowledge and understanding of each child’s needs.

It

can only be developed school by school. It cannot be imposed from above.” David

Miliband, North of England Education Conference, January 2004


Socially Perceived Necessities in Japan The 2003 Necessities -1350 Response/2000 % OF SUPPORT FOR ITEMS %answering "Definitely " wtd Items Multiple bedrooms (for families larger than a couple) Celebrating a birthday Pocket money Bicycle (or tricycle) Mobile phone (incl. PHS)

Items

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

T o be able t o se e a do c t o r To be a bl e to s ee a denti s t Tel ephone Pens i on premi ums to prepa re f or reti rement Ins ura nce f or dea th, a cci dents , i l l nes s , etc. E duca ti on upto H i g h s chool l ev el F a mi l y 's ow n ba th ( i nc. s how er) H ea ters /Cool ers ( a i r condi ti oner etc.) B ook s , ma g a zi nes f or chi l dren F a mi l y 's ow n toi l et F a mi l y 's ow n k i tchen H ot w a ter hea ter ( f or k i tchen a nd w a s h ba s i n) A ttendi ng rel a ti v e's w eddi ng s , f unera l s , etc. ( i ncl udi ng g i v i ng g i f ts ) Mi cro-w a v e ov en Tra ns porta ti on cos t to s ee f ri ends , f a mi l y , rel a ti v es . N ew underw ea r a t l ea s t once a y ea r Sepa ra te bedroom f rom the l i v i ng s pa ce Pa rents pa rti ci pa ti ng s chool ev ent To be a bl e to s a v e ev ery months ev en a l i ttl e Speci a l s ui ts f or occa s i ons ( f unera l s , w eddi ng s , etc.)

Suits for work and interviews

88.6% 86.8% 86.6% 74.0% 71.9% 71.7% 67.1% 66.9% 66.8% 65.8% 64.9% 64.5% 58.5% 57.9% 57.8% 57.5% 56.9% 55.8% 54.4% 50.3% 49.5%

22 23 24 25 26 27 New Year's celebration(such as Osechi - a special meal for the new year's day)

28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Xmas present Child's own room Education upto University or Junior university Fruits at least once a day Socializing with others through sports, hobbies Video player New clothes and shoes every year (not a second-hand)

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Toys such as sports equipment and games Participating neighborhood clubs, child clubs, Eating out 2,3 times a month Lessons (hobby, sports, etc.) Family trip of more than 1 night at least once a year Access to the internet Juku (private tutoring classes) Walkman, CD/MD Player, etc.

48.1% 47.2% 45.8% 44.7% 40.7% 35.7% 33.9% 33.7% 33.7% 33.6% 33.4% 31.5% 28.4% 26.1% 23.5% 22.6% 21.9% 20.8% 18.9% 16.2% 14.7%


% THOSE WHO THINK THE ITEM IS ESSENTIAL Item

JAPAN

UK

Toys (that most of other kids have, such as dolls, blocks, soccer ball, baseball etc.)

12.4%

84%*

Bicycle (including second-hand)

20.9%

55%

At least one pair of shoes (not secondhand)

40.2%

94%

Clothes (not second-had)

33.7%

70%

Own books

51.2%

89%

86.1%

Australia 94.7%**

To be able to go to dentists (including check-ups)

* UK question: “Toys (e.g. dolls, teddies) ** Australia : Community Understanding of Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey 2006 in Saunders et al. (2007) Data: Japan Child Necessity Survey 2008 in Abe (2008), UK Office for National Statistics Omnibus Survey 1999, in Gordon et al. (2000)


Japan -2003 Table 1

Socially Perceived Necessities and Their Diffusion Rate Socially Perceived Item Diffusion Rate

Household Durables

Social Activities

Social Security

Housing Conditions

Deprivation rate

Microwave oven

98.4%

1.6%

Heating and cooling equipment (air conditioners, gas or electric heaters, kotatsu, etc.)

99.1%

0.9%

Water heating equipment

96.4%

3.6%

Attending family and relative's wedding/funerals/etc. (including travel and gift expenses)

97.2%

2.8%

Telephone Attire for special occasions (reifuku) New underwear more than once a year

97.9% 97.2% 92.2%

2.1% 2.8% 7.8%

Being able to go to a doctor when needed

98.2%

1.8%

Being able to go to a dentist when needed

97.2%

2.8%

Being able to enrol in life, disability or sickness insurance

91.9%

8.1%

Being able to save for old age Being able to save money every month

93.9% 75.0%

6.1% 25.0%

Have a toilet for the family's own use (not shared with other dwellings)

98.8%

1.2%

Have a kitchen for the family's own use (not shared with other dwellings)

98.9%

1.1%

Have a bathroom for the family's own use (not shared with other dwellings)

97.8%

2.2%

Have a bedroom different from living (eating) room

95.0%

5.0%

*Diffusion rate = the rate of those possessing the item among the entire sample minus those who do not want to possess the item * Deprivation rate = 100% - Diffusion rate


• Setting personal targets •Effective feedback to the learner • Effective use of data to plan learning •Improved transition and transfer •Peer and self-assessment •Pedagogy •Parental involvement

•Business partnerships •Networks and collaborations

Elements of personalised learning

•Wider teaching repertoire •Lessons in learning •ICT across the curriculum

Assessment for learning

•Learning in community Beyond the context classroom •Co-ordinated services in/out of the schools to support the whole child

•Interactive, inclusive teaching programmes

Teaching, learning & ICT

Personalised Learning (PL)

School as learning organisation

•Mentoring strategies

•Pupil choice for in depth study and learnings Curriculum •Models and materials for entitlement catch-up and extension •Creating time for tailored & choice curriculum

•Leadership and management focus on teaching and learning •Workforce organised appropriately •Buildings facilitate PL •Clear behaviour and attendance policies

•Flexibility leading to relevant qualifications for all •Guaranteed core curriculum

TLRP(Teaching Learning research program),Presentation to Prime Minister’s Delivery Unit, April 2004


10 principles of learning and teaching TLRP


POVERTY RATES OF OECD COUNTRIES(MID 2000S) Poverty Rates of OECVD Countries (Mid 2000s) : Income measure

Data: OECD(2008) Growing Unequal?


8 DIMENSIONS CHOSEN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

(lack of ) basic human needs, material deprivation, exclusion from systems and services, (lack of) leisure and social participation, inadequate housing, (lack of ) social relation, subjective poverty, and income poverty


PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT: 1.

Early user engagement

2.

Knowledge generation by project teams

3.

Knowledge synthesis by thematic work

4.

Knowledge transformation for impact

5.

Capacity building for professional development

6.

Partnerships for sustainability


CONEQUENCES: Lack of education

Unemployment

Lack of health and social protection

Unilegal work (deliquent behavior)

Social exclusion Factors and Consequences of Social Exclusion of Children in Macedonia


METHODOLOGY:DEFINING ESSENTIALS AND IDENTIFYING WHO IS DEPRIVED Is it essential?

Do you have it?

Yes

Yes

No

No

Do not want it

Cannot afford it


SOCIALLY BASED INCLUSIONARY TACTICS

Nine Educational Domains of Accommodation 1. Size 2. Time

3. Level of Support 4. Input 5. Difficulty 6. Output 7. Participation 8. Alternate 9. Substitute Curriculum

Adapted from Adapting Curriculum and Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms: A Teacher's Desk Reference, by Deschenes, C., Ebeling, D., and Sprague, J., 1994. 16


SOCIAL NARRATIVES AND OTHER TECHNIQUES Understanding non-verbal cues

Seek… to understand all aspects of the hidden curriculum

Observe… what people are doing and NOT doing Listen… to what people are saying and NOT saying Vocalize… questions and check for understanding Educate… teach and learn… knowledge is power Adapted from Myles, B., Trautman, M., & Schelvan, R. (2004). The hidden curriculum: Practical solutions for understanding unstated rules in social situations. Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Company.

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Principles of indicator design Principles for individual indicators: an indicator should 1. Identify the essence of the problem and have a clear normative interpretation; 2. Be robust and statistically validated;

3. Be responsive to effective policy interventions but not subject to manipulation; 4. Be measurable in a way that is comparable across countries (EU and globally); 5. Be comparable over time and available on a timely basis; 6. Not impose too great a burden on statistical offices and respondents.

Principles for portfolio of indicators: 1. The portfolio should be balanced across dimensions 2. The indicators should be mutually consistent; 3. The weight of each component should be proportionate; 4. The portfolio as a whole should be as transparent as possible.

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Developments in indicators since 2001: Introduction of an indicator of material deprivation. Material deprivation 2008 60

50

40

30

20

10

Material deprivation defined as enforced lack of at least 3 out of 9 specified items

G B

O R

U H

LV

PL

S O

SK

LT

PT

Y C

EL

27

SI

EU

IT

Z C

IE

E D

T M

FR

EE

E B

K U

ES

FI

SE

L N

LU

0


E arly s c hool leaving E U 2008: % of population ag ed 18-24 with at mos t lower s ec ondary educ ation and not in further educ ation or training 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

M T

PT

IT ES

EL B EU G 27 LV R EU O 15 U K

Y EE

C

LU

E B

IE N L D K H U D E FR

FI O S SE

LT

SI C Z SK

PL

0


DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL INCLUSION 

‘belonging’ v. ‘connectedness’ (Crisp 2010)  belonging involves becoming an insider within a group, organisation or a somewhat less structured network of people with common attributes or beliefs (i.e. community of practice) 

connectedness relates more to participation in societal organisations or social networks

While network diagrams may show patterns of connectedness, belonging is more nuanced.  ‘Belonging’ has identity implications and needs discursive analysis to tease out. Social inclusion policy may attempt to enhance connectedness, but belonging is beyond top down approaches, and relies on situated engagement through language.


What do people mean when they say ‘social exclusion’? ‘you

could be forgiven for thinking that social exclusion is what happens to people who nobody will talk to at parties’. (ABC, Background Briefing 1999) a concept that is used in many parts of the world… to characterize contemporary forms of social disadvantage (wikipedia entry)


BUGÜN NEREDEYIZ 

 

Türkiye’de en zengin %20’lik grubun yıllık gelirden aldığı pay, en yoksul %20’nin aldığı payın 7,28 katı. Aynı oran AB-25 ortalamasında 4,6. Türkiye Meksika’dan sonra en kötü gelir dağılımına sahip ülke. Sosyal yardım programlarının iyileştirici etkisi AB ülkelerine kıyasla çok düşük. Sosyal yardımlar TR’de nüfusun %5’ini yoksulluk riskinden kurtarıyor. Aynı oran Polonya’da %14.


BUGÜN NEREDEYIZ 

 

Yoksulların istihdama katılmaları ile birlikte yoksulluktan kurtulacakları, çalışan yoksulluğu gerçeğini görmüyor. 2003 verilerine göre çalışan nüfusun %23’ü, kendi hesabına çalışan nüfusun %27’si yoksuldur. Sosyal yardım politikalarının sadece çalışamayan yoksulları hedeflemesi, sosyal transferlerin etkinliğini azaltıyor.


BUGÜN NEREDEYIZ 

  

Çocuk yoksulluğuyla mücadele politikaları yetersiz. Yaşlı bakım hizmetleri alanında ciddi bir politika eksikliği sözkonusu. Sosyal yardımlar bütüncül bir yaklaşımla yürütülmüyor; kurumsal parçalanmışlık ve çok başlılık hakim. Sosyal yardımların bir “hak” olarak tanımlanmamış olması, siyasi sonuçlara ve keyfiliğe yol açıyor.


KEY CONCEPTS (1)

 Social exclusion

The process by which an individual or group is denied of access to the opportunity of participating in the social and political life of the community, resulting not only in diminished material and nonmaterial quality of life, but also in tempered life chances, choices and reduced citizenship. (Source: based on Kenyon et al., 2002)


KEY CONCEPTS (2) Dimensions of social exclusion

(Source: Kenyon et al., 2002)


KEY CONCEPTS (3) Dimensions of social exclusion cont’d


EU social protection and inclusion strategy Overarching Objectives

• social cohesion, equality between men and women and equal opportunities for all through adequate, accessible, financially sustainable, adaptable and efficient social protection systems and social inclusion policies.

• effective and mutual interaction between the Lisbon objectives of greater economic growth, more and better jobs and greater social cohesion, and with the EU's Sustainable Development Strategy. • good governance, transparency and the involvement of stakeholders in the design, implementation and monitoring of policy


The 2006 Social Inclusion Objectives Making a decisive impact on the eradication of poverty and social exclusion by ensuring: • access for all to the resources, rights and services needed for participation in society, addressing exclusion, and fighting all forms of discrimination • the active social inclusion of all, both by promoting participation in the labour market and by fighting poverty and exclusion • that social inclusion policies are well coordinated and involve all levels of government and relevant actors, including people experiencing poverty, that they are efficient and effective and mainstreamed into all relevant public policies


Europe 2020 ’Smart, sustainable and inclusive growth’ http://ec.europa.eu/eu2020/index_en.htm

7 EU ’flagship initiatives’

• Smart: innovation, youth on the move digital agenda • Sustainable: resource efficiency, competitiveness • Inclusive: new skills and jobs, ’European Platform against Poverty’ 31


Europe 2020 The 5 EU headline targets • 75 % of aged 20-64 employed • 3% of EU's GDP invested in R&D • 20/20/20 climate /energy targets • Early school leavers down to 10% and 30-34 with tertiary education up to 40%

• Lifting 20 million people out of poverty and exclusion

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ORIGIN AND CONCEPT OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION  

 

Concept developed by French sociologists in 1970s Duffy 1995:‘inability to participate effectively in economic, social, and cultural life and, in some characteristics, alienation and distance from mainstream society (Duffy, 1995).’ Room (1995) ‘denial or non-realisation of civil, political, and social rights of citizenship.’ Many different conceptualisations. Amsterdam Treaty, Lisbon Agenda of EU: combat social exclusion and promote social cohesion.


DIFFERENCE TO INCOME POVERTY 

Dynamic (?), relative, outcome-based  Focusing on participation and interaction with society  Legal issues important (e.g. citizenship rights, anti-discrimination)  Employment opportunities important  Spatial issues important (access to goods/services)


RELATION TO CAPABILITY APPROACH   

Focus on ends, allows for heterogeneity in ability to translate incomes into ‚inclusion‘ (analogy to disability) Close relationship to ‚rights-based‘ approaches to development (‚inclusion‘ a freedom/right) Social Exclusion as particular capability-failure: Klasen (2001): Failure to have ‚ability to be integrated into the community, participate in community and public life, and enjoy social bases of self-respect.’ Social exclusion as multidimensional capability failure (Bossert, D’Ambrosio and Peragine, 2006)


Operationalising Social Exclusion: Three Examples  Atkinson (2002) for EU Lisbon Agenda: Indicators for Monitoring Social Cohesion.  Klasen (2001): Focusing on particular capability failure.  Bossert et al (2006): Social Exclusion as chronic deprivation.


EUROPEAN PLATFORM AGAINST POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION ďƒ’

Adopted on December 17, 2010 ďƒ’ To support concrete and innovative actions and a broader involvement of stakeholders Four main pillars: 1. Stepping-up Member States coordination to address common challenges 2. Promoting effective partnerships and the social economy 3. The fight against poverty beyond social policy 4. Community Funding in support of social inclusion 37


THE NARRATIVE METHOD    

Nussbaum (2005) considers emotions as “intelligent responses to the perception of value”. Emotions are about something, they have an intentional object, and a narrative structure. To understand emotional failure, it is necessary to reconstruct personal stories (Nussbaum 2005). To revert emotional failure it is necessary to re-tell personal stories (Burstin & Modzelewski 2009)


WHAT SOCIAL FACTORS PROMOTES   

   

INCLUSION

Learning how to interact with peers Playing cooperatively Taking turns Dealing with anger Following directions Listening quietly, staying on task Generally behaving appropriately. 39


COMMON PROBLEMS EFFECTING SOCIAL INCLUSION 

Teacher assistant trying “too hard.”

Peers do not know what to do

Activity inappropriate for child with disabilities Peers assigned as tutors, not friends 40


BARRIERS TO SOCIAL INCLUSION 

Attitudes of Peers Without Disabilities

Attitudes of General Physical Educators

Attitudes of Paraprofessionals

Attitudes of Administrators 41


THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EDUCATION AND IT’S ROLE IN RECOVERY Lloyd & Waghorn (2007): “the timing of illness onset can disrupt formal education and training, impede school-to-work transitions and damage the early stages of the career path formation and acquisition of work values, work ethics and core work skills.”


THINGS A GPE TEACHER CAN DO TO FACILITATE SOCIAL INCLUSION 

Have a positive attitude  Be the teacher for all students in your general education classes  Model appropriate behavior  Include the child in as many activities possible  Reinforce positive interactions  Be knowledgeable about the child 43


The OECD report (Field, Kuczera & Pont 2007) Ten key steps to equity in education: Step1: Limit early tracking and streaming and postpone academic selection Step 2: Manage school choice so as to contain the risks to equity Step 3: In upper secondary education, provide attractive alternatives, remove dead ends and prevent dropout Step 4: Offer second chances to gain from education Step 5: Identify and provide systematic help to those who fall behind at school and reduce high rates of school-year repetition Step 6: Strengthen the links between school and home to help disadvantaged parents help their children to learn Step 7: Respond to diversity and provide for the successful inclusion of migrants and minorities within mainstream education Step 8: Provide strong education for all, giving priority to early childhood provision and basic schooling Step 9: Direct resources to students and regions with the greatest needs Step 10: Set concrete targets for more equity – particularly related to low school attainment and dropout


Downes (2011): Lithuania: The secondary education system in Lithuania according to the school management: The attitudes to ards stude ts ha e to ha ge a d the they ill feel etter at s hools. [...] at the

o e t stude ts are sele ted u der the riteria good a d

ad a d those ho get

the ad la el do ot a t to stay at su h s hool – they lea e it (Taljunaite et al 2010)

Downes (2011): Slovenia: You see that he eeds help, he eeds a ha d…, a talk…ho e er... If there ere a y o e to talk to. … A si gle tea her 2010).

ay retai a pupil i s hool a d this ofte happe s (I a čič et al.,


Key results observed in TALIS (OECD 2009) include that: One teacher in four in most countries loses at least 30% of the lesson time, and some lose more than half, in disruptions and administrative tasks – and this is closely associated with classroom disciplinary climate, which varies more among individual teachers than among schools


US and Australian adolescents cite a sense of isolation and lack of personally meaningful relationships at school as significant contributors to academic failure and to their decisions to drop out of school (Wehlage & Rutter 1986; Hodgson 2007; McIntyre-Mills 2010). Power (2006), Meier (1992) and Kuperminc et al. (1997) cite personalized, caring relationships with teachers as a prerequisite for high school-level reform - to a oid stude ts e o i g eased out S yth & Hatta 4 of school.


Wider referral processes – reach withdrawn kids (Doll 1996; Downes 2004): Downes 4 ei g ig ored e ause your head is do orki g is like a slap i the fa e Downes & Maunsell (2007): 

Why do you thi k so e people are dyi g ? Be ause there is o o e to talk to

-

- girls slit their rists

- girls take ta lets a d sli e their rists

- girls sleepi g arou d to hurt the sel es, other ays i stead of slitti g rists

e should do

ore perso al de elop e t


Early school leaving is a mental health issue ! 

Kapla et al s 994 North A eri a study of 4, 4 you g people tested i 7th grade and once again as young adults which found a significant damaging effect of dropping out of high school on mental health functioning as measured by a 10item self-derogation scale, a 9-item anxiety scale, a 6-item depression scale and a 6-item scale designed to measure coping. This effect was also evident when controls were applied for psychological mental health as measured at 7th grade. The significant damaging effect of dropping out of s hool as also e ide t e e he o trols ere applied for ge der, father s occupational status, and ethnicity Though early school leaving can have different effects across countries (Van Alphen 2009)


THEMES 1-4: A COMMON SOLUTION Emotional support services as part of a multidisciplinary team Downes (2011): Slovenia: The school has established a school counselling service which is funded by the Ministry of Education and Sport and regulated by the law on Organisation and Financing of Education, article 66, item 3 (Official Gazette, 98/2005, 07.11.2005). This is typical for Slovenian education system. Main tasks include: 

various prevention activities related to drug abuse, aggressive behaviour; workshops on questions regarding sexuality,

workshops on independent learning and learning how to learn,

counselling on personal and social development,

dealing with social issues of pupils and with other problems related to learning, discipline etc.,

preparation of adjusted programmes for pupils with special needs and monitoring of progressio , ou selli g a d pro isio of help he

eeded I a čič et al.,

.


CONCLUSIONS Conflict resolution skills for teachers, Bullying prevention strategies, Emotional Trauma supports, Alternatives to suspension, Substance abuse prevention = A common solution-focused approach of multidisciplinary team, community based and working across schools


PARENTING MEDIATES THE EFFECT OF POVERTY THE EVIDENCE…

     

Promiscuous sex and teenage pregnancy (Scaramella et al., 1998)

Healthy eating (Kremers et al., 2003) Smoking (Cohen et al., 1994) Alcohol misuse (Garnier et al., 1998; Egland et al., 1997) Educational achievement; School drop-out (Desforges, 2003)

Behaviour problems, delinquency, criminality, violence (Patterson et al., 1989; Farrington, 2003)

Drug and Mental and physical health in adulthood (Stewart-brown and Shaw, 2004)


PARENTING AND LATER OUTCOMES Attachment Mental health Education Poverty Unemployment Etc

Smoking/drugs

Self-esteem

Behaviour

Parenting

Promiscuity School failure

Emotional Regulation Relationships Communication

Delinquency Obesity


PARENTING IS SOCIALLY PATTERNED  

  

Child abuse higher where there is social deprivation Lower SES parents more likely to use physical punishment and other authoritarian methods

Maternal depression nearly twice as high among mothers living in poverty Parenting attitudes – lower SES parents value conformity and higher SES parents value self-direction Lower SES less likely to use to use positive methods of parenting


UNSUPPORTIVE PARENTING IS COMMON ďƒ’

ďƒ’

Approaches to discipline - 52% of population sample of parents hit/smacked children under 1 year at least one a week (Nobes and smith, 1997) Communication with/closeness to teenagers - half of adolescents do not think they can confide in their parents; Substantial minority do not feel loved or cared for (NFPI, 2000)


ATTRACTION AND EXCLUSION   

Attraction  Anything

that draws two or more people together

Social acceptance  People

like you and include you in their groups

Rejection (Social exclusion)  People

exclude you from their groups


THE NEED TO BELONG 

Need to belong is powerful drive within human psyche  Form

and maintain close lasting relationships

People usually form relationships easily  People are reluctant to end relationships


THE NEED TO BELONG 

Two ingredients to belongingness  Regular

social contact with others  Close, stable, mutually intimate contact

Having one without the other = partial satisfaction


NOT BELONGING IS BAD FOR YOU 

Failure to satisfy a need to belong leads to significant health problems  Death

rates are higher among people without social connections  People without a good social network have more physical and mental health problems


ATTRACTION: SOCIAL REWARDS 

Reinforcement theory  Behaviors

reinforced will be repeated  In attraction, people like those who are rewarding to them 

Interpersonal rewards  Do

favors for someone  Praise someone


REJECTION  

Ostracism  Being

excluded, rejected, and ignored

Effects of rejection  Inner

states are almost uniformly negative


REJECTION 

Rejection sensitivity  Expect

rejection and become hypersensitive to possible rejection

“You hurt my feelings” = “You don’t care about the relationship”  Implicit

message of rejection


REJECTION 

Extent of hurt feelings is based on  Importance

of relationship  How clear a sign of rejection you receive

Initial reaction to rejection – numbness  Interferes

with psychological and cognitive functioning


BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF REJECTION 

Show decreases in intelligent thought  Approach new interactions with skepticism  Typically less generous, less cooperative, less helpful  More willing to cheat or break rules  Act shortsighted, impulsive, self-destructive


BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF REJECTION 

Repeated rejection can create aggression  Aggression can lead to rejection  Common theme in school shootings is social exclusion


LONELINESS  

Painful feeling of wanting more human contact  Quantity

or quality of relationships

Little difference between lonely and unlonely  Lonely

have more difficulty understanding emotional states of others

Loneliness is bad for physical health


WHAT LEADS TO SOCIAL REJECTION? 

Children are rejected by peers  Because

they are aggressive  Because they withdraw from contact  Because they are different in some way

Adults are most often rejected for being different


WHAT LEADS TO SOCIAL REJECTION? 

Adults are most often rejected for being different from the rest of the group  Groups

reject insiders more than outsiders for the same degree of deviance  Deviance within the group threatens the group’s unity


WHAT LEADS TO SOCIAL REJECTION? 

Bad apple effect  One

person who breaks the rules may inspire others to do the same

Threat of rejection influences good behavior


ROMANTIC REJECTION AND UNREQUITED LOVE 

Attribution theory and women refusing dates  Privately

held reasons were internal to the man, stable and global  Reasons told the man were external, unstable and specific  These

reasons encourage asking again


ROMANTIC REJECTION AND UNREQUITED LOVE 

Unrequited Love  Men

are more often rejected lover; women do the rejecting more often

Stalking  Women

are more often stalked


ACCESS TO EDUCATION 

Dalit parents are not welcomed to the schools  Several prejudices and biases against Dalit community continue to be practiced  Discriminatory attitudes, body languages, approaches of teachers  Mid-day meal and untouchability practices  Economic issues and efforts to resolve it.  Denial of admission on various gr0unds


RETENTION IN SCHOOL 

Segregation in sitting arrangements  Children being asked to perform tasks traditionally done by Dalits (eg: sweeping the school grounds, classrooms, bringing water for teachers etc.)  In most of the classroom situations, Dalit children sit on the back seats  In many states the reports of untouchability in drinking water and mid day meal scheme have been documented


EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING

BoysTown’s experience indicates that reasons for early school leaving include factors such as:   

personal circumstances, e.g. lack of family support, unstable accommodation, physical/mental health problems; literacy, numeracy and comprehension problems or undiagnosed learning disorders; a mismatch between mainstream school settings and individual learning style preferences; resulting low self-esteem and lack of confidence, leading to behavioural problems, truancy, absenteeism, substance abuse and anti-social behaviour.

74


LEARNINGS FROM BOYSTOWN’S EXPERIENCE

BT’s approach to helping young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to re-engage in learning, involves a combination of:       

individual assessment and case management; personal support from an Indigenous mentor; remedial language, literacy and numeracy tutoring; personal development and cultural awareness programs, in partnership with the local Indigenous community; social development through arts and sports programs; project-based, experiential learning; and on-the-job training in real work settings.

Essential to work in close partnership with the local Indigenous community. 75


WHAT WORKS – PRACTICAL, EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING OPTIONS 

Significant evidence about the value of providing experiential, project-based learning options, coupled with individual case management and mentoring support.

Example - school-based apprenticeships & traineeships (SATs), supported through targeted learning assistance and mentoring. Example - Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL) - a recognised senior secondary qualification, offered as an alternative to the VCE.

Combines accredited modules in literacy/numeracy skills, personal development, employability & vocational skills training, industry familiarisation & practical work experience during Years 11 & 12.


BÜYÜMEYE İLIŞKIN GÖSTERGELER

GSMH (Milyar YTL) GSMH Büyüme Hızı (%) Kişi başına GSMH (Dolar)

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

176.5

275.0

356.7

428.9

486.4

-9,5

7,9

5,9

9,9

7,6

2.105

2.619

3.390

4.172

5.008


YÜZDE 20’LIK HANEHALKı DILIMLERINE GÖRE YıLLıK KULLANıLABILIR GELIRLERIN DAĞıLıMı (%) Yüzde 20’lik Dilimler

1994

2002

2003

2004

Birinci %20

4,9

5,3

6,0

6,0

İkinci %20

8,6

9,8

10,3

10,7

Üçüncü %20

12,6

14,0

14,5

15,2

Dördüncü %20

19,0

20,8

20,9

21,9

Beşinci %20

54,9

50,1

48,3

46,2

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

0,49

0,44

0,42

0,40

Toplam Gini Katsayısı


AB-25 VE TÜRKIYE’DE GELIR DAĞıLıMı AB: En zengin %20’lik dilimin aldığı pay en fakir %20’lik dilimin payının 4,6 katı. AB-25 Gini katsayısı= 0.29 (2003) Türkiye: 2003’de aynı oran 8,1 kat, 2004’de 7,7 kat. Gini Katsayısı=0.42 (2003), 0.40 (2004).


SOSYAL DıŞLANMA VE SOSYAL İÇERME Sosyal dışlanma; işsizlik, yoksulluk, eğitimsizlik, özürlülük gibi nedenler eğitim, sağlık ve kültürel olanaklardan yararlanamamak, üretim etkinlikleri içinde yer alamamak ve karar alma süreçlerine katılamamak

Sosyal içerme; Sosyal dışlanmaya maruz kalan birey veya grupların ekonomik ve sosyal hayatta yer almalarına engel olan faktörlerin ortadan kaldırılarak yaşam seviyesinin toplumda kabul edilebilir bir düzeye getirilerek, toplumla bütünleşmenin sağlanması


2005-2006 öğretim yılında ilköğretimde okullaşma oranı; erkek çocuklar % 98,8, kız çocuklar % 92,2

Kırsal alanda yaşayan kadınların % 31’i kentte yaşayan kadınların % 18,7’si okuma yazma bilmemektedir.


Resmi Dökümanlarda Yoksulluk ve Sosyal İçerme-2 Rekabet İstihdam Beşeri Gelişme Eğitim Sisteminin Geliştirilmesi Sağlık Sisteminin Etkinleştirilmesi Gelir Dağılımının İyileştirilmesi, Sosyal İçerme ve Yoksullukla Mücadele Sosyal Güvenlik Sisteminin Etkinliğinin Artırılması Kültürün Korunması, Geliştirilmesi ve Toplumsal Diyaloğun Artırılması Bölgesel Gelişme Kamuda Etkinlik


RESMI DÖKÜMANLARDA YOKSULLUK VE SOSYAL İÇERME-3 İnsan Kaynaklarının Geliştirilmesi ve İstihdam Edilebilirliğin Artırılması Sosyal İçerme ve Yoksullukla Mücadele İşletmelerin Rekabet Gücünün Geliştirilmesi Bölgesel Gelişme ve Bölgesel Gelişmişlik Farklılıklarının Azaltılması Kamuda İyi Yönetişim


KATıLıM ÖNCESI MALI YARDıM ARACı (IPA)

2007-2013 döneminde tüm katılım öncesi AB mali yardım programlarını birleştiren mali araçtır. IPA, 5 bileşenden oluşmaktadır: Kurumsal Yapılanma Bölgesel ve Sınır Ötesi İşbirliği Bölgesel Kalkınma İnsan Kaynaklarını Geliştirme Kırsal Kalkınma

IPA’nın 3. ve 4. Bileşenlerine ilişkin Stratejik Çerçeve Belgesi hazırlanmaktadır.


AB SOSYAL DıŞLANMA ILE MÜCADELE TOPLULUK PROGRAMıNA KATıLıM Türkiye, Sosyal Dışlanmayla Mücadele Topluluk Eylem Programına Avrupa Topluluğu ve Türkiye arasındaki 26 Şubat 2002 tarihli Çerçeve Anlaşması ve 3 Şubat 2003 tarihli Mutabakat Zaptının 2-4. maddeleri uyarınca katılmıştır.


STUDY ON RESULTS OF LAST 10 YEARS PROJECT “EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE – SUPPORTING SOCIAL INCLUSION” 

Mapping existing potentials in ISSA network, good practices, adaptations  Interviews with all ISSA NGOs  Purpose to in integrate existing expertise from the network

Mapping of other programs addressing similar issues  To introduce new perspectives


WORKING WITH SOCIAL INCLUSION Starting Points – New understandings 

Inclusion is not about including people in the system/society, it is about transformation of the system/society so that everybody has his/her place in it… Inclusion represents the way to resist any kind of discrimination – it sets ground for different actions and projects promoting respect for diversity and equity and CRC is powerful framework for that

Education is more than schooling…

High quality education/programs are inclusive by default …


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MOVING FORWARD 1.

Using advantages of network Exchange of experiences on Advocacy and lobbying – how to do it; defining good practice; constructing new understandings  (new) ideas

2. Developing and conducting well designed cross countries research – to be used for PR of the ESJ programs and core values 3. Establishing more visible connections between ESJ programs and ISSA Quality Principles (“Competent educators for 21 st Century”)


FINDINGS Programs mostly used for: 

Inclusion of children with different ethnic and socio – economic background (Roma in many cases)

Inclusion of children with need for special support (special needs/disabilities) Promotion of the values of inclusion, child friendly and welcoming environments Mobilizing and connecting communities, especially parents


WHY RAISE EDUCATION AND SKILLS LEVELS?

1. Effective modern economies will produce the most information/knowledge, with jobs increasingly skill/knowledge intensive 2. In the global economy, those who invest heavily in education and skills benefit most in economic and social terms 3. This is a tough challenge for education and training governance/ suppliers Some succeed. Andreas Schleicher, OECD, briefing for the EU, 2005

EU/India Nov 2006


PRIORITY INDICATORS FOR EUROPE What are the agreed priority indicators for lifelong learning? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Reduce numbers of 15 yr olds with low basic skill levels Reduce the numbers of early school leavers Raise the percentage of young people with at least upper secondary education Increase university graduate numbers in maths, science, technology; address gender imbalances Increase adult participation in E&T Raise levels of investment in human resources

EU/India Nov 2006


QUALITY VET REDUCES NO. OF EARLY SCHOOL LEAVERS 16 of 19 European countries with a high proportion of young people in IVET have high upper secondary completion rates and low dropout rates The challenge is quality • Programmes attractive to learners and enterprises • Flexibility, focus on the learner • Links to general education • Valuing/recognising formal, informal and non-formal learning • Pathways to higher education (No dead ends!) Quality IVET: a robust strategy, at least across Europe

EU/India Nov 2006


CONTINUING TRAINING – A KEY CHALLENGE

Raising levels of continuing training to update skills and competences. Most countries: unacceptably low participation. •

High status jobs/low status jobs

High education level / low level of education

Younger workers /older workers.

Men / women.

Migrants marginalised.

Sectors: communications / textiles; expansion / decline

EU/India Nov 2006


DEVELOPMENT OF LIFELONG LEARNING STRATEGIES

Few countries have well-advanced LLL strategies Approaches?

Cradle to the grave Employability Social inclusion How best to anticipate education and skills needs in an uncertain environment? EU/India Nov 2006


EXPERT LEARNERS

• Empowering

learners is the strong way to tackle the need to improve learning • Expert learners are self-directed and goal-oriented, able to use their skills to make best decisions about their learning • A danger is a divide between expert and novice learners – with low self image, poor learning strategies, little reflective ability

EU/India Nov 2006


THE SHIFT TO COMPETENCE-BASED TEACHING / LEARNING • From

didactic VET teaching to an outcomes-based approach (programmes, teaching, learning, assessment, qualifications, frameworks) • Learning is focussed on real problems – in the workplace • Underpinned by general education / key competences • Partnerships mean efficient organisation – employer needs • Skilful teachers and trainers EU/India Nov 2006


Success stories: the Nordic countries A small skills gap: those who consider they don’t have the skills for working life • A small credentials gap: they have the credentials to back the claim • A high proportion of people recently took part in education or training • A high proportion affirm there are few barriers to participating in learning • A small proportion say there is nothing to motivate them for further involvement in education and training • Few young people lack basic skills Institute for Future Studies in Sweden, from Euro barometer data (see A Giddens 2006)

EU/India Nov 2006


WHY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS?

Social inclusion central to IS policies  Measured by rates of Internet use  EC - e-Inclusion report September 2001  Disadvantaged groups have lower rates of Internet use


WHY EMPLOYMENT? 45 40 35 30 25 Internet use

20 15 10 5 0 employed

unemployed

retired


PROBLEMS FACILITATING SOCIAL INCLUSION 

Simply placing a child with a disability into general physical education does not ensure appropriate and meaningful social interactions and acceptance. Such interactions and acceptance have to be carefully planned and facilitated.

100


WHY IS EMPLOYMENT? 

Significant skills shortages across Europe  ICT technician: 600,000 to 1m needed  ICT professional: 300,000 to 500,000  High-end ICT skills will ensure sustainable employment


LESSONS FROM THE IRISH EXPERIENCES: WHICH INTERVENTIONS WORK? 

Need a strong local IT sector  Training in certifications in demand by employers  Training in customer service skills desired by employers  Continued training inputs by employers


LESSONS FROM THE IRISH EXPERIENCES: WHICH INTERVENTIONS WORK? 

Flexible training organisation  Training programme well-designed, sensitively delivered  Personal support for trainees  Mix of training approaches


LESSONS FROM THE IRISH EXPERIENCES: WHICH INTERVENTIONS WORK? 

Appropriate recruitment, selection and induction process for trainees  Adequate training allowances  Targeted support for trainees with low educational achievement and women  Support for childcare and career guidance for single parents (O’Donnell,2001)


16th European Social Network Conferenca, 2-4 July, Paris

PRESIDENCY PROGRAM DECADE OF ROMA INCLUSION HUNGARY European Roma Policy  

Comprehensive European Roma Policy – improvement of social inclusion of the community Solution of the most urgent needs  

Housing Complex aprroach of the european funds Capacity building of Roma NGOs

„Call for european Roma Policy” – signed by MEPs, ministers, Dr. Rita Suessmuth

Anti-segregation policy 

Equal opportunity criteria   

All governmental initiatives should focus on educational and housing segregation (praecondition of access to resources) Proposals for EU funds should have anti-segregation plan Expert-network support (approval of anti-segregation plan)


16th European Social Network Conferenca, 2-4 July, Paris

„NEW HUNGARY DEVELOPMENT PLAN” (20072013) Using experiences (phare, national development plan I.) 

  

Less open tendering – more centralized program („complex” programs, normatives) More defined equal opportunity criteria Building-up Roma networks in all areas Strongly differentiated view on regional differences


UNIQUE ROLE OF SOCIAL SERVICES NEW CHALLENGES AHEAD

• More and more social services merged with income or employment

• New responsibilities for social workers (and new qualifications needed)

• Shift o people s a ilities a d ot their disa ilities • Cost efficiency debate

• Exchange of good practice between practitioners now more important than ever Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


YOUNG PEOPLE ON THE LABOUR MARKET REASONS FOR UNDER-ACHIEVEMENT

• Individual characteristics    

Educational attainment Socio-economic background Gender Disability

• Capacity of labour market to provide opportunities

Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


EARLY SCHOOL LEAVERS ONE IN SEVEN CHILD‘EN IN EU‘OPE…

• • • • • •

Information, advice and support

More independence and real choices Focus on the individual and not on the service User as a key partner of social development Development of community-based services Active citizenship to improve social cohesion

Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


LABOUR MARKET SHORTCOMINGS DISCONNECTED AND SEGMENTED

• Reluctance of employers to employ and train inexperienced youngster

• • • • •

Insider-outsider phenomenon Flexibility over security

Subsidized employment trap Under-educated vs. over-educated Mismatch of skills taught and sought after Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


ACTIVE INCLUSION STRATEGY EU SOLUTION FOR DIFFICULT-TO-REACH GROUP

Holistic approach designed for people furthest from the labour market Based on three pillars: 1. 2. 3.

Adequate income support Inclusive labour market Access to quality services

Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


ACTIVE INCLUSION STRATEGY FOR YOUTH ADEQUATE INCOME SUPPORT

• For those who can work:

 Reduction of inactivity traps (though e.g. better coordination of unemployment and social benefits)

 Internships with minimum wage and wage support

 Combination of part-time with unemployment benefits  Reduction of tax wedge

• For those who cannot work:

 Dignity, support and innovative social inclusion measures Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


ACTIVE INCLUSION STRATEGY FOR YOUTH INCLUSIVE LABOUR MARKETS

• Investment in human capital (inclusive

and accessible

education and training at all stages of life)

• Tailored, personalised, responsive services (assessment, assistance, training and counseling)

• • • •

Support for social economy and sheltered employment Adaptability and provision of in-work support Promotion of entrepreneurship (Me-Inc.) Fight with segmentation on the labour market Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


ACTIVE INCLUSION STRATEGY FOR YOUTH ACCESS TO QUALITY SERVICES

• One stop shop approach • Dealing with barriers first:  Interrupted education

 Disabilities and health issues (including mental)

 Addiction (often leading to violence and conviction)

 Chaotic life style, homelessness

 Family issues (teenage pregnancies, history of abuse)

• Focus on individuals, their families and whole communities

Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


UNIQUE ROLE OF SOCIAL SERVICES NEW CHALLENGES AHEAD

• More and more social services merged with income or employment

• New responsibilities for social workers (and new qualifications needed)

• Shift o people s a ilities a d ot their disa ilities • Cost efficiency debate

• Exchange of good practice between practitioners now more important than ever Capacity to avoid incapacity Reykjavik, November 2009


A mental health strategy and fund for contexts of socio-economic disadvantage Not one early school leaving problem: ESL is a behaviour with a range of motivations Beyond piecemeal approach of SCP, beyond 8 week bereavement courses Wider referral processes – reach withdrawn kids: a slap in the face Need for prevention and early intervention: non-verbal therapeutic intervention Cf. Familiscope NEPS – Reactive to critical incidents Alternatives to suspension Drug prevention issue EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IS A MENTAL HEALTH ISSUE !


Bullying in school may also need a wider community focus

Dissemination of good practice needs to occur within a school Cross-cultural concentric structures of assumed connection need to be promoted at a system level, to contrast with diametric structures of assumed separation


Early School leavers

118


Copyright 2007 www.englishteaching.co.uk

SOCIAL DIVISIONS- WHICH ONE ARE YOU? 

Working class  Apprenticeships  Educated

to school leaving age

    

Middle class 

Educated to university standard

Factory jobs Doctors Football players Lawyers Plumbers Teachers Electricians


WHAT IS SOCIAL EXCLUSION? 

Social Exclusion is  Diverse:

people excluded from political, social and economic resources  A social problem, not an individual problem 

The Underclass: not simply poor


COMPETING EXPLANATIONS FOR SOCIAL EXCLUSION 1.

2.

3.

Motive, capacity and opportunity Individualistic: Lack of individual motivation driven by welfare dependency: self-exclusion from society (Charles Murray) Structural: A failure of the economy to provide enough jobs for everyone: lack of positive role models: social isolation from job opportunities Deliberate: The active exclusion of the underclass by the powerful in society: stigmatizing stereotypes the criminal poor


SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN THE OFFICIAL CONSTRUCTION OF “CRIME” 

Processes by which social groups are identified as ‘problems’  Policing

discretion  Policing strategies  Judicial decisions  The social construction of ‘social problems’  Political focus on “dangerous classes”


Copyright 2007 www.englishteaching.co.uk

FACTORS THAT CAUSE SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

Willy Russell presents these themes as a reason why the pupils in The Progress Class are considered less important.

Low Income 

Cannot afford luxuries such as food or new school shoes

Poor Housing 

Maybe a family of four live in a one bedroom flat

Poor Health 

Maybe suffer from illness caused by poor diet

Low Educational Achievement 

maybe caused by disruptive pupils and lack of teaching staff


OVERVIEW: The Project promotes quality education and social inclusion with direct actions towards ROMA Children by :   

Enhancing accessibility and participation of Roma children in the educational system Continued support for actions enriching curricula, educational material, teachers’ training, distance learning in order to support more effective inclusion in the educational system and social life. Combating early school-leaving by enhancing preschool and primary education, all-day kindergarten and primary schools, as well as language support classes at the level of primary and secondary education (junior high school). Promotion of intercultural education within the school and wider school community.


The interventions realised implied: • •

• • • • •

actions addressed to parents Young dropouts re-integration didactical activities aimed at the acquisition/strenghtening of competences promotion of training modules for social inclusion and education reinclusion initiatives for the re-integration of young at risk of youth crime resources centres against school leaving Activities realised in cooperation with the Ministry of the Interior, to promote the culture of legality.


Specific relevance has been stressed on the interventions promoted by the Centres to cope with school leaving. In general, all projects realised share the principle that school leaving must be faced implementing initiatives of different nature, each one considering a specific point of view and related approach: •

counselling and guidance interventions;

activities for socialisation, recreation, development and strengthening of life skills;

sensitization activities addressed to families;

teachers training;

involvement of experts and territorial actors; etc.


SPECIFIC INTERVENTION ACTIONS In order to achieve the set goals, it was deemed necessary to  work closely with the Roma community and establish strong links between the school and family through the use of Roma mediators  support schools at the early school entry point of Roma children so as to limit the critical transient period between school and home  offer ongoing school support particularly regarding student progress within the curriculum by facilitating the establishment of supplementary support classes, funding expert support teaching staff , providing additional resources etc  offer ongoing counselling and psychological support both to parents and school community members in the attempt to tackle those interpersonal and personal parameters that infringe of successful learning  provide opportunities for teacher training and professional development in intercultural education  provide the opportunity for parents to attend adult learning classes in the attempt for the whole family to participate in the learning process  develop a school progress tracking system to monitor participation and success rates of Roma children in the attempt to isolate those barriers that inhibit successful schooling and locate those factors which promote school and community participation.  establish lasting networks and links in support of ROMA issues in the fields of education, health and welfare and housing


IDENTIFYING KEY AREAS FOR INTERVENTION  late school enrolment 

inadequate school response to Roma children learning needs

low family incentive to continue children’s schooling

system inability to track school participation and educational outcomes for travelling families.


What is sustainable development? Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. A broader concept (People, Planet, Profit) than just environmental care (Planet)


16th European Social Network Conferenca, 2-4 July, Paris

New ways of implementations of positive actions 

 

Equal opportunity plan of state-owned companies, institutions (more than 50 employees) – no municipalities! 

Defined in Law of Equal Treatment and Equal Opportunities

Preconditions in access to resources (EU funds) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 

Special criteria for Roma employment

Procurement procedure 

Equal opportunity criteria – equal opportunity plan, employment of local employees, preferencess for enterprises, employing long-term unemployed persons


FIVE AREAS FOR ACTION     

Delivering action across the policy spectrum Making EU funds deliver on the social inclusion and social cohesion objectives Developing an evidence-based approach to social innovation and reforms Promoting a partnership approach and the social economy Stepping up policy coordination between the Member States 131


DELIVERING ACTION ACROSS THE POLICY SPECTRUM (1) 

Enhancing access to employment and active inclusion of vulnerable groups 

Making social protection and services more responsive to new social needs 

 

Communication on active inclusion, 2012

White paper on Pensions, 2011 Further develop quality framework on social services Follow-up to communication on health inequalities

Breaking the cycle of disadvantage  

Recommendation on early school leaving, 2011 Recommendation on child poverty, 2012

132


DELIVERING ACTION ACROSS THE POLICY SPECTRUM (2) 

Promoting the inclusion of disadvantaged groups  

Tackling poverty beyond social policies   

EU framework for national Roma Integration Strategies , 2011 Follow-up to 2010 consensus conference on homelessness

Implementation of energy internal market legislation Combating digital divide (implementation of Digital Agenda) Legislative initiative on access to basic bank services, 2011

Social impact assessment 

improving cooperation with EU institutions and Member States

133


No clear definition – lots of debate and disagreement  Term arose in France in 1970s  Developed separately in UK – social policy researchers (under Thatcherism)


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION ďƒ’

Social exclusion is best studied by segmenting it into dimensions: (e.g.) 1. Resources 2. Participation 3. Quality of Life


THE PSE REPORT PSE distinguishes 4 dimensions of social exclusion:

   

Impoverishment (exclusion from adequate income or resources) Labour market exclusion (exclusion from paid work) Service exclusion (exclusion from public and private sector services) Exclusion from social relations (exclusion from social, civic, political participation, social support, social contact, confinement)


THE PSE REPORT 

IMPOVERISHMENT, MEASURES OF POVERTY

Income  Subjective poverty: respondents were asked whether they considered themselves poor and whether their household income was enough to keep it above poverty  Lack of socially perceived necessities


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Each of these dimension can in turn be divided into domains of potential importance in social exclusion Resources

Quality of Life

Material / Economic Resources

Health and well-being

Access to public and private services

Living environment

Crime, harm and criminalisation

Social resources (resources available to large groups, such as pensions for elders

Participation • Economic Participation • Social Participation • Culture, education and skills • Political and civic participation


THE PSE REPORT ďƒ’

IMPOVERISHMENT, MEASURES OF POVERTY

1.

2. 3.

LACK OF SOCIALLY PERCEIVED NECESSITIES: (FOUR STEPS) Establishing which items and activities were perceived by the public as necessities for life. (Results in Appendix 5, Multidimensional analysis..p. 141) Identifying those who had an enforced lack of socially perceived necessities Determining what level of household income people ran a greater risk of not being able to afford the socially perceived necessities.


ORGANISE YOUR OWN RESEARCH 1.

Bring down your sample population to manageable proportions. Choose which stage(s) of life you will focus in: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Childhood Youth Working age adulthood Later life


UNDERSTANDING POVERTY AND INEQUALITY. Relationships of Consumption: Appropriation by people of the product of their work.  

 

Inequality: unequal appropriation of wealth by individuals or social groups Polarisation: Specific process of inequality that occurs when both the top and the bottom of a scale of wealth distribution grow faster than the middle. Poverty: Institutionally defined norm establishing the level of income that a society considers necessary to live according to an accepted standard. Misery: Institutionally defined level that establishes the lowest material standard of living, making survival problematic


1 4 2

A vision for VET Commission’s communication June 2010 Quality & efficiency

Lifelong Learning & Mobility

Innovation & creativity, entrepreneurship

Social inclusion, equity & citizenship

VET should be: 

Attractive

Accessible

Flexible

Inclusive

Relevant

Supporting mobility

Integrated part of lifelong learning


What is the EU/Commission doing about all this?

EU2020: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth ET2020 Objective 3: Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship o o o o

early school leaving migrant-background children pre-primary special needs

Flagship initiatives include the European Platform against Poverty and Social Exclusion


Inequalities in education and training

The bad news In all European education systems In access, in treatment and in outcomes Reflect, reproduce and often compound wider socio-economic disadvantage

The good news Education Ministers adopted Council Conclusions on the social dimension of education and training (May 2010) covering all levels


EU Gender Strategy 2010-2015 Adopted on 21 September 2010

Five key priority areas for action and one area addressing cross-cutting issues: 1) Equal economic independence 2) Equal pay for equal work and work of equal value 3) Equality in decision-making 4) Dignity, integrity and an end to gender-based violence 5) Gender equality in external actions 6) Horizontal issues


INFORMATIONAL CAPITALISM AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS (I) 

Distribution of ICT extremely uneven  Availability of ICT does not automatically translates into economic and social development: •Education: General and Technical •Appropriate organisational environment  Without

education, infrastructure, and appropriate organisational forms, underdevelopment becomes cumulative.


ORGANISE YOUR OWN RESEARCH 2.

Continue filtering your research. What dimension(s) of social exclusion will you study? 1. 2.

3. 4.

Impoverishment Access to labour market Service exclusion Exclusion from social relations


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

Each of these domains can be divided into indicators used to measure social exclusion (E.g.): 

    

Literacy and numeracy Employment rate Lone parents Minority ethnic people Social participation and access to Internet Etc…………


THE POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION REPORT (PSE) 1999 

 

Used 2 582 variables Full list of the variables available from the Economic and Social Data Service website ( www.esds.ac.uk) The questionnaire used by PSE posted on my website A brief description of the report can be found in: Levitas, R. et al. (2007) The multi-dimensional analysis of social exclusion. Bristol Institute of Social Affairs, University of Bristol, pp. 55-67


Definition:  Social

exclusion is a shorthand label for what can happen when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems, such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health and family breakdown. (Social Exclusion Unit, UK)

Response:  This

fails to identify what it is that happens (Levitas 2006)


DEFINING SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

Multidimensional, relational concept 

Unemployment / low income  Poor skills  High crime environment  Bad health  Family breakdown

It is a process resulting from the combination of linked problems


DEFINING SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

Relational: best defined in its relationship with related terms:  Poverty  Social

Inclusion  Inequality  Polarisation  Social mobility  Social closure


DEFINING SOCIAL EXCLUSION ďƒ’SOCIAL

EXCLUSION VERSUS POVERTY:

Broader concept encompassing low material means but also the inability to participate effectively in economic, social, political, cultural life. Alienation and distance from mainstream society


DEFINING SOCIAL EXCLUSION ďƒ’

Social Inclusion: The development of capacity to play a full role, not only in economic terms, but also in social, psychological and political terms


DEFINING SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

Inequality: unequal appropriation of wealth by individuals or social groups Polarisation: Specific process of inequality that occurs when both the top and the bottom of a scale of wealth distribution grow faster than the middle. Social Mobility: the degree to which a group's social status can change through a system of social hierarchy or stratification. Social Closure: describe the action of social groups, who restrict entry and exclude benefit to those outside the group in order to maximise their own advantage.

DRIVERS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION, NOT CONSTITUTIVES.


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Social exclusion can be viewed in levels 1.

Wide Exclusion: Large number of people excluded in a single or small number of indicators.

(e.g) 25% UK Population in poverty (1999)


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Social exclusion can be viewed in levels Concentrated Exclusion: Refers to the geographic concentration of problems and to area exclusion. e.g. London vs Beconsfield Hackney vs Fullham

2.


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Social exclusion can be viewed in levels 3.

Deep exclusion: Refers to those excluded on multiple and overlapping dimensions

e.g. : 1 individual: •Single mother •Poor health •Low income

•Living in deprived area •Low level of education


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Social exclusion is best studied in different stages of the life course of individuals:  Childhood  Youth

 Working

age adulthood  Later life


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Match stage of life with relevant indicator of social exclusion

Stage of Life Course

Indicators

  

Children Youth Working age adult Elder (over 65)

    

Employment Children in workless household Teenage pregnancy Access to pension Lone parent Drug use


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION ďƒ’

Social exclusion is best studied by segmenting it into dimensions: (e.g.) 1. Resources 2. Participation 3. Quality of Life


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Each of these dimension can in turn be divided into domains of potential importance in social exclusion Resources

Quality of Life

Material / Economic Resources

Health and well-being

Access to public and private services

Living environment

Crime, harm and criminalisation

Social resources (resources available to large groups, such as pensions for elders

Participation • Economic Participation • Social Participation • Culture, education and skills • Political and civic participation


INVESTIGATING SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

Each of these domains can be divided into indicators used to measure social exclusion (E.g.): 

    

Literacy and numeracy Employment rate Lone parents Minority ethnic people Social participation and access to Internet Etc…………


DEFINING SOCIAL EXCLUSION Social exclusion has a material dimension (i.e. lack of material means) But also social, political, psychological dimensions: ďƒ’

RESPECT AND SELF-RECOGNITION: Failure to respect those who are socially excluded by virtue of poverty or stigmatised statuses such as ethnicity.


Definition: 

An individual is socially excluded if he or she does not participate to a reasonable degree over time in certain activities of his or her society, and (a) this is for reasons beyond his or her control, and (b) he or she would like to participate (Burchardt 2000).

Response: 

This definition leaves open the issue of how the scope of those ‘certain activities’ whose enforced absence constitutes exclusion is established. It also suffers from the fact that there are many activities which satisfy conditions (a) and (b) but do not represent any form of social exclusion. To give an example, the fact that I was not selected to play in the recent NSW State of Origin team despite my availability and willingness (indeed, eagerness!) to play is not an example of social exclusion that has any relevance for social policy (except possibly for public health, but that is another matter!). (Saunders 2003)


CONFUSION: ‘SOCIAL EXCLUSION’, ‘POVERTY’ AND ‘DEPRIVATION’  

 

Poverty – Also many definitions and lots of debate. Often referred to as a lack of access to resources that is sustained over time, but some definitions incorporate aspects of social exclusion (e.g. access to services). Deprivation – caused by poverty. Social exclusion can be both a cause and a consequence of poverty and deprivation, and overlaps them both.

‘It is far easier to give a sense of the principal concerns of social exclusion and how they differ from notions of resource poverty than it is to give a precise meaning to the term.’ (Saunders 2003)


Services and resources Activities

Opportunities

Social networks

An illustration of social exclusion

WELLBEING Social, Economic, Health, etc


Overall goal: to move from social exclusion to social inclusion  Development of specific objectives and ways of measuring progress toward their achievement  Development of central bodies to co-ordinate action across multiple contexts  Multiple initiatives, many involving partnerships between governments, private sector and community sector


DEVELOPMENT OF INDICATORS 

From surveys that asked people what they considered to be the essentials of life

UK – from the PSE Survey Items and activities stated as necessary

Australia – work done by Peter Saunders Items defined as ‘no-one in Australia should have to go without’


Medical treatment Warm clothes/bedding if cold At least one good meal/day Purchase prescribed meds Dental treatment if needed

Heating for living areas Beds for everyone A damp-free home 3 meals/day for kids 2 meals/day for adults

A decent and secure home Children can participate in school activities and outings Yearly dental check for kids Hobby/leisure activity for kids Regular social contact

Fridge Warm waterproof coat Fresh fruit Toys for children House in decent state


WHAT INDICATORS ARE BEING USED? European Union     

  

 

At-risk-of poverty rate At-risk-of-poverty threshold Income quintile Persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate Relative median poverty risk gap Regional cohesion Long term unemployment rate Population living in jobless households Early school leavers not in education or training Life expectancy


UK - PSE Survey  Income  Children: household income and employment; health; school attainment 

Young adults: qualifications; income and employment; crime; health

Working-age adults 25+: income and employment; disabilities; health

Older people: income; health; social services  Communities: crime; transport; services; polarisation of income and housing tenure


Australia – ABS MAP 

4 dimension of progress

Individuals: health; education and training; work; culture and leisure

The Economy: national income and wealth; economic hardship; housing; productivity

Living Together: family, community and social cohesion; crime; democracy, governance and citizenship; communication; transport


Others using social inclusion indicators    

SPRC NATSEM Melbourne Institute Common indicators Employment Income Indicators used by some Health Education Housing and community services Social connections and cohesion


FIVE STEPS FOR IMPLEMENTING COMMUNITY LEARNING PROJECT 

The academic guidelines for the project’s phases are developed by the Centre for Social and Educational Research (CREA)

Five steps are prescribed:  sensibilisation

phase (preparatory phase)  decision making phase (preparatory phase)  phase of the dream  priority selection phase  planning phase


LESSONS LEARNT ABOUT LC PROJECT

KEEPING TEACHERS AMBITIOUS FOR THEIR PUPILS The most visible outcome of the Learning Community project that we could observe is an exceptionally high level of enthusiasm and commitment among the teaching staff  One of the key success factors of LC project is the real commitment to inclusive education which comes from teachers  Teachers must be actors and not clients of a Learning Community project


LESSONS LEARNT ABOUT LC PROJECT

LEARNING SOLIDARITY ďƒ’

Through dialogic learning those who are more proficient or have greater abilities in a particular task help others, thus reinforcing their own knowledge and forging group solidarity


CLUSTER OBSERVATIONS

 

SOME CHALLENGES FOR LEARNING COMMUNITY PROJECT Learning Community has been rather effective in tipping into the knowledge of the local community, and more particularly into the social capital and resources of community’s prominent members One of the future challenges for Learning Community projects is bringing aboard socially marginalised families who themselves may need some training in order to acquire skills to help their children in the learning process, and to help themselves become better integrated in a broader community It is not fully clear how tipping into the knowledge of the local community is to be achieved in segregated urban areas when the school is located in a ghetto with 100% of its population representing one culture, one language, one religion… with parents having problems of communication in the language used at school


All cultures have a concept of Poverty

“In

Wealth, many friends, in poverty not even relatives”

- Japanese Proverb

“Poverty is the worst form of violence!” - Mahatma Gandhi - Indian Philosopher & Freedom Fighter

“The greatest evils and the worst of crimes is poverty” George Bernard Shaw - Irish Playwright & Novelist


European Union definitions of poverty and social exclusion The European Union (EU) definition of poverty is one of the most longstanding and widely known. First adopted by the European Council in 1975, it defines those as in poverty as: “individuals or families whose resources are so small as to exclude them from a minimum acceptable way of life in the Member State in which they live.” (Council Decision, 1975). The concept of ‘resources’ was further defined as: “goods, cash income, plus services from other private resources” (EEC, 1981). On the 19 December 1984, the European Commission extended the definition as: “the poor shall be taken to mean persons, families and groups of persons whose resources (material, cultural and social) are so limited as to exclude them from the minimum acceptable way of life in the Member State in which they live.” (EEC, 1985). These are clearly relative definitions of poverty in that they all refer to poverty not as some ‘absolute basket of goods’ but in terms of the minimum acceptable standard of living applicable to a certain Member State and within a person’s own society.


UNICEF Child Poverty League of Rich Countries Percent of children living below 50% of median national income

Source: UNICEF (2005)


Definition of poverty Not Poor

Standard of Living

Poor

High

Poverty Threshold Set Too High

Optimal Position of the Poverty Threshold Poverty Threshold Set Too Low

Low Low Income

Income

High Income


RUTH LEVITAS’ THREE MODELS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION (THE INCLUSIVE SOCIETY, 2ND ED, 2005) 

Ruth Levitas has identified several different (and competing) discourses of Social Exclusion. She has called these;

Redistributionist Discourse (RED)

Moral Underclass Discourse (MUD)

Social Intergrationist Discourse (SID)


RED ďƒ˜

Prime concern is to do with poverty and draws upon the analysis of Townsend who argued that when income and resources fall below a certain level people are excluded from the normal activities of their society. ďƒ˜ The solution is redistribution of income in the form of higher, non-means tested benefits, a minimum wage, financial recognition for unpaid work etc.


MUD 

Prime concern is with the moral and behavioural delinquency of the excluded. The underclass is culturally distinct from the mainstream and is associated with idle, criminal young men and single mothers dependent on welfare. Welfare dependency on the state is problematic, but the economic dependency of women on men is not – as women and marriage have a ‘civilising’ impact on men.


SID ďƒ˜ ďƒ˜

Prime concern is with inclusion through paid work. It focuses on unemployment and economic inactivity and social integration is pursued through inclusion in paid work. It ignores unpaid work (largely done by women)

If RED is about no money, MUD about no morals, and SID about no work, political debate in the UK has shifted inconsistently between RED and SID and MUD


Reasons why people do not participate in socially necessary activities

(%) Can t afford to

47

Not interested

44

Lack of time due to childcare responsibilities

18

Too old, ill, sick or disabled

14

Lack of time due to paid work

14

No one to go out with (social)

6

No vehicle poor public transport

5

Lack of time due to other caring responsibilities

4

Fear of burglary or vandalism

3

Fear of personal attack

3

Can t go out due to other caring responsibilities

2

Problems with physical access

1

Feel unwelcome (e.g. due to disability ethnicity, gender, age, etc)

1

None of these

8

Source: PSE 1999, Multiple responses allowed


Measuring Multidimensional Exclusion: B-SEM Model


Structural Causes of Poverty Most poverty has a structural cause, rather than being the result of an individual’s ‘bad’ behaviour or choices.

Since the pioneering scientific studies of poverty in 19th Century (such as Charles Booth’s in London), six groups have been identified as being especially vulnerable to poverty •the elderly;

•the unemployed; •sick and disabled people; •the low waged;

•large families, and •lone parents In many developing countries two additional groups are also at risk of poverty: •Landless and small farmers, and •fishermen and women


Poverty: The Solution? “This would mean restoring to the centre of the tax system two basic principals: the first, that those who cannot afford to pay tax should not have to pay it; and the second, that taxation should rise progressively with income. Programmes that merely redistribute poverty from families to single persons, from the old to the young, from the sick to the healthy, are not a solution. What is needed, is a programme of reform that ends the current situation where the top 10% own 80% of our wealth and 30% of income, even after tax. As Tawney remarked, ‘What some people call the problem of poverty, others call the problem of riches’.”

(Gordon Brown and Robin Cook, 1983)


THEMATIC OBJETICVES AND INVESTMENT PRIORITIES Promoting employment and supporting labour mobility 1. Access to employment for job-seekers and inactive people including local employment initiatives and support for labour mobility; 2. Sustainable integration of young people not in employment, education or training into the labour market; 3. Self-employment, entrepreneurship and business creation; 4. Equality between men and women and reconciliation between work and private life; 5. Adaptation of workers, enterprises and entrepreneurs to change; 6. Active and healthy ageing; 7. Modernisation and strengthening of labour market institutions, including actions to enhance transnational labour mobility;


THEMATIC OBJECTIVES AND INVESTMENT PRIORITIES Investing in education, skills and lifelong learning 8. Reducing early school-leaving and promoting equal access to goodquality early-childhood, primary and secondary education; 9. Improving the quality, efficiency and openness of tertiary and equivalent education with a view to increasing participation and attainment levels; 10. Enhancing access to lifelong learning, upgrading the skills and competences of the workforce and increasing the labour market relevance of education and training systems;


THEMATIC OBJECTIVES AND INVESTMENT PRIORITIES Promoting social inclusion and combating poverty 11. Active inclusion; 12. Integration of marginalised communities such as the Roma; 13. Combating discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation; 14. Enhancing access to affordable, sustainable and highquality services, including health care and social services of general interest; 15. Promoting the social economy and social enterprises; 16. Community-led local development strategies;


THEMATIC OBJECTIVES AND INVESTMENT PRIORITIES Enhancing institutional and administrative capacities 17. Investment in institutional capacity and in the efficiency of public administrations and public services with a view to reforms, better regulation and good governance; 18. Capacity building for stakeholders delivering employment, education and social policies and for sectoral and territorial pacts to mobilise for reform at national, regional and local level.


EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING? YES, WE HAVE!

Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

Compulsory schooling: not registered, not able, not willing 

social abandonment; mainly in urban areas Schools: Legal based facilities; networking with parents, child/social care; neighbourhood/community coop., penalty provision

Efforts & Solutions:  

Vienna: Truant officer: registering; prevention; intervention (standards) AT: National Strategy Conference; Common guidelines (complaints & support);


Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING? YES, WE HAVE!

Secondary level II/ Age from 15 y (20%) 

Problem: Registered, but no obligation, history of failing; social background (friends?), role models, no future?, migrants, change of residence

Efforts & Solutions   

School: student guidance; school psychology; social care/service; street worker; networking with parents intervention by youth coaching; programmes (best practice); peers; Vienna: Truancy officer


Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING? YES, WE HAVE!  

 

Vocational Education Training: „9th School year“ (obligat.) Dead end – just 30% continuing; later still high rate consequences: ESL, drop out, change, apprenticeship Why? Wrong choice; social & personal reasons; later-pull effect labour market; Student counselling; education and job orientation; social worker; coaching (project)


EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING? YES WE HAVE! 

Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

Dual Voc. Education: 30 % ESL Reasons: wrong choice; lack of social skills & behaviour, basics & motivation; personal and social troubles; problems at work  Unqualified, risk of exclusion & unemployment


Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

EXAMPLES & BEST PRACTICE YES WE CAN! „Stop Drop out“ (full time VET) multilat.   

Risk detection Personal profile Flexible support & prevention

Providing: Learn tools, material, counselling, teacher, trainer, job orientation (nw)

www.stop-dropout.eu


EXAMPLES & BEST PRACTICES YES WE CAN!

Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

Network for Education, social care & sports, culture (KUS) 2 VET  Special offer: social workers at schools, support – learning difficulties & at risk, social skills, catch up VET-diploma; social integration by sport & culture;  www.kusonline.at


EXAMPLES & BEST PRACTICES YES WE CAN

Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

J&W Youth & Work (private, social funds) VET  2 VET – second labour market; network with Labour service, social and edu institutions  2 VET - programme (training&school)  Make „job fit“ – continue apprenticeship (3y to labour market) – integrative approach  Prevention of ESL & exclusion  www.jaw.at


Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

EXAMPLE & BEST PRACTICES YES WE CAN! School based management (2VET Vienna) 

Offers: - Educ. & Job coaching: everybody on entry further advising - Tutoring „Learn club“: individually; subjects (also via E-Platform) - Coaching for reading: testing on access; - Personal counselling: private, personal, social - Social worker: special social problems - Legal advisor: job - link to: psychologist, doctor, police, streetworker….. www.bsbk.at


EXAMPLES & BEST PRACTICES YES WE CAN!

Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

Youth coaching (ext. To AT) Sec II DE, TU, BKS, SI, CZ Cooperation Fed.Min. of Educ & Social affairs

teacher & advisor & coaches & experts  At risk management: detection, first aid, SWOT-analysis, social advisor, learn & job counselling, experts – job trial…  Voluntary, free, duration 1 y max. www.neba.at/jugendcoaching


EXAMPLES & GOOD PRACTICES YES WE CAN! Herbert Seher, AT 12/09/12

Stay on Track (Regioproject Vienna-Antwerp)  VET & 2VET: counter truant behaviour in school and on the job; prevent ESL; improve quality of guidance  Tool box; outcomes:  staff in schools compared counselling at school, transition to work & job  Trainers in companies on guidance & learning;  Importance of networking www.stayontrack.eu


ACTION FOR STABILITY, GROWTH AND JOBS     

4) Tackle unemployment and social exclusion: - Fight youth unemployment - Reduce early school leaving, improve training and develop apprenticeships - Increase labour market participation (e.g. of women, older workers, vulnerable groups) - Align development of wages with productivity


EU RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NATIONAL ACTION IN 2012/13 Public finances Sound public finances

AT BE BG CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR HU IT LT LU LV MT NL PL SE SI SK UK

Pension and health systems

Fiscal framework

Financial sector

Taxation

Banking

Housing market

Access to finance

Growth enhancing structural reforms

Network industries

Competition in service sector

Public services and regulation

R&D and innovation

Labour market

Resource efficiency

Labour market participation

Active labour market policy

Wage setting mechanisms

Labour market flexicurity

Education

0

Note: Recommendations proposed by the Commission in May 2012 for 2012-2013. For IE, EL, PT and RO, the only recommendation is to implement existing commitments under EU/IMF financial assistance programmes. More information at: http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm


COMMITMENTS UNDER THE EURO PLUS PACT Foster competitiveness

Wage setting mechanisms

Public sector wage developments

Competition in services

Education, R&D, innovation

Sustainability of public finances

Foster employment

Business environment

Labour market flexicurity

Labour Undeclared participation work

Life-long learning

Lower labour taxes

ParticiAlign pensions Incentives pation of 2nd to for older earners demography workers

National fiscal rule

Reinforce financial stability National legislation for banking resolution and other financial stabilisation measures

AT BE BG CY DE DK EE EL ES FI FR IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SI SK

Note: this table summarises commitments taken by Member States participating in the Euro Plus Pact since Spring 2011.


ARE WE LIKELY TO MEET OUR TARGETS FOR 2020? EMPLOYMENT

75% of the population aged 20-64 should be employed

INNOVATION

3% of the EU's GDP should be invested in R&D

CLIMATE / ENERGY

A reduction of CO2 emissions by 20% A share of renewable energies up to 20%

An increase in energy efficiency by 20% EDUCATION

The share of early school leavers should be under 10% At least 40% of the younger generation should have a degree or diploma

POVERTY

20 million fewer people should be at risk of poverty


ZERO TOLERANCE APPROACHES 

Fail to make schools safer  Actually increase suspensions and rates of misbehaviour  Discriminate against minority groups and children with EBD (APA Zero Tolerance Task Force, 2008)


WHAT IS RESTORATIVE PRACTICE IN SCHOOL?    

Concept of caring, inclusive community Collective process of problem-solving Work with victims and perpetrators Also with whole school community


RESTORATIVE PRACTICE INVOLVES… …a cooperative rather than a punitive process with room for reconciliation and resolution of conflicts


OUTCOMES FOR SCHOOL ETHOS POSITIVE.. 

Peer support system reassures pupils, even if they don’t use it  Peer support system shows the school cares  Gives positive experience of school as ‘caring’  Social exclusion decreases significantly (Andres, 2007)


EUROPE 2020: 3 INTERLINKED PRIORITIES Key role for education and training and youth in Europe 2020 

1.) Smart growth: developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation 2.) Sustainable growth: promoting a more efficient, greener and more competitive economy 3.) Inclusive growth: fostering a high-employment economy delivering social and territorial cohesion

214


HEADLINE TARGET FOR 2020 AND FLAGSHIP INITIATIVES LINKING TO ET 2020 AND THE EU YOUTH STRATEGY Target 

The share of early school leavers should be under 10% and at least 40% of the younger generation should have a tertiary degree or equivalent This target is to be translated into national objectives

ET 2020 and EU Youth strategy contribution to flagships  

« Youth on the move » « An agenda for new skills and jobs »

215


AGENDA FOR NEW SKILLS AND JOBS – ACTIONS LINKED TO EDUCATION & TRAINING AND YOUTH Overall objectives:  

Modernisation of labour markets to raise employment levels Acquisition of new skills to enable workforce to adapt to new conditions and career shifts, reduce unemployment and raise labour productivity

Focus on: 

Implementation of ET 2020 (LLL principles, flexible learning pathways; attractiveness of VET)

Ensure that competences are acquired and recognised throughout all levels and forms of learning

Improvement of skills needs forecasting

Partnerships and common language between the worlds of business, employment, education & training

216


SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND THE EU’S SOCIAL INCLUSION AGENDA 

The European Union embraced the social inclusion concept in the mid 1990s as a way of tackling poverty and other social challenges facing its member states. The EU agenda has resulted in common objectives to respond to social exclusion as described in National Action Plans against poverty and social exclusion. Other countries and international organizations have also adopted the concepts of social exclusion and inclusion.


WHAT IS SOCIAL EXCLUSION? THE EU’S DEFINITION: “a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and life long learning opportunities, or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education and training opportunities, as well as social and community networks and activities. They have little access to power and decision making bodies and thus feel powerless and unable to take control over the decisions that affect their day to day lives” (European Commission 2004).


UK GOVERNMENT’S DEFINITION OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION ‘social exclusion happens when people or places suffer from a series of problems such as unemployment, discrimination, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime, ill health and family breakdown. When such problems combine they can create a vicious cycle. Social exclusion can happen as a result of problems that face one person in their life. But it can also start from birth. Being born into poverty or to parents with low skills has a major influence on future life chances.’


UK’S DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)’ S DEFINITION a process by which certain groups are systematically disadvantaged because they are discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, caste, descent, gender, age, disability, HIV status, migrant status or where they live. Discrimination occurs in public institutions, such as the legal system or education and health services, as well as social institutions like the household. People are excluded by institutions and behavior that reflect, enforce and reproduce prevailing social attitudes and values, particularly those of powerful groups in society.


FROM POVERTY TO POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION  

 

The social exclusion concept originated in France about 30 years ago; The term was mostly used to describe individuals who were not covered by the social security systems of the time (these included single mothers, substance abusers and drug addicts; and people with physical and mental disabilities); Over time this grew to also include the unemployed, the homeless, dissatisfied youth, the old, immigrants, etc. In the late 1990s, the UK’s Labor government put a spotlight on the terms social exclusion and social inclusion. UK Govt established a Social Exclusion Unit whose main task is to implement government policies on inclusion and regeneration activities.


WHY DEAL WITH SOCIAL EXCLUSION? SOCIAL EXCLUSION EXPERTS ARGUE THAT:      

social exclusion is wider than the traditional concept of poverty; it is about processes that lead to non-participation in societies’ activities; it is multidimensional; it embraces concepts of vulnerability to poverty; one does not have to be poor to be socially excluded; non participation in societies’ activities is as critical as poverty.


WHO ARE THE SOCIALLY EXCLUDED? EXAMPLES FROM NEW EU STATES’ ANALYSES      

 

Those on low incomes; The unemployed; Individuals with disability; Non citizens; ethnicity minorities; immigrants; Families with many children; The homeless and those in poor housing; The young; the old; children; Women.


EXAMPLES OF SOCIALLY EXCLUDED GROUPS Poland

Lithuania

Latvia

Estonia

Unemployed

Disabled

Low income families; long term unemployed Disabled;

Long term unemployed

Lowly paid workers; long term unemployed

Disabled; children with disabilities

 The Roma; Immigrants and refugees; prisoners

Families with 3+ children

Farmers; Rural residents; Homeless 

T he Aged

Ethnic minorities; asylum seekers; victims of violence and trafficking; prostitution; ex prisoners;

Single parents; Families with 3+ children; Orphaned children; children without care; youth and children from excluded families The homeless; Farmers and rural populations  

Pensioners

Victims of sexual violence

Ethnic minorities;  Ex prisoners; Trafficking victims

Low income h/holds with 3+ children; single parent h/holds

The homeless

Disabled

Russian speaking populations

Single families; families with 3+ children

The homeless; Lack of private housing.

Youth

Women, the homeless

The Old, Children and Youth in care Women who want to return to work after childbearing


MANIFESTO TO ERADICATE POVERTY AND TO FIGHT SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN MEMBER STATES BY 2010. (THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF LISBON, MARCH 2000)  

A consensus to eradicate poverty and to fight social exclusion in member states by 2010; The following policy objectives were adopted: 1) To facilitate participation in employment and access by all to the resources, rights, goods and services; 2) To prevent the risks of exclusion; 3) To help the most vulnerable; 4) To mobilize all relevant bodies.


MANIFESTO TO ERADICATE POVERTY AND TO FIGHT SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN MEMBER STATES BY 2010. (THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF LISBON, MARCH 2000)  

A consensus to eradicate poverty and to fight social exclusion in member states by 2010; The following policy objectives were adopted: 1) To facilitate participation in employment and access by all to the resources, rights, goods and services; 2) To prevent the risks of exclusion; 3) To help the most vulnerable; 4) To mobilize all relevant bodies.


WHAT IS SOCIAL INCLUSION?

the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in.


NATIONAL ACTION PLANS FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION

individual country’s analyses of what groups were socially excluded;  describe specific actions to be taken in order to become more inclusive.


COUNTING THE SOCIALLY EXCLUDED: THE LAEKEN EUROPEAN COUNCIL (DECEMBER 2001) ENDORSED COMMON STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION AND POVERTY THAT WILL SERVE AS KEY ELEMENTS IN MONITORING PROGRESS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION (LAEKEN INDICATORS)         

             

At-risk-of-poverty rate by gender and various age groups At-risk-of-poverty rate by most frequent activity and by gender and selected age groups At-risk-of-poverty rate by household type At-risk-of-poverty rate by accommodation tenure status and by gender and selected age groups At-risk-of-poverty rate by work intensity of the household At-risk-of-poverty threshold illustrative values Inequality of income distribution s80/s20 income quintile share ratio Persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate by gender and selected age groups Relative median at-risk-of-poverty gap by gender and selected age groups Regional cohesion by gender (variation in regional employment rates) Long term unemployment rate by gender and selected age groups Persons living in jobless households by gender and selected age groups Early school leavers not in education or training by gender Life expectancy at birth by gender Self defined health status by income level by gender and age Dispersion around the at-risk-of-poverty threshold by gender and selected age groups At-risk-of-poverty rate anchored at one moment in time by gender and selected age groups At-risk-of-poverty rate before cash social transfers by gender and selected age groups Inequality of income distribution Gini coefficient Persistent at-risk-of-poverty rate (alternative threshold) by gender and selected age groups Long term unemployment share by gender and age Very long term unemployment rate by gender and age In-work at risk of poverty rate by gender and age


 

THE EU SOCIAL INCLUSION STUDY: AN ATTEMPT TO MEASURE DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION extending the debate outside discussions about monetary deprivation and poverty adopted the capability deprivation which says that due to social and economic factors certain individuals in society may never reach their full potential individuals who are deprived of certain capabilities could be excluded from participating in the labor force, consumption, wealth accumulation and from social functions


RECOGNIZE THAT JOBS AND INCOME; EDUCATION AND TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES; SOCIAL, COMMUNITY NETWORKS AND ACTIVITIES ARE CENTRAL TO THE PROCESS OF INCLUSION. GO BEYOND QUANTIFYING THE PERCENT OF PEOPLE THAT LACK FINANCIAL MEANS (OR THAT DO NOT CONSUME ENOUGH) AS A PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL POPULATION.

Profile the proportion of the population that is not included in society’s production, consumption, political engagement and social interaction.

SOCIAL EXCLUSION ENCOMPASSES MORE THAN POVERTY, BUT, POVERTY IS A COMPONENT OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION

Excluded from Financial Capital Those who are excluded from access to earnings and wealth

Excluded from Social Capital Those with limited friends, family, community interactions and little political empowerment

Excluded from Human Capital

Excluded from Physical Capital

Those with no or very limited Education, skills

Do not own any Housing or Land


WHY A TARGET ON POVERTY IN EUROPE 2020? 

1 in 6 Europeans is at risk of poverty

Most vulnerable hit hardest by the crisis

Poverty and social exclusion already major concern in Europe beforehand

European citizens are concerned about the social dimension of Europe.

232


WHAT IS SOCIAL EXCLUSION? 

    

Origin in French tradition of sociology (Durkheim) Roman Catholic tradition of social solidarity Taken up by the EU in 1990s Later taken up by Labour Govt. in 1990s A number of different perspectives Difficult to define


SOCIAL EXCLUSION: ANGLO-AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES 

     

Targeting and means testing Charles Murray and the underclass (see Abbott and Wallace “The family and the New Right”) Cycles of deprivation /Culture of poverty Blaming the poor William Julius Wilson and the idea of the racially segregated urban ghetto Wilson vs. Murray on the deprived Part economic, part behavioural


SOCIAL EXCLUSION: EU PERSPECTIVES 

  

    

Unemployment Poverty Inequality Risk of being poor Education Spatial – regional Life expectancy Health Participation??


3 PARADIGMS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION    

(Hilary Silver analysed in Daly and Saraceno in book edited by Hobson/Lewis/Siim) 1. Solidarity (French) exclusion a problem for the whole society 2. Specialisation (Anglo-American) Due to specialisation in divisions of labour/society – a group 3. Monopoly power (Southern?). Social closure by priviledged groups against other groups.


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION: UNEMPLOYMENT     

  

Exclusion from labour market Long term unemployment a particular problem Large variations in unemployment by region Return to agriculture and disguised unemployment (disabled etc.) Unemployment result of industrial restructuring (rustbelt, some rural areas, innercities) Is there a core group of people who are always unemployable? Solution: activation policies BUT long term unemployment associated with multiple deprivation (process rather state – risk groups)


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION: POVERTY       

 

Absolute measures – 60% of median income (by Europe or by country?) $nn per day Relative measures – relative to the society (how to achieve a measure?) Relative measures – Breadline Europe Subjective measures Deprivation scales Consumer durables/living conditions Before transfers and after transfers? Baumann – consumerism and the new poor


SOCIAL EXCLUSION VS POVERTY           

Social exclusion a broader concept of poverty French social policy – different groups: drug addicts, lone mothers, long term unemployed, migrants etc. Exclusion from participation and power. Citizenship – rights and social policy. Lack of full membership of community Dynamic aspect – social exclusion as process, life trajectories Embeddedness in social ties Focuses on process of exclusion Subjective and objective aspects – feelings of alienation and uprootedness BUT: Are these measuring different things? Perhaps do not reinforce one another?


SOCIAL EXCLUSION – OTHER SOCIAL PATHOLOGIES 

     

Lower levels of trust Higher alienation Higher group tensions Lower civic participation High correlation between social exclusion and economic exclusion. Crime etc Anomie (Durkheim)


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION: SPATIAL? 

Housing policies in UK and France  Change in nature of social housing  White-flight and black middle class flight  De-industrialisation


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION: PARTICIPATION 

Low social participation if unemployed, working class, etc.  Educated most likely to participate in civil society  Solution: Empowering the poor? How?  World Bank solution


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION: EXCLUSION FROM CONSUMPTION? 

Baumann- consumerism and the new poor  Increased pressure to consume  Consumption capacity depends on family situation etc.


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION: SELF EXCLUSION 

Communities that exclude themselves  Communities/individuals that are excluded by others.  Non-membership of the community


DEFINITIONS OF EXCLUSION: SOCIAL SUPPORT    

Does social support follow other patterns of economic exclusion? Is social support a compensation for exclusion? Under which circumstances does social support work best? SOLUTION: help rebuild communities/maintain cohesive communitie


DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION: ALIENATION 

People feel left out of society.  But sometimes quite privileged people feel left out  SOLUTION???


Youth Rights – basis for youth policy development

An EU Strategy for Youth 2010-2018 – Investing and Empowering Creating more Opportunities for youth in education and employment Improving Access and full participation of all young people in society Fostering mutual solidarity between society and young people


Youth Rights – basis for youth policy development

Creating more Opportunities for youth in education and employment Complementary to formal education, nonformal education for young people should be supported to contribute to Lifelong Learning in Europe, by developing its quality, recognizing its outcomes, and integrating it better with formal education. An EU Strategy for Youth 2010-2018 – Investing and Empowering


Youth Rights – basis for youth policy development

Improving Access and full participation of all young people in society Encourage healthy living for young people and physical education, sporting activity and collaboration between youth workers, health professionals and sporting organizations Ensure full participation of youth in society, by increasing youth participation in the civic life of local communities and in representative democracy, by supporting youth organizations, promoting e-democracy and by developing quality standards on youth participation, information and consultation. An EU Strategy for Youth 2010-2018 – Investing and Empowering


Youth Rights – basis for youth policy development

Fostering mutual solidarity between society and young people Prevent poverty and social exclusion breaking its intergenerational transmission by mobilizing all actors involved in the life of youth. Support youth volunteering. An EU Strategy for Youth 2010-2018 – Investing and Empowering


INTRODUCTION 

Gender equality in employment has become an established and visible part of the European policy agenda 

Gender equality and gender mainstreaming (GM) policy principles   

Contrast to absence in 1993 Delors ‘White Paper’

Explicitly built into the Employment guidelines for the European Employment Strategy (launched in 1997) Emphasised as a key requirement in the Social Inclusion process (launched in 2000) Quantitative targets:  female employment rate,  childcare services (+ objectives to reduce gender gaps in pay, unemployment and other equality measures)

Terminology: Gender mainstreaming (GM), Gender Impact Assessment (GIA), Gender specific measures (‘equal opportunities’)

The evaluation role of our ‘EGGSIE’ (previously EGGE) network


THE OPEN METHOD OF COORDINATION 

The Social Inclusion process also launched in 2000   

Eradication of poverty and social exclusion by 2010 Common objectives and common indicators for monitoring Two-yearly NAP

More recent and less developed than the EES     

Objectives ‘softer’ than guidelines No quantified targets at EU level (‘encouraged’ at national level) Two-yearly NAPs Council and Commission not empowered to make country-specific recommendations (unlike EES and BEPG) Streamlining much less developed, even within the Social Inclusion process itself


EMPLOYMENT GUIDELINES 1998-2003 The 4 ‘Pillars’ of the 20+ guidelines – some targets introduced in 1999 

Improving Employability 

Developing Entrepreneurship 

Supporting business start-ups and job creation

Encouraging Adaptability 

Tackling unemployment, active labour market policies, easing school-work transitions

Modernizing work organisations (flexibility), supporting adaptability (training & investment)

Strengthening policies for Equal Opportunities    

Gu19: Gender mainstreaming (introduced 1999) Gu20: Tackling gender gaps (unemployment, pay) Gu21: Work family reconciliation Gu22: Facilitating labour market re-entry


EMPLOYMENT GUIDELINES 2003

3 overarching objectives and 12 specific guidelines   

Full employment Job quality and productivity at work Social cohesion and an inclusive labour market

10 employment guidelines (+ 2 governance)          

Preventing unemployment Job creation & encouraging entrepreneurship Promoting adaptability & mobility Development of human capital & lifelong learning Active ageing Gender equality (including childcare target) Promoting labour market integration of disadvantaged groups (disable, immigrants, early school leavers) ‘Making work pay’ (social security reform, fiscal reform for employees and employers) Reducing undeclared work Reducing regional disparities in employment & unemployment


Hans Steiner Conference on Indicators, February 2010

OMC ďƒ’ -

-

-

Vague objectives in the 4 strands Overarching issues: 1) social cohesion, 2) better interaction with other policy fields, 3) good governance Social Inclusion: 1) promoting labour market participation, 2) enabling access to basis resources, 3) better coordination and more involvement of actors Pensions: acccess, adequacy and sustainability Health and long term care: access, high quality and sustainability


Hans Steiner Conference on Indicators, February 2010

ROLE OF INDICATORS IN THE EU-SOCIAL POLICY FIELD  Indicators in the Strand „Social Inclusion“ -

-

At risk of poverty rate and threshold values Persistent at risk of poverty rate Intensity of poverty risk Long term unemployment rate People in jobless households Employment gap of immigrants Early school leavers Material deprivation rate Self reported unmet need for medical care Housing (not decided yet) Child well-being (not decided yet)


The cost of Early School Leaving When young people do not complete school, Education Foundation Australia (2007) suggests that they can expect: 

lower wages and greater financial insecurity

poorer mental and physical health

a higher likelihood of child abuse and neglect when early leavers become parents

higher instances of homelessness, drug and alcohol abuse and criminal activity

mortality rates up to nine times higher than the general population.

Early school leaving and lower levels of education cost Australia an estimated $2.6 billion a year in higher social welfare, health and crime prevention. Education Foundation Australia (2007)


SOCIAL EXCLUSION ďƒ’Social

exclusion (SE) is the outcome of multiple deprivations that prevent individuals or groups of people from participating fully in the economic, social, and political life of the society in which they live.

258


SOCIAL INCLUSION ďƒ’ Social

inclusion (SI) is achieved when ALL (i.e. including excluded individuals or groups of people) have the necessary opportunities and resources to participate fully in economic, social, cultural and political activities which are considered the societal norm

259


WHAT’S SOCIAL INCLUSION? 

A relatively new term to Australia (but not a new concept); The process of rectifying a situation in which individuals and groups are excluded from participating in social, economic and political activity of society as a whole, due to poverty, lack of education and other circumstances (Vinson, 2009); Some debate about whether it’s really about assisting the marginalised or whether it’s become an instrumentalist concern with national productivity.


SOCIAL INCLUSION DIMENSIONS (NORTH AND FERRIER, 2009)   

The cultural dimension - acceptance and respect for diverse norms, values and ways of living. The economic dimension - income, employment, housing and working conditions. The political dimension - power dynamics which generate unequal patterns of rights and ‘the conditions in which rights are exercised’ (SEKN, 2008) eg access to utilities, community infrastructure services, education, health and social protection. The social dimension - relationships of support that enable a sense of well-being and connection with others, the community and broader social systems: family, friendships, neighbourhoods and social movements.


WHO ARE THE SOCIALLY EXCLUDED? Some Examples       

People living below the poverty line ‘poor’ Some Children, Aged or Elderly Majority of People Living with Disabilities Majority of People living with HIV/AIDS Majority of Marginalized Tribal groups People branded as witches, wizards etc Some women, widows, widowers, orphans etc. 262


HOW TO ADDRESS SE ISSUES Design and implement policies and programs to address issue of limited access to Financial Capital – earnings, wealth, income sharing etc. Human Capital – education, skills, credentials, recognition Social Capital – family, friends, community life, political empowerment or ‘voicelessness’

Physical Capital – housing, infrastructure and geographical location

263


SOME NATIONAL INCLUSION POLICIES /PROGRMS 

Scaling up of Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) Scaling up National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) registration for the indigent Improve access to quality education for People with Disability (PWD). School feeding programs, free uniforms and text books 264


IMPLICATIONS OF GE FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

Enhanced human capacity for national development. Closing earnings and productivity gaps between men and women.

Increasing women’s voice in decision making.

Limiting gender inequality across generations. 265


COST OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION  Loss

of potential human capital for national development

 Inter

generational poverty

 Can

potentially lead to social upheaval and crime 266


IMPLICATIONS OF SI FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 

Promotes their independence and livelihoods

Enhanced human capacity for national development

 

Closing earnings and productivity gaps between the advantaged and disadvantaged Increasing their voice in decision making Protects the poor from worst destitution and from destitution when faced with an economic shock and limits social exclusion across generations 267


Rehabilitation Cube Hanze University Groningen, Department of Rehabilitation


PROS OF GAINING QUALIFICATIONS THROUGH WORK (1) (SMITH ET AL, 2009, NCVER)  

Many people without qualifications are now able to gain them simply by virtue of having a job (cf Train to Gain in UK – 1m workers) a lot of these traineeships are you know, targeting a blue collar audience… like someone who’s been a cleaner, may have been a cleaner for 5, 10 years, but there's been no formal recognition of what they’ve done, and … they see themselves as just a cleaner and the fact that the traineeship is also competency based and can recognise skills that they already have, without them needing to attend… a traditional classroom environment and having it on the job. So the combination of on the job and that recognition that what they're doing actually does have some value somewhere in an educational framework, has made them feel, I think, just a lot more proud about what they do, in themselves, with their self esteem.


PROS (2)   

  

Training is highly work-related and may not require much academic expertise; Progression to higher-level qualifications available; RPL might assist with progression; Having better-qualified people can encourage employers to look to creating better jobs; People do not have to pay for their training Employers can feel happier about taking the risk of employing somebody with a poor employment record.


CONS OF GAINING QUALIFICATIONS THROUGH WORK: (1) INTEGRITY OF QUALIFICATION. 

Danger of over-contextualisation;  Broad rather than narrow qualifications are more use to workers and more acceptable to many;  Too-easy assessment ;  Too much RPL. Many employers don’t trust it;  Some employers not able or willing to offer a variety of tasks.


CONS OF GAINING QUALIFICATIONS THROUGH WORK: (2) ACCESS 

You have to be employed. Not much of a problem in Australia but it is in other countries;  Should unemployment rise it would be difficult to offer some of these quals in an RTO setting;  Not all employers engage with the system-industry area, firm size and geography play a part;  Some trainees don’t consciously undertake a qualthey are ‘passive learners’;


EXCLUSION IS MULTIDIMENSIONAL 

Economic: high unemployment; lack of labor market opportunities;  Geographic: marginalized rural settlements and urban ghettos are frequently the poorest (qualitative analysis of Roma in Slovakia);  Social/cultural: lack of access to services; language barriers for children attending school/parents interacting with service providers.


ADDRESSING EXCLUSION: INSTRUMENTS  

Social Funds: support demand driven community development (risk prevention); Microcredit: (risk mitigation); Conditional cash transfers: support positive behavior, e.g. school attendance (risk prevention and coping); Deinstitutionalization: support community based care (risk prevention and coping).


REPORT HIGHLIGHTS…

   

Definition: non-participant at school who is less than 16 years or before completing 3 years post primary 1,625 (12.6%) primary pupils in Louth absent 20 days or more in 2005/2006 1,503 (17.6%) post-primary pupils in Louth absent 20 days or more in 2005/2006 National Response to the issue  DEIS – Delivering Equality of Opportunity in Schools    

16 primary & 5 post-primary

School completion Programme Home School Community Liaison Visiting Teacher Service for Traveller pupils National Educational Welfare Service


EXCLUSION BASED ON: 

Language  Ideology and power relations  Stereotypes  Identity creation  Sexual harrassment and other types of physical abuse


LANGUAGE 

Language which is not gender inclusive is also often termed sexist language.  Sexist language is language that discriminates against women or men (though most often women) by not adequately reflecting their role, status and presence in society.  It is the most obvious and first indicator of discrimination or exclusion policy.


HONORIFICS 

The honorifics are indicators of "mutually defining identities“, e.g. the use of "ma'am" or "sir" clearly marks a mutually agreed superior/subordinate relationship.  In addition to being markers of relative status, "ma'am" and "sir" are also clearly marked for gender.


MILITARY STEREOTYPES    

Men are socially constructed breadwinners who protect the family Women are socially constructed to nurture and support men in these pursuits. Men and masculinity symbolize power, strength, aggression, independence, and machismo. Women and femininity symbolize fragility, weakness, compassion, dependence, and kindness. (Weinstein & D’Amico, 1999)


WHAT MEASURES AND ACTIONS DOES ICELAND ENVISAGE TO INTEGRATE VULNERABLE/DISTANT GROUPS INTO THE LABOUR MARKET?   

Youth to Action 

Targeted age group, 16-30 years old

Knowledge and Experience 

Targeted group, long term unemployed 30-70 years old

In general, various labour market measures are offered by the Directorate of labour, including: 

  

Courses in languages, computer and clerical work Job-related courses Study agreements Workshops and clubs


TÜRKIYE’DE YOKSULLUK 2007

Kırsal kesimde %32,18 Kentsel alanlarda % 10,61 Türkiye geneli %18,56 (4 kişilik hane için gıda ve gıda dışı 619 TL/Ay) Harcama esaslı göreli yoksulluk (%50) %14,43 (Eşdeğer fert başına tüketim harcaması medyan değerinin %50'si esas alınmıştır.) 

281


3.  

 

AVRUPA

BİRLİĞİNDE

SOSYAL

İÇERME

21 Ocak 1974 tarihli yoksullukla mücadeleye dair Avrupa Konseyi Kararı 1975: yoksullukla mücadele konusunda ilk pilot proje uygulaması yoksullukla mücadeleye 1984:İkinci eylem programı 1989: üçüncü eylem programı 1989 yılında kabul edilen Topluluk Sosyal Şartında, toplumsal yaşamda dezavantajlı konumda olan kişilerin durumlarına değinilmiştir.

282


YOKSULLUKLA MÜCADELE 

Sosyal Şartın hükümleri doğrultusunda 24 Haziran 1992 tarihli (92/441/EEC), sosyal koruma sistemlerinde yeterli kaynak ve sosyal yardıma ilişkin ortak ölçütler üzerine Konsey Tavsiyesi

283


SOSYAL DıŞLANMA 

1997 Amsterdam Antlaşması  136. Madde: sosyal dışlanma ile mücadeleyi Birliğin amaçları arasına dahil etmiş,  137. Madde: Konseyi sosyal dışlanma ile mücadele edecek yaratıcı yaklaşımlar geliştirmek ve bu konudaki deneyimleri değerlendirmekle görevli kılmıştır.

284


MART 2000 LIZBON KONSEYI 

2010 yılı itibariyle Avrupa Birliğinde yoksulluk ve sosyal dışlanmaya son vermek için açık işbirliği yönteminin benimsenmesi

285


SCHOOL EXCLUSION IS DETERMINED BY MULTIPLE VARIABLES, WICH ARE UNIQUE TO EACH COMMUNITY: COMPLEX SISTEM.

L’ ESCLUSIONE SCOLARE E DETERMINATA DA MULTIPLE VARIABILI CHE SONO PROPRIE DI OGNI COMUNITA:


“HISTORICALLY, THE SUCCESS OR

FAILURE OF EDUCATIONAL SISTEMS DEPENDS ON WETHER THEY ADAPT (OR NOT) TO THE COMMUNITIES CONCERNED”

“IL SUCCESSO O FALLIMENTO DEI SISTEMI EDUCATIVI NELLA STORIA, E DEVUTO A ADEGUAZIONE O NO DI ESSI ALLE COMUNITA ALLE QUALI SI DIRIGEVANO”


DIFFICULTIES IN ADAPTATION DUE TO: DIFFICOLTA NELL’ADEGUAMENTO PER: 

 

 

Very rapid changes in adolescents characteristics Cambiamenti veloci delle caratteristiche dagli adolescenti. Heterogeinity of comunities . Eterogeneita delle comunita. Inflexibility of the Educational Sistem Rigidita del sistema educativo. Lack of elements such as: Assenza di elementi tali como:

   

Self Worth / Valutazioni di se stessi. Promotion of self steem / Fomento dell’autostima. Purpose of life / Propósito di vita. Appraisal of affectivity / Valutazione dell’affettivita.


   

  

AS EDUCATIONAL LEVEL DECREASES, THE FOLLOWING IS NOTED: A MINORE LIVELLO EDUCATIVO, SI OSSERVA CHE: Higher rates of early and unplanned pregnancies/ I tassi di gravidanza precoce e non pianificata sono maggiori. Higher incidence of HIV/AIDS / Maggiore incidenza di HIV/SIDA. More severe nutritional deficiences /Sono maggiori le deficienze nutricionali. Use of more harmful drugs / Le droghe utilizzate sono piú nocive More psychopathological symptoms / I cuadri psicopatologici sono piú gravi. Higher incidence of violence: homicides / Maggiore incidenza di violenza: omicidi. Influence of parenteral educational level on early psychomotor stimulation (brain development) / Il livello educativo famigliare influisce nella stimolazione psicomotoria precoce (sviluppo


< EDUCATIONAL LEVEL = < SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS < LIVELLO EDUCATIVO = < STATUS SOCIOECONOMICO: 

Unemployment rate rises /Aumenta la disoccupazione.

Income decreases /Disminuisce l ‘entrata economica.

Marginalization increases /Si incrementa la marginalitá.

Social exclusion becomes a reality / Si concreta

l’esclusione sociale.


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL AND HEALTH EXCLUSION Resource allocation

Employment/

Health-care model

Underemployment

Health Exclusion Social Exclusion

Discrimination

Ethnic origin

System structure

Marginalization Age/gender Poverty

Geographical distribution of the health service network


    

  

SCHOOL DROPOUT: RISK FACTORS ABBANDONO SCOLASTICO:INDICADORI DI RISCO  Repetizione de un anno. Grade repetition Defficiency in the educational  Rendimento pedagogico deficiente. output  Tentativa di abbandonare gli Intention to giveup on studi. studies.  Non adattamaneto ad una nuova Lack of adjustment to new modalitá pedagogica. pedagogical methodologies. Relationship problems: peers,  Problemi nei vincoli: pari, autorita, genitori. authority, parents.  Bullismo. Bulliying.  Orientazione vocacionale, Educational/vocational and occupaxione lavorativa/scolare. occupational guidance. Non-supportive and/or “push  Sistema non contenitore e/o espulsivo.


Factors interfering with learning: Excessive demands

Pedagogical

Dysfunctional relationships

 ENVIRONMENTAL Social

 PERSONAL

Non-adjusted evaluation

Psychological

Biological

Violence (Bullying) Drop out Migrations Addictions School phobia Depression ADD Clinical diseases Portellano Pérez, J.A – 2007


PROMOTE        

PROMUOVERE

Cross curricular studies / Contenuti trasversali Tutorships / Tutele. Spaces for reflection and expression for students and teachers. / Spazi di reflessione ed espressione per alunni e docenti. Working with diversity and integration / Lavori con la diversita ed integrazione. Inclusion / L’ inclusione. ADOLESCENTS AS HEALTH PROMOTERS / ADOLESCENTI PROMOTORI DI SALUTI.


NOTHING CAN BE ACHIEVED WITHOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL AND ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT OF ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE, AND THIS INVOLVMENT SHOULD THEREFORE BE FAVOURED AND ENCOURAGED BY OPENING CHANNELS TO PROMOTE IT.

NIENTE POTRÁ RIUSCIRSE SENZA LA FONDAMENTALE ED ATTIVA PARTICIPAZIONE DEGLI ADOLESCENTI, PER CUI DEBE PROPENDERE, FAVORIRE ED APRIRE CANALI CHE LA PROMUOVANO.


THE PROBLEMS THAT WE WANT TO SOLVE... ... together with roma NGOs are: • • • • •

Increasing the educational level of roma children; Equal access to quality education; Improving the living conditions, infrastructure; Improving the access to health services Reducing the unemployment.

Municipality of Sliven, Bulgaria


"Count Us In'" Project Social Inclusion Coordinator JMcC

WHAT IS SOCIAL INCLUSION 

A socially inclusive society is defined as 

One where all people feel valued  Their differences are respected  Their basic needs are met so  They can live in dignity Residents were thrilled to have Stawell Secondary College students help them with their mosaic art work for the Sensory Garden whilst on a visit to Macpherson Smith. Staff from SSC and MSNH look on, everyone having a chat and a laugh together, young and older enjoying each other’s company. This photo is a classic example of how being included makes everyone happy.


"Count Us In'" Project Social Inclusion Coordinator JMcC

VALUES THAT UNDERPIN SOCIAL INCLUSION  

Everyone Is Ready 

None of us has to pass a test or meet a set of criteria before we can be included

Everyone Needs Support 

Sometimes some of us need more support than others

Everyone Can Communicate

Everyone Can Contribute

Together We Are Better

 

Not using words doesn’t mean we don’t have anything to say We need to recognize, encourage and value each person’s contribution – including our own

We are not dreaming of a world where everyone is like us – difference is our most important renewable resource


"Count Us In'" Project Social Inclusion Coordinator JMcC

“COUNT US IN” A SOCIAL INCLUSION PROJECT FOR HIGH CARE RESIDENTS 

Stawell Regional Health’s government grant for a project to identify opportunities for greater social inclusion for residents at Macpherson Smith Aged Care Facility.....   

All people are valued, their differences respected, their basic needs met & are able to live their lives with dignity. Stawell Regional Health feels that everyone needs to be supported, feel included, regardless of age or ability. Staff are working hard to ensure that Macpherson Smith Nursing Home Residents have increased social inclusion and that they remain engaged with their community.

Pictured promoting the social inclusion program for residents at Macpherson Smith Nursing Home are L-R Relatives of Residents - Robyn Dunn, Veronica Naeher and Joy McCracken - Social Inclusion Co-ordinator for Stawell Regional Health


DEFINITION: SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

„People who have no chance of a satisfactory social participation, who live at the fringes of the society, who are poorly qualified or discriminated...“ (European Commission 2004) Literatur: Bude/Willisch (Hg.): Das Problem der Exklusion. Ausgegrenzte, Entbehrliche, Überflüssige. Hamburg 2006.


CONCLUSIONS  

Social inclusion: based on individual performance and achievement social justice, poetic justice

Schools: functional for social inclusion Compulsory education: exclusion is „excluded“ for the system of education


PEDAGOGICAL INCLUSION: BEST INSTRUCTION AND SUPPORT FOR INDIVIDUAL LEARNING First step: inequality on the basis of „equality“, equal treatment within the school class (dedifferenciation inside), but: outside differenciation Second step: inequality on the basis of „inequality“ (differentiation inside, not outside)


Compensate for social disadvantages in the early years: elementary education Selection moves to fringes of schools  Accept heterogeneity as a result of school education  Accept that educational systems cannot increase apprenticeships or jobs


Remember Samuel Beckett‘s maxim  in Worstward Ho:  „Try again, fail again, fail better“


Structural Indicators (Downes et al 2008) 

Prevention – Structural Indicator Strict State Monitoring of Standards for Labour Agencies Facilitating Employment Abroad Prevention – Structural Indicator Restriction of Advertising of the Sex Industry in Both the State and Private Sphere, including Taxis, Airports, Newspapers – Advertising Arguably Contrary to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women


IDENTIFYING KEY AREAS FOR INTERVENTION  late school enrolment 

inadequate school response to Roma children learning needs

low family incentive to continue children’s schooling

system inability to track school participation and educational outcomes for travelling families.


KEY INTERVENTION AREAS 

Early access to schooling: enrolment in preschool, early Primary School, encourage further education to older students School Support Program for children who are struggling within the school curriculum In-school professional training programs for teachers and community members on intercultural education strategies and skills in effective classroom teaching practices that promote meaningful and successful learning. Parent Support program so that they too acquire knowledge of the value and outcomes of education Self supporting ROMA networks with specific reference to schooling


SPECIFIC INTERVENTION ACTIONS In order to achieve the set goals, it was deemed necessary to  work closely with the Roma community and establish strong links between the school and family through the use of Roma mediators  support schools at the early school entry point of Roma children so as to limit the critical transient period between school and home  offer ongoing school support particularly regarding student progress within the curriculum by facilitating the establishment of supplementary support classes, funding expert support teaching staff , providing additional resources etc  offer ongoing counselling and psychological support both to parents and school community members in the attempt to tackle those interpersonal and personal parameters that infringe of successful learning  provide opportunities for teacher training and professional development in intercultural education  provide the opportunity for parents to attend adult learning classes in the attempt for the whole family to participate in the learning process  develop a school progress tracking system to monitor participation and success rates of Roma children in the attempt to isolate those barriers that inhibit successful schooling and locate those factors which promote school and community participation.  establish lasting networks and links in support of ROMA issues in the fields of education, health and welfare and housing


SOCIAL DEPRIVATION 

Scottish Index Of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) 

2003 – produced by Social Disadvantage Research Centre (SRDC) Oxford  

Based on 1222 local authority wards (typical population - 4,150) Uses 5 domains:    

Income (30%) Employment (30%) Health deprivation and Disability (15%) Education, skills and training (15%) Geographical access to services (10%)

2004 – produced by Office of the Chief Statistician, Scottish Executive  

Based on 6505 data zones (typical population – 750) Uses 6 domains      

Current income (6) Employment (6) Health (3) Education skills and training (3) Geographic access and telecommunications (2) Housing (1)


A MODEL OF SOCIAL EXCLUSION Self-sustaining, dynamic interdependence sensitivity to change in other domains context specificity reflexivity


WHICH ARE THE EDUCATION PROBLEMS OF ROMA CHILDREN Drop-out school early 

Early marriages  Facing with discrimination by the other children , even by teachers  Absence of parents awareness for the necessity of education


PROGRAMIN GENEL AMACI

Daha fazla ve daha iyi iş olanakları ve daha geniş bir sosyal uyum ile sürdürülebilir ekonomik büyüme yeteneğine sahip bilgi temelli ekonomiye geçişin desteklenmesi


MÜDAHALE ALANI: SOSYAL İÇERME

Öncelik 4:  Dezavantajlı kişilerin işgücüne dahil olmalarının kolaylaştırılması  İşgücü piyasasındaki engellerin ortadan kaldırılması  Herkesi kapsayacak bir işgücü piyasasının teşvik edilmesi.


SOSYAL İÇERME TEDBİRLER

1.

2.

Dezavantajlı kişilerin istihdam edilebilirliğinin arttırılması, işgücü piyasasına erişimlerinin kolaylaştırılması ve işgücü piyasasına girişlerinin önünde yer alan engellerin ortadan kaldırılması

İşgücü piyasası ve sosyal koruma alanındaki kurumlar ve mekanizmalar arasında daha iyi bir işleyiş ve koordinasyon sağlanması


YATAY KONULAR 

Cinsiyet Eşitliği—AB mali yardımları ile desteklenen tüm politika ve uygulamalarda kadın – erkek eşitliğinin gözetilmesidir

Sürdürülebilir kalkınma & çevrenin korunması

Sivil toplumun dahil edilmesi - katılımcılık

Coğrafik ve tematik odaklanma


GAPS AND PROBLEMS        

The education of the ethnic groups is partially or totally segregated Children from ethnic background have lower achievement Lack of comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation Deficient enforcement of public provisions Insufficient targeting of social inclusion measures Poor secondary school and higher education results Insufficient positive actions Weak mechanisms of monitoring and evaluation 316


GOOD PRACTICES’ FEATURES (I) Good practice is considered to be an effective practice that helps a country/community/ organisation to capitalise on experience and knowledge gained through social innovation  Social inclusion potential: Supporting the social inclusion of the ethnic groups through education and training  Anti-discrimination adequacy: Target discrimination and promote equal treatment 317


A RELEVANT EXAMPLE: DESEGREGATING THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM (ROMANIA) 

Elaboration of a package of legislative, pedagogical and financial measures, among others:       

Mixed classes at all levels of education Transport provisions for Roma children Common use of school spaces and facilities Support classes for pupils with learning difficulties Training teachers on inclusive education Enable pupil transfer to others schools to balance ethnic background Information a awareness to the Roma community about the quality of education in mixed schools 318


A RELEVANT EXAMPLE: INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION AND SUPPORT MEASURES FOR INTER-ETHNIC INTEGRATION  Work with very young children's who are free from prejudices:    

Multilingualism promotion Work with multi-ethnic staff Development of conflict resolution skills in children Increasing the chance for successful inter-ethnic communication in the future

319


KEY TRENDS AND SUCCESS FACTORS

 Equal

opportunities and affirmative actions for education and training of disadvantaged ethnic groups  Multi-level school interventions  Extra resources for disadvantaged students  Specific measures for secondary and tertiary education participation  Mediation, mentoring and tutorship 320


POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 

  

Cross-country level Key Message 1. Address common regional problems through cross-country initiatives within WBA region and between EU and WBA countries Key Message 2. Invest in analytical work on transferability potential and merits before undertaking any practical steps Key Message 3. Build local ownership of programmes, measures and practices planned

321


POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 

   

National level Key Message 4. Adopt comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation, enforcement mechanisms and social inclusion strategies Key Message 5. Eliminate segregation in residential areas and schools Key Message 6. Implement effective affirmative actions in support of ethnic groups in education and training Key Message 7. Improve access, participation and retention of ethnic groups in education

322


POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 

  

National level Key Message 8. Improve access and participation by vulnerable ethnic groups in training Key Message 9. Facilitate intercultural dialogue and the inclusion of multiple ethnic groups Key Message 10. Plan and enforce mainstreaming strategies carefully

323


POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 

 

National level Key Message 11. Develop integrated and coordinated responses to cumulative disadvantages of vulnerable ethnic groups Key Message 12. Strengthen local government capacity to deal with ethnic group issues Key Message 13. Set up a functional monitoring and evaluation system based on relevant, reliable and up-todate equality data

324


POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 

School-based actions Key Message 14. Ensure an even social and ethnic mix in schools that reflects the composition of the region or neighbourhood Key message 15. Ensure comprehensive support actions to enhance educational outcomes and take-up rates

325


POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 

Civil society action Key Message 16. Work with parents, employers and communities to facilitate access and participation by ethnic groups in education and training and to the labour market Key Message 17. Strengthen the capacity of civil society organisations to engage in meaningful policy dialogue with government

326


QUALITY OF LIFE IS A COMPOSITE. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF WELL-BEING. Social support Genetics Early learning opportunities Affection/ Nurturance

Family Income

Child Health & Development Health services

Nutrition Health behaviours

Physical environments

Biological endowments


KERSCHENSTEINER AND DEWEY 

 

Kerchensteiner’s ‘system of education was to educate its members to form a community of thinking, selfless, efficient people all working willingly and joyfully together for the betterment and progress of the state’ (Simons, 1966: 29) Dewey wrote in The School and Society:‘No training of the sense organs in school introduced for the sake of learning…can begin to compete with the alertness and fullness of sense that comes through daily intimacy and interest in familiar occupations’


METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN EXAMINING SOCIAL EXCLUSION 

Social exclusion is multi-faceted – requires an approach which does not measure a single outcome  Social exclusion is polysemic, so absolute scale of exclusion may be questioned  Social exclusion is outcome rather than characteristic based (e.g. not all immigrants are socially excluded, not all working households are socially included!)


A

contested concept, historically specific  Macro-social but with multi-level elements  Involves elements of both system and social integration  Importance of equalities  Different political forms of cohesion  Not necessarily associated with lifelong learning or strong social capital


Theoretical framework

Mechanisms

Benefits

Human Capital

Stock of human capital and associated endogenous growth

Social Cohesion

Equality

Streaming in VET Status of VET Compensatory role of IVET / CVET Class / Gender / Racial biases in VET / CVET

Institutional

Institutional development (path dependencies) Interest group conflict / compromise


INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS Mitigating

against social

unrest Combating extremism Providing security Formation of national citizenships (and vocational cultures) Encouraging professional and trade union participation Development of industrial democracy

VET Social cohesion ‘regimes’


CONCLUSIONS 

     

Social inclusion is multifaceted and hard to target. VET initiatives around social inclusion are sometimes designed to exclude to achieve a narrow form of (employment) inclusion. In terms of social cohesion equality in education is important and equity of access alone will not suffice. The level of VET has little direct influence on macro-social benefits. Equality of education is not related to the level of VET and so increasing levels of VET will not provide more equality. VET can not be disaggregated from institutional frameworks. In policy terms, this means that IVET / CVET policies need to account for the existing welfare regime. Conceptually, the macro-social sides of VET lie outside of the policy imagination of most models of VET. There needs to be a reimagining of VET at this level in scenario building.


MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF THE CHALLENGES

Access to education: 

Tackling disadvantage in education and vocational training  Improving access for marginal groups, in particular to ICT  Assisting early school leavers and low qualified youth  Fostering access to higher education 334


MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF THE CHALLENGES

Acces to childcare:   

High quality, affordable and universal Pre-condition for bringing more women into work Relevance for providing less unequal starting conditions in schools

335


MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF THE CHALLENGES

Access to employment  Promoting quality employment  Fighting unemployment  Bringing people out from undeclared / precarious jobs  But fighting child labour 336


MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF THE CHALLENGES

Access to decent housing: 

Safe neighbourhoods  Particular attention to disadvantaged groups (immigrants, Roma, IDP…)  Responding to the specific urban and rural challenges

337


MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF THE CHALLENGES

Access to health care: 

Reducing barriers for low-income and disadvantaged families  Prevention: regular screening and vaccinations  Universal coverage (territorial dimension, disadvantaged groups) 338


MULTIDIMENSIONALITY OF THE CHALLENGES

Participation in culture, sports and recreation: 

Preparing children and youth for involvement in society  Tackling territorial disadvantage

339


WHAT IS SOCIAL EXCLUSION ? Multiple

levels of Disadvantage Marginalised Unemployment Living in Poverty/Low income Limited Social Network Removed from any Decision Making Quality of Life National Action Plan against Poverty and Social Exclusion


WHAT IS SOCIAL EXCLUSION? 

An individual is socially excluded if: “he or she for reasons beyond his or her control cannot participate in the normal activities of citizens in that society (whether he or she actually desires to participate or not)”. (Barry, 2002)  

Individual and Social incapacity Citizenship (Integration is focused on participation and exercise of rights)


Dimensions of exclusion (Burchardt et al, 2002)  Production

(position in the labour market)  Consumption (income)  Political engagement (unions, associations)  Social Interaction (family and social networks) 

Lack of sufficient incomes is not a pre-requisite for exclusion. The lack of two of the above dimensions is the precondition to be excluded ‘The main limitation of this survey – common to all household surveys – is the omission of institutional (prisoners, mental illness and homeless). However they form a small proportion of the population as a whole’. (Burchardt, Le Grand and Piachaud, D., 2002(2): 33)


EXCLUSION AS THE LACK OF CAPITAL (PIACHAUD, 2002) Social inclusion is determined by :  Financial Capital (financial assets, income)  Physical Capital (properties(dwelling, car,etc)  Human Capital (educational level and labour skills)  Social Capital (social networks)  Public Infrastructures (hospitals,motorways, etc) Hypotheses  Higher capital levels, lower likelihood of exclusion  Lower capital levels, higher likelihood of exclusion


SOP HRD priorities: 3:

Promoting Social Inclusion

From the perspective of the socio-economic analysis, the vulnerable groups (persons with disabilities, youth over 18 years old leaving the state child protection and the Roma populations) are facing social exclusion (low employment rate for the vulnerable groups, high percentage of Roma in informal (grey) economy, low education level, poverty, poor housing and health, difficult access to quality jobs). (In line with the Joint Inclusion Memorandum targets, priorities and measures, and in accordance with the revised EES and the Social Agenda 2005-2010 goals, to create a more cohesive and inclusive society: equal opportunities for all, combating poverty and promoting social inclusion, promoting diversity and non-discrimination). Focus on inclusive Labor Market, promotion of social economy

344


PRIORITY 3: PROMOTING SOCIAL INCLUSION Measures: 3.1 Combating the discrimination and promoting the measures for the integration on the labor market of the vulnerable groups, promoting social economy (MoLSSF – NAE IBs); 3.2 Improving access to education and vocational training for the vulnerable groups (MoER IBs); 3.3 Gender mainstreaming and combating the social exclusion of women (MoLSSF – NAE IBs); 3.4 Developing an efficient social services system aiming at reducing the risk of social exclusion and marginalization (MoLSSF – NAE); 3.5 Transnational Initiatives for the inclusive education (MoER IBs); 3.6 Transnational Initiatives for the inclusive labor market (MoLSSF – NAE IBs). 345


Examples of concrete proposals for activities possible to be financed through ESF, proposed by the social partners and civil society representatives: Priority 1 - Human Capital Development  

Supporting and promoting development of information and counseling centers in educational system, mainly in schools; Establishing and development of local information and resources centers, especially in rural areas.

Priority 3 Promoting social inclusion  establishing of counseling services for ex-offenders;  establishing of educational resources centers for Roma pupils, parents and teachers;  establishing and developing of small productive activities for Roma in partnership with local authorities;  training, benchmarking and identification of best models and good practice in equal opportunities field through transnational initiatives.

346


NEW EU YOUTH STRATEGY 

8 fields of action   

  

 

Education Employment and entrepreneurship Health and well-being Social inclusion Culture and creativity Youth participation Volunteering Youth in the world

Benelux-Nordic expert meeting on child and youth indicators, Amsterdam 13-15 December 2009


THE CONCEPT OF ACTIVE INCLUSION*

“A quality job – best safeguard against poverty/exclusion” (i) a link to the labour market through job opportunities or training; (ii) income support sufficient for people to have a dignified life; (iii) better access to services to facilitate entrance into mainstream society and re-insertion into employment (e.g. through counselling, health/child-care, lifelong learning/ training, psychological and social rehabilitation). * Commission Communication COM(2006) 44


THE CONCEPT OF ACTIVE INCLUSION Main challenge for balanced AI approach: to ensure that social protection policies effectively contribute to mobilising people who are capable of working while achieving the wider objective of providing a decent living standards to those who are and will remain outside the labour market.


POLYDYNAMO CENTRE OF SOCIAL INTERVENTION OF CYCLADES

Provides  Vocational counselling , professional orientation and business plan development  Individual psychological and social support for the professional career  Support of disabled people  Job-research techniques (CV, cover letters, interviews)


INCLUSıVE GROWTH To foster economy growth by delivering economic, social and territorial cohesion policies with following targets:  75% employment rate for women and men aged 2064 by 2020– achieved by getting more people into work, especially women, the young, older and lowskilled people and legal migrants  better educational attainment – in particular: – reducing school drop-out rates below 10% – at least 40% of 30-34–year-olds completing third level education (or equivalent)  at least 20 million fewer people in or at risk of poverty and social exclusion


HOW WıLL THE EU BOOST ıNCLUSıVE GROWTH? 2 flagship initiatives: 1. Agenda for new skills and jobs  

for individuals – helping people acquire new skills, adapt to a changing labour market and make successful career shifts collectively – modernising labour markets to raise employment levels, reduce unemployment, raise labour productivity and ensuring the sustainability of our social models

2. European platform against poverty   

ensuring economic, social and territorial cohesion guaranteeing respect for the fundamental rights of people experiencing poverty and social exclusion, and enabling them to live in dignity and take an active part in society mobilising support to help people integrate in the communities where they live, get training and help to find a job and have access to social benefits


WHAT ıS SOCıAL ıNNOVATıON ıN EU CONTEXT? 

Social innovation refers to profound changes of the way social (prevailingly public!) sector is developing and solving social problems  It is about innovating ways to meet so far unmet social needs by innovating all three sectors public, private for profit and private non for profit (CSO’s)  It is about skills innovation, regional/local governance innovation, eco-innovation…….. It is about transformation of social transfers policies into social investment policies!


SOCIAL JUSTICE, RECOGNITION AND REDISTRIBUTION 

Social inclusion and social justice – a multidimensional approach 

‘It’s about income, but about more …’ (Blair, 1997)  ‘National economic and social policies will no longer be working at cross purposes’ (Gillard, 2008) Fraser articulated a vision of how economic and cultural factors create injustice together, and how social justice requires both redistribution and recognition  ‘Justice today requires both redistribution and recognition’ (Fraser, 2003, p.9)  Eg economic and cultural aspects of sexism , racism and poverty


STATEMENTS BY THE COUNCIL 1975: Common definition of poverty the poor are "individuals or families whose resources are so small as to exclude them from the minimal acceptable way of life of the member state where they live".

2000: “Laeken” indicators for the EU social inclusion strategy 18 indicators of social inclusion including headline indicator “at-risk-of poverty” rate => focus on relative poverty

2010: Europe 2020 strategy: smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Ensuring

that the "benefits of growth are widely shared and that people experiencing poverty and social exclusion are enabled to live in dignity and take an active part in society". New definition of people "at-risk-of poverty or social exclusion" based on 3 indicators


POVERTY AND “SOCIAL EXCLUSION” Warning! 

R. Walker (1995): “Social exclusion means different things to different people” and this ambiguity permits “a continuing dialogue about matters that some would equate with, or at least include within, the concept of poverty”

National variations of the concept (R. Atkinson – 2000):

   

France: Societal solidarity ensuring participation of all in a common moral and social order (incl. social and cultural dim) Germany, Netherlands: reintegration on the labour market of the welfare dependant Scandinavian: reintegration on the labour market + deviant behaviour UK: Labour government’s agenda: Opportunities for all and welfare to work agenda (T. Blair’s definition)


A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL CONCEPT 

   

beyond the satisfaction of basic needs, having command over the resources needed to live in dignity, to access rights, to ensure full participation in society and the economy. beyond the lack of income, it covers the areas of work, health, education, or social and cultural participation. a temporal and dynamic phenomenon requiring solutions to durably escape poverty (labour market integration, equal opportunities and anti-discrimination) Poverty is graduated; the most severe forms of poverty and exclusion also need to be taken into account. There is also a need to reflect “absolute” differences in living standards across the EU, as well as changes over time.


INDICATORS OF SOCIAL INCLUSION (2001-2010) Dimension

Indicators

Income

At risk of poverty rate (60% of median) + thresholds Persistent at risk of poverty rate (2 out of 3 years in poverty) Poverty gap: Distance between median income of the poor and the poverty threshold Anchored poverty risk

Material deprivation

Severe material deprivation rate: missing 4 out of 9 items Material deprivation depth Housing deprivation, cost, overcrowding

Labour

Long term unemployment rate Population living in jobless households In-work poverty

Education

Early school leavers Low educational attainment Low reading literacy performance


INDICATORS OF SOCIAL INCLUSION (CONTINUED) Dimension

Indicators

Health

Healthy life expectancy by Socio-economic status Unmet need for health care

Social protection

Social protection expenditure, current and projected Social protection expenditure, by function Risk of poverty before social transfers (poverty reduction impact of social transfers)

Specific groups

Child deprivation Employment gap of migrants


3 INDICATORS TO DESCRIBE POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION Risk of poverty   

People living with less than 60% of the national median income Poverty lines vary from 200€/month to more than 3000€ « resources so low as to exclude them from the way of life of the MS »

People living in households with very low work intensity (“jobless households”)  

long-term exclusion from the labour market for workers and dependant family members Households where people aged 18-59, not students have no work or worked less than 1 day / week on average during the year

Severe material deprivation  

A non monetary measure of living conditions at least 4 out of 9 deprivations: pay the rent, keep home warm, eat meat or protein every second day, enforced lack of a car, a washing machine... Single European threshold, reflecting different living standards across the EU

JLH 10%

Risk of poverty or social exclusion

AROP SMD 8%

16%

115 million 23% 360

Source: Eurostat EU SILC 2010


FACETS OF POVERTY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION Latvia

Italy

Ireland

AROPE 38 %

AROPE 24%

AROPE 26%

JLH 12%

SMD 27%

Deprivation prevails

At Risk of Poverty

SMD 6%

JLH 10%

AROP 21%

SMD 7%

AROP 18%

Relative poverty prevails

Severe Material Deprivation

AROP 15%

JLH 20%

Labour market exclusion prevails

Jobless Households 361

Source: Eurostat EU SILC 2010

361


…DESPITE THE ‘POOR WORK’ THEY GOT 

Low paid & low/ no skilled & insecure factory workers, bar/ fast food staff, care assistants, security guards, labourers, shop assistants Easily hired into, & fired from, the abundant ‘poor work’ at the bottom of the labour market


LONGER-TERM POOR TRANSITIONS ‘Low pay is fair enough if these jobs can be labelled ‘entry level’, just a first step on the ladder…but very few move far, few make it to the next step. They inhabit a cycle of no pay/ low pay insecurity. This indeed is the end of social progress’ Polly Toynbee Hard Work, 2003  

For our interviewees, same ‘poor work’ at 17 & 27 years, entrapping young adults in lasting economic marginality & poverty [& at 37? 47? – new study] Downward social mobility, compared with their fathers & grandfathers (from skilled, ‘labour aristocracy’)


STRUCTURE 1. Different types of inequality and trends 2. EU response to inequality   

Europe 2020 Strategy and the European Semester Cohesion policy Social experimentation

3. Challenges in the context of 2020  

Coping with the crisis Discrepancies between EU headline and national targets Addressing inequality's causes or its consequences?

4. Conclusion


2012 IN DETAIL: PROTECTING THE VULNERABLE   

 

Continue improving the effectiveness of social protection systems Implement active inclusion policies Ensure access to services to support integration into the labour market and society Monitor distributional impact of reforms Pay attention to the needs of the most vulnerable in any tax shift


POVERTY & RE: FACTORS TO INCLUDE IN CLASSROOM STRATEGIES Active citizenship, inspired by faith and people of faith, such as Sister Adele Euphrasie Barbier. Engaging students to support charitable and justice initiatives. Social concern > positive action. Sensitivity to pupil poverty and exclusion.

Chris Callus: ‘justice & charity for others’


SOCIAL INCLUSION & RE: FACTORS TO INCLUDE IN CLASSROOM STRATEGIES Engaging students in controversial issues. Mutual respect. Teachers model how to talk about religion. Including all in the discussions through, e.g. paired work, line-ups, walking debates and scenarios.

Norman Richardson: ‘dialogue among equals’


SOCIAL EXCLUSION â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;A short hand label for what can happen when individuals or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health and family breakdown.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; (UK Department for Social Security, 1999, p23).


SOCIAL INCLUSION 

“Positive action taken to include all sectors of society in planning and other decision-making” (UK Government Planning Portal, 2008)


RELATED AREAS    

Social Capital  Networks,

participation, trust

Social disorganisation  Community

breakdown

Community Cohesion  Inter-racial

relationships

Community Strength


SOCIAL EXCLUSION DISCOURSES 

Redistribution Discourse (RED).  Material

deprivation  Traditional ‘old’ labor focus on income  ‘Excluders’ are corporations and wealthy individuals  Solution seen as redistribution of wealth through higher taxes and benefits


SOCIAL EXCLUSION DISCOURSES 

Social Inclusion Discourse (SID).  Dislocation

from the mainstream of society  Social as well as economic – relationships  Goal is participation in mainstream society  Solution; get people into work  Jobs

seen as more than raising income – links people back into mainstream aspirations.


SOCIAL EXCLUSION DISCOURSES 

Moral Underclass Discourse (MUD).  excluded

people are responsible for their own marginalisation  Underclass have lost contact with mainstream values  Main features are joblessness, single parenthood (illegitimacy) and anti-social behaviour  solution; use state powers (eg quarantining benefit) to force participation (Levitas, 1998)


TYPES OF EXCLUSION 

Material deprivation (poverty)  Labour market exclusion 

only valid indicators of exclusion when they correlate with exclusion from social relations.

Service exclusion  Exclusion from social relations 

Networks  Support  Fear  Confinement (JRF PSE survey)

Field Research on SIT (Second Part)