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2º ANO

Inglês VOLUME 1

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS PALAVRA DO AUTOR


Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias: Matriz de Referência C2

Conhecer e usar língua(s) estrangeira(s) moderna(s) como instrumento de acesso a informações e a outras culturas e grupos sociais. H5

Associar vocábulos e expressões de um texto em LEM ao seu tema.

H6

Utilizar os conhecimentos da LEM e de seus mecanismos como meio de ampliar as possibilidades de acesso a informações, tecnologias e culturas.

H7

Relacionar um texto em LEM, as estruturas linguísticas, sua função e seu uso social.

H8

Reconhecer a importância da produção cultural em LEM como representação da diversidade cultural e linguística.


C

1

A PÍ LO TU

COMPETÊNCIAS:

C2

Relationships HABILIDADES:

H5, H6, H7, H8

APRESENTAÇÃO A família é a primeira unidade de socialização com a qual entramos em contato. As relações que nela se estabelecem moldam nosso caráter e contribuem para o nosso desenvolvimento social. Neste capítulo, conversaremos sobre a família e os vínculos afetivos que criamos durante nossas vidas e abordaremos pontos gramaticais, como as diferenças no uso dos verbos do e make, das expressões used to, be used to e get used to, e os indefinite pronouns and quantifiers.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

TÓPICO 1 • Idioms and Phrases

4. To fall heads over heel for somebody:

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Os idioms, ou expressões idiomáticas, estão presentes tanto no inglês escrito como no falado e são uma parte importante da língua. Uma vez que essas expressões não têm um sentido denotativo, ou seja, literal, faz-se necessária a familiarização com seu uso e significado.

5. Play hard to get:

Imagem 1.1.

6. Out of one’s league:

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 01. Match the terms to their definition. 1. Wingman:

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

7. Blind date:

2. Have a crush on somebody:

8. Pick up line:

3. Have chemistry with somebody:

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9. To tie the knot:

10. Go Dutch:

6. She is very irresponsible. I wouldn’t give her a job _____ _________________. 7. He prefers to wash his car himself - it’s a real _________ ______________. 8. Everybody knows it is not real love. It is just _________ ______________, and what she really likes about him is his house. 9. Although the prince was vulgar and unpleasant, he always received plenty of invitations to social gatherings-___________________________. 10. ___________________is the only approach to take towards a relative who is doing drugs.

03. Match the phrases 1-10

( ) A guy's line to show they’re romantically interested in a girl. ( ) A girl/guy’s friend who helps her/him find partners. ( ) A date organized for two people who have never met before. ( ) To go on a date in which each person pays half of the expenses. ( ) We say this when you think a person is too beautiful to possibly want to date you. ( ) To have very good energy or spark with another person. ( ) To resist getting seduced easily to make it more interesting. ( ) To get married. ( ) A different way of saying you have fallen in love with someone. ( ) To be attracted to a woman or a man.

from question 2 with meanings A - J. a) People are attracted to the wealthy and powerful.( ) b) Love that you give in order to get something from someone. ( ) c) An activity that is hard work but that you do because you enjoy it. ( ) d) To give a message of affection from you to someone else. ( ) e) Pleading exclamation. ( ) f) To love sth or sb very much. ( ) g) They do not like each other. ( ) h) Very ugly face.( ) i) Helping someone to change their behaviour by treating them in a very severe way. ( ) j) somethings that is impossible to do or that you will not do whatever happens. ( )

04. Use your cellphone to have access to the QR code and listen to the song as you fill in the gaps.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

02. Fill in the sentences with the correct idiom from the box. a face only a mother could love - tough love - cupboard love - labour of love - love her to bits - for the love of God - everybody loves a lord - no love lost between - for love nor money - send his love Link sugerido • https://goo.gl/Q2VXvr

1. There’s ____________________ those two. Even though they are family, they could never live together. 2. The poor baby has_____________________________. 3. Oh, __________________________! Not you again! 4. Phillipe asked me to_______________________ to you and the children. 5. H e l e n a ’s t h e n i c e s t p e r s o n I k n o w. I____________________.

I’m ________ for a moment Caught in between __________ and __________. And I’m just dreaming Counting the ways to where you are I’m _____________ two for a moment She feels better than ever And we’re on fire

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c) É visto de forma idealizada diante de uma vida relativamente curta. d) É descrito como o melhor momento diante de uma vida centenária e entediante. e) Foi um momento repleto de traumas e decepções.

CONECTANDO DISCIPLINAS The Curious Case of Benjamin Button is a 2008 American romantic fantasy drama film directed by David Fincher. What makes Button such a curious case is that when he is born in New Orleans just after World War I, he is already in his eighties, and proceeds to live his life aging in reverse. This sweeping film follows the character’s unusual life into the 21st century as he experiences joy and sadness, loves lost and found, and the meaning of timelessness. Reprodução

Making our way back from Mars ________________ there’s still time for you Time to buy and time to lose _____________, there’s never a wish better than this When you only got _____________ years to live I’m ______________ for a moment Still the man, but you see I’m of age A kid on the way A family on my mind I’m _____________ for a moment The sea is high And I’m heading into a crisis Chasing the years of my life ______________ there’s still time for you Time to buy, time to lose yourself Within a morning star _______________ I’m all right with you ______________, there’s never a wish better than this When you only got ______________ years to live Half time goes by Suddenly you’re wise Another blink of an eye _______________ is gone The sun is getting high We’re moving on I’m _______________ for a moment Dying for just another moment And I’m just dreaming Counting the ways to where you are _____________ there’s still time for you ______________ I feel her too ______________ you’re on your way Every day’s a new day ____________ there’s still time for you Time to buy and time to choose Hey _____________, there’s never a wish better than

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

this When you only got____________ years to live

05. De acordo com o texto, podemos afirmar que o autor... a) É extremamente pessimista em relação ao seu futuro pessoal. b) Demonstra pouca preocupação com seu planejamento profissional. c) Arrepende-se de ter colocado a família em segundo plano na sua vida. d) Queixa-se da efemeridade e fugacidade da vida humana. e) Exalta a fase da vida adulta como a mais importante.

06. Em relação ao período da infância e adolescência do autor, podemos afirmar que... a) Segundo o próprio autor, foi a melhor época de sua vida. b) Foi um período de descobertas fundamentais em sua vida. 474

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Imagem 1.2.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA Portrait I did not have this face I have today, So calm, so sad, so skinny, Nor these empty eyes, Nor these bitter lips.


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I did not have these weak hands, So inert, so cold and dead; I did not have this heart That doesn’t show itself. I did not notice this change, So simple, so certain, so easy: -In which mirror has my face got lost? (MEIRELES, Cecília. Obra Poética de Cecília Meireles. Rio de Janeiro: José Aguilar, 1958. ADAPTADO)

07. Sobre os versos acima, é correto afirmar que a) o poema traz referência à perda de todos os sentidos humanos, ocasionada pelo envelhecimento. b) a visão do eu lírico oscila entre o pessimismo e o otimismo ante a efemeridade do tempo. c) o tom melancólico se desfaz no décimo verso, quando o eu lírico constata a inevitabilidade da transformação física. d) o eu lírico sente-se perplexo diante da consciência tardia das mudanças trazidas pela passagem do tempo.

Text 1

Delilah I can promise you That by the time that we get through The world will never ever be the same And you’re to blame Hey there Delilah You be good and don’t you miss me Two more years and you’ll be done with school And I’ll be making history like I do You’ll know it’s all because of you We can do whatever we want to Hey there Delilah here’s to you This one’s for you Oh it’s what you do to me (x4) What you do to me

Hey There Delilah Plain White T’s Link sugerido • https://goo.gl/KbRfd7

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 08. De acordo com o texto, todas as afirmativas estão corretas, exceto: a) Não medirá esforços para se reencontrar com a sua amada b) Tem esperanças de um dia sobreviver de sua música c) Espera que esta canção faça com que sua amada sinta como se ele estivesse ao seu lado d) Apesar de amá-la, teme que a distância prejudique o seu relacionamento e) Mesmo que a relação esteja acontecendo à distância, ele continua a amá-la

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Hey there Delilah What’s it like in New York City I’m a thousand miles away But girl, tonight you look so pretty Yes, you do Times Square can’t shine as bright as you, I swear it’s true Hey there Delilah don’t you worry about the distance I’m right there if you get lonely give this song another listen Close your eyes, listen to my voice, it’s my disguise I’m by your side Oh it’s what you do to me (x4) What you do to me Hey there Delilah, I know times are getting hard But just believe me girl, someday I’ll pay the bills with this guitar We’ll have it good, we’ll have the life we knew we would My word is good Hey there Delilah, I’ve got so much left to say If every simple song I wrote to you Would take your breath away, I’d write it all Even more in love with me you’d fall, we’d have it all Oh it’s what you do to me (x4) A thousand miles seems pretty far But they’ve got planes and trains and cars I’d walk to you if I had no other way Our friends would all make fun of us And we’ll just laugh along because we know That none of them have felt this way

09. Qual é a melhor tradução para a expressão “Our friends would all make fun of us and we’ll just laugh along because we know that none of them have felt this way”? a) Nossos amigos riem da gente, mas nós não nos incomodamos, pois sabemos que eles nunca sentiram o que nós sentimos. b) Nossos amigos riem da gente, mas nós rimos deles, pois eles não são capazes de amar e de se apaixonar. c) Nossos amigos brincam com o nosso amor, mas nós apenas ‘entramos na brincadeira’, pois sabemos que eles não têm intenção de nos machucar. 2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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EXERCITANDO EM AULA

d) Nossos amigos nunca souberam o que é amor, portanto não podem brincar com o sentimento que nutrimos um pelo outro. e) Nosso amor é maior do que todos, inclusive o sentimento que sentimos por nossos amigos

Love is...

Love is...

Love is...

Shamuel

Text 2

11. Choose the letter that is not according to the announcement. a) The bride is the same age of the groom. b) The couple’s wedding was in Gottingham. c) The couple does not work for a living. d) The groom’s parents don’t work anymore. e) The couple’s meeting happened on a blind date.

ESCLARECENDO ...seeing in him what others can’t see. Imagem 1.3.

...never wanting to be parted.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 10. “Love is...” é o nome de uma tirinha desenhada e criada

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

a frequent or favorite male companion; beau.

Girlfriend

a frequent or favorite female companion; sweetheart.

Fiancé

a man engaged to be married.

Fiancée

a woman engaged to be married.

Groom

a man about to be married.

Bride Husband Wife

a woman about to be married. a married man, especially when considered in relation to his partner in marriage. a married woman, especially when considered in relation to her partner in marriage. source: Dictionary.com

Reprodução

pelo cartunista neozelandês Kim Casali no final dos anos 1960. Analisando os cartuns representados, é possível afirmar que: a) São exemplos textuais de grande profundeza linguística e complexidade poética b) Ressaltam a importância das ações singelas no cotidiano de um casal c) Tem o intuito principal de oferecer dicas de convivência a jovens namorados d) Alerta para a difícil relação cotidiana entre pessoas em uma vida a dois e) Critica os valores e costumes de famílias tradicionais

Boyfriend

Reprodução

...a dish you never tire of.

Text 3

Sally Strawberry and Billy Pineapple Sally Strawberry, daughter of Candy and Bob Strawberry of Smallville, Gottingham, was married today to Billy Pineapple, the son of Olivia and Chuck Thinner of Big Rock, Illinois, at Holy Spirit Church in Smallville. The bride and groom, both 33, work for Ace Life Insurance. The bride is a lawyer and the groom is a computer programmer. The bride graduated from Harvard Law School. Her father is a retired truck driver and her mother is a teacher at Child World, a pre-school in Smallville. The groom graduated from the University of Illinois. His father, who is retired, was a doctor. His mother is a retired architect. The bride and groom met on a blind date. (UFRR 2009)

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Imagem 1.4.

Imagem 1.5.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 12. (UFG) What is a common element of love in both sayings? a) Love is infinite. b) Love is sacred.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

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c) Love is unpredictable. d) Love is fragile. e) Love is changeable.

Link sugerido • https://goo.gl/ubTueL

EXERCITANDO EM AULA Imagem 1.6.

Text 4

A thousand years Christina Perri

Heart beats fast, colors and promises How to be brave, how can I love when I’m afraid to fall But watching you stand alone, All of my doubt suddenly goes away somehow One step closer I have died every day waiting for you, darling don’t be afraid I have loved you for a thousand years I’ll love you for a thousand more

One step closer I have died every day waiting for you, darling don’t be afraid I have loved you for a thousand years I’ll love you for a thousand more And all along I believed I would find you, Time has brought your heart to me, I have loved you for a thousand years, I’ll love you for a thousand more.

( ) A autora se sente receosa de se apaixonar, mas só de olhar para seu amado não sente mais qualquer receio ou dúvida. ( ) Os mil anos a que se refere a autora é uma hipérbole com o intuito de exaltar o amor que sente. ( ) A incansável busca pelo amor foi frutífera, uma vez que o amado foi encontrado. ( ) A decepção amorosa é a tônica da canção, ressaltando os perigos e contratempos da paixão. ( ) Segundo a canção, o encontro do amor de sua vida se dá de maneira inesperada e despretensiosa. ( ) O tempo é o elemento que norteia a canção, ressaltando a sua capacidade de unir as pessoas. Text 5

Capri Colbie Caillat

She’s got a baby inside And holds her belly tight All through the night Just so she knows She’s sleeping so Safely to keep Her growing Oh when she’ll open her eyes There’ll be no surprise She’ll grow to be so beautifully just like her mother that’s carrying Oh Capri She’s beauty Baby inside She’s loving Oh Capri

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Time stands still Beauty in all she is, I will be brave I will not let anything take away What’s standing in front of me Every breath, every hour has come to this

13. Julgue Verdadeiro ou Falso.

She’s Beauty there is an angel growing peacefully Oh Capri Sweet Baby Things will be hard at times But I’ve learned to try just listening patiently Oh Capri Sweet Baby Oh Capri She’s Beauty Baby inside she’s loving Oh Capri you’re beauty Just like your mother that’s carrying

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d) O poema e a canção possuem características saudosistas de uma mãe amorosa e já falecida. e) As duas peças centram suas ideias na conturbada relação que existe entre uma mãe e um filho.

CONECTANDO DISCIPLINAS Link sugerido • https://goo.gl/vrSHlE

Text 6

To my dearest mother

Whenever I’m in need of love, She is there from the heavens above; Whenever I’m in need of a shoulder, There’s no one as devoted as my mother.

Imagem 1.7.

Her presence and love have always been there, Everything in her nature is to only care. With every soft hug and kiss The world seems more beautiful and blessed.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

I’m sorry for all the times I caused you pain, But after these brief storms my love still remains. I love you so much, I will love you foreverI wrote your name on my heart And it will stay there forever, and ever. by KIRSTEN ROLLANDER

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 14. A música e o poema acima refletem sobre as relações familiares. Analisando-os, é possível afirmar que os dois textos possuem semelhança em certos aspectos. a) Ambos abordam a forte relação que existe entre mãe e filha, mencionando que dificuldades podem ser superadas. b) Os dois textos são narrados a partir da perspectiva de uma filha que relata o grande amor e respeito que sente pela mãe. c) Há em comum nos textos a narração da gravidez de uma mulher e os cuidados que ela devota ao bebê em seu ventre. 478

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Reprodução

My mother is a special part Of all that’s cherished in my heart, She is my pearl, my soul, my mate; She is the one to make life great. She is an angel without the wings, Who makes life special with the littlest things,

John Q. is a 2002 American thriller film directed by Nick Cassavetes. The film follows John Quincy Archibald (Denzel Washington), a father and husband whose son is diagnosed with an enlarged heart and then finds out he is unable to receive a transplant because HMO insurance will not cover it; therefore, he decides to hold up the hospital and force them to do it.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 15. (ENEM) A tira, definida como um segmento de história em quadrinhos, pode transmitir uma mensagem com efeito de humor. A presença desse efeito no diálogo entre Jon e Garfield acontece porque a) Jon pensa que sua ex-namorada é maluca e que Garfield não sabia disso. b) Jodell é a única namorada maluca que Jon teve, e Garfield acha isso estranho. c) Garfield tem certeza de que a ex-namorada de Jon é sensata, o maluco é o amigo. d) Garfield conhece as ex-namoradas de Jon e considera mais de uma como maluca. e) Jon caracteriza a ex-namorada como maluca e não entende a cara de Garfield. Texto para as próximas 5 questões:

Sexting Sexting is the sending of provocative or sexual photos, messages or videos. They are generally sent using a mobile phone but can also include posting this type of material online. While sharing suggestive images or text messages may seem like innocent flirting or be considered funny for young people, sexting can have serious social and legal consequences.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

Take care of yourself

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What do I need to know?

Avoid looking at the video/image and any comments. Distract yourself by spending time with friends and family that you trust. Remember to stay positive. Many people have had similar experiences. Stay strong, you will be ok.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 16. (UPE) “Sexting” in Portuguese means Imagem 1.8.

Stay calm and delete If you have sent a picture or video you regret to a friend or your girlfriend/boyfriend ask them to delete it immediately. If it is posted online, then un-tag yourself and report it so it can be removed. Ask friends you trust to help hunt down images and also delete and/or report those images. If you think it would help, you could tell a trusted adult at school and they may be able to send a note to students directing them to delete any private photos or videos they have received without naming you.

Report it If someone else has posted sexual or naked photos or videos of you online, report them to the service they posted it on. If they are at your school you can report them to a teacher if you choose to. It is not OK for them to share your image without your permission.

Try to relax and talk to someone

What if the police get involved? The police sometimes need to become involved in sexting cases where creating and/or distributing sexual images with minors constitutes the production and/or distribution of child pornography. This differs under state laws. Where the police are involved, it’s best to be honest. Tell them how the video/image was made and where it might have been sent/posted. They will want to know who was involved and whether there was consent from all involved. Their concern is preventing any harm to you and other young people.

17. (UPE) In the sentence “If someone else has posted sexual or naked photos or videos of you online, report them to the service they posted it on” (paragraph three), “they” is related to a) photos. b) videos. c) someone. d) sexual photos. e) naked videos. 18. (UPE) According to the text, sexting I. is the sending of provocative or sexual photos, messages or videos. II. is the gesture of posting messages or sexual photos online. III. can have serious social and legal consequences. IV. can make people get into serious troubles. V. is not a joke and is very dangerous.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

If the video or image has already spread online, try to stay calm. You might like to have a free and confidential talk with Kids Helpline. You can phone them on 1800 551 800 for advice and how to handle the situation. You might also want to tell your parents. It is possible they may find out some other way. They might be upset, angry or in shock, so you might like to ask a trusted friend or relative to help.

a) postar fotos, mensagens ou vídeos provocativos em redes sociais. b) simples e inocente troca de mensagens entre amigos e/ ou colegas de escola. c) uma nova forma de comunicação exclusiva entre colegas de escola. d) uma comunicação usual realizada entre colegas da escola moderna. e) conversa rotineira sobre a relação entre duas pessoas adolescentes.

It is CORRECT a) only I. b) only I and II. c) only I, II, and III. d) only I, II, III, and IV. e) I, II, III, IV, and V.

19. (UPE) “them”, “They”, and “Their” (in paragraph seven) are a) personal pronoun, object pronoun, and possessive pronoun respectively and are related to “the police”. b) subject pronoun, personal pronoun, preposition and they are related to “the video/image”. 2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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c) verb, comparative, and preposition and are related to “sent/posted”. d) object pronoun, personal pronoun, and possessive adjective respectively and are related to “the police”. e) subject pronoun, possessive pronoun, and possessive adjective and are related to “the police.”

20. (UPE) “regret” (paragraph two) in Portuguese means

Text 7

gostar. admirar. aprovar. apagar. arrepender-se.

Boys, you can break You’ll find out how much they can take Boys will be strong And boys soldier on But boys would be gone without warmth from A woman’s good, good heart

Imagem 1.9.

ANYTIME you see a young man open a car door for his girlfriend, either the car is new or the girlfriend is. (Robert E. Limbaugh II in Boy’s Life) (UFMG 1995 – Adaptada)

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 21. Marque V para alternativas verdadeiras ou F para afirLINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

mativas falsas. A piada acima sugere que um jovem quando tem uma nova namorada ( ) comporta-se de uma maneira educada. ( ) dá caronas à garota. ( ) convida a garota para passeios. ( ) finge que o carro é novo. ( ) cuida muito bem do seu carro.

Text 8

Daughters John Mayer

I know a girl She puts the color inside of my world But she’s just like a maze Where all of the walls all continually change And I’ve done all I can To stand on her steps with my heart in my hands Now I’m starting to see

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Oh, you see that skin? It’s the same she’s been standing in Since the day she saw him walking away Now she’s left Cleaning up the mess he made So fathers be good to your daughters Daughters will love like you do Girls become lovers who turn into mothers So mothers be good to your daughters too

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a) b) c) d) e)

Maybe it’s got nothing to do with me Fathers be good to your daughters Daughters will love like you do Girls become lovers who turn into mothers So mothers be good to your daughters too

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

On behalf of every man Looking out for every girl You are the god and the weight of her world So fathers be good to your daughters Daughters will love like you do Girls become lovers who turn into mothers So mothers be good to your daughters, too

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 22. Segundo cientistas, boa parte do nosso caráter e personalidade é formada em nossos primeiros relacionamentos — os relacionamentos familiares. Sobre estes relacionamentos retratados na canção, é possível afirmar: a) A canção é uma advertência aos pais para que cuidem bem de suas filhas em sua infância, porque isso afetará suas relações futuras com outros homens. b) É desconstruída a tese de que o relacionamento cultivado na infância com os pais influencie os relacionamentos amorosos futuros. c) O autor assume a culpa por ter um relacionamento amoroso ruim, reconhecendo a fragilidade que existe nos namoros atuais. d) Infere-se que a canção é um apelo para que casais permaneçam juntos e superem suas diferenças em prol da educação dos filhos. e) Os conflitos que existem entre pais e filhos geralmente são esquecidos pelos indivíduos quando atingem a maturidade.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

wikimedia.org

CONECTANDO DISCIPLINAS

Imagem 1.10.

Text 9

My Sisters’s Keeper is a 2009 American drama film directed by Nick Cassavetes. It tells the story of Anna Fitzgerald, a girl who looks to earn medical emancipation from her parents who until now have relied on their youngest child to help their leukemia -stricken daughter Kate remain alive.

Marry that girl Marry her anyway Marry that girl No matter what you say Marry that girl And we’ll be a family Why you gotta be so rude, rude?

Rude Magic

Saturday morning jumped out of bed And put on my best suit Got in my car and raced like a jet, all the way to you Knocked on your door with heart in my hand To ask you a question ‘Cause I know that you’re an old-fashioned man, yeah, yeah Can I have your daughter for the rest of my life? Say yes, say yes ‘cause I need to know You say, “I’ll never get your blessing ‘til the day I die Tough luck, my friend, but the answer is no! “

I hate to do this, you leave no choice, can’t live without her Love me or hate me we will be both standing at that altar Or we will run away to another galaxy, you know You know she’s in love with me, she will go anywhere I go Can I have your daughter for the rest of my life? Say yes, say yes ‘cause I need to know You say, “I’ll never get your blessing ‘til the day I die Tough luck, my friend, ‘cause the answer’s still no! “ Why you gotta be so rude? Don’t you know I’m human, too? Why you gotta be so rude? I’m gonna marry her anyway

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 23. Canções podem refletir situações corriqueiras em nossa sociedade. Sobre as circunstâncias descritas na canção acima, pode-se afirmar que a música retrata principalmente: a) A tentativa frustrada de pedir ao pai da namorada o consentimento para se casar com ela. b) Uma experiência infrutífera de aproximação afetiva com a família da esposa antes do casamento. c) A fragilidade dos relacionamentos afetivos quando não existe harmonia entre sogro e genro. d) Uma crítica explícita ao casamento moderno em que não é necessária a aprovação paterna para se casar. e) Uma sátira à maneira retrógada em que os casamentos se estabelecem diante de uma estrutura visivelmente patriarcal.

Text 10

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Why you gotta be so rude? Don’t you know I’m human, too? Why you gotta be so rude? I’m gonna marry her anyway Marry that girl Marry her anyway Marry that girl Yeah, no matter what you say Marry that girl And we’ll be a family Why you gotta be so rude?

Link sugerido • https://goo.gl/gpj81j

Same girl R. Kelly, Feat. Usher

Kelly: Yo, Ush Usher: What up, Kells? K: Wanna introduce you to this girl, think I really love this girl. U: Yeah K: Man, she so fine. U: Straight up, dawg. K: She stand about 5’4” coke cola red bone! U: Damn!

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K: She drives a black Durango, license plate say “Angel”, tattoo on her ankle, plus she’s making pesos, she got a crib on Peace Street right on 17th street and I call her “TT”.

U: She said she got me on her ringtone! K: Are you talking about the pink phone? U: Mm-mm, the blue one. K: Man, she told me that was turned off. U: It’s obvious that she’s been playing us, playing us. K: Or constantly she’s been lyin’ to us, lyin’ to us. U: Don’t like the way that she’s been goin’ ‘bout, it goin’ ‘bout it? Kells, what do you think we should do about it, do about it? K: Call her up at her home, she won’t know that I’m on the phone. U: Yeah, man, that’s a way! K: Homie, we about to bust this trick! Man, just ask her to meet up with you and I’m gonna show up too. U: And then, she won’t know what to do! K and U: We’ll be standing there singing… Shutterstock.com

U: Wait a minute, hold on, dawg, do she got a kid? K: Yep. U: She love some waffle house? K: Yep . U: Do she got a beauty mark on her left side of her mouth? K: Man? U: Went to Georgia Tech? K: Yep. U: Works for TBS? K: Yep. U: Man, I can’t believe this chick… damn… mm. K: Tell me whats wrong, dawg, what the hell you damning about? I’m your homie, so just say whats on your mind! U: Man, I didn’t know that you were talking about her... K: So, man, your telling me you know her?

U, K, man, we’ve been messing with the same girl

U: Do I know her? Like a pastor know his word! We messing with the same girl, same girl How could the love of my life, and my potential wife be the same girl, same girl? Man, I can’t believe that we’ve been messing with the same girl, same girl Thought she was someone that I could trust but she’s been doubling up with us U, K, man, we’ve been messing with the same girl

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

U: See, I met her at this party in Atlanta. K: Well, I met her at this party in Chicago. U: She came right up to me, given me conversation. I said: “do you got a man?” she said no, with no hesitation. K: Well, it must be a music thing, ‘cause she said the same to me. At a party all in my face, when I’m laughin' and buyin' her drinks. U: She whispered in my ear and said: “can you take me home?” K: Me too! Man, she was in the Chi singin' that same song! U: Is that true? K: And I thought it was true confession when she said: “I love you”! U: Man, I thought her body was calling when she said: “I want you”. Look, I even got some pictures on my phone! K: Look at there, there she is with some boy shorts on... We messing with the same girl, same girl She’s the apple of my eye, and my potential wife the same girl, same girl Man, I just can’t believe that we’ve been messing around with the same damn girl Same girl, same girl Thought she was someone that I could trust but she’s been doubling up with both of us

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Imagem 1.11.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 24. A canção descreve um problema amoroso enfrentado por dois amigos. Que problema é esse?


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

25. Ao notarem a existência desse problema, de que maneira eles pretendem pôr um fim nele?

CONECTANDO DISCIPLINAS Reprodução

26. (SSA 3)

Imagem 1.12.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Após a leitura das tiras cômicas, infere-se que a) no 2º quadrinho, Hagar está se referindo a uma modalidade de comunicação avançada para a época do seu namoro com Helga. b) Hagar é mais romântico que aparenta, pois abre aos seus interlocutores as memórias mais ternas do seu namoro com Helga. c) à época do namoro de Hagar e Helga, os pais dela nutriam sentimentos bem diferentes em relação ao (futuro) genro. d) Hagar quer mostrar que a situação social dos vikings girava sempre em torno do poder bélico e de suas embarcações, que até serviam de dote. e) a visão de Hagar é de que ele tem uma superioridade inerente ao seu porte de navegador-invasor, o que não era bem aceito por sua (futura) sogra.

I Am Sam is a 2001 American drama film written and directed by Jessie Nelson. Sam Dawson is a mentally handicapped father raising his daughter Lucy with the help of an extraordinary group of friends. As Lucy turns seven and begins to intellectually surpass her father, their close bond is threatened when their situation comes under the scrutiny of a social worker who wants Lucy placed in foster care.

TÓPICO 2 • Do and make Muitas vezes ficamos em dúvida quanto ao uso dos verbos do e make, já que, na prática, os dois significam fazer. Ambos têm usos específicos apesar de algumas variações. Basicamente, temos: DO - refere-se ao cumprimento ou execução de uma tarefa ou atividade. MAKE - refere-se à fabricação, criação de algo, manipulação, confecção ou produção de algo concreto ou abstrato.

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The differences between do and make Work, Jobs and Tasks

Product Material / Origin

Do the housework Do your homework Do a good job Do you chores

Made of gold Made from grapes Made in China Made by me

DO

Non-Specific Activities

Produce a Reaction

Do something Do nothing Do anything Do everything

Make your eyes water Make you happy Make you sleepy Make you smile

DO

Replace Verb when Obvious Do your hair Do the dishes Do the exam Do the laundry

MAKE

Plans and Decisions Make arrangements Make a decision Make a choice Make a plan

DO

Food, Drink and Meals Make a cake Make breakfast Make dinner Make a cup of coffee

MAKE

MAKE

Speaking and Sounds

MAKE

Make a noise Make a comment Make a speech Make a suggestion

MAKE

2.1 • Mais usos de DO 1. Com palavras terminadas em ing: Do something (fazer algo), do shopping (fazer compras) 2. No sentido de fazer algo para si mesmo ou para outrem: Do exercises (fazer exercícios), do the dishes (lavar a louça), do a demonstration (fazer uma demonstração).

3. No sentido de imitar alguém ou algo (usualmente com a conjunção as): Do as you please (faça como lhe agradar), do as everyone does (faça como todo mundo faz).

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Expressões mais usadas com do

484

do the (my, your, ...) best (to)

fazer o melhor possível

do a deal (predominantly in the expression "it's a done deal")

negócio fechado

do business (with)

trabalhar em negócios com

do some dictation

fazer um ditado

do the cleaning (for)

fazer limpeza

do the dishes

lavar a louça

do damage/harm (to)

prejudicar, ferir

do drugs

usar drogas

do your duty

cumprir com suas tarefas

do an exercise

fazer um exercício

do an experiment

fazer uma experiência

do a favor (for)

fazer um favor

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Capítulo 1 | Relationships

fazer bem

do a good / bad job

fazer um bom / mau trabalho

do your hair

fazer (arrumar) o cabelo

do harm (to someone)

prejudicar ou machucar alguém

do your homework

fazer o seu tema

do the housework

fazer os trabalhos domésticos

do the laundry

lavar a roupa

do your nails

fazer as unhas

do an operation (on)

operar

do (something) over again

fazer de novo

do overtime

fazer hora extra

do a poll

fazer uma pesquisa (de opinião)

do a problem/a puzzle

resolver um problema (em matemática, por exemplo), um quebra-cabeça

do research (on)

pesquisar, fazer uma pesquisa (investigação científica)

do a project

fazer (desenvolver) um projeto

do the right thing

ter uma atitude correta

do the shopping

fazer compras

do someone

ter relações sexuais com alguém

do time in prison

cumprir pena carcerária

do something

fazer algo

do a translation

fazer uma tradução

do well / badly (in)

sair-se bem/mal

to be done

estar pronto

to have nothing to do with...

não ter nada a ver com...

to have your hair done

arrumar o cabelo

that will do it

isto será suficiente

2.2 • Mais usos de MAKE 1. Quando damos a ideia de construção ou criação de algo: Make a film, make shoes, make a chair, make a dress, make cars... 2. Para preparar bebida ou comida: Make coffee, make a cake, make a sandwich, make tea... 3. Para tornar algo adequado ou apropriado: Make it clear (tornar claro), make sense (fazer sentido), make it work (fazer funcionar) 4. Para dar a ideia de mudança de humor ou temperamento/ fazer algo: Make someone happy (deixar alguém feliz) Make someone furious (deixar alguém irritado)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

do good

5. Com algo abstrato: Make a mistake, make an effort, make a deal, make a suggestion... 6. Com substantivos terminadas em ment ou ion: Make an agreement (fazer um acordo), make an arrangement (fazer um arranjo), make a confession (fazer uma confissão), make a concession (fazer uma concessão), make a reduction (fazer uma redução)... Mas se diz: do a demonstration, do a good action... 7. Com adjetivo, indicando mudança de algo: Making something possible/ better/ fun/ enjoyable/ more interesting

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Expressões mais usadas com MAKE make an agreement

fazer um acordo

make for

dirigir-se a

make an announcement (to)

fazer uma comunicação oficial

make friends (with)

fazer amizade

make an appointment (with)

marcar uma hora

make fun of (someone/ something)

ridicularizar

make arrangements (for)

fazer preparos

make an attempt (to)

fazer uma tentativa

make a fuss (over someone)

dar atenção afetuosa, mimar

make it back

retornar ao ponto de partida

make good

cumprir com o prometido

make the bed

fazer a cama

make a good/bad impression (on)

causar boa/má impressão

make believe

fazer de conta

make someone happy

fazer ficar feliz, deixar feliz

make breakfast (dinner, a sandwich)

preparar o café da manhã (a janta, um sanduíche)

make an investment

investir, fazer um investimento

make a choice

fazer uma escolha

make a list (of)

fazer uma lista

make a clean copy

passar a limpo

make a living

ganhar ou fazer dinheiro

make it clear (to)

deixar claro

make love (to)

manter relações sexuais

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

make ends meet

486

make a fuss (about, over criar confusão devido à preocupação something) excessiva

administrar para viver com o make heads or tails of que ganha something

entender algo

make a complaint (about)

apresentar queixa, reclamar

make mistakes (in)

cometer erros

make a date (with)

marcar um encontro

make money

ganhar dinheiro

make a deal (with)

fazer um negócio, negociar

make the most of (something)

aproveitar ao máximo o benefício de algo

make a decision (about)

decidir, tomar uma decisão

make someone nervous

deixar alguém nervoso

make a (any, no) difference (to)

fazer diferença

make noise

fazer barulho

make do with

contentar-se com o que tem

make an observation

fazer uma observação

make a down payment

dar de entrada, dar um sinal

make an offer

fazer uma oferta

make an effort (to)

fazer um esforço

make out

entender o significado; beijar, namorar; sair-se; preencher (um cheque)

make an excuse (for)

arranjar uma desculpa

make a payment

fazer um pagamento, pagar uma conta

make a face (at)

fazer careta

make peace with someone

fazer as pazes

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Capítulo 1 | Relationships

make a fool of someone

fazer alguém de bobo

make a phone call (to)

telefonar, dar um telefonema

make plans

fazer planos

make a point

fazer uma observação, apresentar um ponto de vista

make a point of (doing something)

não deixar de, fazer questão de

make a presentation

fazer uma apresentação

make a profit

lucrar, ter lucro

make a promise (to)

fazer uma promessa, prometer

make progress (in)

progredir

make public

divulgar

make a reservation (for)

fazer uma reserva

make a resolution

fazer uma promessa, tomar uma decisão importante

make a scene

fazer uma cena, agir histericamente

make sense (to)

fazer sentido

make something of (oneself)

tornar-se alguém

make a speech (to)

fazer um discurso

make sure (about)

certificar-se

make trouble

criar problemas ou confusão

make up

inventar, improvisar, compensar, maquiar, reconciliar

make up your mind

tomar uma decisão

make use of

utilizar

make war

guerrear, entrar em guerra

make way

abrir caminho, dar passagem, progredir

make yourself at home

sinta-se à vontade

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 27. Fill in the gaps with make or do:

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

a) You shouldn’t drink so much. It would ____________ you good. b) Traditionally, three people ____________ speeches at weddings in the UK. The groom, the father of the bride, and the best man. c) Jimmy and Suzy ____________ all the housework alone. Their little brother is too young to help. d) The students have to ____________ some research for the school’s new project. e) Could I ____________ a suggestion? I think you need to change your attitude. f) John hasn’t been feeling good lately. I think he needs to ____________ an appointment with his doctor. g) It is okay to _________ many errors when you’re starting to learn another language. h) Teacher, can you _____________ an exception today and let me finish this activity tomorrow? i) I’m very shy. It is very difficult for me to _____________ ___________ new friends. j) I have to ______________ the ironing before going shopping.

28. Fill in the gaps with either make or do. You may need to conjugate the verb. a) John worked hard and __________________ his best at his job, but he still wasn’t promoted. b) The teenagers ____________________ so such noise that the neighbor called the police. c) So many chores to ____________! I need to clean the bathroom and the kitchen, hall and change all the beds. d) She is so annoying, she always __________ a fuss at the drop of a hat. e) The doctor __________ a terrible mistake that almost cost the life of the patient. f) I’m used to ___________ projects alone. g) Have you ___________ any new year’s resolution yet? h) The kids _________a list of presents and sent it to Santa. i) In my opinion, you have to ____________ a deal and try to solve your problem. j) Malala has __________ a difference in many girl’s lives. 29. Match the expression with do to its definition. ( ) do a favor ( ) do away with ( ) do without

a) help someone b) that’s enough c) perform domestic chores

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( ) do housework ( ) do justice ( ) do over ( ( ( (

) ) ) )

do homage have one’s hair done that will do do the right thing

d) go to the beauty shop e) to act or behave appropriately f) get along not having anything to do g) repeat h) get rid of i) be good or just j) praise someone

30. Match the expression with make to its definition. ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

make a difference make believe make over make fun of make your mind make peace make trouble make noise make room make arrangements ridicule; satirize to matter; influence provide extra space decide reconstruct; restore plan; put things in order pretend declare a truce create unpleasant sounds create problems

31. Write a sentence using the expressions below.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

do one’s best ___________________________________ do without _____________________________________ do the laundry __________________________________ do a good job ___________________________________ do the dishes ___________________________________ make a difference _______________________________ make a good impression __________________________ make a speech __________________________________ make believe ___________________________________ make progress __________________________________

32. Could you ____________ the dishes today? a) b) c) d) e)

do make makes doing making

33. Did their new business ____________________ a profit

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last year? a) make b) made c) do d) did e) making

34. He has so much work to ____________! He won’t come today. a) make b) do c) made d) did e) doing

35. How much money does a teacher ________________? a) b) c) d) e)

makes make do does doing

36. She spent the evening watching Netflix and ____________ her nails. a) makes b) make c) do d) does e) doing 37. The teacher ____________ some interesting observations on her paper. a) make b) made c) do d) did e) makes 38. You are ______________ a terrible mistake. Don’t ________ it please. a) making – do b) doing – make c) make – doing d) do – making e) making – making 39. You can _____ whatever you like. But you are responsible for your acts. a) do b) make c) making d) doing e) to do


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

40. Santa Claus has ________ a list with the name of all bad kids. a) makes b) make c) made d) do e) done

TÓPICO 3 • Used to, be used to, get used to Apesar de essas estruturas serem bastante parecidas, seus significados são bem distintos. Vejamos: “I used to live in Los Angeles with my family but then we moved to San Francisco. My parents are already used to living here but I am still trying to get used to having different friends. I miss my old city very much.”

3.1 • Used to + verb Indica uma ação (repetida e habitual) no passado e que não acontece mais. É usado no sentido de “costumava fazer algo, porém não mais”. I used to live in Los Angeles with my family...

3.2 • Be used to + verb+ing

3.3 • Get used to + verb+ing Indica uma ação que não aconteceu previamente, mas que o falante já está no processo de “se acostumar a” algo. Assim como be used to, o verbo a seguir também vem com ing e também pode ser usado em qualquer tempo verbal. ...I am still trying to get used to having different friends. When I got used to living in Recife, I had to move again.

41. Choose the best answer to fill in the gap. Write used to, be used to or get used to. You may need to conjugate the verb. a) When I started to work here I needed a lot of help, but now I _______________________ doing all the work on my own. b) She _______________________read several books a month, but she doesn’t have time anymore. c) When I had to commute to work every day I _____________ get up early. d) I’m afraid I’ll never _______________________ living in this place. I simply don’t like it and never will. e) Don’t worry, it’s a simple program to use. You will _______________________ it in no time, I’m sure.

42. Choose the best option to complete the sentences. a) The cars used to park / parking near the school. b) Etiene Medeiros is used to swim / swimming every day. c) Martin used to go / going to Princeton, but he has graduated and is working as a doctor. d) I’m not used to get / getting up early and I think I will never be. e) Brazil used to belong / belonging to Portugal. f) Recife used to be / being called New Amsterdam. g) I am finally getting used to drive / driving my new car.

43. Complete the sentences with the right form of BE USED TO or GET USED TO + the verb in brackets. a) Politicians _______________ (speak) in public. b) Joshua is a new student in our school. It will take him time _____________________ it. c) My girlfriend is a doctor. She is _____________________ (work) at night. d) I ______________________ (drive) on the left when she came to England. e) My friends want to go to ITA. They _______________ (study) very hard.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Usado para dizer que alguém “está acostumado” ou “estava acostumado” a algo. O verbo a seguir vem com ing e esta construção pode ser usada em qualquer tempo verbal. My parents are already used to living here... I was used to getting up early…

EXERCITANDO EM AULA

44. Complete the sentences with BE USED TO, GET USED TO or USED TO. a) Priscila _________________________ a nurse. Now she ________________ a doctor. (be) b) Cesar _________________________ in the USA. Now he ___________________ in São Paulo. (live) c) I __________________ go to bed late when I lived in Rio de Janeiro. d) After 5 years abroad Sandra finally _________________ for the Government. (work) e) I _________________ wake up very early every day.

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45. Sally doesn’t have a boyfriend now but she _________________. a) didn't use to b) used to c) was using to d) got used to e) is used to 46. Everybody nowadays _________________ the Internet. a) b) c) d) e)

aren't used to using is used to using used to use get used to use used to using

47. I _________________ soccer when I was young. I'm too old to play now. a) am used to playing b) got used to play c) used to play d) used to playing e) am used to play 48. Helena is living in London for a years now. She loves England but she _______________________ the food and the weather. a) got used to b) didn’t get used to c) are used to d) used to e) are got used to

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

52. When Joseph was the head of our department everything _____________ very well organized. Now it's total chaos here. a) was used to be b) got used to be c) got used to being d) was used to being e) used to be 53. At first they didn't like the new house, but in the end they ___________ it. a) got used to b) get used to c) are us d) used to e) are used to

54. When she moved to New York, it was difficult for her to speak English all the time but now she __________________ to it. a) was used to b) is used c) will be used to d) uses e) gets used

TÓPICO 4 • Indefinite pronouns and quantifiers Shutterstock.com

49. I've been getting up early every day for years but I __________________ to it. a) am used b) was used c) used d) am still not used e) am already used

e) get used to living

50. He ____________ read several books a month but now he doesn’t have time to anymore. a) is used to b) is getting used to c) was used to d) get used to e) used to 51. I'm afraid I'll never _____________ in this place. I simply don't like it and never will. a) used to living b) used to living c) got used to living d) used to live 490

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Imagem 1.13.

Steve, a lonely bachelor, wants some company, so he buys a centipede and a small box for it to live in. That evening, he decides to go out.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

“Want to grab a drink?” he asks the centipede. But there’s no answer from the box. A few minutes later, he asks again— still no reply. Finally, he hollers, “Hey! Do you want to get a drink?” “I heard you the first time!” says a small, irritated voice. “I’m putting on my shoes!” Disponível em: http://www.rd.com/clean-jokes-and-laughs/companion-joke/article179901. html Reader’sDigest - Companion Joke - Animal Jokes, acesso em: 21/05/2010.

No texto acima, estão destacados os termos some e a few. Eles são quantificadores, ou, em inglês, quantifiers. Tais termos são usados para indicar e fornecer, como o próprio nome indica, a quantidade de algo. Seu uso é definido pelo substantivo que pode ser classificado em contável e incontável (countable and uncontable). Então, antes de chegarmos aos quantifiers, precisamos identificar esses substantivos. Vejamos:

4.1 • Countable and uncountable nouns

Informação, acomodação e conselho são considerados incontáveis em inglês. Alguns substantivos podem ser considerados contáveis e incontáveis Vejamos: Countable

Uncountable

We bought a new iron and an ironing board

People believed that ships made of iron would sink

I bought three glasses, so we can drink water.

The house was made of glass

That house has five rooms.

That house has not enough room for everybody

4.1.1 • Countable Shutterstock.com

Os substantivos contáveis, como o próprio nome já indica, são aqueles substantivos em inglês que podemos contar. Eles podem estar no singular ou plural. Examples: Two dogs Five pencils A car Many cities I’ve got five books to read this year.

4.1.2 • Uncountable

SAIBA MAIS Alguns substantivos que são contáveis em português podem ser considerados incontáveis em inglês. - Do you have any information about the game? - Don’t forget to book the accommodation for us. - Can I give you some advice?

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Os substantivos incontáveis são aqueles vistos como um todo, não podem ser separados e, consequentemente, não contáveis. Assim, esses substantivos estão sempre no singular. Examples: Furniture Rain Water Milk Eating too much rice is bad for you.

Imagem 1.14.

4.2 • Quantifiers São expressões usadas para indicar a quantidade de algo. Os mais comuns são: Much, many, (a) little, (a) few, a lot of, plenty of Os quantificadores a lot of, lots of, plenty of, many e much significam uma grande quantidade. Já few e little, uma pequena quantidade. Many e few são usados com substantivos contáveis no plural; e much e little com substantivos incontáveis: Examples: I bought many bottles of coke.

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We don’t have much work around here. Few people visited him in the hospital. You have fewer friends than I do. He has little money, he can’t buy this house. You have a little time to rest.

É possível usar a lot of em vez de much e many, em negações e perguntas informais: She doesn’t drink much water She doesn’t drink a lot of water. (informal) Are there many cars here? Are there a lot of cars here? (informal)

A lot of, lots of e plenty of são usados com ambos: Joe has a lot of talent for music. There is lots of milk left in your glass. There is plenty of time. She has lots of friends. He had plenty of opportunities.

• Few ou little sem o a terão significado negativo: My sister has few good grades. (= not many good grades) Mary has little patience with her children. (= not much patience) Few ou little precedidos do a terão significado positivo: My brother has a few CDs. (= some CDs, a small number) A little patience doesn’t hurt anybody. (= some patience, a small amount) •

much a little / little/ very little

enough with uncountable nouns

wuth uncountable and uncountable nouns

a bit (of )

more/most

a great deat of

less/least

a large amount of a large quantity of a large number of

no/none

many

a lot of

QUANTIFIERS

lots of plenty of

many

a few/ few/ very few

all

4.3 • Indefinite pronouns Some; Any; No

not any with uncountable nouns

some any

a great number of

a number (of ) a majority of Imagem 1.15.

SOME, ANY e NO são usados com countable e uncontable nouns, para descrever uma quantidade indeterminada. Some é empregado comumente em sentenças afirmativas; e any, na maioria das perguntas e em sentenças negativas. Já no é utilizado em frases negativas sem no, never, without ou qualquer outro advérbio de negação. •

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

SAIBA MAIS Much e Many são usados geralmente em sentenças negativas e perguntas; já a lot of e lots of (que possuem o mesmo significado); em sentenças afirmativas: Sara didn’t spend much time cleaning the house. Did Sara spend much time cleaning the house? He doesn’t have many friends. Does he have many friends? Para soar mais formal, usa-se many em sentenças afirmativas: Many students went to the library. (formal) Lots of students went to the library. (colloquial) She has many friends. (formal) She has a lot of friends. (colloquial)

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2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

SOME – ALGUM, ALGO, ALGUNS, ALGUMA, ALGUMAS, UM, UNS, UMA, UMAS, UM POUCO DE:

I had some rice for lunch. He’s got some books from the library. There is some butter in the fridge. Philip wants some help with his exams. •

ANY – ALGUM, ALGUNS, ALGUMA, ALGUMAS, NENHUM, NENHUMA, UM, UNS, UMA, UMAS, QUALQUER

Have you got any tea? There isn’t any reason to complain. I don’t think we’ve got any coffee left. Do you want any groceries from the shop? •

NO - NENHUM, NENHUMA

I have no friends at school. There’s no price I won’t pay to say these words to you.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

SAIBA MAIS Some é empregado em perguntas apenas quando esperamos que a resposta seja afirmativa ou em um oferecimento ou pedido: Can you lend me some money? Did you buy some clothes? Would you like some help? Will you have some more roast beef? Any é usado em sentenças afirmativas nas quais a conjunção if esteja presente ou com o sentido de qualquer: If you have any doubt, ask me. I’m sorry if I have caused you any trouble. You can call me any time you like. Take any book you need.

Os compostos de some, any e no: something, anything, nothing (objetos); someone, anyone, no one, somebody, anybody, nobody (pessoas); somewhere, anywhere, nowhere (lugares). São usados nos mesmos tipos de orações que some, any e no.

4.3.1 • Derivados de some 1. SOMEBODY/SOMEONE - ALGUÉM Somebody/Someone unlocked the padlock. (Alguém destrancou o cadeado.) 2. SOMETHING - ALGUMA COISA, ALGO There is something under the sink. (Há/Tem alguma coisa embaixo da pia.)

4. SOMEHOW - DE ALGUMA MANEIRA, JEITO, FORMA They speak different languages but somehow they understand each other. (Eles falam línguas diferentes mas, de alguma maneira, se entendem.)

4.3.2 • Derivados de any 1. ANYBODY / ANYONE - ALGUÉM, QUALQUER UM, NINGUÉM There isn’t anybody in the pigsty. (Não há ninguém no chiqueiro.) Is there anybody here who speaks Thai? (Há alguém aqui que fale tailandês?) 2. ANYTHING - ALGUMA COISA, QUALQUER COISA, NADA I didn’t eat anything this morning, or almost, just a

ANYWHERE - EM ALGUM LUGAR, EM QUALQUER LUGAR Are you going anywhere tonight? (Vai a algum lugar hoje à noite?) Your lipstick, nail enamel (polish) and nail file may be anywhere. (Seu batom, esmalte e lixa de unhas podem estar em qualquer lugar.) 3. ANYWAY - DE ALGUMA MANEIRA, DE QUALQUER JEITO I’m broke but I need to buy a vacuum cleaner anyway. (Estou sem dinheiro mas preciso comprar um aspirador de pó de qualquer maneira.)

4.3.3 • Derivados de NO 1. NOBODY / NO ONE - NINGUÉM Nobody/No one has the right to mistreat animals. (Ninguém tem o direito de maltratar os animais.) 2. NOTHING - NADA There was nothing in the box. (Não havia nada na caixa.) I want nothing from you. (Não quero nada de você.) 3. NOWHERE - NENHUM LUGAR The broken doorknob fell around here and it just seems to be nowhere. It simply disappeared. (A maçaneta quebrada da porta caiu por aqui e parece não estar mais em lugar nenhum. Ela simplesmente desapareceu.) 4. NONE (PRONOME SUBSTANTIVO) - NENHUM, NENHUMA How many siblings do you have? (Quantos irmãos e irmãs você tem?) I have none. (Não tenho nenhum.)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

3. SOMEWHERE - EM ALGUM LUGAR “Somewhere over the rainbow...” (“Em algum lugar além do arco-íris...”)

handful of raisins. (Não comi coisa alguma / nada hoje de manhã, ou quase, apenas um punhado de passas) Anything is possible when you believe. (Qualquer coisa é possível quando se acredita.)

ESCLARECENDO A língua inglesa não admite dupla negativa nas orações, coisa muito comum e, às vezes, obrigatória em nosso idioma. Enquanto, em português, falamos “não temos nada pra fazer agora”, dizemos em inglês “we have nothing to do now” ou ainda “we don’t have anything to do now” (literalmente “nós não temos coisa alguma pra fazer agora”). Entendemos, então, que, na língua inglesa, há duas formas de elaborar orações com pronomes indefinidos, evitando a dupla negativa: There isn’t any sugar here. ou There is no sugar here. (Não há nenhum açúcar aqui.)

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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Capítulo 1 | Relationships

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 55. I’m sure they would call John if __________ needed __________. a) anywhere / anyone b) anyone / anything c) anytime / anywhere d) anybody / anyway e) anything / anywhere 56. You could ask ___________ questions you need. It’s my duty. a) b) c) d) e)

anything any anybody anyone anytime

57. Ana Luísa told her younger sister not to take ___________ sunbathe without ___________ lasting skin protection. a) any / anybody b) anybody / anything c) any / any d) anyway / anyway e) any / anyone 58. (UFSC)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Select the proposition(s) which can CORRECTLY be completed with the words in parentheses. (01) There are _________ palm trees near the hotel. (many) (02) Guests generally have _________ money. (much) (04) They have _________ time to see the coral reef. (many) (08) I can see __________ clouds in the sky. (much) (16) It requires __________ years of study. (many) ( ) Soma:

59.

(MACKENZIE) Indicate the alternative that best completes the following sentences. I. Could you give me_______ water? I’m so thirsty. II. I have very______ money. I need more. III. Who has________ friends than John? Nobody I think. IV. Only _____ people came to the party yesterday. It was boring! V. I have_____ time to stay with my family nowadays. a) b) c) d) e)

494

I - less; II - little; III - lesser; IV - a few; V - few I - some; II - a little; III - few; IV - little; V - lesser I - a little; II - little; III - fewer; IV -few; V - less I - little; II - a little; III - less; IV -a few; V - least I - few; II - less; III - least; IV - little; V - more

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

60. Vanessa was much smarter than _____ of her classmates. a) b) c) d) e)

anybody anyone anywhere any anything

61. Sunny days can cheer up almost __________________. a) b) c) d) e)

anyone someone anything anywhere no one

62. Does this virus represent _____________ threat to mankind? a) b) c) d) e)

none any no one anyone somebody

63. - Would you like __________ raspberry jam? - Oh, yes, thank you. a) some b) any c) no one d) something e) anything

64. In this case, ____________ testimony will do. a) b) c) d) e)

anybody nobody somebody anybody’s anything

65. - Your youngest son’s got a lot of records. Which one do you like the best? - I don’t like _____________ of them. a) anything b) any c) no one’s d) none e) something

66. You won’t find a greater variety of flowers __________ else in town. a) anybody b) nowhere c) anywhere d) nothing e) somewhere


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

67. Tell me where you are and I’ll meet you ___________. a) b) c) d) e)

anywhere anybody somebody nobody anyone

68. (CESCEM) There’s not ____________ milk in the bottle. a) b) c) d) e)

lots lot a few much many

69. Don’t put too _____________sugar in my coffee. a) b) c) d) e)

more much few many a little

70. (PUC) The theater was empty. There were __________ people there. a) many b) a lot of c) few d) less e) little

d) everything e) somebody

74. A blind person can’t see _______________. a) b) c) d) e)

something anything nothing everything somebody

75. _______________ answer the phone when I called last night. The house was empty. a) Anyone b) Someone c) No one d) Everyone e) Somebody 76. ___________ is more important than having __________ who loves you. a) Something – someone b) Anything – no one c) Nothing – someone d) Everything - nobody e) Somebody – no one

71. (FUVEST) Give me _____________ tea with __________ sugar. a) many–much b) some-a lot of c) short-many d) bit-a lot of e) some-many LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

72. Complete the sentences using some, any or no. She bought _________ flowers to decorate the house. I have ______ money. I need to find a job. Would you like __________ tea? I can speak _________ Mandarin. Do you have _________ idea what it takes to be a pilot? In London in the winter there’s hardly _______ sunlight. There is ________ sunlight in London in the winter. Have we got ______ milk? ______ students will tell you that they don’t have enough money. j) The house has got ______ furniture, we need everything. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

73. A blind person can see _____________. a) something b) anything c) nothing

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

495


Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias: Matriz de Referência C2

Conhecer e usar língua(s) estrangeira(s) moderna(s) como instrumento de acesso a informações e a outras culturas e grupos sociais. H5

Associar vocábulos e expressões de um texto em LEM ao seu tema.

H6

Utilizar os conhecimentos da LEM e de seus mecanismos como meio de ampliar as possibilidades de acesso a informações, tecnologias e culturas.

H7

Relacionar um texto em LEM, as estruturas linguísticas, sua função e seu uso social.

H8

Reconhecer a importância da produção cultural em LEM como representação da diversidade cultural e linguística.


C

2 A

LO TU

COMPETÊNCIAS:

C2

Food: junk or healthy HABILIDADES:

H5, H6, H7, H8

APRESENTAÇÃO A alimentação possui significado maior do que apenas garantir as necessidades energéticas básicas para o nosso corpo. O ato de comer está geralmente relacionado a um momento de prazer e confraternização com nossos amigos e familiares, envolvendo valores sensoriais, culturais e sociais. Neste capítulo, trataremos tipos de alimentos e de dietas, aprendendo o vocabulário das principais comidas. Na abordagem gramatical, veremos: present perfect e present perfect continuous.


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

TÓPICO 1 • Food: junk or healthy?

5. bring home the bacon

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 01. 1. apple of one’s eye

6. cool as a cucumber

2. bun in the oven

7. cry over spilled milk

3. bad egg

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

8. cup of tea

4. bread and butter

9. hard nut to crack

498

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

10. hot potato

15. spill the beans

11. piece of cake 16. use your noodle

12. souped up

) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

13. spice things up

be pregnant a person that is adored by someone a person who is often in trouble necessities, the main thing earn the income to rely on one thing or person to succeed very relaxed get upset over something that has happened and cannot be changed something you enjoy (usually used negatively) difficult to understand (often a person) a controversial or difficult subject very easy made more powerful or stylish make something more exciting reveal the truth use your brain

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

02. Complete the sentences using the expressions above. 14. put all your eggs in one basket

a) Baby Bruna is the ________________________. I really love her. b) I think Sally is not drinking because she has a ______________________. c) When I was young, I used to get in trouble all the time. I was the ______________ of the family. d) Just explain the ________________________ of your report. You don’t have to go into details. e) My husband has had to _________________________ ever since I was fired.

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

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f) Running isn’t exactly my ________________. I prefer to relax at the beach. g) Talking about politics is a ______________ right now. h) Our last test was a ____________________. Everybody got a good grade. i) Tomorrow, I’m going to ___________________ about my marriage. j) You’re going to have to really ____________________ on this crossword puzzle. It’s an extra difficult one. Imagem 2.2.

Text 2

Food Can Be Dangerous For Your Health!

EXERCITANDO EM AULA

Shamuel Fiorentino

Text 1 Folks, today I will show you something you may have never seen before.

It’s called “real food”, and it’s the kind of thing that our ancestors once ate. It doesn’t come from packages or fast food restaurants! Whoa! Weird.

Creepy.

You actually expect us to eat something that grew?

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Hey! How did these things get dirt on them? Imagem 2.1.

03. O quadrinho faz uma crítica a) à falta de bons modos explicitada pela linguagem usada pelas crianças. b) aos maus hábitos alimentares praticados pelas crianças em geral. c) às crianças que não comem vegetais de cor verde. d) à professora que não está familiarizada com os desejos das crianças. e) ao conflito entre gerações, ou seja, diferenças de comportamento entre pais e filhos.

500

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

When you go to a restaurant you often think that the food you are ordering is good for you. But many restaurants serve healthy food, like fish or salad, with a sauce or dressing that uses a lot of oil, fat, or sugar. The British Food Standards Agency wants all restaurants to say in their menus exactly what is in each dish, how many calories, how much fat, and what additives. They think that restaurants don’t give their customers enough information, and that this new plan could help people to have a healthier diet. But chefs are not happy with the Agency’s plan. One top chef said, ‘People are not stupid. They know that many sauces have butter and cream in them. But if we put on a menu that a dish has 1,000 calories, nobody is going to order it!’ However, many doctors agree with the plan. Bruce Ward, Professor of Medicine, said, ‘People know that cigarettes are bad for them, because it tells you on the packet. But when they go to a restaurant they often have no idea if the food is healthy or not. Food products that have a lot of calories, fat, and sugar need a health warning, exactly like cigarettes.’ Source: New English File. Oxford University Press, p. 87 (UNICENTRO 2007)

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 04. According to Text 2, The British Food Standards Agency wants: a) all restaurants only to inform how many calories all dishes have. b) several restaurants only to inform how much fat a dish contains. c) some restaurants only to inform what additives the dishes have. d) all restaurants to list and give to their customers all the information about calories, fat and additives of each dish. e) all restaurants to warn their customers about the dangers of consuming high-calorie food.


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

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Shutterstock.com

Imagem 2.3.

Text 3

Potatoes can reduce blood pressure

Imagem 2.4.

Just a couple of servings of potato a day can reduce blood pressure in obese or overweight people with high blood pressure, calling into question the lowly spud’s current reputation as a fattening, unhealthy food, according to new research presented at a conference in Denver, Colorado, USA, on Wednesday. “The potato, more than perhaps any other vegetable, has an undeserved bad reputation that has led many health conscious people to ban them from their diet”, said Dr Joe Vinson, a professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania, who led the research that was presented at the 242nd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS). But before you go out and order French fries, the preferred way of eating this most consumed of all vegetables in the US, consider this: the research was done with purple potatoes cooked in the microwave oven, with no oil or fat whatsoever. (UFG 2011)

EXERCITANDO EM AULA

a) try to stimulate the reader to have a more balanced and healthy diet. b) emphasize the importance of being aware of recent scientific findings. c) criticize conflicting results in research in terms of what a healthy lifestyle means. d) point out that consumers must be more critical of bad eating habits. e) provide the reader with information about recent results in health research.

What is GM food? Genetically modified food is produced from plants which have had their genetic make-up tweaked in the lab. Scientists “cut and paste” a gene from another organism into a plant’s DNA to give it a new characteristic. This can be to increase yield or to allow the plant to exist in a more hostile environment than normal. Pro-GM scientists say this means cheaper more plentiful food but opponents argue we do not know the consequences of meddling with nature. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/04/sci_nat_gm_food/html/1.stm (UFRRJ 2007)

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 06. In GM food, the genetic code is a) b) c) d) e)

misunderstood. discarded. misinterpreted. changed. overlooked.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

05. The main aim of the report is to

Text 4

07. One of the goals of GM food is to a) b) c) d) e)

increase marketing. suppress crops. flavor food. reduce species. stimulate production.

08. The consequences of GM food on humans are a) b) c) d) e)

uncertain. disastrous. inevitable. expected. unavoidable.

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

09. The expression “cut and paste” is normally used in relation to a) televisions. b) radios. c) computers. d) telephones. e) cars.

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Open fire on the needs designed On my knees for you Open fire on my knees desires What I need from you Open fire on the needs designed Open fire on my knees desires On my knees for you

Imagem 2.5.

Text 5

Ana's Song (Open Fire) Silverchair

Please die Ana For as long as you're here we're not You make the sound of laughter and sharpened nails seem softer And I need you now somehow And I need you now somehow

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Open fire on the needs designed On my knees for you Open fire on my knees desires What I need from you Imagine pageant In my head the flesh seems thicker Sandpaper tears corrode the film And I need you now somehow And I need you now somehow Open fire on the needs designed On my knees for you Open fire on my knees desires What I need from you And you're my obsession I love you to the bones

502

And Ana wrecks your life Like an Anorexia life

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

Ana's Song (Open Fire) is a single issued in May 1999 by Australian alternative rock band, Silverchair. It was written by the group's lead singer, Daniel Johns. In 1999, Johns announced that he had developed the eating disorder anorexia nervosa due to anxiety/depression. Johns noted that the lyrics to Ana's Song (Open Fire) dealt with his disorder. Ana is the nickname given to anorexia nervosa by people affected by it. Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by a low weight, fear of gaining weight, a strong desire to be thin, and food restriction. Many people with anorexia see themselves as overweight even though they are in fact underweight. If asked they usually deny they have a problem with low weight. Often they weigh themselves frequently, eat only small amounts, and only eat certain foods. Some will exercise excessively, force themselves to vomit, or use laxatives to produce weight loss. Complications may include osteoporosis, infertility and heart damage, amongw others. Women will often stop having menstrual periods. The cause is not known. Anorexia often begins following a major life change or stress-inducing event. (From Wikipedia)

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 10. Ao analisarmos a canção e o texto complementar, é possível afirmar que estão verdadeiras: I. a canção é baseada em uma experiência pessoal sofrida pelo autor, sendo um retrato de toda a sua angústia e desespero II. Uma relação amorosa problemática é o mote de partida da canção, que reflete uma relação doentia a ponto do eu lírico desejar a morte de sua companheira III. o cantor entende que sofre de uma moléstia extremamente grave e relata a sua incapacidade de reverter tal condição IV. a canção relata uma relação de dependência e sujeição, sendo o eu lírico consciente desta dependência, porém incapaz de se desvencilhar dela V. Apesar de entender que está em um relacionamento amoroso ruim, o eu lírico se demonstra obcecado e incapaz de pôr um fim a esta relação


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

a) b) c) d) e)

I, II, IV e V I, III e IV I, II, III, IV e V IeV I, II e V

11. Observando detalhadamente a condição médica explicitada pelo texto e por trechos da música, NÃO é possível afirmar que: a) o distúrbio surge inesperadamente, não possuindo fatores geradores ou condições que favoreçam o seu aparecimento. b) ao contrário do que acontece com a maioria das pessoas que sofre deste problema, o autor admite abertamente que o possui. c) a expressão “In my head the flesh seems thicker” é uma referência a visão deturpada que a doença cria naqueles que a sofrem. d) infertilidade, problemas cardíacos e ausência de menstruação são consequências possíveis. e) “On my knees for you” é uma referência à submissão que o eu lírico possui diante desta condição médica. Text 6

their diets were supplemented with fish oils containing omega-3 fatty acids — essential for brain development but missing from modern processed foods. Schools and parents are finally waking up to the notion that poor diet is making kids fatter, angrier and less able to learn. The health-and-nutrition class at St. Joan of Arc, for instance, is part of a government-sponsored effort to deal with the problem of child obesity. Funded by European food and drug companies and France’s Ministry of Health, the program is designed to make healthy eating part of children’s everyday lives — at school and at home. School lunches now replace unhealthy foods like French fries with vegetables such as beans. Children in the district also have a healthy preschool breakfast intended to supplement the breakfast they ate — or sometimes did not eat — at home. (UFBA 2007)

Text 7

Fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

Sugar

a sweet, crystalline substance, C12 H22 O11, obtained chiefly from the juice of the sugarcane and the sugar beet, and present in sorghum, maple sap, etc.

Vitamins

any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism, found in minute amounts in natural food stuffs or sometimes produced synthetically; deficiencies of vitamins produce specific disorders.

Nutritionist

a person who advises on matters of food and nutrition impacts on health.

Fat

any of several white or yellowish greasy substances, forming the chief part of adipose tissue of animals and also occurring in plants, that when pure are colorless, odorless, and tasteless and are either solid or liquid estersof glycerol with fatty acids.

Junk-food

food, as potato chips or candy, that is high in calories but of little nutritional value.

A is for apple With childhood obesity on the rise, students, parents and teachers are learning the importance of a healthy diet. The students of class CM2 at the St. Joan of Arc elementary school in northern France are playing with their food — and their teacher is delighted. During the course of the morning, the class learns that fruits contain minerals, fiber, sugar and vitamins. “Who knows why we need vitamin C?” asks a nutritionist employed by the local school district. Three hands shoot up. “Without it we become tired,” answers a student enthusiastically. If only more of Europe’s children knew as much about healthy food. Just like their counterparts in the U.S., European kids increasingly eat a diet high in fat and sugar and low in nutrition — and too often that includes what their schools feed them. The junk-food problem was highlighted recently by British television chef Jamie Oliver, who describes meals served in British schools as “mostly rubbish”. Poor diets have caused a big increase in the number of obese children: levels of childhood obesity in Europe have increased from between 5% and 10% 25 years ago to as much as 25% in some countries today. It may also contribute to bad behavior and learning difficulties. A study by Oxford University’s department of physiology found that underachieving British children’s reading and spelling abilities were dramatically improved when

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Minerals

any of the inorganic elements, as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, or sodium, that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods.

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Meals

the food served and eaten especially at one of the customary, regular occasions for taking food during the day, as breakfast, lunch or supper.

Obese

very fat or overweight; corpulent.

Processed foods

The term processed food applies to any food that has been altered from its natural state.

lunches

a light midday meal between breakfast and dinner.

13. Summarize how the nutrition program works in France.

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LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

12. Based on the text, explain how and why poor diets have affected children’s lives.

Imagem 2.6.

504

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1


2

1

3

8

7

9

6

5

4

Luiz Fernando

Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

14

11

12

10 15

13

19

20

16

18

27

26

21 22

23

25

24

30

29

17

33

28

32

31

35

34

Imagem 2.7.

1

Donut Muffin Bagel Bun Danish/pastry Biscuit Croissant Hamburger Cheeseburger

10. Hot dog 11. Taco 12. Slice of pizza 13. B owl of chili 14. Order of fried chicken 15. Coke/Diet coke/Pepsi/... 16. Lemonade 17. Coffee 18. Decaf coffee

2

19. Tea 20. Iced tea 21. Milk 22. Tuna fish sandwich 23. Egg salad sandwich 24. Chicken salad sandwich 25. Ham and cheese sandwich 26. Roast beef sandwich 27. Corned beef sandwich 5

4

28. BLT (bacon, lettuce and tomato) sandwich 29. White bread 30. Rye bread 31. Whole wheat bread 32. Pumpernickel 33. Pita bread 34. A roll 35. A submarine roll 8

7

6

Luiz Fernando

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

3

9

10

17

16

25

18

26

20

19

27

28

15

14

13

21

22

23

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

24

12

11

30

29

Imagem 2.8.

A. Appetizers 1. Fruit cup/fruit cocktail 2. Tomato juice 3. Shrimp cocktail 4. Chicken wings 5. Nachos 6. Potato skins B. Salads 7. Tossed salad/garden salad

8. Greek salad 9. Spinash salad 10. Antipasto (plate) 11. Caesar salad 12. Salad bar C. Main Courses/Entrées 13. Meatloaf 14. Roast beef/prime 15. Veal cutlet

16. Baked chicken 17. Broiled fish 18. Spaghetti and meatballs D. Side Dishes 19. A baked potato 20. Mashed potatoes 21. French fries 22. Rice 23. Noodles

24. Mixed vegetables E. Desserts 25. Chocolate cake 26. Apple pie 27. Ice cream 28. Jello 29. Pudding 30. Ice cream sundae

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Text 8

Text 9

All you can eat by the Fat Boys

Instead of eating to diet, they’re eating to enjoy By TARA PARKER-POPE www.nytimes.com, Sep. 16, 2008

(Prince Markie D): $3.99 for all you can eat? Well, I’m a stuff my face to a funky beat! (Kool Rock Ski): We’re gonna walk inside, and guess what’s up: Put some food in my plate, and some Coke in my cup (Prince Markie D): Give me some chicken, franks, and fries And you can pass me a lettuce. I’m a pass it by (Kool Rock Ski): So keep shoveling, (Ha!) onto my plate Give me some sweets and lots of cake (Prince Markie D): Give me some hot macaroni and cheese! (Human Beat Box): Give me, some more food PLEASE!!!! (Kool Rock Ski): Give me some bologna, salami, and ham Toast with butter and strawberry jam (Prince Markie D): I love it whether the food is cold or hot Put a burger on the plate, and it’ll hit the spot (Kool Rock Ski): We’ll eat everything. An incredible feat $3.99 for all you can eat!

Link sugerido • https://bit.ly/3924AGV

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 14. Ao analisarmos a letra da canção é possível afirmar que

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a) há uma preocupação na divulgação de hábitos alimentares saudáveis b) alerta para o consumo irresponsável de alimentos pouco saudáveis c) critica o preço alto dos alimentos oferecidos em restaurantes d) relata o comportamento de algumas pessoas em um buffet ilimitado e) revela sua predileção por alimentos com alto teor calórico e, de preferência, quentes

Imagem 2.9.

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AFTER decades of obsessing about fat, calories and carbs, many dieters have made the unorthodox decision to simply enjoy food again. That doesn’t mean they’re giving up on health or even weight loss. Instead, consumers and nutritionists say they are seeing a shift toward “positive eating” — shunning deprivation diets and instead focusing on adding seasonal vegetables, nuts, berries and other healthful foods to their plates. For 32-year-old Rina Gonzalez Echandi of Los Angeles, giving up calorie counting and packaged foods and adding real food back into her diet has helped her maintain her weight and even be happier. She used to watch fat and calories so obsessively she would sometimes avoid socializing. “You forget how wonderful it is to have a meal with friends and family,” said Ms. Gonzalez-Echandi, a special-education aide and mother of a 10-year-old daughter. “I realize I had taken that joy away from myself.” Now she focuses on the pleasure of eating fresh, home-cooked food. She has started cooking with olive oil and occasionally butter, and has increased her consumption of nuts and peanut butter. She even got to know her grocer to find out which fruits and vegetables are in season and grown locally. The market research firm NPD Group gets a glimpse of national eating habits through the food diaries it has collected from 5,000 consumers since 1980. The percentage of those consumers who are on a diet is lower than at any time since information on dieting was first collected in 1985. At the peak in 1990, 39 percent of the women and 29 percent of the men were dieting. Today, that number has dropped to 26 percent of women and 16 percent of men. The diarists also report eating more organic foods and whole grains, said Harry Balzer, an NPD vice president. “Instead of trying to avoid things, they’ve started adding things,” Mr. Balzer said. Even the Calorie Control Council, which represents makers of commercial diet foods, notes the percentage of people who are dieting has declined — to 29 percent in 2007 from 33 percent in 2004. And there are other indicators of a shift in eating habits. In May, the market research firm Information Resources reported that 53 percent of consumers say they are cooking from scratch more than they did just six months ago, in part, no doubt, because of the rising cost of prepared foods. Sales of organic foods have surged, and the number of farmers’ markets has more than doubled since the mid-1990s. Nutrition experts and consumers say positive eating trends are being fueled in part by the failures of the past. A national epidemic of obesity suggests that the spread of diet foods, sugar-free soft drinks and low-fat snacks hasn’t helped people manage their weight. Cynthia Sass, a New York dietitian and author who was a spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association from 2001 to 2007, said many clients embrace positive eating after years of failed dieting. “They would much rather focus on what to eat instead of what not to eat,” Ms. Sass said. “Most people I have encountered have a track record of trying different things that didn’t work for them.” Mean-


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

while, books like Gary Taubes’s Good Calories, Bad Calories (Alfred A. Knopf, 2007) and Michael Pollan’s In Defense of Food (Penguin, 2008) have prompted a rethinking of Americans’ eating habits and dependence on processed and refined foods. Martha McClintock, 46, of Riverdale, in the Bronx, said she was more focused these days on adding healthful foods like avocados, blueberries and walnuts to her plate. She said she tries to improve the quality of food she eats, such as switching to blue corn chips as a snack rather than potato chips. “If something is high in calories, I try to look at the big picture,” said Ms. McClintock, a photo service account executive. “If you’re going to indulge in something, just try and walk it off or limit it to once a week.” (UECE 2008)

c) losing 5 pounds a month. d) enjoying organic foods.

19. Some of the healthy foods mentioned in the text are: a) b) c) d)

sugar-free soft drinks, walnuts, and gluten. mangoes, avocados, and peanut butter. vegetables, potato chips, and berries. walnuts, avocados, and seasonal vegetables.

20. The idea of positive eating includes a) keeping away from deprivation diets and consuming healthful foods. b) focusing on seasonal vegetables and increasing the consumption of packaged foods. c) eating whatever you want without worrying about the consequences. d) exercising 30 minutes a day and eating peanut butter.

Link sugerido • https://goo.gl/1bNMIj

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 15. The NDP Group has found that consumers nowadays tend to a) b) c) d)

cook with olive oil and margarine. avoid sugar free soft drinks. reduce sugar intake and low-fat snacks. consume more organic foods and whole grains.

previous successful dieting. months of starvation. a long time of failed dieting. years of consuming potato chips.

17. Martha McClintock says that if some food is very caloric, you can a) indulge in it for a week and then forget about it. b) limit it to once a week or exercise to burn the calories. c) eat it once a month and walk two miles per week. d) mix it with some Slow Food.

18. Rina Gonzalez-Echandi no longer counts calories nor eats packaged food, and this has aided her in a) maintaining her weight. b) avoiding socializing.

Reprodução

a) b) c) d)

Super Size Me is a 2004 American documentary film directed by and starring Morgan Spurlock. Spurlock’s film follows a 30-day period from February 1 to March 2, 2003, during which he ate only McDonald’s food. The film documents this lifestyle’s drastic effect on Spurlock’s physical and psychological well-being, and explores the fast food industry’s corporate influence, including how Imagem 2.10. it encourages poor nutrition for its own profit. Spurlock ate at McDonald’s restaurants three times per day, eating every item on the chain’s menu at least once.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

16. For many people, positive eating habits come after

Reprodução

CONHECIMENTO COMPLEMENTAR

Chef is a 2014 American comedy-drama film written, produced, directed by and starring Jon Favreau. Favreau plays a professional chef who, after a public altercation with a food critic, quits his job at a popular Los Angeles restaurant and returns to his home town of Imagem 2.11. Miami to fix up a food truck. He reconnects with his ex-wife and invites their young son to join him in driving the truck back to L.A., while selling Cubanos in various cities along the way.

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A. Dairy Products 1. Milk 2. Low-fat milk 3. Skim milk 4. Chocolate milk 5. Buttermilk 6. Orange juice 7. Cheese 8. Butter 9. Margarine 10. Sour cream 11. Cream cheese 12. Cottage cheese 13. Yogurt 14. Eggs B. Canned Goods 15. Soup 16. Tuna fish 17. (Canned) vegetables 18. (Canned) fruit C. Pakaged Goods 19. Cereal 20. Cookies 21. Crackers 22. Spaghetti 23. Noodles 24. Macaroni 25. Rice

G. Meat 45. Ground beef 46. Roast 47. Steak 48. Stewing meat 49. Leg of lamb 50. Lamb chops 51. Pork 52. Pork chops 53. Ribs 54. Sausages 55. Ham 56. bacon H. Fish 57. Salmon 58. Halibut 59. Flounder 60. Swordfish 61. Haddock 62. Trout I. Baked goods 63. Cake 64. Pita bread 65. Rolls 66. Bread J. Frozen foods 67. Ice cream 68. Frozen vegetables 69. Frozen dinners 70. Frozen lemonade

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E. Beverages 35. Soda 36. Diet soda

F. Poultry 38. Chicken 39. Chicken legs 40. Drumsticks 41. Chicken breasts 42. Chicken wings 43. Turkey 44. Duck

CONECTANDO DISCIPLINAS Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin. We can’t store it in the body, which means we need it from our diet every day. “Vitamin C helps protect cells and keep them healthy,” says Marie Murphy, a nutrition scientist at the British Nutrition Foundation. “It is also involved in the production of collagen, which maintains healthy connective tissues, important for the support and structure of tissues and organs including the skin, bones and blood vessels.” Vitamin C helps with wound healing, and consuming vitamin C increases the amount of iron we can absorb from plant sources, such as kale, broccoli and sprouts. Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants that may protect against damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals, as well as toxic chemicals and pollutants like cigarette smoke. Research suggests that free radicals can build up and contribute to the development of health conditions such as cancer, heart disease and arthritis. Para mais informações, acesse o link • https://goo.gl/xrdlTU

TÓPICO 2 • Present perfect Os perfect tenses são formados com o verbo auxiliar to have (have / has) mais o particípio passado dos verbos principais.

Formação do particípio Caso os verbos sejam regulares, têm a mesma forma que o passado simples, ou seja, são adicionados de –ed. Quando irregulares, terão forma própria.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

D. Juice 26. Apple juice 27. Pineapple juice 28. Grapefruit juice 29. Tomato juice 30. Fruit punch 31. Grape juice 32. Cranberry juice 33. Juice packs 34. Powdered drink mix

37. Bottled water

Usos: O present perfect tense, apesar do nome, não é usado para ações que acontecem no presente e sim para ações com relação com o passado. Usamos o present perfect para: 1. Referir-se a ações que ocorreram num tempo indefinido no passado: “I have eaten many strange things in my life.” ?

Past

Now

Future

Imagem 2.13.

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Examples: They have lived here since 1998. (Eles moram aqui desde 1998.) She has worked here for 5 years. (Ela trabalha aqui há cinco anos.) Formação:

Imagem 2.14.

Affirmative

subject + have/has + past participle + complement

I have eaten scorpion

Negative

subject + have/has + not + past participle + complement

I have not eaten scorpion or I haven’t eaten scorpion.

Interrogative

Have/Has + subject + past participle + complement (?)

Have you eaten scorpion?

Examples: Someone has left the door open. (Alguém deixou a porta aberta.) You have forgotten to call me. (Você esqueceu de me ligar.) She has fallen down the stairs. (Ela caiu das escadas.) They have studied French. (Eles estudaram francês.) Se o tempo for mencionado ou sugerido, usamos o simple past:

Someone left the door open yesterday. You forgot to call me on Saturday. She fell down the stairs when she was young. They studied French last year. 2. Expressar ações que começaram no passado e continuam até o presente. Nestes casos, é muito comum aparecer since e for:

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

“Daniel has studied English here since 2015.”

2015

Now

O simple past refere-se apenas a ações passadas que acabaram em um tempo definido no passado: I went to the park last weekend. (Simple Past) Imagem 2.16. O present perfect pode expressar ações passadas que acabaram em um tempo não definido no passado ou ações que ainda não terminaram: I have worked hard. (Present Perfect) They have been here since midday. (Present Perfect)

Future

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Reveja os principais pontos do present perfect.

Imagem 2.15. Link sugerido • https://youtu.be/2hcJECNQDlc

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Present Perfect x Simple Past

Examples:

Past

SAIBA MAIS


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

EXERCITANDO EM AULA

SAIBA MAIS

21. Complete as orações a seguir com o present perfect: O present perfect é usado com os seguintes advérbios: 8. just - para indicar que as ações que ocorreram num passado bem recente: We have just known each other. (Acabamos de nos conhecer.) 9. already (já) - para indicar que a ação já ocorreu. É usado apenas em frases afirmativas e interrogativas e é posicionado sempre antes do verbo principal: She has already arrived home. (Ela já chegou em casa.) 10. yet (já; ainda) - Usado em frases interrogativas, significa já, em frases negativas, é usado com sentido de ainda. Posiciona-se sempre no final da frase. Nas orações negativas, ele é empregado para dizer que a ação ainda não ocorreu: Have you talked to your teacher yet? (Você já falou com a sua professora?) 11. never (nunca) - é usado para indicar que algo não aconteceu: He has never forgotten you. (Ele nunca esqueceu você.) 12. ever (já; alguma vez) - é usado para saber se aquela ação já aconteceu alguma vez. Geralmente é usado em perguntas: Have you ever travelled abroad? (Você já viajou para o exterior?) * Ever também é usado com o superlativo para indicar que algo é o maior, o melhor, o mais interessante que alguém já viu, leu, fez, trabalhou, etc.: He is the busiest man I have ever known. (Ele é o homem mais ocupado que já conheci.)

e) f) g) h)

I ________________ (work) as a teacher for 20 years. Who ____________ (take) my umbrella? __________ you __________ (travel) abroad? __________ your father __________ (work) in a multinational? __________ anyone __________ (see) my coat? We ____________________ (not do) our homework yet. How long _________ you __________ (study) English? I ____________ (live) in the countryside since I was born.

22. Fill in the blanks with the present perfect of the verbs in parentheses. a) Caty__________ already__________ a bumper car. (drive) b) __________ Jill ever_________ this movie? (see) c) How many students __________ __________ sushi? (eat) d) _________ you ever ____________ a letter to your parents? (write) e) Tom _________ already __________ his homework. (do)

23. Complete the sentences using the verbs in parentheses in the present perfect. a) Vítor _______________ (write) a letter to his girlfriend. b) My grandparents ______________________ (decide – negative) what to do on Easter. c) Timmy and Mariah _____________________ (arrive negative) on time because of the rain. d) We _____________________ (be) very busy this week organizing the convention. e) Marcelo _____________________ (watch) seventeen movies this year. 24. Complete the sentences using the simple past or the present perfect. a) Teddy and his friends ____________ (be) in the club an hour ago. b) Bárbara ____________ (write) many books for teens. c) My parents ____________ (be) to Europe many times. d) Anne ____________ (send) me a letter from Dallas last month. e) Many people in our city ________ (help) homeless people.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

13. lately (ultimamente) e recently (recentemente) esses advérbios são posicionados no final da oração: Have you visited your relatives in North Carolina lately? (Você tem visitado seus parentes na Carolina do Norte ultimamente?)

a) b) c) d)

25. (Esc. Naval) Choose the correct option to complete this novel excerpt. “Where is Louisia?”, shouted Paul. “Paul”, said Mrs. Schobert softly […] “Louisia has not __________ nor __________. She has not __________ home yet. I am sorry. I don’t know what to think.” (HOOD, P. F. F.; HOOD, C. L. Tommorrow, soldier. Part Three: Himmler’s Gas Station. An autobiographical novel in four parts. Milton Keynes: UK. Author House, 2007, p. 40.)

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a) b) c) d) e)

called – wrote – come called – wrote – came call – wrote – came call – written – came called – written – come

26. Complete these time expressions and time clauses with for or since. a) ___________ three days b) ___________ 3 o’clock c) ___________ 3 hours d) ___________ a moment e) ___________ last month f) ___________ a month g) ___________ he was a baby h) ___________ 2015

27. Complete this conversation with the present perfect or simple past forms of the verbs in parentheses. A: Why do you want to work here? B: Well, I love teaching and I ____________ (want) to work as a teacher since I __________ (leave) the university. A: Your resume says that you ________________ (work) as a teacher at the university school from 2015 to 2016. Can you tell me about that? B: Yes. It ___________________ (be) a part-time job. We ___________________ (have) 200 students from different background. I_________________ (work) along with my Head Teacher, Mr. Brown. A: Tell me about the jobs you ____________________ (have) since then. ______________________ (you/ ever have) full responsibility for students in your work? B: Yes. Last year I _____________________ (work) as a teacher for a local junior high.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

28. Complete the sentences with the verb in brackets in the past simple or present perfect. a) ________ you ________ (watch) Avengers last year? b) His parents _____________ (move) to Japan when he _____________ (be) only 2. c) I __________________ (read) that book yet. Is it good? d) Leonardo _______________ (work) in that company for 15 years. (He still works there). e) She loves Recife. She ______________ (be) there many times. f) They _____________ (go) to Thailand on holiday three years ago. 29. (Eear) Select the alternative that best completes the dialogue below. Jude: I __________ (see) Mary last Sunday. John: Really? I __________ (not/see) her for years. How is she?

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a) b) c) d)

saw – haven’t see saw – haven’t seen have seen – didn’t see have seen – haven’t seen

30. (Ufsj) Young Nina and her grandmother are having a conversation: “Grandma, how long have you and Grandpa been married?”, asked Nina. “We’ve been married for fifty years”, Grandma replied. “That is so wonderful”, exclaimed Nina. “And I bet in all that time, you never once thought about divorce, right?” “Right Nina. Divorce, never. Murder, lots of times.” Adapted from http://www.sarasotawedding.com/jokes/divorce_jokes.html. Access on September 28th, 2012.

In the joke, the sentence “We’ve been married for fifty years” means that Nina’s grandparents a) lived together for fifty years. b) were married for fifty years. c) got married fifty years ago. d) were married for a long time.

31. (UERN)

Choose the item to complete the answer. a) They will go to. b) They have gone. c) They went to. d) They would go to. TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO:


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

“You have to motivate yourself with challenges. That’s how you know you’re still alive. Once you start doing only what you _____(I)_____ you can do, you _____(II)_____ on the road to death.”

YET - JUST - ALREADY - EVER - SINCE - FOR - LATELY I haven’t finished my homework ___________. She has ____________ sent her postcards. My mom has ___________ made a cake. We have been waiting for you _____________ two weeks. e) Américo and his family have lived in Toronto _________ 2005. a) b) c) d)

Jerry Seinfeld

32. (Mackenzie) The verb forms that correctly complete the blanks I and II in the quotation are a) should have proved, will be b) had proven, would be c) have proven, are d) may have proven, can be e) will be proving, will have been TEXTO PARA A PRÓXIMA QUESTÃO: Religion ________ central to people’s lives in Africa. Although the majority of Africans are now Muslim or Christian, traditional religions have endured and still play a big role. Religion runs like a thread through daily life, marked by prayers of gratitude in times of plenty and prayers of supplication in times of need. Religion confirms identity on the individual and the group.

TÓPICO 3 • Present perfect continuous O present perfect continuous é usado, basicamente, para enfatizar a continuidade de uma ação que começou no passado e que se prolonga até o presente.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica

GLOSSARY: Endure – to continue to exist for a long time Thread – one part connecting with another

33. (Afa) Mark the alternative that completes the gap from the text correctly. a) has always been b) had never been c) wasn’t d) will be

Example: Bob has been washing his car since 2 o’clock.

34. (Pucpr) Find the correct use of the present perfect ten-

35. Choose the appropriate word to complete the sentences below:

Now

Future

Forma contraída: I / You / We / You / They’ve - He / She / It’s.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

se: 1. I’ve answered all the questions. 2. He has stayed in that position for half an hour. 3. Jane’s writen a book. 4. The writer has written a new book last year. 5. Lice has been a problem to mankind for years. 6. Some thieves have robbed the bank a week ago. 7. My men has slept for five hours. Choose the right alternative: a) 1 - 2 - 5 - 7 b) 1 - 2 - 4 - 5 c) 1 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 d) 2 - 3 - 7 e) 1 - 2

Past

• Forma afirmativa: SUJEITO + PRESENTE SIMPLES DO VERBO TO HAVE + PRESENTE PERFEITO DO VERBO TO BE + GERÚNDIO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL She has been working as an English teacher for 10 years. (Ela trabalha como professora de Inglês há 10 anos.) They have been studying for three hours. (Eles estão estudando há três horas.) Carol has been going to school by bus since her father’s car broke. (Carol vai/tem ido de ônibus para a escola desde que o carro de seu pai quebrou.) They have been studying hard. (Eles estão estudando bastante.)

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Forma negativa: A forma negativa do present perfect continuous é feita acrescentando-se not entre o Presente Simples do verbo to have (have / has) e o presente perfeito do verbo to be. O verbo principal permanece no gerúndio:

They have not been using the blender for months. (Eles não usam o liquidificador há meses.) She hasn’t been living in Recife since 1999. She has lived there since 2001. (Ela não está morando em Recife desde 1999. Ela vive lá desde 2001.) • Forma interrogativa: PRESENTE SIMPLES DO VERBO TO HAVE + SUJEITO + PRESENTE PERFEITO DO VERBO TO BE + GERÚNDIO DO VERBO PRINCIPAL

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• Forma contraída: haven’t / hasn’t I have not been sleeping well since last week because my husband snores a lot. (Não estou dormindo bem desde a semana passada porque meu marido ronca muito.)

SAIBA MAIS

O present continuous expressa uma ação que está ocorrendo no momento, agora: She is making a cake now. (Ela está fazendo um bolo agora.) Imagem 2.17.

O present perfect continuous expressa uma ação que começou no passado e continua até o presente: He has been cooking for one hour. (Ele está cozinhando há uma hora.) O present perfect expressa ações que que acabaram em um tempo não definido no passado: She has made a cake. (Ela fez um bolo.)

Has he been washing his car for two hours? (Ele está lavando o carro dele há duas horas?) Have you been working since eight o’ clock? (Você está trabalhando desde as oito horas?) What have you been doing since I last saw you? (O que você fez/tem feito desde a última vez que o vi?) How long have you been living here? (Há quanto tempo você mora aqui?)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Uso: O present perfect continuous é usado para: 1. Falar de uma atividade que começou no passado e que continua até o presente, enfatizando a duração ou a intensidade da ação. Nesse caso, para expressar o tempo, geralmente usa-se since, for, all day, all morning, all week, etc.: She has been running for half an hour. (Ela está correndo há meia hora.) It’s been raining a lot all week. (Tem chovido bastante toda esta semana.) We have been learning English for many years. (Estudamos inglês há muitos anos.)

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EXERCITANDO EM AULA 36. Choose the correct verb from the list below to complete the following sentences. Put the verb in the present perfect continuous tense. talk — lift — work — wait — study — watch a) He _________________________ on this project for the past two years. b) Sandra’s back hurts. She ________________________ heavy boxes all day. c) Amanda ________________________ at the restaurant for her boyfriend for over one hour. d) The children _________________________ TV all day. e) The girls ________________________ on the telephone for over an hour. f) They ________________________ English for 3 months.

37. Complete the sentences using the present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. a) _________________________ (you / buy) your plane ticket yet? We are traveling next week. b) Maria _________________________ (already / have) dinner, so she’ll meet us later. c) How much coffee ______________________ (she / drink) this morning?


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

d) I _______________________ (not do) anything I needed to do today! I’m so busy. e) The kitchen is a complete mess! What _________________________ (the children / do)?

38. Complete the sentences using the present perfect simple or present perfect continuous. a) He ___________________ (wake up) late lately. b) I ___________________ (read) seven books this year! c) Jonathan _____________ (feel) great lately. d) Recently, I ___________________ (work) a lot. My colleague is sick, so I have to help. e) They ___________________ (always / love) ice-cream.

d) Vinicius drinks. He started to drink when he was a teenager.

e) They are traveling around Europe. They started to travel 3 months ago.

39. Read the situations below and write a sentence using the present perfect progressive tense to say how long the situation has been happening. E.g. The baby is crying. It started to cry twenty minutes ago. The baby has been crying for twenty minutes. a) Sandra works as a teacher. She started working as a teacher 10 years ago.

EXERCITANDO EM AULA

b) It is raining. It began to rain last night.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

40. (FUVEST) Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente a lacuna: Have you _____________________ the correct alternative? a) choose b) been choosing c) choosed d) chose e) chosen 41. (UNESP) Assinale a alternativa correta:

c) The children are playing outside. They started to play 2 hours ago.

a) b) c) d) e)

I live here since 1970. I have been living here since 1970. I living here since 1970. I will live here since 1970. I would live here since 1970.

42. (UNESP) Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente as lacunas da frase a seguir: He _____________________ learning English for five years but he_____________________it yet. a) has been - does not learn b) has been - has not learned 2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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c) has been - learn d) been - have not learned e) have been - did not learn

c) worked d) will be working e) has work

43. (PUC-CAMP) Assinale a letra correspondente à alterna-

48. Malhação ______________ on Brazilians TV for more

tiva que preenche corretamente as lacunas da frase apresentada. Sandy: Hi, Jack. Jack: Hi, Sandy. Sandy: Gosh! I ....... you for ages! Jack: That’s true. I ........ from a trip to Japan just yesterday. a) saw - am returning b) saw - returned c) have seen - have returned d) haven’t seen - returned e) haven’t seen - have returned

than 20 years. a) was showing b) has show c) has been show d) has been showing e) have been showing

44. (PUC-PR)

Choose the best option to complete the conversation below: Lucy: How is your hotel? Sally: Great! It’s the best hotel I ______ in. Lucy: Is Ben ______ the holiday? Sally: Ben is really ______. You know, the last time we ______ to London was 10 years ago and the city ______ a lot since then. a) stayed - enjoying - pleasing - have come - have changed b) stay - enjoyed - pleased - come - changed c) ever stayed - enjoying - pleased - have come - have changed d) have ever stay - enjoying - pleased - came - changed e) have ever stayed - enjoying - pleased - came - has changed

45. (UNESP) Assinale a alternativa que preenche correta-

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mente a lacuna da frase adiante Have you ___ my Uncle Jack? a) not meet b) meets c) meeting d) met e) meet

46. Complete the sentences using the verbs in parentheses in the present perfect continuous. a) You ________________ (wait) for Susie for half an hour. b) We ____________________ (try) to call the doctor all day without success. c) Romeo _________________ (feel) sick. d) I _________________ (do-negative) much lately. e) Vlimir ______________ (go-negative) to the gym lately. 47. Bob is the oldest employee here. He ______________ for our company for more than 30 years. a) have worked b) has been working 516

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49. Where have you been? I ______________ for you for two days. a) has looked b) have been looking c) has been looking d) looks e) was look

TÓPICO 4 • Phrasal verbs (Verbos frasais) “When a man loves a woman Can’t keep his mind on nothin’ else He’d trade the world For a good time he’s found If she is bad, he can’t see it She can do no wrong Turn his back on his best friend If he puts her down When a man loves a woman Spend his very last dime Trying to hold on to what he needs He’d given up all his comfort And sleep out in the rain If she said that’s the way It ought to be…” Michael Bolton

Put down (rebaixar, colocar pra baixo), hold on (manter, aguentar), give up (desistir), sleep out (dormir fora) são exemplos de phrasal verbs. São verbos formados geralmente por um verbo mais uma ou duas partículas (preposições ou advérbios) que os complementam. Dessa forma, podem ser classificados como “frases” e são normalmente diferentes do significado individual dos elementos que os compõem.


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Assim sendo, não costumam ser traduzidos de forma literal e devem ser encarados como vocábulos independentes. Para os falantes do português, o uso dos verbos frasais da língua inglesa soa estranho e complicado. Quando olhamos para uma determinada construção, fica difícil de entender como uma simples preposição pode mudar o sentido de um verbo usado isoladamente. Observe a tradução que os dicionários dão para o verbo LOOK, as preposições ON, AT, AFTER e FOR e ainda a conjunção LIKE: LOOK: olhar, ver, observar ON: em cima, sobre AT: em, no AFTER: depois FOR: por LIKE: como

Agora veja os significados que LOOK recebe com tais acréscimos: LOOK ON: assistir, contemplar LOOK AT: olhar para LOOK AFTER: cuidar de LOOK FOR: procurar por LOOK LIKE: parecer-se com, parecer que

1. Em certas situações, a partícula pode ser separada do verbo. O objeto é colocado entre ambos. Caso o objeto seja um pronome, a partícula será obrigatoriamente separada: Could you set up the table, please? = Could you set the table up, please? = Could you set it up, please? (Você poderia arrumar a mesa, por favor?) PHRASAL VERBS (SEPARÁVEIS) add up - somar (algo); totalizar back up - mover-se para trás (em veículo); apoiar algo ou alguém; fazer uma segunda cópia de algum arquivo, programa, etc. (informática) bring off - realizar algo difícil, obter sucesso em algo bring on - causar algo, ser o motivo de alguma coisa (geralmente algo desagradável) bring out - publicar; enfatizar algo bring round (also bring to) - fazer alguém que está inconsciente voltar a si bring up - criar, cuidar de alguém desde a infância; mencionar um assunto, começar a falar sobre algo brush aside - fazer pouco caso de

Já que é difícil entender a lógica desses verbos, temos apenas que recorrer à memorização. De uma forma ou de outra (by hook or by crook), é importante aprendê-los, pois são muito usados no inglês. Esses verbos podem ser classificados quanto:

burn down - queimar completamente, destruir algo por causa do fogo, incendiar

Ao significado:

buy up - comprar tudo ou a maior quantidade possível de algo

Ao número de palavras: •

A TWO-WORD VERB / TWO-PART VERB: to put on (vestir) - Put on your jacket! (Vista a sua jaqueta!)

A THREE-WORD VERB / THREE-PART VERB: to put up with (tolerar) - I can’t put up with this noise. (Não posso tolerar este barulho.). Características: Os phrasal verbs fazem a língua inglesa soar de maneira mais informal. A dificuldade em compreendê-los dá-se provavelmente por eles não existirem em português. A base para o phrasal verbs pode ser regular ou irregular:

buy out - comprar a parte de alguém em algum negócio

call off - cancelar call up - ligar para alguém; recrutar alguém (exército)

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PHRASAL VERBS: o significado não pode ser deduzido a partir do verbo e da partícula adverbial. PREPOSITIONAL VERBS: o significado pode ser deduzido a partir das partes que o compõem.

burn up - destruir algo por causa do fogo; queimar

calm down - acalmar-se, acalmar alguém carry on - continuar (com algo/a fazer algo) carry out - cumprir algo; realizar (tarefa, função) catch up - alcançar alguém; recuperar; inteirar-se das novidades cheer up - alegrar-se, alegrar algo ou alguém chop up - cortar algo em pequenos pedaços clean off - tirar a sujeira de algo clean out - limpar a parte interior de algo, fazer uma limpeza caprichada clean up - limpar algo

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clear out - arrumar e limpar algo colocando coisas fora ou removendo-as clear up - limpar e organizar algo; esclarecer, resolver, explicar algo close down - fechar algo (empresa, loja, etc.) close up - fechar algo temporariamente, por algumas horas, minutos, etc. count in - incluir algo ou alguém

light up - acender um cigarro; iluminar algo live down - ser capaz de fazer alguém esquecer algo errado que você tenha feito make over - dar algo legalmente para alguém pass on - transmitir (uma mensagem para alguém); passar algo para alguém

cross out/off - riscar, tirar algo ou alguém de uma lista

pass up - não aproveitar uma oportunidade, chance, etc.

cut down - reduzir algo; cortar, derrubar (árvore, etc.)

pay back - devolver o dinheiro para alguém

cut off - deserdar alguém; cortar algo (linha telefônica, etc.); interromper alguém que está falando; diminuir; remover; bloquear ou ficar no caminho de algo; isolar alguém

pay off - pagar e despedir alguém; subornar alguém; quitar uma dívida

draw up - redigir, preparar um documento dress up - fantasiar-se; arrumar-se; disfarçar algo eat up - comer tudo figure out - entender; descobrir, decifrar algo fill up - completar, encher, abastecer find out - descobrir algo; informar-se de algo; desmascarar alguém (que estava fazendo algo errado) fix up - consertar; reformar; decorar algo

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let out - aumentar o tamanho de uma peça de roupa; deixar algo ou alguém sair

count out - excluir algo ou alguém

cut out - cortar algo (roupa, molde); excluir alguém; omitir algo; bloquear (luz); cortar algo; deixar de fazer ou comer alguma coisa

pick up - atender ao telefone; pegar alguém (de carro); fazer alguém se sentir melhor; prender alguém; aprender algo por acaso; pegar algo ou alguém play down - minimizar a importância de algo play up - exagerar, enfatizar, dar maior valor a algo point out - apontar, indicar algo ou alguém pull down - demolir put off - adiar; perturbar, incomodar alguém put on - vestir-se; fingir put up - dar pouso para alguém; levantar algo (mão); construir (edifício); colocar algo (cartaz, bandeira, etc.) quiet down - acalmar-se, acalmar alguém

get across - comunicar algo a alguém; fazer-se entender por alguém

rinse out - enxaguar algo

give back - devolver algo a alguém

rule out - eliminar, descartar alguém, uma possibilidade, uma proposta, etc.

give out - distribuir algo

run down - atropelar alguém

hand down - passar algo para alguém mais novo (conhecimento, etc.); anunciar algo oficialmente

run off - fugir, escapar com algo; tirar cópia de algo

hand over - passar o cargo, a responsabilidade de algo para alguém

see off - despedir-se de alguém

hang up - usar algo pela última vez

see through - não deixar de fazer algo até que isso tenha terminado

have on - vestir

send over/off - mandar algo por correio, e-mail, etc.

hold up - atrasar algo ou alguém; usar algo ou alguém como exemplo; assaltar

set up - combinar algo; montar algo

keep up - manter o padrão de algo; continuar a fazer algo; cuidar da casa, jardim, etc.

shut off - cortar algo (fornecimento)

leave out - omitir, não incluir ou mencionar algo ou alguém

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let down - decepcionar alguém

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show off - mostrar, exibir algo ou alguém com orgulho

slow up/slow down - reduzir a velocidade de algo (trabalho, pesquisa, etc.); reduzir a velocidade, ir mais devagar


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

spell out - explicar algo claramente; soletrar ou escrever as letras de uma palavra na ordem correta

wipe off - limpar, enxugar algo

sweep out - varrer

wipe out - aniquilar, destruir algo; erradicar (doença, crime, etc.)

take back - retirar algo que se disse ou escreveu; aceitar algo de volta (loja)

work out - calcular algo; solucionar algo; planejar, elaborar algo

take down - anotar algo; desmontar algo

write down - anotar algo

take in - entender, assimilar ou lembrar algo que se ouviu ou leu

write out - escrever algo (por extenso ou a limpo); copiar algo write up - redigir algo

take off - tirar algo (calçados, roupas, etc.) take over - assumir o controle de algo (empresa, negócios, etc.) talk over - discutir tear down - destruir, demolir tear up - rasgar em pedaços (documentos, cartas, fotos, etc.) tell off - xingar alguém think over - refletir sobre algo think through - pensar muito bem think up - inventar algo; pensar em algo throw away - jogar algo fora tie up - amarrar algo ou alguém

2. Em outras situações, a partícula não se separa do verbo: When he saw the thief, he quickly got off the bus. (Quando ele viu o ladrão, saiu do ônibus rapidamente.) PHRASAL VERBS (INSEPARÁVEIS) back out of - voltar atrás (em um acordo, etc.) bear down on - fazer força para baixo bear on - ter a ver com, estar relacionado com bear up under - suportar, resistir break down - parar de funcionar (carro, máquina, etc.); falhar (negociações); dividir algo em partes; perder o controle dos sentimentos

tire out - esgotar alguém, esgotar-se

break into - entrar à força em uma residência; abrir algo à força

touch up - retocar (maquiagem)

break in on - interromper, perturbar algo

try on - experimentar algo (roupas, sapatos, etc.)

call for - buscar alguém; requerer algo

try out - testar

care for - ter afeição por alguém; cuidar de alguém; gostar de algo; querer algo

turn off - apagar algo (luz); fechar algo (torneira); desligar algo (rádio, TV, motor, etc.) turn on - acender algo (luz); abrir algo (torneira); ligar algo (rádio, TV, motor, etc.)

carry on with - continuar a fazer algo, prosseguir catch up with - alcançar alguém check up on - investigar algo ou alguém; verificar come across - encontrar algo ou alguém por acaso

turn out - produzir; expulsar alguém de algum lugar; apagar (luz)

come along with - acompanhar alguém; chegar, aparecer; melhorar, progredir

wash off - tirar algo lavando

come by - conseguir algo, adquirir algo

wash out - lavar algo

come down with - adoecer

wear out - desgastar-se; ficar gasto devido ao excesso de uso; gastar; esgotar alguém

come out with - dizer algo surpreendente

wind up - terminar, concluir algo; irritar, provocar alguém; liquidar algo (negócio); dar corda (relógio)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

turn down - rejeitar algo ou alguém; abaixar algo (rádio, arcondicionado, televisão, etc.)

come through - obter sucesso e algo que se faz; sobreviver a algo come up with/in/on - encontrar uma resposta, uma soma

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

count on - contar com alguém

hear of - ouvir falar de algo ou alguém

cut in on - interromper alguém quando está falando; cortar (outro carro)

hit on - descobrir, ter uma ideia por acaso

disagree with - fazer mal a alguém (comida, clima, etc.) do away with - desfazer-se de algo; abolir algo do without - passar sem algo ou alguém drop in at/on - fazer uma visita informal a alguém ou a algum lugar

keep at - continuar trabalhando em algo keep up with - manter-se no mesmo nível de algo ou alguém lie down - deitar-se live on - continuar a viver

face up to - enfrentar algo ou alguém

live up to - corresponder às expectativas

fall back on - recorrer a algo ou alguém

look after - cuidar-se, cuidar de alguém

fall behind - ficar para trás, ficar atrás de algo ou alguém

look back on - recordar algo

fall out with - brigar com alguém

look down on - desprezar algo ou alguém

fill in for - substituir alguém

look forward to - aguardar algo/fazer algo com ansiedade

get ahead of - ultrapassar alguém

look up to - respeitar, admirar alguém

get around - mover-se (pessoa, animal); circular, correr (notícia, boato)

make up for - compensar algo

get by with - conseguir viver ou fazer algo com o que se tem get down to - começar a fazer algo; dar maior atenção a algo get in - entrar (em um veículo) get off - sair (do trabalho com permissão); sair (ônibus, trem, etc.) get on with - prosseguir com algo get through with - terminar, completar (tarefa, trabalho, etc.)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

hold out - resistir, durar

drop out of - retirar-se de algo; não fazer mais parte de algo; sair da universidade; afastar-se da sociedade

get away with - sair impune de algo errado que se fez

give up - desistir go back on - não cumprir algo (promessa, palavra, etc.) go for - ser válido para alguém/algo; escolher go in for - interessar-se por (fazer) algo (hobby, etc.) go on with - continuar com algo, a fazer algo go over - examinar, revisar algo go with - cair bem, combinar com go without - passar sem algo hang up - desligar o telefone hear from - ter notícias de alguém

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hold on to - agarrar algo ou alguém

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move over - mudar de lugar a fim de ceder espaço a alguém pass away - morrer pass on - morrer pass out - desmaiar pick on - implicar com alguém; escolher alguém (para um trabalho desagradável) play up - enfatizar a importância de algo ou alguém put up with - tolerar, aguentar algo ou alguém read up on - ler, pesquisar; estudar ou aprender algo através de leitura run against - encontrar alguém por acaso; opôr-se a algo ou alguém; competir com alguém em uma eleição run away with - fugir de algo ou alguém; deixar algo ou alguém de repente see about - encarregar-se de algo; fazer algo see to - organizar, supervisionar, providenciar algo settle on - decidir, escolher algo stand for - significar, representar algo stand up for - apoiar, defender algo, alguém ou a si mesmo stand up to somebody - fazer frente a alguém


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

stick to - persistir

catch on - entrar na moda; entender algo

stick up for - apoiar, defender algo, alguém ou a si mesmo

check out - pagar a conta e partir (de um hotel, etc.)

take after - parecer-se com algum membro mais velho da família

cheer up - animar-se, animar alguém

talk back to - responder a alguém de maneira grosseira tell on - dedurar alguém para alguma autoridade

clear out - ir embora rapidamente clear up - abrir (tempo)

touch on - mencionar algo brevemente

close down - fechar algo permanentemente (loja, empresa, etc.)

turn into - tornar-se

close up - fechar algo temporariamente

wait on - servir alguém

come about - ocorrer, suceder

wait up for - esperar acordado por alguém

come along - chegar, aparecer; ir a algum lugar com alguém; melhorar, progredir

watch out for - ter cuidado com algo ou alguém work out - exercitar-se

come back - voltar come by - fazer uma visita rápida a alguém

3. Os phrasal verbs podem ser transitivos ou intransitivos. No primeiro caso, os phrasal verbs podem ser separados:

come out - aparecer (Sol, Lua, etc.); abrir (flores); publicar, produzir

Exemplo 1: I found out the solution. = I found the solution out. (Eu encontrei a solução.) (obj. dir.)

come over - fazer uma visita a alguém

Exemplo 2: In Brazil, cycling is really catching on. (No Brasil, o ciclismo realmente está virando moda.)

die down - apagar-se, diminuir gradualmente

PHRASAL VERBS INTRANSITIVOS back down - ceder; abandonar um argumento, uma opinião ou uma reivindicação, reclamação

die away - desaparecer aos poucos

die off - morrer um após o outro até não sobrar nenhum, sofrer um declínio na população die out - extinguir(-se); desaparecer (tradições) dress up - arrumar-se drop in/drop over- dar uma passada na casa de alguém ou em algum lugar drop out - não fazer mais parte de algo; abandonar (escola, universidade, etc.); afastar-se da sociedade

back up - mover-se para trás, principalmente em um veículo

fall behind - ficar para trás, ficar atrás (de algo/alguém)

bear up - suportar, resistir, enfrentar da melhor maneira possível uma situação difícil

fall off - diminuir, decair

blow in - chegar, entrar em algum lugar de repente blow over - minguar, acalmar ou passar (tempestade, escândalo) sem causar consequências drásticas

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

back out - voltar atrás (em um acordo, etc.); não cumprir uma promessa; abandonar algo sem estar completo; desistir de algo

cut in - interromper alguém quando a pessoa está falando

fall through - fracassar, não ocorrer fill in - substituir (alguém) find out - descobrir; aprender

blow up - explodir (bomba, etc.); estourar (tempestade, escândalo); perder a paciência

get ahead - obter sucesso, progredir

calm down - acalmar-se, acalmar alguém

get away - fugir de alguém ou de algum lugar

carry on - continuar (caminhando, etc.); comportar-se de maneira imprópria, tola; brigar, reclamar escandalosamente

get in - chegar; entrar

get around - circular, ir de um lugar a outro

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

get off - sair de algo (carro, trem, ônibus, etc.) get on - ter sucesso; conseguir fazer, virar-se get through - terminar, completar algo (tarefa) get up - levantar-se give up - desistir, deixar de fazer algo; perder as esperanças go back - voltar para algum lugar

sell out - esgotar (entradas para cinema, jogos, concertos, etc.) settle up - acertar as contas; pagar o dinheiro que se deve a alguém show off - exibir-se show up - chegar, aparecer

go off - disparar (arma); bomba (explodir); soar (alarme)

shut up - calar-se

go on - acender-se (luz); passar (tempo); ocorrer; continuar, durar (situação)

slow up - reduzir a velocidade, ir mais devagar

go out - sair; apagar-se (luz) grow up - desenvolver-se, crescer

stand by - estar preparado para agir; esperar, ficar em espera stand up - levantar-se

hang around - ficar sem fazer nada; esperar sem fazer nada

stay over - dormir na casa de alguém por uma noite

hang up - desligar o telefone

step aside - mover-se para o lado, abrir caminho para alguém passar

hold on - aguardar (no telefone); esperar, parar; aguentar hold out - durar; resistir, persistir keep on - continuar

step aside / down - deixar um cargo take off - decolar take over - assumir o controle de algo (empresa, etc.)

let up - diminuir (dor); fazer menos esforço lie down - deitar-se look on - assistir

throw up - vomitar

make out - sair-se (bem ou mal)

turn around - virar-se

move over - mover-se para o lado, dar lugar a alguém make up - fazer as pazes (com alguém) pan out - conseguir, ter sucesso, resultar

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pass out - desmaiar

turn in - virar para dentro; deitar-se turn out - comparecer, apresentar-se; resultar, sair turn up - chegar; aparecer (algo que foi perdido) por acaso

pass on - morrer

wait up - esperar acordado por alguém

pick up - melhorar; soprar mais forte (vento); aumentar (vendas, etc.)

wake up - ficar mais interessado em algo

pull in - chegar (trem); encostar (carro) pull out - retirar-se de algo; arrancar (veículo) pull through - melhorar, recuperar-se (de alguma doença); sair-se bem em algo difícil

walk over - tratar alguém de maneira grosseira; derrotar alguém facilmente wash out - desaparecer da roupa (mancha), desbotar (tecido), depois de lavar watch out - ter cuidado

run away - fugir de algo ou alguém; sair de algum lugar de repente

wear off - desaparecer gradualmente; passar (novidade, etc.)

run down - acabar (bateria); parar de funcionar ou tornar-se menor em tamanho e número gradualmente

wear out - desgastar (roupas, sapatos, etc.)

run off - fugir com alguém

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talk back - responder a alguém de maneira rude

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work out - resultar, dar certo; fazer ginástica


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Os phrasal verbs transitivos podem ser: Inseparáveis Andrea was so tired of studying that she decided to go out for dinner and relax a little. (Andrea estava tão cansada de estudar que decidiu sair pra jantar e relaxar um pouco.

Exemplos: To listen to, to talk to/about, to look at, to wait for, etc…

Separáveis Can you rinse out this towel? (Você pode enxaguar essa toalha?) Can you rinse this towel out? Can you rinse it out? Can you rinse out it? Construção errada.

4. Algumas partículas são usadas apenas para indicar que a ação do verbo está completa ou para enfatizar o sentido desse mesmo verbo. A partícula UP é vista com frequência. Buckle up: apertar (o cinto de segurança) Burn up: queimar Stand up: ficar de pé

Observação: Quando o objeto for longo, evitamos separar os phrasal verbs para não dificultar a compreensão: We had some problems to find out the place where she really lived. / We had some problems to find the place where she really lived out. (Tivemos alguns problemas para encontrar o local onde ela realmente morava.)

4.1 • Prepositional verbs - Verbos preposicionados Verbo + Preposição: listen to; look at; believe in; talk about; wait for, etc. São aqueles que exigem o acompanhamento de preposições e necessitam de objeto direto após a preposição. Em português, isso acontece, por exemplo, com o verbo precisar, que faz uso da preposição de.

Exemplos: Let’s listen to music, e não let’s listen music. I’ve applied for the job, e não I’ve applied the job. Características: 5. Os prepositional verbs podem ser transitivos ou intransitivos e são obrigatoriamente inseparáveis, ou seja, o objeto direto não pode ser colocado entre o verbo e a preposição. Exemplo: Did you talk about me? (Não: Did you talk me about?) 6. Quando um verbo com preposição for usado, o substantivo ou pronome será colocado depois da preposição, exceto nas orações interrogativas (“What are you looking at?”) ou relativas (“This is the man that I was talking to.”). Exemplo: Look at those children. = Look at them. 7. O significado do verbo com preposição coincide, em muitos casos, com aquele do verbo de forma isolado. Os verbos to pay e to pay for significam pagar. A preposição serve para introduzir o complemento, não agrega nenhum significado novo ao verbo. Exemplos: • Pay for e Pay How much did you pay for that shirt? (Quanto você pagou por esta camisa?)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Embora gramaticalmente correto, o segundo exemplo apresentaria problemas práticos para sua compreensão. Em caso de dúvidas, se o phrasal verb pode ser separado ou não, evite o uso de objetos pronominais, principalmente quando for um phrasal verb idiomático, ou seja, aquele no qual não se pode deduzir seu significado analisando suas partes separadamente. Se o phrasal verb for literal, geralmente é separável, assim como os phrasal verbs que indicam ações concluídas e que enfatizam o sentido do verbo são também geralmente separáveis.

Os preposital verbs não mudam de significado. to wait for, por exemplo, significa esperar. No entanto, se trocarmos for por on, ficaremos com to wait on, que significa servir alguém. O simples uso de uma preposição após um verbo não o torna um phrasal verb.

I paid 100 reais. (Paguei 100 reais.) •

Listen to e Listen I like listening to music. (Gosto de ouvir música.)

Martin should apply for that job. He has the necessary qualifications. (Martin deveria concorrer àquele emprego. Ele possui as qualificações necessárias.) Observação: Não utilizamos preposições quando não há objeto. Exemplo: Listen! (E não Listen to!)

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É gramaticalmente correto incluir um advérbio entre o verbo e a preposição. Exemplo: I’ll look carefully after the children.

4.1.1 • Diferenças entre phrasal verbs e prepositional verbs 1. A principal diferença entre phrasal verbs e prepositional verbs se dá no plano sintático: quando transitivos, os phrasal verbs exigem a colocação do objeto entre o verbo e a partícula (advérbio ou preposição) sempre que o objeto for um pronome, ao passo que os prepositional verbs não permitem a colocação do objeto entre o verbo e a preposição. Exemplo: Phrasal Verb: They called up Tedd. = They called Tedd up. = They called him up. (Eles telefonaram para o Tedd / ele.) Logo, os phrasal verbs transitivos são considerados verbos separáveis. Prepositional Verb: They called on Tedd. = They called on him. (Eles visitaram o Tedd. / Eles o visitaram.) Logo, os prepositional verbs são considerados verbos inseparáveis. 2. Quanto ao plano semântico, o significado dos prepositional verbs pode, muitas vezes, ser deduzido a partir das partes que o compõem. O significado dos phrasal verbs, no entanto, dificilmente pode ser deduzido dessa mesma maneira.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Exemplo: give = dar; give up = desistir, largar de mão. Sendo assim, para entender o significado dos phrasal verbs, é bom analisar o contexto em que ele está sendo usado. 3. Na pronúncia também ocorre uma diferença importante. Nos phrasal verbs, a sílaba tônica recai sobre a partícula, enquanto que nos prepositional verbs a sílaba tônica recai sobre o verbo. Phrasal Verbs: I’ll put ON my trousers. (Vou vestir minhas calças.) Prepositional Verbs: Jack LOOKED for his name on the list but he couldn’t find it. (Jack procurou pelo nome dele na lista, mas não conseguiu encontrá-lo.)

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Verbo + Partícula Adverbial - Verb + Adverb(ial) Particle Diversos verbos em inglês podem ser seguidos por advérbios curtos (adverb particles, as partículas adverbiais), tendo seu sentido modificado por causa da partícula. Assim, to bring significa trazer, mas to bring up significa cuidar, educar uma criança. Exemplos: Who is going to look after the children while you are away? (Quem vai cuidar das crianças enquanto você estiver fora?) They brought up their children in a very traditional way. (Eles educaram os filhos de uma maneira bem tradicional.) When the bell rang, the students quickly put their books away. (Quando o sinal tocou, os alunos rapidamente guardaram seus livros.) Algumas partículas adverbiais: about, across, ahead, along, (a)round, aside, away, back, by, down, forward, in, home, off, on, out, over, past, through, up. Algumas dessas palavras também podem ser utilizadas como preposições. Observe: I switched the light off. (Partícula Adverbial) I jumped off the wall. (Preposição)

4.1.2 • Diferenças entre partículas adverbiais (adverb particles) e preposições (prepositions) Palavras como down, in, up não são sempre preposições. Compare: I ran down the road X Please sit down. He’s in his office. X You can go in. Something is climbing up my leg. X She's not up yet. Nas expressões down the road, in his office e up my leg, as palavras down, in e up são preposições: elas possuem objetos (the road, his office e my leg, respectivamente). Em sit down, go in e She’s not up, as palavras down, in e up não possuem objetos. Elas são advérbios, não preposições. Advérbios curtos como esses são geralmente chamados de adverb(ial) particles, as partículas adverbiais. Incluem-se nesta categoria: above, about, across, ahead, along, around, aside, away, back, before, behind, below, by, down, forward, in, near, off, on, out, over, past, through, under, up. Muitas palavras desse tipo podem ser usadas como partículas adverbiais e como preposições. Contudo, há algumas exceções, por exemplo: back e away são utilizados apenas como partículas adverbiais; from e during, apenas como preposições.


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Three-word verbs: verbos com preposições e partículas adverbiais ao mesmo tempo. Alguns verbos podem ser usados tanto com uma partícula adverbial quanto com uma preposição ao mesmo tempo (o que os torna three-part verbs, verbos de três partes). Exemples: I get on with her quite well. (Eu me dou muito bem com ela.)

Ask around

Fazer a mesma pergunta a Inseparável várias pessoas

I asked around but nobody has seen my purse.

Ask sb out

Convidar alguém para sair

He asked her out last night.

Blow up

Explodir (bomba, etc.); estourar (tempestade, Inseparável escândalo, crise, guerra, etc.); perder a paciência

There was a huge bang as the fuel tank blew up.

Blow sth<->up

Demolir algo; encher (balão, Separável pneu, etc.); ampliar (foto)

They threatened to blow the building up.

Break down

Quebrar, parar Inseparável de funcionar

Our car broke down on the road.

Break up

Separar-se, terminar um relacionamento, uma parceria, etc.

Inseparável

They broke up four years ago.

Bring sb<->up

Criar alguém

Separável

She brought six children up.

Call back Call sb<->back

Ligar novamente; retornar uma ligação

Separável

She said she’d call you back.

If you’re on the road on Saturday night, look out for drunk drivers. (Se você for dirigir no sábado à noite, tenha cuidado com os motoristas bêbados.) Could we get back to the question of funding? (Poderíamos retornar à questão do financiamento?) I think you need to cut down on the number of cigarettes you smoke! (Acho que você precisa reduzir o número de cigarros que fuma!) I’m looking forward to the party. (Estou aguardando ansioso pela festa.)

4.2 • List of phrasal verbs (lista de verbos frasais) Embora o número de phrasal verbs seja praticamente ilimitado, apresentamos nesta seção uma lista detalhada dos phrasal verbs mais comuns da língua inglesa para auxiliar você na compreensão de cada um deles. Na primeira coluna, apresentamos o verbo em inglês. O sinal <-> entre duas palavras significa que essas palavras são intercambiáveis entre si. Sth é a abreviação utilizada para something (algo) e sb é a abreviação para somebody (alguém). Na segunda coluna, está o significado em português. Na terceira, indicamos se o phrasal verb é separável ou inseparável, isto é, se é possível colocar o objeto entre o verbo e a partícula (partícula = pronome ou advérbio) ou não. Na quarta coluna apresentamos exemplo de uso no inglês.

Separável

Separável

Call sth<->off

Cancelar

Separável

He called the game off because of the bad weather.

Call sb<->up

Telefonar

Separável

Call me up tomorrow morning.

Not care for sb/sth

Não gostar de alguém ou algo Inseparável (formal)

(Name = North American English e BLE = British English) VERBO

Act up

SIGNIFICADO Comportar-se mal, não funcionar como deveria

TIPO

Inseparável

EXEMPLO The babysitter had a difficult time, the children acted up all evening.

Carry on with Continuar a sth/ Carry fazer algo sth<->on

Separável

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Somar, calcular

Stop talking and get on with your work. (Pare de falar e prossiga com seu trabalho.) It’s hard to put up with people who won’t stop talking. (É difícil aguentar pessoas que não param de falar.)

Add up all the money I owe you.

Add sth<->up

I don’t care for his friends. Carry on with your work while I’m away.

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Come down with sth

Ficar doente

Inseparável

I think I’m coming down with the flu.

Come off

Sair, desaparecer

Inseparável

That mark on your dress won’t come off.

Come out

Publicar

Inseparável

Paul’s book is coming out next week.

Come over/ around/round (to) Count on sb/ sth

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Cross sth<->out

Contar com Inseparável algo ou alguém

Riscar uma palavra

Separável

Jill came over last night and stayed for hours. I’m counting on you to help me. Please cross out your old address and write your new one.

Cut back on sth Cut sth<->back

Reduzir, diminuir, consumir menos

Cut down on sth

Reduzir, diminuir, consumir menos

Inseparável

The doctor told him to cut down on his smoking.

Cut sth<-> down

Cortar, derrubar algo

Separável

They cut down a tree in front of my house.

Cut in on sb/ sth

Interromper

Inseparável

Começar a funcionar

Cut in

Cut sb<->off

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Dar uma passada em algum Inseparável lugar

Deserdar; cortar (linha telefônica)

Separável

Inseparável

Separável

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My doctor wants me to cut back on sweets.

Separável

The doctors cut his leg off because it was severely injured.

Parar de fornecer; Cut sth<->off cortar (telefo- Separável ne, luz, água, etc.)

The phone company cut our phone off because we didn’t pay the bill.

Desfazer-se Do away with de algo, abolir Inseparável sth algo

It’s time to do away with all of these old boxes.

Cut sth<->off Remover

Atacar e bater em alguém

Do sth<->over (NAmE)

Fazer novamente; conSeparável sertar, renovar, reformar

My teacher wants me to do my homework over because it is not correct.

Do sth<->over (BrE)

Entrar em um local e roubar coisas de lá

His apartment was done over last week.

Do sth<->up

Abotoar, fechar (roupas); embrulhar algo Separável (pacote); reformar (casa)

Do your coat up before you go outside. It’s too cold there.

Dress up

Usar roupas melhores, mais formais

It’s a fancy and expensive party so you have to dress up.

Drop back / behind

Ir para uma posição atrás de Inseparável alguém, ficar para trás

She dropped back to fourth place.

Drop by/ in / over / round

Visitar alguém informalmenInseparável te, aparecer sem avisar

My aunt dropped in while we were having dinner yesterday.

They kept cutting in on our conversation. The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 20º C. He cut his son off. We were cut off in the middle of our conversation.

They were done over by a gang of thugs.

Do sb<->over

Separável

Separável

Inseparável

Visitar alguém Inseparável Drop in on sb informalmente

I’ll drop in on you when I’m close to your house.


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Visitar algum lugar informalDrop into sth Inseparável mente sem ter combinado

Drop sb/ sth<->off

Drop out (of sth)

Drop out (of sth)

Deixar algo ou alguém em algum lugar

Desistir da escola, da faculdade, etc.

Separável

Inseparável

Não fazer mais Inseparável parte de algo

We dropped into a pub on the way.

Will you drop the kids off on your way into town? / We dropped off our bags at the hotel and then went to explore the city.

A word that has dropped out of the language.

Eat up/Eat sth<->up

Comer tudo

Separável

End up (as sth, doing sth) [+ -ing]

Acabar sendo/ Inseparável fazendo algo

End up (in ...)

Ir parar em lugar ou situação na qual você não esperava Inseparável ou tinha a intenção de estar

If you go on like this you’ll end up in prison.

Enfrentar alguém/algo

She had to face up to the fact that she would never walk again.

Fall apart

Inseparável

Despedaçar-se Inseparável

Fall behind (sb/sth)

Ficar para trás, ficar atrás (de Inseparável alguém/algo)

She soon fell behind the leaders.

Fall down

Não ser comprovado ou bom o suficiente

Inseparável

And that’s where the theory falls down.

Fall for sb

Apaixonar-se por alguém

Inseparável

They fell for each other instantly.

Fall out

Cair, perder (cabelo, dente)

Inseparável

His hair is falling out.

Do you feel like eating out tonight?

Come on. Eat up all your meal.

I ended up doing all the work myself.

I’m going to buy another car because my old one is falling apart.

Fall over

Cair

Inseparável

I’m afraid he might fall over again and hurt himself.

Fall over sb/ sth

Tropeçar em Inseparável algo ou alguém

I rushed for the door and fell over the cat in the hallway.

Figure sth/ sb<->out

Descobrir, entender algo ou alguém

I could figure her out.

Fill sth<->in (BrE)

Preencher algo (formulário, Separável etc.)

Please fill the form in with your name and address.

Preencher algo Fill sth<->out (formulário, Separável (NAmE) etc.)

The form must be filled out in capital letters.

Fill up/ Fill sth<->up

My father always fills the water jug up when it is empty.

Encher

Separável

Separável

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Inseparável

Face up to sb / sth

Their marriage finally fell apart. / The deal fell apart when we failed to agree on a price.

I dropped out of Law because I didn’t like it.

Fazer uma refeição em um restaurante

Eat out

Fall apart

Acabar um relacionamento, um negócio, Inseparável uma parceria, etc.

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Find out

Finish sth<->off

Finish up (BrE)

Finish with sb

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Follow sth<->up

Terminar de fazer algo

Get at sb

Get sth<->across

Separável

Acabar com algo (comida, bebida); terminar algo; Inseparável acabar em alguma situação

I need about an hour to finish off this report.

They finished up the show with one of their most famous songs. / If you are not careful, you could finish up seriously ill. / He could finish up dead.

Terminar um relacionamen- Inseparável to com alguém

She finished with her boyfriend last week.

Investigar, acompanhar / Separável complementar algo

The police are following up several leads after their TV appeal for information. / You should follow up your phone call with an email or a letter.

Querer dizer, insinuar

Get at

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Descobrir; informar-se de Inseparável algo, averiguar

The police are still trying to find out who is responsible for the crime. / Can you find out what time the meeting starts?

Criticar

Comunicar-se, fazer-se entender

Inseparável

Inseparável

Separável

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Get along/on Dar-se bem (with sb) com alguém

Inseparável

My wife and my mother get along/ on very well.

Get around/ round sb

Persuadir

Inseparável

They know how to get around/ round their boss.

Get around/ round to sth

Encontrar tempo para fazer algo

Inseparável

I hope to get around/round to calling you tomorrow.

Get away

Sair de férias

Inseparável

We are getting away for a few days next week.

Get away (from...)

Sair de algum lugar

Inseparável

I won’t be able to get away from the office before 6.

Get away (from sb/...)

Escapar de alguém ou de algum lugar

Inseparável

A prisoner got away from the jail this afternoon.

Get back

Voltar, retornar Inseparável

What time did you get back last night?

Get sth<->back

Receber algo de volta

Separável

She has got her old job back.

Get back at sb

Vingar-se

Inseparável

She got back at him because he lied to her.

Get back to sth

Retornar a algo Inseparável

Could we get back to the question of animals?

Get in

Entrar (veículo, casa, etc.)

He got in the truck and drove off.

Get off

Sair (do trabalho com permissão); descer (do car- Inseparável ro, do ônibus, do trem, da bicicleta)

What are you getting at? He is always getting at me. I tried to get my ideas across to her but she didn’t listen to me.

Inseparável

Could I get off work early tomorrow? / The bus stopped and three people got off it.


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Get on with sth

Get on / Get onto

Get out (of sth)

Get over sth

Usado para falar ou perguntar como alguém está progredindo ou Inseparável se saindo em alguma situação específica; continuar, prosseguir fazendo algo

How are you getting on at work?/ He’s getting on very well at school./ Be quiet and get on with your work.

Entrar em algo (carro, ônibus, Inseparável trem, etc.)

The bus stopped to let more people get on. / He got on his motorbike and rode away.

Sair de algum lugar; livrar-se Inseparável de algo

Superar (problemas)

Inseparável

Get out of my house now! / I wish I could get out of this meeting! I’m so busy. She can’t get over her shyness.

Finally he has gotten over the divorce.

Fazer contato por telefone

I’m trying to get through but her line is always busy.

Get through (to sb)

Inseparável

Encontrar-se com alguém Get together por motivos Inseparável (with sb) sociais ou para discutir algo

The manager is going to get together with his employees.

Levantar-se da cama, acordar-se ou acordar alguém

I usually get up at 6.30.

Get up / Get sb up

Inseparável

The class got up when the teacher came in.

Vestir-se ou Get yourself/ vestir alguém sb up as sth como outra pessoa

Inseparável

She was got up as a Japanese woman.

Get sth<->up Organizar

Separável

We are getting up a party for her birthday.

Levantar-se

Get up to sth

Chegar a um ponto específico

Inseparável

I got up to the page 84 of the book.

Give sb away

Levar a noiva ao altar

Separável

My father gave me away at my wedding.

Give sb/ sth<-> away

Revelar algo secreto ou alguma infor- Separável mação secreta sobre alguém

My little sister gave the surprise party away by accident.

Give sth<->a- Dar algo como way presente

Separável

The library was giving away old books on Saturday.

Give sth<Devolver algo ->back (to sb) ao proprietário

Separável

Could you give me my pen back?

Give in (to sb/sth)

Concordar em fazer algo que você não quer

Inseparável

My boyfriend didn’t want to go to the movies, but he finally gave in.

Give out

Chegar ao fim

Inseparável

Her patience finally gave out.

Give sth<->out

Distribuir algo

Separável

They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.

Give up

Desistir

Inseparável

She doesn’t give up easily.

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Recuperar-se de uma doença, perda, Get over sth/ Inseparável dificuldade, sb término de relacionamento, etc.

Inseparável

Get up

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Give sth<->up

Parar com alguma atividade, largar um vício, um hábito, etc.

Separável

She didn’t give up work when she had the baby. / You should give up smoking.

Go after sb

Seguir

Inseparável

He went after her after she left the room.

Go after sb/ sth

Inseparável

He always goes against his parents’ way of thinking.

Resistir, opor-se a algo ou alguém

Go ahead

Ir na frente de outras pessoas Inseparável e chegar antes delas

I’ll go ahead and tell them you are on the way.

Começar a fazer algo

Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.

Go away

Go back (to...)

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Inseparável

We are both going after the same job.

Go against sb/sth

Go ahead (with sth)

Inseparável

Partir, ir emboInseparável ra; viajar

Retornar a algum lugar

Inseparável

Go away and think about it, then let me know. / I’m going away on business. She doesn’t want to go back to her husband (= to live with him again).

Voltar a falar sobre algo que aconteceu ou Inseparável foi dito anteriormente

Can I go back to what you said at the beginning of the meeting?

Ser válido para alguém/algo; Go for sb/sth achar atraen- Inseparável te, gostar de alguém ou algo

What I said about Jane goes for you, too. / I don’t really go for modern art.

Go back to sth

Go in

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Tentar alcançar algo ou alguém

Entrar em algum lugar

Inseparável

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

Let’s go in, it’s getting cold.

Go off

Disparar (arma); explodir (bomba); Inseparável disparar (alarme); apagar-se (luz, eletricidade)

The bomb went off in a crowded street. / Everybody had to leave the building when the fire alarm went off.

Go off

Estragar (alimentos)

Inseparável

Put the food in the fridge, otherwise it will go off.

Go on

Acontecer, suceder, continuar (uma Inseparável situação, a vida, o tempo, etc.)

What was going on there? / They can’t go on like this - they seem to be always arguing.

Go out

Sair para ir a uma festa, restaurante, eventos sociais, etc.; apagar-se (luzes, fogo)

Inseparável

We are going out for dinner tonight. / There was a power cut and the lights went out.

Go out with sb/together

Namorar, sair com alguém

Inseparável

Damon has been going out with Karen for seven months.

Go over sth

Examinar, checar, revisar Inseparável algo cuidadosamente

Go over your essay before you hand it in.

Go through sth

Atravessar, passar por alguma situação, Inseparável experiência, etc.

Our company has gone through a financial crisis.

Go together/ Combinar with sth

Inseparável

Does this jacket go with this blouse?

Go without sth

Passar sem algo

Inseparável

How long can a human being go without sleep?

Grow apart

Deixar de ter uma relação Inseparável próxima com alguém por um certo período

My best friend and I grew apart after we entered college.


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Grow back

Crescer novamente

Inseparável

My daisies grew back this summer.

Grow up

Crescer (pessoa), parar de ter um comportaInseparável mento infantil, desenvolver algo gradualmente

They grew up in Ohio. / Why don’t you grow up? / A closeness grew up between the two girls.

Devolver

Separável

I handed the book back to her.

Separável

I handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.

Separável

You must all hand your assignments in by the end of next week.

Hand sth<->back

Dar ou deixar Hand sth<->- algo para down (to sb) alguém que é mais novo

Hand sth<->in (to sb)

Dar, entregar algo a alguém

Hold sb/ sth<->back

Conter algo ou Separável alguém

The police were unable to hold back the crowd.

Hold sth<->back

Esconder algo de alguém, esconder um sentimento

Separável

He held his tears back at his father’s funeral.

Hold on

Aguardar por pouco tempo, parar algo que se está fazendo

Inseparável

Hold on a minute. I’ll be right back. Hold on! This isn’t the right street.

Hold onto sb/ Segurar firmeInseparável sth mente

Hold up sth

Assaltar um banco, uma loja, etc.

Inseparável

A man in a black coat held up the bank this morning.

Hurry up (with sth)

Apressar-se

Inseparável

Hurry up with the pen. I need it.

Join in (sth/ doing sth) Join in (with sb/sth)

Tomar parte, participar

Inseparável

She listens but she never joins in.

Keep on

Continuar

Inseparável

I can’t keep on doing the same thing every day.

Separável

We kept our relation from our parents for one year.

Separável

If you keep those results up you will get into a great college.

Distribuir algo para um grupo Separável de pessoas

Could you hand these books out, please?

Hang in

Persistir, ser positivo

Inseparável

Hang in there. I’m sure you’ll find an apartment very soon.

Hang on

Esperar por pouco tempo, parar algo que Inseparável se está fazendo, segurar firmemente

Hang on a minute. I’ll be right back. / Hang on tight!

Passar bastante tempo em algum lugar ou Inseparável com algumas pessoas

Their children hang out at the mall. / I don’t really know who she hangs out with.

Desligar o telefone

Inseparável

I said goodbye and hung up the phone.

Keep sth from sb

Não falar algo para alguém

Separável

She didn’t have any lipstick on, which was unusual. / I had on a pair of jeans and a T-shirt.

Keep up (with sb/sth) Keep sth<->up

Manter-se no mesmo nível; manter o padrão de algo, continuar a fazer algo

Hang up

Have sth on / have got sth on

Vestir, usar

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Hold sb/ sth<->up

Atrasar, bloquear alguém ou algo; usar Separável alguém ou algo como exemplo

An accident is holding up traffic./ She’s always holding up her children as models of good behavior.

Hand sth<->out

Hang out (with)

Hold onto your hat because it’s too windy outside.

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Não incluir ou mencioLeave sb/sth nar algo ou Separável alguém, deixar out algo ou alguém de fora

Can you check the guest list for me? I don’t want to leave anyone out./ She left out the ‘m’ in his name.

Let sb<->do- Decepcionar wn alguém

He won’t let you down.

Log in/on

Log off/out

Look after yourself/sb/ sth

Look down on sb/sth

Iniciar a sessão Inseparável (informática)

You need a password to log on.

Encerrar a sessão (informática)

Don’t forget to log off when you’ve finished using the computer.

Cuidar de si mesmo, de alguém ou de algo

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Inseparável

Inseparável

Desprezar algo Inseparável ou alguém

Estar ansioso Look forward por algo que to sth está para acontecer

532

Separável

Inseparável

Can you look after my baby while I go to the corner store? / Don’t worry about me I can look after myself. She looks down on people who haven’t been to college. I’m looking forward to the next costume party. The police looked into the disturbance.

Look into sth

Examinar, investigar

Look out for sb/sth

Ter cuidado com alguém ou Inseparável algo

Look out! There’s a car coming.

Look sth<->over

Checar algo

Separável

We looked the house over once again before we decided we would rent it.

Look sth<->up

Procurar algo (num dicionário, livro, etc.)

Separável

I looked the word up in the dictionary but I couldn’t find it.

Inseparável

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

Look up to sb

Admirar, respeitar alguém

Examinar, ler Look through algo rapidasth mente Make up / Maquiar-se, Make yourmaquiar self/sb<->up alguém

Inseparável

My husband has always looked up to me.

Inseparável

She looked through her notes before the exam.

Separável

She went to the bathroom to make her face up.

Make sth<->up

Criar (música, história, etc.); inventar Separável (história, desculpa); mentir sobre algo

Richard was late for class so he made up an excuse.

Make up (with sb)

Fazer as pazes Inseparável

Why don’t you make up with me?

Vadiar, ficar à toa, ficar sem fazer nada

Inseparável

Will you stop messing around and get on with some work? / We spent the day messing around on the river.

Confundir algo Mix sb/sth up Inseparável ou alguém

I think you must be mixing me up with someone else.

Mudar-se para Move in/ nova casa ou Move into sth apartamento

Inseparável

Our neighbors moved in yesterday.

Inseparável

Don’t be afraid to own up yor mistakes.

Separável

We arrived just as the musicians were packing up their instruments.

Inseparável

My grandfather passed away last year.

Inseparável

It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.

Mess around/ Mess about (BrE)

Own up (to sth)

Admitir, confessar

Pack up/Pack Guardar suas sth<->up coisas

Pass away

Pass out

Falecer

Desmaiar


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Pass sth<->up

Recusar (geralmente algo muito bom)

Separável

I passed the job up because I don’t like changes.

Pay sb back

Devolver o dinheiro emprestado

Separável

I’ll pay you back next week.

Separável

She was picked out from dozens of applicants for the job. / I picked three skirts out for you to try on.

Pick sb/sth<- Escolher algo ->out ou alguém

Pegar, apaPick sb/sth<- nhar, buscar ->up alguém (com carro)

Separável

Point sb/ Apontar para sth<->out (to Separável algo ou alguém sb) Point out (to sb) / Point sth<->out (to sb)

Put sth<->away

Apontar, chamar atenção de algo para alguém

Guardar algo

Separável

Separável

Put sb<->do- Humilhar, deSeparável wn preciar alguém

Largar, soltar algo, colocar algo no chão

Put sb<->off

Adiar/Cancelar um encontro com alguém; perturbar, distrair, desconcentrar Separável alguém; fazer alguém perder a vontade (de algo/de fazer algo)

Put sth<->off Adiar

Separável

Separável

I’ll point him out to you next time he comes in. He pointed out the dangers of driving at night. To her surprise, she found that all the dishes had been washed and put away. The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short. You can put the fruits down on the table. It’s too late to put them off now. / Don’t put me off when I’m trying to concentrate. / Don’t tell Lisa how hard the course is - you’ll put her off! He keeps putting off going to the dentist.

Causar inconveniência, Put sb<->out aborrecer, ofender alguém

Separável

Put your coat on! / He must have put on several kilos.

Separável

We hope our arriving late didn’t put her out.

Put sth<->out

Tirar algo, colocar fora

Separável

Put the garbage out, please.

Put sth<->out

Apagar (vela, cigarro, fogo, etc.)

Separável

Firemen soon put the fire out.

Preparar, montar algo Put sth<->to(refeição, Separável gether trabalho, aparelho, etc.)

I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives.

Put up with sb/sth

Tolerar, aguentar algo ou Inseparável alguém

I don’t know how she puts up with him.

Run across sb/sth

Encontrar algo ou alguém por Inseparável acaso

I ran across my best friend from school in the street.

Run away from sb/sth

Deixar alguém ou algum lugar inesperadaInseparável mente, fugir de algo ou alguém

He ran away from home without saying anything.

Run into sb/ sth

Topar, bater, atropelar algo ou alguém

The bus went out of control and ran into a line of people.

Run sth into sb/sth

Bater (veículo) em algo ou Separável alguém

He ran his car into a tree last Saturday.

Run out

Vencer, expirar, acabar, esgotar-se

Inseparável

Time is running out for the trapped miners.

Run out (of sth)

Terminar, acabar

Inseparável

We ran out of shampoo, so I had to wash my hair with soap.

Run sb/sth<->over

Atropelar algo ou alguém

Separável

Two children were ran over in this street yesterday.

Inseparável

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Put sth<->down

I’ll pick you up at the airport at five.

Vestir, colocar Put sth<->on algo; ganhar peso

533


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Run over sth

Revisar

Inseparável

She ran over her text before handing it to her teacher.

Inseparável

The tickets sold out within hours. / I’m sorry, we’ve sold out of bread.

Sell out (of sth)

Esgotar-se (entradas, ingressos, etc.)

Send for

Mandar buscar, chamar, man- Inseparável dar chamar

Send for a doctor, quickly!

Partir (em viagem)

At what time do we set off tomorrow? The earlier, the better.

Set off

Set sb<->up

Inseparável

Enganar alguém, armar Separável uma cilada

Montar, construir, colocar Set sth<->up Separável algo, combinar algo

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Settle down

Shop around

Show off

534

Acalmar-se

Comparar a qualidade e/ ou os preços

Exibir-se

Inseparável

Inseparável

Inseparável

Show sb/ sth<->off

Mostrar, exibir algo ou alguém Separável pelo qual se tem orgulho

Show up

Aparecer, chegar a algum Inseparável lugar

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

The police set the thief up by using a hidden camera. Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company. / The police set up roadblocks on routes out of the city. What Liz really wanted was to get married and settle down. I want to shop around a little before buying my new car. He is showing off because the girl he likes is here. She likes to show off how well she speaks French. She finally showed up.

Show sb<->up

Envergonhar alguém

Separável

He showed me up by snoring during the concert.

Sit down

Sentar

Inseparável

He sat down on the bed.

Sleep over

Dormir uma noite na casa de alguém

Inseparável

Can I sleep over at my friend’s house?

Sort sth<->out

Organizar, resolver um problema

Separável

We have sorted out our problems and everything is fine now.

Speak up

Falar mais alto Inseparável

Speak up! I can’t hear a word you are saying!

Stand back

Afastar-se, recuar

Inseparável

The police ordered the crowd to stand back.

Stay up

Ficar acordado

Inseparável

I stayed up late yesterday.

Stick to sth

Continuar a fazer algo

Inseparável

She finds it’s impossible to stick to a diet.

Sum up/Sum sth<->up

Resumir

Separável

Can I just sum up what we’ve agreed on so far?

Switch sth<->off

Desligar, apagar Separável algo

Please switch the lights off as you leave.

Switch sth<->on

Ligar, acender algo

We heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio.

Take after sb

Parecer-se ou comportar-se com algum Inseparável membro mais velho da família

I take after my mother. We are both impatient.

Take sth<->apart

Desmontar algo Separável

He took the car brakes apart and found the problem.

Take sth<->back

Devolver algo (em alguma loja), retirar algo que se disse

I have to take our new TV back because it doesn’t work. / OK, I take it all back.

Separável

Separável


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Inseparável

The plane took off two hours later.

Levar alguém para sair

Separável

My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.

Tirar algo

Separável

Take off

Decolar

Take sb<->out

Take sth<->out

Take sth<->over

Take sth<->up

Take up sth

A Swedish firm took over the company last year.

Aprender ou começar a fazer algo

She took up languages and now she speaks Chinese quite well.

Ocupar algo (espaço, tempo)

Inseparável

Looking for a place to live has been taking up all my time recently. I didn’t want to move abroad but my husband talked me into it.

Separável

Tear sth<->up

Destruir algo rasgando em pedaços

Separável

Tell sb<->off

Dar bronca em Separável alguém

The manager tells you off if you arrive late.

Think back (to sth)

Pensar em algo que aconteceu Inseparável no passado

I keep thinking back to day I met him.

Think sth<->over

Refletir sobre algo, considerar algo

Separável

I’ll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.

Jogar algo fora Separável

We threw away our old furniture when we won the lottery.

Throw sth<->away

Rejeitar/ReTurn sb/sth<cusar algo ou ->down alguém

Separável

She tore up all the letters he had sent her.

Why did she turn down your invitation?

Separável

Please turn the volume down.

Inseparável

She wasn’t a pretty child but she turned into a beautiful woman.

Tornar-se

Turn sth<->off

Apagar algo (luz), fechar algo (torneira), Separável desligar algo (TV, motor)

Acender (luz), abrir (torneiTurn sth<->on ra), ligar (TV, motor)

Separável

Please turn the television off before you go to bed.

I’ll turn on the heating.

Virar, virar-se, virar alguém ou Separável algo

He turned over and went back to sleep.

Chegar, aparecer

Inseparável

Our dog turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.

Aumentar Turn sth<->up (volume, luz, etc.)

Separável

Could you turn the TV up?

Try sth<->on

Experimentar algo (roupas, sapatos, etc.)

Separável

Try the shoes on before you by them.

Try sb/sth<->out

Testar ou usar algo ou alguém

Separável

They are trying a new presenter out for the show.

Separável

Making soup is a good way of using up leftover vegetables.

Turn over / Turn sb/ sth<->over

Turn up

Use sth<->up Acabar algo

Wait up for sb

Esperar acordaInseparável do por alguém

I’ll wait up for you.

Wake up

Ficar mais atenInseparável to e interessado

Wake up and listen!

Wake up to sth

Dar-se conta de Inseparável algo

He hasn’t yet woken up to the seriousness of the situation.

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Talk sb into/ out

Convencer alguém, persuadir

Abaixar algo (volume), diminuir (luz, calor)

Turn into

Can you take the garbage out for me?

Assumir o controle de algo, Separável tomar conta de algo

Separável

Turn sth<->down

535


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

Warm up

Fazer o aquecimento (esporInseparável te), esquentar (motor)

Warm sb/ sth<->up

Ficar mais entusiasmado, fazer algo ou Separável alguém ficar mais animado

The party soon warmed up.

Warm sth<->up

Esquentar algo Separável (comida)

You have to warm the rice up.

Wear off

Desaparecer, passar

Inseparável

The effects of the drug will soon wear off.

Separável

They are trying to design tyres that do not wear out. / He wore out two pairs of boots during one winter.

Wear out / wear sth<->out

Desgastar

Wear sb/you- Esgotar-se, esSeparável rself<->out gotar alguém

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

Work out

Work sth<->out

Dar certo, exercitar-se

Calcular; resolver um problema, descobrir a resposta de algo

Write sth<->Anotar algo down

536

I always warm up by doing situps before I go for a run.

The kids have worn me out.

Inseparável

I work out regularly to keep fit. / Things have worked out quite well for us.

Separável

He worked out the answer. / They will work out the problem. / I couldn’t work out where the music was coming from.

Separável

Work on your own and write down the answers to these questions.

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

EXERCITANDO EM AULA 50. Fill in the proper preposition for each phrasal verb. a) You gained some weight = You put _______ a few kilos. b) It is a secret. Don’t tell anyone about it. = Keep it ______________ yourself. c) Have you been in contact with Judith? = Have you heard____________ Judith? d) I’ve been spending time with her. = I’ve been hanging _____________ with her. e) Please take care of my little sister. = Please look _______________ my little sister. f) He disappointed me. = He let me _____________. g) You can trust me. = You can count ____________ me. h) We often eat in restaurants. = We often eat ________. i) I can’t understand why you would say that. = I can’t figure_________why you would say that. j) He is planning something. = He is up ___________ something.

51. Complete the following sentences using the phrasal verbs in the box appropriately: put off – take off – look up – call up – put on – take care of a) — “Dad, what’s the meaning of “take off”?” — “Take off”!? Why don’t you __________ it __________ in a dictionary?” b) Fernanda must______________ her daughter. c) The plane is going to _____________ within 10 minutes. d) ____________ your coat; it’s too cold outside. e) — “What time are you going to _____ me _____?” — “By 9:00 pm”. f) It’s raining cats and dogs; I think they are going to _____________ the game.

52. Match the phrasal verbs to their translation. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

get away get back get over look at look into look up look after look like look for look down on

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) procurar ) procurar (palavras em dicionários) ) voltar ) cuidar, tomar conta ) ir embora ) recuperar-se ) menosprezar ) olhar para ) examinar ) parecer-se com

53. Match the phrasal verbs to their definition. a) bring up b) break off

( ) to cancel ( ) to recover


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l)

call off find out put off pay back work out look for get over get away look after give up

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) to raise ) to solve ) to end a relationship ) to quit ) to escape ) to take care of ) to give back ) to postpone ) to search ) to discover

54. (UDESC) Find the correct alternative: a) b) c) d) e)

to put on – to remove to put out – to increase to put off – to dress to put on weight – to grow fat to put together – to keep

55. (FUVEST) Assinale a alternativa que melhor traduz a seguinte frase: “I have run out of vinegar”. a) b) c) d) e)

Corri para buscar vinagre. Derramei o vinagre. Preciso sair para pegar vinagre. Meu vinagre acabou. Joguei fora o vinagre.

c) they decided to stay together. d) they decided to talk over their plans. e) they decided to sleep together.

59. (CESGRANRIO) The verb to go may be followed by many adverbial particles and prepositions that add different meanings to it. Match the two columns and then mark the correct alternative: I. II. III. IV.

go up go on go away go by

R. S. T. U. V.

continue leave rise move pass

Mark the correct match. a) I – T; II – U; III – S; IV – R b) I – T; II – R; III – S; IV – V c) I – T; II – V; III – U; IV – R d) I – U; II – R; III – S; IV – V e) I – U; II – V; III – S; IV – R

56. (MACKENZIE) Choose the correct alternative. Indicate the meaning of “catch on to” in the following sentence: “We didn’t quite CATCH ON TO what the teacher said”. reach the same standard or level hear confirm believe understand

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

a) b) c) d) e)

57. (UNESP) He took __________ his hat. a) b) c) d) e)

off out in into on

58. (UECE) SPLIT UP in “After getting stores and various other commodities together in Mamfe, John and I decided to split up” means that: a) they decided to separate. b) they decided to end their relationship.

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

537


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

ANOTAÇÕES

538

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1


GABARITOS

GABARITOS Capítulo 1

27. a) do b) make c) do d) do e) make f) make g) make h) make i) make j) do

EXERCITANDO EM AULA

28. a) did b) made c) do d) makes e) made f) doing g) made h) made i) make j) made 29. (a) (h) (f) (c) (i) (g) (j) (d) (b) (e) 30.

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

01. (8), (1), (7), (10), (6), (3), (5), (9), (4), (2) 02. 1. no love lost between 2. a face only a mother could love 3. for the love of God 4. send his love 5. love her to bits 6. for love nor money 7. labour of love 8. cupboard love 9. everybody loves a lord 10. tough love 03. (9), (8), (7), (4), (3), (5), (1), (2), (10), (6) 04. 15 (fifteen), 10 (ten), 20 (twenty), 22 (twenty-two), 15 (fifteen), 15 (fifteen), 100 (one hundred / a hundred), 33 (thirtythree), 45 (forty-five), 15 (fifteen), 15 (fifteen), 15 (fifteen), 100 (one hundred / a hundred), 67 (sixty-seven), 99 (ninetynine), 15 (fifteen), 22 (twenty-two), 33 (thirty-three), 15 (fifteen), 15 (fifteen), 100 (one hundred / a hundred) 05. (e) 06. (a) 07. (d) 08. (d) 09. (a) 10. (b) 11. (c) 12. (a) 13. V-V-V-F-F-V 14. (a) 15. (d) 16. (a) 17. (c) 18. (e) 19. (d) 20. (e) 21. V-F-F-F-V 22. (a) 23. (d) 24. Ambos estão saindo com a mesma garota. 25. Ligando para ela marcando um encontro para que os dois a surpreendam aparecendo ao mesmo tempo. 26. (a)

(b) (g) (e) (a) (d) (h) (j) (i) (c) (f) 31. a) Resposta pessoal b) Resposta pessoal c) Resposta pessoal d) Resposta pessoal e) Resposta pessoal f) Resposta pessoal

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

539


GABARITOS

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

g) Resposta pessoal h) Resposta pessoal i) Resposta pessoal j) Resposta pessoal 32. (a) 33. (a) 34. (b) 35. (b) 36. (e) 37. (b) 38. (a) 39. (a) 40. (c) 41. a) am used to b) used to c) used to d) get used to e) get used to 42. a) park b) swimming c) go d) getting e) belong f) be g) driving 43. a) are used to speaking b) to get used to c) used to working d) was used to driving e) are used to studying 44. a) used to be / is b) used to live / lives c) used to d) got used to working e) used to 45. (b) 46. (b) 47. (c) 48. (b) 49. (d) 50. (e) 51. (e) 52. (e) 53. (a) 54. (b) 55. (b) 56. (b)

540

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72.

(c) 19 (c) (d) (a) (b) (a) (d) (b) (c) (a) (d) (b) (c) (b)

a) some b) no c) some d) some e) any f) any g) no h) any i) some j) no 73. (c) 74. (b) 75. (c) 76. (c)

Capítulo 2 EXERCITANDO EM AULA 01. (2), (1), (3), (4), (5), (14), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (15), (16) 02. a) is the apple of my eye b) bun in the oven c) bad egg d) bread and butter e) bring home the bacon f) cup of tea g) hot potato h) piece of cake i) spill the beans j) use your noodle 03. (b) 04. (d) 05. (e) 06. (d) 07. (e) 08. (a)


GABARITOS

09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

(c) (b) (a) Resposta pessoal Resposta pessoal (d) (d) (c) (b) (d) (d) (a) a) have worked b) has taken c) have / traveled d) has / worked e) has / seen f) haven’t done g) have / studied h) have lived

22. a) has / driven b) has / seen c) have / eaten d) have / written e) has / done 23. a) has written b) haven’t decided c) haven’t arrived d) have been e) has watched 24.

28. a) did / watch b) moved / has c) haven’t read d) has worked e) has been f) went 29. (b) 30. (c) 31. (b) 32. (c) 33. (a) 34. (e) 35. a) yet b) alredy / just c) just d) for e) since 36. a) has been working b) has been lifting c) has been waiting d) have been watching e) have been talking f) have been studyng 37. a) have you bought b) has already had c) has she drunk d) haven’t done e) have the children done? 38. a) has waken up b) have read c) has been feeling d) have been working e) have always loved 39. a) She has been working as a teacher for 10 years. b) It has been raining since last night. c) The children have been playing for 2 hours. d) Vinicius has been drinking since he was a teenager. e) They have been traveling around Europe for 3 months. 40. (e) 41. (b) 42. (b)

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

a) were b) has written c) have been d) sent e) have helped 25. (e) 26. a) for b) since c) for d) for e) since f) for g) since h) since 27. B. have wanted / left A. worked

B. was / had / worked A. have had / have you ever had B. worked

541


GABARITOS

LINGUAGENS, CÓDIGOS E SUAS TECNOLOGIAS

43. (d) 44. (e) 45. (d) 46. a) have been waiting b) have been trying c) has been feeling d) haven’t done e) hasn’t gone 47. (b) 48. (d) 49. (b) 50. a) on b) to c) about d) out e) after f) down g) on h) out i) out j) to 51. a) look / up b) take care of c) take off d) put on e) call / up f) put off 52. (i) (f) (b) (g) (a) (c) (j) (d) (e) (h) 53. (c) (i) (a) (g) (b) (l)

542

2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

(j) (k) (f) (e) (h) (d) 54. (d) 55. (d) 56. (e) 57. (a) 58. (a) 59. (b)


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

EXERCÍCIOS PROPOSTOS - CAPÍTULO 1 01. (UNESP) Assinale a alternativa correta.

TÓPICO 1: Idioms and Phrases Texto para as próximas 2 questões

Gay Families in South America (from the Wikipedia)

a) Segundo o texto, o país no qual todos os direitos de casais heterossexuais e de casais homossexuais são os mesmos é o Equador. b) De acordo com as informações do texto, entende-se que uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo são legais em todos os países da América do Sul. c) De acordo com o texto, entende-se que, dentre os países da América do Sul, somente no Brasil ainda não se permitem uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. d) O país da América do Sul onde as uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo demoraram mais para ser legalizadas é o Uruguai. e) As uniões civis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, válidas em todo o território brasileiro, foram aprovadas pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal.

02. (UNESP) Assinale a alternativa correta. ARGENTINA The Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (a federal district and capital city of the republic) was the first to allow same-sex civil unions in Argentina. Later, the province of Rio Negro also allowed same-sex civil unions. Legislation to enact same-sex marriage across all of Argentina was approved on July 15, 2010. BRAZIL A law that would allow same-sex marriages throughout the nation has been debated. In the end of the first semester of 2010 the Supremo Tribunal Federal decided that same-sex “civil unions” should have the same social and inheritance rights of heterosexual marriages.

URUGUAY Uruguay became the first country in South America to allow civil unions (for both opposite-sex and same-sex couples) in a national platform on January 1, 2008. Children can be adopted by same-sex couples since 2009. VENEZUELA Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Venezuela may face legal challenges not experienced by nonLGBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in Venezuela, but same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples.

Texto para as próximas 3 questões

There is something about marrying Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

ECUADOR The 2008 new constitution made Ecuador the first country in South America where same sex civil union couples are legally recognized as a family and share all the same rights of married heterosexual couples (except for adoption).

a) Relacionamentos entre pessoas do mesmo sexo não são ilegais na Venezuela, porém não gozam os mesmos direitos dos casais heterossexuais. b) A Argentina pode reconhecer os direitos dos casais do mesmo sexo em breve. c) O Equador foi o país sul-americano que menos se empenhou para reconhecer os direitos dos homossexuais. d) O Uruguai foi o derradeiro país sul-americano a aprovar vuniões civis de casais homosseuxais. e) O Brasil não tem demonstrado nenhum interesse no reconhecimento dos direitos dos casais homossexuais.

“There’s Something About Marrying” is the tenth episode of the sixteenth season of The Simpsons. In the episode, samesex marriage is legalized in Springfield to increase tourism. After becoming a minister, Homer starts to wed people to make money. Meanwhile, Marge’s sister, Patty, comes out as gay and reveals that she is going to marry a woman named Veronica. Marge originally disapproves of this, making Patty frustrated. When Marge accidentally discovers that Veronica is a man dressed as a woman, she decides to keep quiet about it knowing that Patty will be marrying a man. In spite of that, at the ceremony she is so moved by Patty’s vow that she is forced to reveal Veronica’s secret. After the ceremony is canceled, Marge tells Patty that she now accepts her sexuality. This was the third time that an episode of The Simpsons focused on homosexuality. According to executive producer Al Jean, the staff wanted the episode to explore what the different characters’ stances on same-sex marriage were. Around the time of the episode’s original airdate, February 20, 2005, the same-sex marriage question was a hot political issue in the United

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States and the episode became controversial. “There’s Something About Marrying” received a lot of criticism from conservative groups, who claimed it was promoting gay marriage. Jean stated in response that the staff was not taking a side on the issue and that they were just examining all sides of it. Positive reaction to the episode came from LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) organizations. During the first airing, 10.5 million people watched “There’s Something About Marrying” and it became the highest rated episode of the season. Actually, the episode had received a lot of publicity in the media before its broadcast – not only because of the same-sex marriage controversy, but also because of Patty’s outing. It was revealed during the summer of 2004 that a character would come out as gay in the episode, leading to much speculation from fans and the press. Bookmaker websites were even posting odds on which character it would be, with Patty receiving the best odds.

d) the producers of The Simpsons revealed that fans and the press would decide which character would come out as gay in There’s Something About Marrying. Texto para as próximas 2 questões

Titanic – The Movie Storyline

Adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/There%27s_Something_About_Marrying. Access on August 27th, 2012.

03. (UFSJ) According to the text, it is CORRECT to say that a) conservative groups criticized There’s Something About Marrying a lot because they were trying to promote same-sex marriage. b) “There’s something about marrying” was a controversial episode because politicians were discussing hot issues in the U.S.A. at that moment. c) when “There is something about marrying” was aired, the question of same-sex marriage was being hotly discussed around the U.S.A. d) Al Jean said that the staff wanted the episode to promote gay marriage, and that’s why they decided to examine all sides of the issue.

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

04. (UFSJ) About the episode of The Simpsons called There’s something About Marrying, it is CORRECT to say that a) when Marge accidentally discovered that Veronica was a man, she decided to reveal Veronica’s secret. b) Homer started to legalize same-sex marriage after he started working as a minister in the city of Springfield. c) Marge’s sister, Patty, declared that she was a homosexual, but in the end of the episode Patty got married to a man. d) homosexual marriage was legally recognized in the city of Springfield because this was a way of attracting tourists 05. (UFSJ) According to the last paragraph, it is CORRECT to say that a) during the summer of 2004 it was revealed that Patty would come out as gay in the episode, which lead to much speculation from fans and the press. b) before There’s Something About Marrying was broadcasted on television, the episode had already attracted a lot of attention from fans and the press. c) after the first airing of There’s Something About Marrying, bookmaker websites posted odds on which character would come out as gay. 144

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In this fiction movie, 84 years later, a 100-year-old woman named Rose DeWitt Bukater tells the story to her granddaughter Lizzy Calvert and others about her life set on April 10th 1912, on a ship called Titanic when young Rose boards the departing ship with the upper-class passengers, her mother Ruth DeWitt Bukater, and her fiancé. Meanwhile, a drifter and artist named Jack Dawson and his best friend Fabrizio De Rossi win third-class tickets to the ship in a game. She explains the whole story from departure until the death of Titanic on its first and last voyage April 15th, 1912 at 2:20 in the morning. Adapted from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120338/

My Heart Will Go On is the love theme of the 1997 blockbuster film Titanic. It was recorded by Celine Dion. Originally released in 1997, it went to number 1 all over the world. It became Dion’s biggest hit, and one of the best selling of all time, and was the world’s best-selling single of 1998. My Heart Will Go On (Celine Dion) Soundtrack of Titanic. Adapted from Wikipedia

Every night in my dreams I see you, I feel you, That is how I know you go on Far across the distance And spaces between us You have come to show you go on Near, far, wherever you are I believe that the heart does go on Once more you open the door And you’re here in my heart And my heart will go on and on [X] http://www.stlyrics.com/lyrics/titanic/myheartwillgoon

06. (AFA) After reading both Titanic storyline and soundtrack, we can conclude that a) Rose and Jack promised each other to be together. b) the couple was sure their love wouldn’t last forever. c) Rose and Jack boarded the same ship. d) Rose knew their dreams would come true. 07. Rose DeWitt Bukater is the a) b) c) d)

narrator. protagonist of the real Titanic tragedy. actress that starred this blockbuster. inspiration for Celine Dion theme song.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

08. In the 2nd verse of the last strophe the word “does” a) b) c) d)

is only used as an auxiliary verb of a present tense. reinforces the word before it. emphasizes the verb after it. has the same meaning as the verb ‘to make’.

Texto para as próximas 2 questões

Toronto wants the world to discover what our city has to offer. And how better to do that than by putting the world in touch with the people who know and love Toronto the best – the people who live here. How does TAP into TO! work? We have lined up an array of energetic, knowledgeable volunteer Torontonians, who are ready, willing and able to show you their favourite parts of Toronto. Tell us when you’ll be visiting, when you have two to four hours of free time and what neighbourhood you would like to see. We’ll match you up with a greeter who shares your area of interest and you’ll be set to go. Please give us at least one week notice to make the match. It is also important to note that the greeter visits cannot be arranged for the first day of arrival in the city – just in case you are unavoidably delayed on your arrival. Disponível em: <http://www.toronto.ca/tapto/about.htm>. Acesso em: 9 set. 2013. (Adaptado).

10. The phrasal verb in the title, “Tap Into TO!”, is best expressed by the phrase a) connect with Toronto. b) stay a while in Toronto. c) stop over in Toronto. d) take a day in Toronto. e) go about Toronto.

Elif Bilgin goes bananas Sep 25 2013 Bloggers, People By Chiara Spagnoli Gabardi

Turkish teen Elif Bilgin has thrilled her teachers, parents and those who care about the planet by discovering a way to make bio-plastic from an item commonly found in our waste bins: banana peels. The 16 year old prodigy always showed promise academically. From the 4th grade, she was put into a school for gifted children, where she was encouraged to develop her already advanced skills and talents. Since then, the teen has excelled at her studies and learned more about climate change and the environment. Somewhat alarmed at what she was discovering, she was determined to find an alternative to petroleum produced plastics. When Elif found that potatoes and mango peels are already used to make bio-plastic, that fact, combined with the knowledge that Thailand alone discards 200 tons of banana peels per day motivated Elif to work on extracting the starch and cellulose needed for bio-plastic production out of banana peels. Elif’s research took a couple of years, and her trials initially failed: the plastics created weren’t strong enough and decayed too quickly. But her persistence paid off, since she obtained the result she was pursuing and this discovery made her win the 2013 Science in Action award, Google’s third $50,000 annual competition. Now she’ll continue competing as a finalist in the Google Science Fair for the 15-16-year-old category, and will travel, along with 14 other contenders, to the company’s Mountain View campus in California. She is enthusiastic that her discovery will make a difference to the planet: “The reason why I chose this particular aspect of science is that the bio-plastic is such a new concept and its range of use has been widening ever since it has been discovered (especially in the 21st century).” The young inventor’s dream is to attend medical school in the US and continue with projects concerning the environment, such as building a greenhouse made of waste materials. No doubt whatever Elif does, future generations will thank her.

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

09. According to the text, it is possible to state that a greeter is someone who a) shows parts of Toronto to visitors without a charge. b) welcomes visitors when they first arrive in Toronto. c) works for the city of Toronto as an employee. d) stays with the visitors throughout their visit to Toronto. e) helps the visitors find their way around Toronto.

Texto para as próximas 3 questões

Disponível em: <http://eluxemagazine.com/people/elifbilgin/# sthash.kWg4Muw3.dpuf>. Acesso em: 18 fev. 2014. (Adaptado).

has thrilled: emocionou peels: cascas environment: meio ambiente starch: amido decayed: deterioraram paid off: compensou range of use: gama de uso

11. The second and third paragraphs present some information about the research conducted by Elif Bilgin. Among the facts presented, it is learned that 2º ANO - Inglês | VOLUME 1

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a) besides banana peels, two other fruit peels had already been used to make bio-plastic. b) there were some unsuccessful attempts before Elif succeeded in creating resistant bio-plastic. c) the girl was one among the 14 other finalists in the 2013 Science in Action contest. d) the girl’s research project received a $50,000 budget to help her with the expenses. e) Google’s Mountain View campus in California was the place where Elif developed her research.

12. In the introductory paragraph, readers are given an overview of Elif Bilgin’s story. Regarding the information given, it is understood that she a) was born in an Eastern European country. b) could improve her already outstanding abilities at the new school. c) was more intelligent than her 4th grade colleagues. d) was concerned about the food waste in her country. e) got interested in environmental issues through her parents’ influence. 13. The excerpt “The young inventor’s dream is to attend medical school in the US and continue with projects concerning the environment” in the last paragraph is written in direct speech as a) “If only I had attended medical school in the US and continued with projects concerning the environment.” b) “I wish I had attended medical school in the US and continued with projects concerning the environment.” c) “I wished I attended medical school in the US and continued with projects concerning the environment.” d) “I hope I attend medical school in the US and continue with projects concerning the environment.” e) “I would like to have attended medical school in the US and continued with projects concerning the environment.” Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

Textos para as próximas questões

A New Language Discovered at the Sochi Olympics: Snowboarder In the world of language translation and interpreting, you get used to certain challenges: slang and idiom, poor pronunciation and thick accents, regional dialects that aren’t well-documented, and many other standard problems. At the Olympics, many of these problems raise their ugly heads all at once, and it’s not uncommon to double-up interpreters assigned to press conferences because the language load is so huge and the mental stress so acute that a single interpreter often burns out and falls behind.

This past week, though, something altogether unusual and interesting happened when Sage Kotsenburg won the Gold Medal in the slopestyle snowboard event in Sochi. His triumphant press conference where he attempted to explain his thought process and the resulting routine that won him the Gold was almost like listening to a new language being invented right in front of your eyes – and believe this translation professional when he tells you that every interpreter, translator, and other translation services worker in that room earned their living and then some during that press conference!

A 1620 Japan Here’s Kotsenburg’s routine as outlined in Snowboarder: “Landing a cab 270 to switch, half-cab on back 540 off flat down, half-cab layback slide off the cannon back 180 out, cab double cork 1260 holy crail, frontside 1080 off the toes rocket air, then a 1620 Japan.” Yes, that is all technical jargon and it all actually means something. In a situation like this, no amount of translation experience matters: this is simultaneously a perfectly legitimate sentence in English and completely untranslatable by anyone unless they share a technical snowboarding background and make sense of the word salad of terms there. That last bit, by the way – the 1620 Japan – is the complex move that Kotsenburg decided to add to his routine just a few minutes before competing, and involves rotating in midair exactly four and a half times. Disponível em: <http://www.onehourtranslation.com/translation/blog/newlanguagediscovered-sochi-olympics-snowboarder#sthash.0Pd3vMQ6.dpuf> Acesso em: 18 fev. 2014. (Adaptado).

14. The expression “earn their living and then some” refers to the fact that the translators/interpreters a) faced a complex language situation. b) experts on the use of Snowboarder. c) saw a new language being created. d) witnessed the slopestyle snowboard event. e) worked extra hours on that day. 15. Kotsenburg’s routine is expressed in a) b) c) d) e)

a newly created language. a meaningless word salad. ungrammatical English sentences. an untranslatable manner. technical snowboarder jargon.

Textos para as próximas 3 questões challenges: desafios double-up interpreters: intérpretes trabalham em pares

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The next song below was performed by a gospel choir during the marriage ceremony of Prince Harry and the North American Megan Markle, held at Windsor Castel on May 19, 2018.


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

TÓPICO 2: Do and make

19. Can I _____________________ a suggestion? a) b) c) d) e)

20. My father and I ___________ the shopping in our house.

Stand By Me Ben E. King

When the night has come And the land is dark And the moon is the only light we’ll see No I won’t be afraid, no I won’t be afraid Just as long as you stand, stand by me Chorus So darling, darling Stand by me, oh, stand by me Oh stand, stand by me Stand by me If the sky that we look upon Should tumble and fall Or the mountains should crumble to the sea I won’t cry, I won’t cry No I won’t shed a tear Just as long as you stand, stand by me Whenever you’re in trouble, won’t you stand by me Oh stand by me Oh won’t you stand now? Stand by me (In: https://www.vagalume.com.br/ben-e-king/stand-by-me-traducao.html)

16. In the first stanza of the song, the author intends to show

17. Considering the context, we could change Stand by me for count on me. forget me. stand in front of me. stop me. stand behind me.

18. “In Whenever you’re in trouble(...)”, the highlighted word, in Portuguese, means a) Nunca. b) Às vezes. c) Sempre que. d) De vez em quando. e) Raramente.

a) b) c) d) e)

make do makes does made

21. My mother ___________ the shopping for her mother, my grandma. a) make b) do c) makes d) does e) made 22. I

___________ many mistakes on his composition last month. a) make b) does c) makes d) did e) made

23. I __________ an appointment with the dentist last month. a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes did made

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

the ______________________ that he places in someone. The CORRECT answer is a) incredulity b) fault c) illusion d) hope e) trust

a) b) c) d) e)

make do makes does made

24. My brother ____________ the dishes last night. a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes did made

25. We ___________________ plans for our trip last vacation. a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes did made

26. Could you __________________ me a favor, please? a) make b) does

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c) do d) did e) made

27. My mother _________________ the cooking in our house. a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes did made

28. Do you _________ your bed when you wake up? a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes did made

29. We should _______________ peace with each other. a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes did made

30. What you are telling me doesn’t ____________ any sense. a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes did made

31. The students had to ____________ a research.

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

a) b) c) d) e)

make does makes do made

32. The WHO recommends people to ____________ exercises 5 times a week. a) make b) do c) makes d) does e) made TÓPICO 3: Used to, be used to, get used to

33. Do you _______________ much money? a) b) c) d) e)

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make does makes did made Used to, be used to, get used to

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34. I’m afraid I’ll never ______ in this place. I simply don’t like it and never will. a) used to living b) be used to living c) got used to living d) used to live e) get used to living

35. When Joseph was the head of our department everything ___________ very well organized. Now it’s total chaos here. a) was used to be b) got used to be c) got used to being d) was used to being e) used to be

36. At first we didn’t like the new house, but in the end we _________________ it. a) got used to b) get used to c) are us d) used to e) are used to 37. When she moved to New York, it was difficult for her to speaking English all the time but now she _____________ to it. a) was used to b) is used c) will be used to d) uses e) gets used 38. When I was living with my English host family I slowly __________________ a cooked breakfast on Saturdays. a) was used to eating b) got used to eating c) used to eating d) am used to eating e) were used to eating. 39. Can you see that old white building? It _______________ the Cine Olinda. a) was used to being b) used to be c) got used to be d) got used to being e) used to being 40. Before I became a vegetarian I _____________ a lot of meat. a) got used to eating b) used to eat c) used to eating d) was used to eat


Capítulo 1 | Relationships

41. After spending six months in England, I finally ________________ on the left. a) used to drive b) used to driving c) was used to driving d) got used to driving e) was used to driving 42. I am __________________ early. It’s easy for me. a) b) c) d) e)

used to wake up used to waking up got used to wake up got used to waking up used to get up

43. Did you ____________ outside when you were young? a) b) c) d)

use to play used to playing get used to playing are used to playing

Nos últimos versos, os pronomes nothing, anyone e anyway passam a ideia de: a) 1 – Não me importo; 2 – Ninguém pode ver; 3 – Nada me importa; 4 – Nada importa pra mim; 5 – De qualquer maneira o vento sopra. b) 1 – Não me importa; 2 – Qualquer um pode ver; 3 – Não me importa; 4 – Nada importa pra mim; 5 – De qualquer maneira o tempo leva. c) 1 – Nada de fato me importa; 2 – Qualquer um pode ver; 3 – Nada de fato importa; 4 – Nada de fato me importa; 5 – De qualquer maneira o vento sopra. d) 1 – Ninguém pode ver; 2 – Nada importa; 3 – Não me importo; 4 – Nada importa pra mim; 5 – De qualquer maneira o vento sopra. e) 1 – Nada me importa; 2 – Alguém pode ver; 3 – Nada importa pra mim; 4 – Não há problema algum; 5 – De qualquer maneira o vento leva. Texto para a próxima questão

Looking for freedom

TÓPICO 4: Indefinite pronouns and quantifiers

44. (UNIFOR) Bohemian Rhapsody é uma canção cuja letra foi escrita por Freddie Mercury, gravada originalmente pela banda Queen em 1975 no álbum A Night at the Opera. Esta canção possui uma estrutura musical incomum para a música popular, o que a faz ser considerada por muitos uma obra de rock progressivo. Suas seis sessões não possuem um refrão. Foi lançada como compacto e se tornou um estrondoso sucesso comercial.

By David Hasselhoff

One morning in June some twenty years ago I was born a rich man’s son I had everything that money could buy But freedom - I had none I’ve been lookin’ for freedom I’ve been lookin’ so long I’ve been lookin’ for freedom Still the search goes on…

45. The word “none” (verse 4) refers back to

Is this the real life? Is this just fantasy? Caught in a landslide No escape from reality Open your eyes Look up to the skies and see I’m just a poor boy I need no sympathy… Nothing really matters (1) Anyone can see (2) Nothing really matters (3) Nothing really matters to me (4) Anyway the wind blows (5) http://www.vagalume.com.br/queen/bohemian-rhapsody.html#ixzz2iwyl3son

twenty years. son. money. freedom. everything.

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

a) b) c) d) e)

Text 3 Facebook is the world’s largest social network, with 800 million users worldwide as of September 2011. More than any other company, it has defined what 1…….. see as the “social” era of the Internet, in which connections made among people replace algorithm-driven searches. And its policies, more than any others, seem to be driving the definition of privacy in this new age. Every day, Facebook users comment or press the “like” button more than 2 billion times and upload more than 250 million photos. The McKinsey Global Institute has estimated that the network’s users post 30 billion pieces of content 2…….. month. The company, founded in 2004 by a Harvard sophomore, Mark Zuckerberg, began life catering first to Harvard students and then to all high school and college students. It has since evolved into a broadly popular online destination used by teenagers and adults of all

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ages. In country after country, Facebook has cemented itself as the leader, often displacing other social networks. It is 3…….. surprise that Facebook has become one of the titans of the Internet, challenging even Google with its vision of a Web tied together by personal relationships and recommendations, rather than by search algorithms. In a major expansion, Facebook has spread itself across other Web sitesby offering members the chance to “Like” something - share it with their network – without leaving the Web page they are on. At the Facebook developer conference in September, the company announced the release of a product called Timeline, which offers a highly visual view of a user’s Facebook profile and organizes content into photos, events and apps, all based on a timeline view that stretches back to the beginning of a user’s time on Facebook. Timeline is designed to work on mobile devices, too.

46. Assinale a alternativa que preenche correta e respectivamente as lacunas das referências 1, 2 e 3. a) some — every — no b) some — all — no c) some — every — none d) any — each — no e) any — every — none

50. Mark the sentence which must be completed with anywhere. a) The manager had to go off _____ else for an appointment. b) The dangerous dog was approaching but there was _____ to hide. c) Britney says she didn’t go _____ yesterday. d) This is part of the original castle build _____ around 1700. e) Have you seen my glasses? I’ve looked _____ for them. 51. Assinale a alternativa que apresenta o uso gramatical correto de there is. a) There is few teachers and parents talking to the children. b) There is some children who need help. c) There is a lot of frightened adults after the attack. d) There is many events happening at the same time. e) There is much anger among people in New York. 52. Assinale a alternativa que melhor completa as lacunas em “There are many evidences that __________ can live alone. Those __________ marriage ends generally suffer from depression”. a) any - who b) nobody - whose c) no - whose d) nobody - who e) any - which

48. Put in the missing words:

Texto para a próxima questão

I. II. III. IV. V.

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

Any - whose. Any - which. None - that. Some - what.

disorders ............... class, cultural, or gender boundaries. Therefore, they can affect ............... a) knows no ... anyone. b) know no ... someone. c) know some ... nobody. d) can know ... nobody. e) don’t know any ... anyone.

47. Eating

I want _____ more tea, please. _____ I go fishing. It doesn’t rain _____. I’m sorry, but I have _____ to give you. _____ knows it’s wrong.

a) I - some; II - Every time; III - someday; IV - nothing; V - Somebody b) I - any; II - Sometimes; III - every day; IV - anything; V - Everybody c) I - some; II - Sometimes; III - every day; IV - nothing; V - Everybody d) I - any; II - Every day; III - sometimes; IV - nothing; V - Everyone e) I - some; II - Everywhere; III - every time; IV - anything; V Somebody

49. Assinale a alternativa que completa as lacunas na frase: “_____ campaign _____ benefits children education is worth doing”. a) Some - which.

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b) c) d) e)

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Call waiting Soon, teenagers will have no excuse for not letting their parents know where they are - and why they’ll be home late. Some European telecom firms - Sweden’s Ericsson, and TIM, the mobile subsidiary of Telecom Italia - are developing cell phones especially for kids. The gimmick: to prevent chatty kids ringing up their pals many time zones away, the new phones can be programmed to dial only a few numbers, like home, or a parent’s office. The phones may debut late this year. And you can bet that by early next year some kid will have learned a way to subvert the controls. Newsweek, March 2, 1998.

53. A expressão “a few numbers” indica a) b) c) d) e)

número controlado. grande quantidade. número insuficiente. número ilimitado. número incompleto.


CAPÍTULO 1 | CAPÍTULO 2

54. The following sentences should be completed with few or little. I. Many of us tried but very ____ succeeded. II. To our surprise, changes in foreign policy were _____. III. That school is so expensive that only _____ children can attend it. IV. That crane can lift objects weighing a _____ hundred pounds. V. We had _____ chance of success. The sentence which must be completed which few are: a) I and IV, only. b) II and III, only. c) I, II and V, only. d) I, II, III and IV, only. e) II, III, IV and V, only.

55. Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente a lacuna da frase adiante: Must you always make so___ noise? a) much b) many c) most d) few e) less

56. Assinale a opção cuja frase esteja gramaticalmente correta: a) There is fewer people at the party than Mary expected. b) There is less people at the party than Mary expected. c) There are less people at the party than Mary expected. d) There are fewer people at the party than Mary expected e) There was less people at the party than Mary expected.

57. Indicate the alternative that best completes the following sentences. A. I don’t like strogonoff. Would you like _(I)_ pizza instead? B. Oh no! Let’s buy _(II)_ loaves of bread and make sandwiches. A. But we have _(III)_ time to do that. We’re late for school. B. Alright, but we’ve got _(IV)_ ham and _(V)_ hot dogs. a) b) c) d) e)

I - a little; II - a few; III - very little; IV - only a little; V - few I - only a little; II - many; III - very little; IV - a few; V - any I - few; II - very few; III - more; IV - little; V - some I - very little; II - only a few; III - many; IV - a few; V - more I - little; II - much; III - few; IV - a few; V - very little

58. Choose another way of saying “There isn’t anything really like that.” a) There is nothing really like that. b) There aren’t many things really like that. c) There aren’t no things really like that. d) There is anything hardly really like that. e) There are a few things really like that.

59. Assinale a alternativa que preenche corretamente a lacuna da questão a seguir: I have a __________ friends. a) ten b) few c) some d) many e) several

EXERCÍCIOS PROPOSTOS - CAPÍTULO 2

Texto para as próximas 3 questões: “Scientists have been talking about producing better foods ___(I)___ genetic engineering ever since the technology first became available more than 20 years ago. Now, after decades of biotech setbacks and controversy, American consumers finally have something they can sink their teeth into. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) last week endorsed as safe the first genetically altered food to be sold to consumers - a tomato called the Flavr Savr and billed as offering ‘summer taste’ all year long. The biotech industry immediately hailed the government decision as the breakthrough it had been waiting for. ‘This is a real shot in the arm’, says Roger Salquist, Calgene’s chief executive officer. ‘It validates the company’s science.’

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

TÓPICO 1: Food: junk or healthy?

But the new tomato is also a fat target for critics of biotechnology. (...) ‘The middle class is moving in the direction of organic, healthy foods.’, says Rifkin, ‘The last thing they want to hear about is gene-spliced tomatoes.’” (Adapted from TIME, May 30, 1994)

01. (ITA) Esta questão refere-se às asserções a seguir: I. A classe média americana é consumidora em potencial de produtos alimentícios desenvolvidos através da biotecnologia. II. A tecnologia para a produção de alimentos através da engenharia genética existe há mais de duas décadas. III. A FDA referendou o Flavr Savr. a) apenas a I está errada. b) apenas a II está errada. c) apenas a III está errada.

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

d) as três asserções estão corretas. e) as três asserções estão erradas.

02. (ITA) O sabor do tomate Flavr Savr é associado a que estação do ano? a) primavera. b) verão. c) outono. d) inverno. e) o texto não menciona. 03. (ITA) O que Roger Salquist quis dizer com a frase “This is a real shot in the arm”? a) que a comercialização de um tomate produzido através da utilização da engenharia genética é um tiro no escuro. b) que a produção de Flavr Savr pode trazer riscos à industria da biotecnologia. c) que a comercialização do Flavr Savr pode representar um grande impulso à industria genética. d) que a produção de Flavr Savr compromete a utilização da tecnologia aplicada à indústria alimentícia. e) que a produção de Flavr Savr pode provocar alterações genéticas no corpo humano.

04. (FAC. ALBERT EINSTEIN) The headline that better suits the article illustrated by the picture below is:

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

An overweight woman sits on a chair in Times Square in New York, May 8, 2012. Reuters/Lucas Jackson Disponível em: http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/05/15/us-healthstroke-obesityidUSKBN0O027420150515. Acessado em 25/05/2015. Adaptado para fins educacionais.

a) Obesity may increase stroke risk in young adults b) After age, gender and ethnicity, obesity increased the odds of a stroke for young adults c) Much of that added risk of stroke might be connected to smoking d) Fresh evidence that the danger exists for younger people has been uncovered Texto para a próxima questão:

Healthy choices How do we reduce waistlines in a country where we traditionally do not like telling individuals what to do? By Telegraph View. 22 Aug 2014

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Duncan Selbie, the Chief Executive of Public Health England, suggests that parents feed their children from smaller plates. Photo: Alamy

Every new piece of information about Britain’s weight problem makes for ever more depressing reading. Duncan Selbie, the Chief Executive of Public Health England, today tells us that by 2034 some six million Britons will suffer from diabetes. Of course, many people develop diabetes through no fault of their own. But Mr Selbie’s research concludes that if the levels of obesity returned to their 1994 levels, 1.7 million fewer people would suffer from the condition. Given that fighting diabetes already drains the National Health Service (NHS) by more than £1.5 million, or 10 per cent of its budget for England, the impact upon the Treasury in 20 years’ time from unhealthy lifestyles could be catastrophic. Bad health not only impacts on the individual but also on the rest of the community. Diagnosis of the challenge is straightforward. The tougher question is what to do about reducing waistlines in a country where we traditionally do not like telling individuals what to do. It is interesting to note that Mr Selbie does not ascribe to the Big Brother approach of ceaseless legislation and nannying. Rather, he is keen to promote choices – making the case passionately that people should be encouraged to embrace good health. One of his suggestions is that parents feed their children from smaller plates. That way the child can clear his or her plate, as ordered, without actually consuming too much. Like all good ideas, this is rooted in common sense. (www.telegraph.co.uk. Adaptado.)

05. (UNIFESP) According to the text, Mr Duncan Selbie concluded that a) 1.7 million people are obese and have serious health risks in the UK. b) there are certain genetic conditions that pose the risk of developing diabetes. c) there were more diabetic people twenty years ago. d) obesity will escalate quickly in the next 20 years after a reduction in the last 20 years. e) less people would suffer from diabetes if obesity levels reverted to 1994 figures. 06. (UFG) Read the cartoon.


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

07. (UNEB) The most suitable title for this text is What Happened to My Body? Every day in my native country.

a) b) c) d) e)

Every day in the USA. Breakfast

Low-carb diets make you lose weight. Eating carbohydrates makes you thin. Carbs are the prime villain of obesity. Why carbohydrates are said to be unhealthy. The more carbs you eat, the heavier you get.

Texto para as próximas questões:

“Fast Food Need Not Be Fat Food” Lunch.

Dinner.

Snack.

After 1 year...

Disponível em: <http://www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/Health/img/body.gif>.

To address that their food is making America obese, McDonald’s and other chains are slimming down their meal combos and offering new, healthy-conscious products. McDonald’s this fall is testing a new adult version of its HAPPY MEAL in about 150 Indiana restaurants. The GO ALIVE meal includes salad, bottled water, a nutrition booklet and a clipon pedometer that measures steps walked. The device, McDonald’s says, is intended to encourage walking. That’s a good idea after eating some fast food fare; a 150-pound person would have to walk 60 minutes at a brisk pace of four miles per hour to burn off even the sensible Grilled Chicken California Salad with low-fat balsamic vinaigrette (320 calories). And a burger and fries might require an actual walk to Indiana. Now before you get in line at your favorite restaurant, you can go online and figure out what is the healthiest for you. Fast Food does not mean fat food anymore.

Acesso em: 28 set. 2009. [Adaptado]

By Jennifer Barret, Newsweek, 2003.

Copyright 2003 Kate Singleton and Betsy Lindeman Wong

Since the man moved to the USA he has a) avoided fast food restaurants. b) tried to cut fat intake. c) managed to exercise outdoors. d) had three meals a day. e) gained quite a lot of weight.

A recent multicenter study found that the slimmest people also ate the most carbohydrates, and the chubbiest ate the least. The research concluded that your odds of getting and staying slim are best when carbs make up to 64% of your total daily caloric intake, or 361 grams. That’s the equivalent of several stuffed potatoes, a food we bet you’ve been afraid to eat for decades. Most low-carb diets limit you to fewer than 30% of 10 total calories from carbs and sometimes contain as few as 30 grams of carbohydrates a day.

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

Texto para a próxima questão:

08. (FATEC) Assinale a alternativa que está em desacordo com o texto. a) There’s a lot of criticism that blame fast food for being fattening. b) McDonald’s meals are getting slimmer. c) There is a new adult version of McDonald’s “HAPPY MEAL” called “GO ALIVE”. d) McDonald’s is just one of the several chains interested in the problem of people getting obese. e) McDonald’s is testing a new adult version of its “Happy Meal” in 150 restaurants in India. 09. (FATEC)

De acordo com o texto, a intenção do McDonald’s ao oferecer um pedômetro aos clientes é: a) Slimming down their meal. b) Measuring their feet size. c) Encouraging them to walk more. d) Counting the calories they consume. e) Helping them eating their food faster.

Disponível em: <http://www.health.com/gallery>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2013. 2“carbs”: carbohydrates

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

16.

TÓPICO 2: Present perfect

10. Our new President, Bolsonaro

____________ out of the building and will make a speech in a moment. a) just come b) has just come c) have just came d) comes e) to come

11. ______________ to America? a) b) c) d) e)

Has you been Have they be Have you ever been Has you ever been Had you been

the

14. _________________ the new Al Pacino movie? Yes, I have

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

a) b) c) d) e)

B: When ______________ see it? Have you seen – did you Did you seen – have you Did you see – have you Have you saw – did you Has you seen – didn’t you

From questions 15 to 18 complete the text below. ______________ (15)______________ your own bread? –Yes I ______________(16)______________ it when I ______________(17)______________ (be) in high school but I ______________(18)______________ anything since then.

15. a) b) c) d) e)

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Have you ever baked Did you ever baked Are you ever baking When are you baking Has you ever baked

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17. a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

You have read He has read Have you read Have you readed Has you read

13. the car yet? – No, I haven’t. But I dishes. a) Have you washed – have done b) Haven’t you washed – haven’t done c) Did you wash – did d) Has you washed – has done e) Did you wash – didn’t

try tried have tried has tried will try

were was have been has been am

18.

12. ______________ this week’s magazine? a) b) c) d) e)

a) b) c) d) e)

have baked has baked baked didn’t baked haven’t baked

19. A few days ago I ___________ that someone was planning to kill the president. a) learn b) learns c) have learned d) has learned e) learned 20. I __________ my keys yet. I __________ them yesterday. a) b) c) d) e)

find – lose found – lost has found – have lost haven’t found – lost have found – have lost

21. I love this book. I think it’s the third time I _________ __________ it. a) read b) reads c) have read d) has read e) to read 22. I would like to meet a ghost since I _________________ _______one before. a) have seen b) has seen c) saw d) haven’t seen e) didn’t see

23. It ___________________ ages to build this boat. I’m glad we’re finished now. a) took b) takes


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

c) take d) has taken e) have taken

24. He ___________________ very ill three years ago. a) b) c) d) e)

is was were have been has been

25. Ayrton Senna ____________ many F1 races. a) b) c) d) e)

wins win won has won have won

26. The last time I ____________ to New York was 4 years ago. a) b) c) d) e)

go goes have gone has gone went

27. Paulo Coelho ______________ many books. a) b) c) d)

write wrote have written has written

31. Monique

is planning to call the doctor today. ________________ for several days. a) has sick b) have sick c) has go sick d) has been sick e) have ill

She

32. Claire’s eyes are all red. She __________________ all morning. a) has been reading b) have been reading c) have read d) have been read e) has readed 33. Cuba _______________________ a communist country since 1959. a) have been b) has been c) was d) were e) has being 34. It ________________________ hard since last night. a) b) c) d) e)

rain rained has rained have been raining has been raining

28. Two people ___________________ in a car accident last night. a) dies b) died c) have died d) has died e) to die

35. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes are very excited about going to China

29. The Gellers ___________ rich. They have so much money.

36. I’m getting tired. I _________________ all day.

have always been has always been was were will be

TÓPICO 3: Present perfect continuous

30. ________________ on anything interesting lately? a) b) c) d) e)

Have you worked Have you been worked Have you been working Has you worked Has you been working

a) b) c) d) e)

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

a) b) c) d) e)

next summer. They _________________ this trip for over a year. a) plans b) planned c) has planned d) have been planning e) has been planning

work works has worked have been working has been working

37. It is 1 pm. She started writing emails at 9 am. She ___________________ for 4 hours and hasn’t finished yet. a) was writing b) has write c) have been writing d) has been writing e) writes

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Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

38. We _____________________ cards for the last few hours. a) b) c) d) e)

have played has played have been playing has been playing have play

39. We ______________ problems with our new car recently. a) b) c) d) e)

have have have had has had have been have has been had

40. I _________________ this book. You can borrow it. a) b) c) d) e)

have read read reads has read have readed

41. He ___________________ in the garden all day and he needs a rest. a) has work b) has been working c) have been working d) have work 42. I ____________________ care of my girlfriend’s cats while she is traveling. a) have been taking b) takes care c) has been taking d) have been taken e) has been taken

43. I _________________ my car for three years. Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

a) b) c) d)

have been having has been having have had has had

44. I’m tired because I _______________ a lot lately. a) b) c) d)

have work has work have been working has been working

45. She works here for a long time. In fact she ______________ for our company for more than 30 years. a) have worked b) has been working c) worked d) will be working e) has work 156

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46. Joey ______________ for Days of our Lives for 6 seasons. a) b) c) d) e)

works worked has worked have worked has been working

47. Where have you been? I _______________________ for you for five days. a) has looked b) have been looking c) has been looking d) looks e) was look 48. I ___________________ 7 seasons of The Walking Dead. a) b) c) d) e)

have watch has watch have been watching have watched has been watching

TÓPICO 4: Phrasal verbs (Verbos frasais) Nas questões de 49 à 56, traduza apenas as palavras em negrito.

49. They are never going to get over their sorrow. a) b) c) d) e)

desistir recuperar-se cuidar descobrir acordar

50. I’m going to give up smoking. a) b) c) d) e)

dar continuar deixar de adiar dar em cima

51. My parents like to look after our children. a) b) c) d) e)

nomear cuidar olhar para colocar para dormir criar

52. Amanda was brought up by her grandparents. a) b) c) d) e)

trazida levada criada visitada batizada


Capítulo 2 | Food: junk or healthy

53. The police are running after the man who broke into the house. a) quebrou b) incendiou c) fugiu d) arrombou e) faliu

a) b) c) d) e)

came back – look after postponed – look for stopped – look for quit – look after started – look after

54. The way I see, The United States and China intend to break off their diplomatic relations. a) romper b) cancelar c) anotar d) devolver e) encontrar 55. They want to call off the meeting. a) b) c) d) e)

romper resolver telefonar cancelar adiar

56. (ITA-SP) A expressão “catch up on work” significa: a) b) c) d) e)

colocar o trabalho em dia. finalizar um projeto. reorganizar um projeto. alcançar uma meta no trabalho. captar novos recursos para o projeto.

57. (UEL-PR) Assinale a alternativa correta: a) b) c) d) e)

He was never able to find _______ the truth. off in up over out

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

58. (OSEC-SP)

Substituir com phrasal verbs as palavras

destacadas: I can’t digest all that information. Besides the note is so badly written that I can’t understand what it says. I think it would be better to postpone our appointment for a week. a) take in - make out - put off b) make up - pick out - give up c) turn down - take in - delay d) take in - pick out - bring up e) accept - get in - put off

59. Indique os sinônimos dos itens em negrito. Janet gave up working because she had to take care of her two-year-old son.

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GABARITOS

GABARITOS Capítulo 1

Capítulo 2

EXERCÍCIOS PROPOSTOS (e) (a) (c) (d) (b) (c) (a) (c) (a) (a) (b) (b) (d) (a) (e) (e) (a) (c) (a) (b) (d) (e) (e) (d) (e) (c) (b) (a) (a) (a)

Linguagens, códigos e suas tecnologias

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

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EXERCÍCIOS PROPOSTOS 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

(d) (d) (a) (e) (a) (a) (b) (b) (b) (b) (d) (b) (a) (c) (d) (a) (e) (c) (c) (c) (e) (d) (a) (d) (a) (d) (a) (a) (b)

01. 02. 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. 08. 09. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

(a) (b) (a) (a) (e) (e) (b) (e) (c) (b) (c) (c) (a) (a) (a) (c) (b) (e) (e) (d) (c) (d) (d) (b) (d) (e) (d) (b) (a) (c)

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

(d) (a) (b) (e) (d) (d) (d) (c) (b) (a) (b) (a) (c) (c) (b) (b) (b) (d) (b) (c) (b) (c) (d) (a) (d) (a) (e) (a) (d)

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